WorldWideScience

Sample records for net investment income

  1. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  2. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  3. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  4. 78 FR 6781 - Net Investment Income Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of public... paragraph heading Sec. 1.1411-4 Definition of net investment income., Sec. 1.1411-4(c)(2), line 3, the...

  5. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment trust taxable...

  6. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are includible in gross investment income. Therefore, for example, interest received on a student loan... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on net investment income. 53.4940-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940...

  7. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  8. 26 CFR 1.857-5 - Net income and loss from prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income and loss from prohibited transactions... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-5 Net income and loss... equal to 100 percent of the net income derived from prohibited transactions. A prohibited transaction is...

  9. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  10. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  11. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all net income derived from such a use, less Federal, State and local taxes paid on such income, shall... resulting in income. 9004.5 Section 9004.5 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or...

  12. 26 CFR 1.857-3 - Net income from foreclosure property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income from foreclosure property. 1.857-3 Section 1.857-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-3 Net income from foreclosure...

  13. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  14. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  15. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to be made to...

  16. 48 CFR 2152.210-70 - Investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment income. 2152.210... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.210-70 Investment income. As prescribed in 2110.7004(a), insert the following clause: Investment Income (OCT 2005) (a) The Contractor must invest and reinvest all...

  17. 48 CFR 1652.215-71 - Investment Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment Income. 1652.215... 1652.215-71 Investment Income. As prescribed in 1615.470-1, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis: Investment Income (JAN 1998) (a) The Carrier shall invest...

  18. 26 CFR 1.822-8 - Determination of taxable investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the net operating loss deduction provided in section 172. See, however, section 825 and paragraph (a.... Investment expenses do not include Federal income and excess profits taxes, if any. (iii) If any general... expenses of $25,000. It receives interest of $50,000, dividends of $5,000, royalties of $4,000, and net...

  19. 47 CFR 32.7990 - Nonregulated net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be recorded on separate books of account for such operations. Only the net of the total revenues... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated net income. 32.7990 Section 32... Nonregulated net income. (a) This account shall be used by those companies who offer nonregulated activities...

  20. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... total of $30,000. The undistributed net income of the trust at the close of taxable year 1963 is $28,500...,500 Total 31,500 Undistributed net income 28,500 Example 2. The facts are the same as in example 1...

  1. 48 CFR 1615.470-1 - Investment income clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment income clause. 1615.470-1 Section 1615.470-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470-1 Investment income clause. The clause set forth in 1652...

  2. Reducing Poverty and Investing in People : The New Role of Safety Nets in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Monchuk, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    For two decades, Africa’s strong economic growth has paved the way for poverty reduction. Nevertheless, high chronic poverty levels persist, and the gap between income groups in terms of human capital and access to basic services is growing. Also, poor households are vulnerable to frequent shocks. By providing regular, reliable support to poor households and helping them invest in productive activities, targeted interventions such as safety nets help reduce persistent poverty, reverse the tre...

  3. 47 CFR 32.7210 - Operating investment tax credits-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating investment tax credits-net. 32.7210....7210 Operating investment tax credits—net. (a) This account shall be charged and Account 4320, Unamortized Operating Investment Tax Credits—Net, shall be credited with investment tax credits generated from...

  4. Foreign Direct Investment Behaviour in Low and Middle Income ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic efficiency, poverty and inequality in low- and middle-income countries. It will seek to answer such questions as the following. Does FDI actually stimulate growth and development in low-income countries? Do the benefits of FDI, such as new ...

  5. 47 CFR 36.506 - Net current deferred operating income taxes-Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred operating income taxes-Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes-Account 4340. 36.506 Section 36.506... operating income taxes—Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes—Account 4340. (a...

  6. 26 CFR 1.172-10 - Net operating losses of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating losses of real estate investment... (continued) § 1.172-10 Net operating losses of real estate investment trusts. (a) Taxable years to which a loss may be carried. (1) A net operating loss sustained by a qualified real estate investment trust (as...

  7. Return On Investment From Childhood Immunization In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, 2011-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Clark, Samantha; Portnoy, Allison; Grewal, Simrun; Brenzel, Logan; Walker, Damian G

    2016-02-01

    An analysis of return on investment can help policy makers support, optimize, and advocate for the expansion of immunization programs in the world's poorest countries. We assessed the return on investment associated with achieving projected coverage levels for vaccinations to prevent diseases related to ten antigens in ninety-four low- and middle-income countries during 2011-20, the Decade of Vaccines. We derived these estimates by using costs of vaccines, supply chains, and service delivery and their associated economic benefits. Based on the costs of illnesses averted, we estimated that projected immunizations will yield a net return about 16 times greater than costs over the decade (uncertainty range: 10-25). Using a full-income approach, which quantifies the value that people place on living longer and healthier lives, we found that net returns amounted to 44 times the costs (uncertainty range: 27-67). Across all antigens, net returns were greater than costs. But to realize the substantial positive return on investment from immunization programs, it is essential that governments and donors provide the requisite investments. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers in the study area, evaluate the costs and returns of maize production in the study area, and evaluate factors affecting ...

  9. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-0 - Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributable net income; deduction for... § 1.643(a)-0 Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general. The term distributable net income has no application except in the taxation of estates and trusts and their beneficiaries. It...

  11. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement. OMB Control Number... to obtain current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a...

  12. 47 CFR 32.4100 - Net current deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred operating income taxes. 32... Accounts § 32.4100 Net current deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance... appropriate deferred income tax shall be reclassified from Account 4340, Net Noncurrent Deferred Operating...

  13. 26 CFR 1.860C-2 - Determination of REMIC taxable income or net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of REMIC taxable income or net... REMIC taxable income or net loss. (a) Treatment of gain or loss. For purposes of determining the taxable income or net loss of a REMIC under section 860C(b), any gain or loss from the disposition of any asset...

  14. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1A - Undistributed net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1A Section 1... income (see § 1.665(d)-1A) 2,190 Total 22,190 Undistributed net income 7,910 (b) Foreign trusts. The... income from Country X sources for a total of $30,000. The undistributed net income of the trust at the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.408-11 - Net income calculation for returned or recharacterized IRA contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income calculation for returned or... Internal Revenue Code section that the return of a contribution be accompanied by the amount of net income... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus...

  16. Explicit Solution of Reinsurance-Investment Problem for an Insurer with Dynamic Income under Vasicek Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Lei Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike traditionally used reserves models, this paper focuses on a reserve process with dynamic income to study the reinsurance-investment problem for an insurer under Vasicek stochastic interest rate model. The insurer’s dynamic income is given by the remainder after a dynamic reward budget being subtracted from the insurer’s net premium which is calculated according to expected premium principle. Applying stochastic control technique, a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is established and the explicit solution is obtained under the objective of maximizing the insurer’s power utility of terminal wealth. Some economic interpretations of the obtained results are explained in detail. In addition, numerical analysis and several graphics are given to illustrate our results more meticulous.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1247-1 - Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election by foreign investment companies to... Gains and Losses § 1.1247-1 Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently. (a) Election by foreign investment company—(1) In general. If a registered foreign investment company (as...

  18. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-2 - Distributions in excess of distributable net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions in excess of distributable net income. 1.652(a)-2 Section 1.652(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....652(a)-2 Distributions in excess of distributable net income. If the amount of income required to be...

  19. 47 CFR 32.4350 - Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... included in the determination of book income or for the tax effect of nonoperating expenses and... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income... Sheet Accounts § 32.4350 Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income taxes. (a) This account shall...

  20. 47 CFR 32.4340 - Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... book income or for the tax effect of revenues and expenses from regulated operations which have been... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes... Sheet Accounts § 32.4340 Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include...

  1. 47 CFR 32.4110 - Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes... Sheet Accounts § 32.4110 Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance of income tax expense resulting from comprehensive interpreted tax allocation which has...

  2. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  3. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement. OMB Control Number...

  4. 78 FR 16871 - Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income... Table 1--Lower Living Standard Income Level (for a Family of Four Persons) by Region \\1\\ 2013 Region \\2... B Table 2--Lower Living Standard Income Level (for a Family of Four Persons), for Alaska, Hawaii and...

  5. 77 FR 18865 - Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income... Table 1--Lower Living Standard Income Level (for a Family of Four Persons) by Region \\1\\ 2012 Region \\2... B Table 2--Lower Living Standard Income Level (for a Family of Four Persons), for Alaska, Hawaii and...

  6. Multiple regression analysis of the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Wa; Xiao, Hong; Zhuo, Ma

    2009-01-01

    We use the regression analysis method of multivariate statistical analysis to establish a multiple linear regression model about the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during the year 2007. This paper analyzes the internal relation between the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households according to the regression result. Some reasonable suggestions are put forward for raising the income of rural households and stimulating consumption.

  7. 47 CFR 32.7250 - Provision for deferred operating income taxes-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Accounts § 32.7250 Provision for deferred operating income taxes—net. (a) This account shall be charged or credited, as appropriate, with contra entries recorded to the following accounts for income tax expense... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for deferred operating income taxes...

  8. 47 CFR 32.7910 - Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Income Accounts § 32.7910 Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences—net. This account shall include the impact on revenues and expenses of the jurisdictional ratemaking practices which vary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking...

  9. Redistributive income taxation under outsourcing and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Tomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal income taxation under labor outsourcing and FDI. We show how the optimal income tax response to the joint effect of outsourcing and FDI depends on whether FDI is complementary with, or substitutable for, domestic labor.

  10. 77 FR 61789 - Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL); Correction AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  11. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied through the selection of six independent variables, in order to verify the behavior of the double taxation treaties in view of the investments. Through the estimated model, it was verified that these treaties had a positive and statistically significant impact – when compared to earlier studies – on the direct foreign investment volume. When dividing the sample between the investments received and made in Brazil, a greater increase was identified in the direct foreign investments received (130.1% than in the investments made (76.9%, although this was the variable with the second largest positive impact in the model. In conclusion, exclusively in the Brazilian context, the international double income taxation is a relevant factor in the investment decision, as the presence of treaties to guarantee the investors in the receipt of revenues without double taxation substantially increases the investment flow. This study differs from earlier research by the sample that only contains treaties in force in Brazil.

  12. 26 CFR 1.172-5 - Taxable income which is subtracted from net operating loss to determine carryback or carryover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1955 net operating loss 3,000 Adjusted gross income 6,000 Less: Deduction for medical expense ($410... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxable income which is subtracted from net... taxable income is to be deducted. Thus, for such purposes, the net operating loss for the loss year or any...

  13. AN ECONOMETRICAL APPROACH OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INNOVATION AND NET OUTWARD INVESTMENT POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorela IACOVOIU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theory of the Investment Development Path (IDP and competitive advantages, this study presents an econometrical approach of the relationship between net outward investment position, given by the net outward investment per capita (NOI, and innovation capabilities, reflected by the global innovation index (GII. The results of the analysis carried out for the worldwide economies, in the year 2013, using five models demonstrate that there is no significant correlation between NOI, as dependent variable, and GII as independent one. Thus, the highest coefficient of determination value was .201 (cubic model, reflecting the fact that only 20.1% of the variation in the NOI is explained by GII. Therefore, the level of country’s innovation capacities is not one of the main forces that determine its NOI position.

  14. Foreign investment, international mergers and the 1993 capital income tax reform in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Piekkola

    1995-01-01

    Foreign direct investment in Finland and the 1993 Finnish Capital Income Tax Reform are examined in this article. Under territorial taxation, the most common form of international double taxation relief; the tax reform will encourage new capital investment. New capital investment from the US, which applies worldwide taxation, would be mildly discouraged, and FDI in the form of mergers and acquisitions largely discouraged. In the UK and Japan, the worldwide principle only covers tax rates. Thu...

  15. 85 THE PIONEER INCOME TAX RELIEF AS AN INVESTMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    according to Ola (1998:14) is to raise funds to meet Government's expenditure and to ..... ICAN Student. Journal July/Sept Vol 11 No 3. Ekwerike, M. F. (2002): Income Tax in Nigeria in Theory and Practice. Owerri: Maxck. Consultants Ltd. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004): Companies Income Tax Act Cap C21 LFN. Abuja:.

  16. Economic Growth, Rural Educational Investment and the Level and Distribution of Rural Incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Reena Chandu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…

  17. 75 FR 25296 - Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Determination of Lower Living Standard... Secretary of Labor annually determines the Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL) for uses described in...

  18. 76 FR 15342 - Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of determination of Lower Living Standard... Secretary of Labor annually determines the Lower Living Standard Income level (LLSIL) for uses described in...

  19. Utility investments in low-income energy-efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    In the increasingly competitive utility industry, it is imperative that equity programs be as cost-effective as possible. In some cases, this is accomplished by working in partnership with government programs such as the US Department of Energy`s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This paper provides an overview of the DSM and conservation programs being operated by utilities for low-income customers and describes the types of utility-government partnerships that exist.

  20. Family investments in low-income children's achievement and socioemotional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study, following conceptual work framing family processes and parenting practices as investments in children. Using secondary analyses of longitudinal data on low-income children from birth to age 15 (n = 528), we estimate several potential family investments in achievement and socioemotional outcomes during early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. For achievement outcomes, family investments in learning stimulation were consistently the strongest predictors. For socioemotional outcomes, investments in an orderly household and close parental supervision were the most consistent and strongest predictors, even more so than sensitive parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Utility investments in low-income-energy-efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Beyer, M.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eisenberg, J.; Power, M. [Economic Opportunity Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Lapsa, E.J. [Manhattan Data Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the energy-efficiency programs being operated by utilities for low-income customers. The study focuses, in particular, on programs that install major residential weatherization measures free-of-charge to low-income households. A survey was mailed to a targeted list of 600 utility program managers. Follow-up telephone calls were made to key non- respondents, and a random sample of other non-respondents also was contacted. Completed surveys were received from 180 utilities, 95 of which provided information on one or more of their 1992 low-income energy-efficiency programs for a total of 132 individual programs. These 132 utility programs spent a total of $140.6 million in 1992. This represents 27% of the total program resources available to weatherize the dwellings of low-income households in that year. Both the total funding and the number of programs has grown by 29% since 1989. A majority of the 132 programs are concentrated in a few regions of the country (California, the Pacific Northwest, the Upper Midwest, and the Northeast). Although a majority of the programs are funded by electric utilities, gas utilities have a significantly greater average expenditure per participant ($864 vs. $307 per participant). The most common primary goal of low-income energy-efficiency programs operating in 1992 was {open_quotes}to make energy services more affordable to low-income customers{close_quotes}. Only 44% of the programs were operated primarily to provide a cost-effective energy resource. Based on a review of household and measure selection criteria, equity and not the efficiency of resource acquisition appears to dominate the design of these programs.

  2. 25 CFR 1000.399 - How may interest or investment income that accrues on AFAs be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may interest or investment income that accrues on AFAs be used? 1000.399 Section 1000.399 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... investment income that accrues on AFAs be used? Unless restricted by the AFA, interest or income earned on...

  3. Investing in Internet access boosts incomes, concludes Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Diálogo Regional sobre la Sociedad de la Información (DIRSI), a regional ICT policy network, used large household and school-based surveys as well as personal interviews to explore the links between broadband adoption and income, employment, and education in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, ...

  4. 26 CFR 55.4981-2 - Imposition of excise tax with respect to certain undistributed income of real estate investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certain undistributed income of real estate investment trusts; calendar years beginning after December 31... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-2 Imposition of excise tax with...

  5. 26 CFR 55.4981-1 - Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-1 Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed during the taxable year...

  6. 26 CFR 55.4982-1 - Imposition of excise tax on undistributed income of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income of regulated investment companies. 55.4982-1 Section 55.4982-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Regulated Investment Companies...

  7. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  8. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rivers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questions: What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? Design: A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Results: Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. Conclusion: With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. [Rivers G, Foo J, Ilic D, Nicklen P, Reeves S, Walsh K, Maloney S (2015 The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 148–154

  9. The Value of a Purposeful Life: Sense of Purpose Predicts Greater Income and Net Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Burrow, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    Having a sense of purpose in life appears valuable across life domains, though it remains unclear whether purpose also provides financial value to individuals. The current study examined sense of purpose as a predictor of concurrent and longitudinal income and net worth levels, using two waves of the MIDUS sample of adults (N = 4660 across both assessments). Participants who reported a higher sense of purpose had higher levels of household income and net worth initially, and were more likely to increase on these financial outcomes over the nine years between assessments. Interaction tests suggested some evidence of age moderation, but gender did not appear to moderate the influence of purpose on economic outcomes.

  10. Foreign direct investment and income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilena MIHAYLOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI on income inequality in ten countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE in the period 1990 – 2012. First, the theoretical and empirical literature on the distributional effect of FDI is outlined. Second, we discuss briefly general trends in FDI inflow and income inequality in the countries from CEE after 1990. Third, we estimate several fixed effects regression models and find that FDI has the potential to exert influence on income inequality but this effect varies depending on the level of education and economic development of the host countries.

  11. The pioneer income tax relief as an investment incentive in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxation is one of the major fiscal policy instruments used by government in regulating the economy, boosting investments and regulating inflation. Many developing nations formulate tax policies aimed at stimulating rapid economic growth. One of such policies in Nigeria is the Pioneer Income Tax Relief with the main goal ...

  12. Retirement saving with contribution payments and labor income as a benchmark for investments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study the retirement saving problem from the point of view of a plan sponsor, who makes contribution payments for the future retirement of an employee. The plan sponsor considers the employee's labor income as investment-benchmark in order to ensure the continuation of

  13. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ilic, Dragan; Nicklen, Peter; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Maloney, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  15. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009 : The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Dirk H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows,

  16. 26 CFR 1.951-2 - Coordination of subpart F with election of a foreign investment company to distribute income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign investment company to distribute income. 1.951-2 Section 1.951-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Corporations § 1.951-2 Coordination of subpart F with election of a foreign investment company to distribute... meaning of section 1247(c)) of a foreign investment company with respect to which an election under...

  17. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement, VA Form 21-527. OMB Control Number: 2900-0002...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6081-7 - Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate... Time for Filing Returns § 1.6081-7 Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax return. (a) In general. A Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC...

  19. How Are Property Investment Returns Determined? : Estimating the Micro-Structure of Asset Prices, Property Income, and Discount Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    How exactly should one estimate property investment returns? Investors in property aim to maximize capital gains from price increases and income generated by the property. How are the returns on investment in property determined based on its characteristics, and what kind of market characteristics does it have? Focusing on the Tokyo commercial property market and residential property market, the purpose of this paper was to break down and measure the micro-structure of property investment ret...

  20. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ....Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources ] and Housing Branch, New Executive Office... current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a claimant's...

  1. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (b... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits expected to reduce future taxes... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits previously recorded in this account...

  2. Considering Students' Cost of a Dental Education: Return on Investment and Debt to Income Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J

    2017-08-01

    The cost for students of a dental education has become an issue of concern. This article explores the return on investment and the debt to income ratio of studying dentistry. These two measures are monitored to gain perspective on whether the cost of education pays off in earnings. The factors underlying these measures and a discussion of them are included. The purpose of this article is to focus attention on one of the current issues facing dental schools in the United States. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century."

  3. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980–2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially ‘normal’ ones are not commonly researched. Theoretical background According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. Data and results A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries. PMID:28654644

  4. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, Dirk H M

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially 'normal' ones are not commonly researched. According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries.

  5. Economic returns to investment in AIDS treatment in low and middle income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Resch

    Full Text Available Since the early 2000s, aid organizations and developing country governments have invested heavily in AIDS treatment. By 2010, more than five million people began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART--yet each year, 2.7 million people are becoming newly infected and another two million are dying without ever having received treatment. As the need for treatment grows without commensurate increase in the amount of available resources, it is critical to assess the health and economic gains being realized from increasingly large investments in ART. This study estimates total program costs and compares them with selected economic benefits of ART, for the current cohort of patients whose treatment is cofinanced by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. At end 2011, 3.5 million patients in low and middle income countries will be receiving ART through treatment programs cofinanced by the Global Fund. Using 2009 ART prices and program costs, we estimate that the discounted resource needs required for maintaining this cohort are $14.2 billion for the period 2011-2020. This investment is expected to save 18.5 million life-years and return $12 to $34 billion through increased labor productivity, averted orphan care, and deferred medical treatment for opportunistic infections and end-of-life care. Under alternative assumptions regarding the labor productivity effects of HIV infection, AIDS disease, and ART, the monetary benefits range from 81 percent to 287 percent of program costs over the same period. These results suggest that, in addition to the large health gains generated, the economic benefits of treatment will substantially offset, and likely exceed, program costs within 10 years of investment.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NET PROFIT OVER THE INVESTMENT DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela GADOIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analysing how the investment decision is influenced by the final result of the activity of an entity after paying the profit tax. Starting from the need to make investments in order to ensure the economic efficiency and subsequently the economic growth, we sought to capture both the advantages and the disadvantages of the various versions that must be considered for the selection of the investment project. From the perspective of the presentation of this topic, we have analysed, in addition to the aspects related to the notion of investment, the investment typology, the decision to invest in a certain environment, and a number of economic and financial indicators used in order to make an investment decision.

  7. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of net... claim for credit or refund relates to an overpayment of income tax attributable to a net operating loss... net operating loss deduction or capital loss carryback (or the effect of such deduction or carryback...

  8. 17 CFR 210.7-04 - Income statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF... face of the income statements and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this article pertains... premiums earned. 2. Net investment income. State in a note to the financial statements, in tabular form...

  9. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in low and middle-income countries : a comparative cross-sectoral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Sasso, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows worldwide across sectors and across value-chain activities, with a particular focus on low- and middle-income countries in comparison with advanced countries. We begin by discussing the growing fragmentation of global

  10. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi; Marcus, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. Connect is the only integrated learning system that empowers students by continuously adapting to deliver precisely what they need, when they need it, and how they need it, so that your class time is more engaging and effective.

  11. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. McGraw-Hill's adaptive learning component, LearnSmart, provides assignable modules that help students master chapter core concepts and come to class more prepared. Bodie Investments' blend of practical and theoretical coverage combines with a complete digital solution to help your students achieve higher outcomes in the course

  12. Government net income in the fuel alcohol marketing; Estimativa do saldo do governo na comercializacao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnaro, Caetano

    1992-12-31

    This study aims to analyse the fuel price formation structures in order to estimate the governmental net income in fuel alcohol marketing and to develop a mathematical model to forecast these estimates under alternative economic scenarios. Three scenarios - an optimistic, an intermediary and a pessimistic were set up through intuitive projections and the mathematical model developed was applied to them. 33 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system...... of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth...... of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal...

  14. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  15. THE CONNECTION IDENTIFICATION BETWEEN THE NET INVESTMENTS IN HOTELS AND RESTORANTS AND TOURISTIC ACCOMODATION CAPACITY BY USING THE ANOVA METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena STAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the purpose of giving the answers to customers’ harsh exigencies, in the Romanian tourism development hasto be taking into account especially the “accommodation” component. The dimension of technical and material base ofaccommodation can be express through: units’ number, rooms’ number, places number. The most used is “placesnumber” indicator. Nowadays as regarding the tourism Romanian investments there are special concerns caused bypeculiar determinations. The study aim is represented by identifying of a connection existence between net investmentsin hotels and restaurants and tourism accommodation capacity, registered among 2002 -2007period in Romania, byusing the dispersion analysis ANOVA method.

  16. Long-term investment and net-worth building with limited contract enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, Burak

    This paper develops a firm dynamics model augmented with an endogenous net-worth-building feature at the firm level and investigates how opportunities for entrepreneurs to accumulate wealth can mitigate the implications of limited enforceability for resource allocation, productivity, and

  17. Expected net present value of sample information: from burden to investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter S; Edlin, Richard; Kharroubi, Samer; Gregory, Walter; McCabe, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Expected Value of Information Framework has been proposed as a method for identifying when health care technologies should be immediately reimbursed and when any reimbursement should be withheld while awaiting more evidence. This framework assesses the value of obtaining additional evidence to inform a current reimbursement decision. This represents the burden of not having the additional evidence at the time of the decision. However, when deciding whether to reimburse now or await more evidence, decision makers need to know the value of investing in more research to inform a future decision. Assessing this value requires consideration of research costs, research time, and what happens to patients while the research is undertaken and after completion. The investigators describe a development of the calculation of the expected value of sample information that assesses the value of investing in further research, including an only-in-research strategy and an only-with-research strategy.

  18. Parental Expectations and Investments: Links to children's academic performance in an ethnically diverse low-income sample

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Cristal Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this short-term longitudinal study was to provide empirical support for the role that parental investments in children's education play in mediating the association between parental expectations and child academic outcomes. Participants were a hetergeneous sample of 426 low-income urban youth, ages 6 through 16 at the first time point of the current study. Results from regression analyses indicated that parental expectations at Time 1 predicted children's academic achievement outco...

  19. Analysis and Accounting of Hedging of a Net Investment in a Foreign Operation Process in the concept of Turkish Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Öztürk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in line with developments in the financial markets, financial instruments developed rapidly. As a result of this development, how to classify financial instruments, recognition of these principles has become important. As a result of the every day increase in types of financial instruments, financial risks have emerged. Especially after the end of the Bretton Woods system that based on fixed exchange rates in 1970’s, entities faced the financial risk. IAS 39 gathered financial risks faced by businesses in the financial markets in three groups. These risks are risk arising from financial instruments at fair value and risk arising from cash flows and risk arising from the net investment in a foreign operation. Preventing from the risk arising from the net investment in a foreign operation hedge that composes the subject of this study and also one type of prevention from financial risk, is explained in Turkish Accounting Standards TAS 21 and TAS 39. The implementation section of this study, one of the varieties of hedging, hedge accounting is an example of a net investment in a foreign operation. Example implementation is divided into three sections. In the first part, the increase and decreases at the exchange rates that arised from the position in which the entity made investment does not make forward contracts arised exchange rates are shown. In the second part of our application, the accounting records related to forward contract made for preventing from net investment risk are shown, and how the forward contract prevent the entity from net investment risk is explained. In the final part of the implementation, the disposal of the net investment in a foreign country and it’s results are shown.

  20. What Do University Endowment Managers Worry About? An Analysis of Alternative Asset Investments and Background Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Harvey S.; Sappington, Alexander J. W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether university endowment managers think only in terms of the assets they manage or also take into account background income, that is, the other flows of income to the university. Specifically, we test whether the level and variability of a university's background income (e.g., from tuition and government grants) affect its…

  1. How Are Property Investment Returns Determined? — Estimating the Micro-Structure of Asset Prices, Property Income, and Discount Rates —

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 千弘; Chihiro, Shimizu

    2014-01-01

    How exactly should one estimate property investment returns? Investors in property aim to maximize capital gains from price increases and income generated by the property. How are the returns on investment in property determined based on its characteristics, and what kind of market characteristics does it have? Focusing on the Tokyo commer-cial property market and residential property market, the purpose of this paper was to break down and measure the micro-structure of property investment re...

  2. Proximity to safety-net clinics and HPV vaccine uptake among low-income, ethnic minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gee, Gilbert C; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-04-12

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake remains low. Although publicly funded programs provide free or low cost vaccines to low-income children, barriers aside from cost may prevent disadvantaged girls from getting vaccinated. Prior studies have shown distance to health care as a potential barrier to utilizing pediatric preventive services. This study examines whether HPV vaccines are geographically accessible for low-income girls in Los Angeles County and whether proximity to safety-net clinics is associated with vaccine initiation. Interviews were conducted in multiple languages with largely immigrant, low-income mothers of girls ages 9 to 18 via a county health hotline to assess uptake and correlates of uptake. Addresses of respondents and safety-net clinics that provide the HPV vaccine for free or low cost were geo-coded and linked to create measures of geographic proximity. Logistic regression models were estimated for each proximity measure on HPV vaccine initiation while controlling for other factors. On average, 83% of the 468 girls had at least one clinic within 3-miles of their residence. The average travel time on public transportation to the nearest clinic among all girls was 21min. Average proximity to clinics differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Latinas had both the shortest travel distances (2.2 miles) and public transportation times (16min) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The overall HPV vaccine initiation rate was 25%. Increased proximity to the nearest clinic was not significantly associated with initiation. By contrast, daughter's age and insurance status were significantly associated with increased uptake. This study is among the first to examine geographic access to HPV vaccines for underserved girls. Although the majority of girls live in close proximity to safety-net vaccination services, rates of initiation were low. Expanding clinic outreach in this urban area is likely more important than increasing geographic access to the

  3. Economic returns to investment in AIDS treatment in low and middle income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Resch (Stephen); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); J. Stover (John); M. Blakley (Matthew); C. Krubiner (Carleigh); K. Thorien (Kira); R. Hecht (Robert); R. Atun (Rifat)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSince the early 2000s, aid organizations and developing country governments have invested heavily in AIDS treatment. By 2010, more than five million people began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) - yet each year, 2.7 million people are becoming newly infected and another two million

  4. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost Effectiveness of the Earned Income Tax Credit as a Health Policy Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter A; Mohit, Babak; Wu, Jinjing; Jia, Haomiao; Rosen, Zohn

    2016-12-01

    Lower-income Americans are suffering from declines in income, health, and longevity over time. Income and employment policies have been proposed as a potential non-medical solution to this problem. An interrupted time series analysis of state-level incremental supplements to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program was performed using data from 1993 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys and state-level life expectancy. The cost effectiveness of state EITC supplements was estimated using a microsimulation model, which was run in 2015. Supplemental EITC programs increased health-related quality of life and longevity among the poor. The program costs about $7,786/quality-adjusted life-year gained (95% CI=$4,100, $13,400) for the average recipient. This ratio increases with larger family sizes, costing roughly $14,261 (95% CI=$8,735, $19,716) for a family of three. State supplements to EITC appear to be highly cost effective, but randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Are school feeding programs in low-income settings sustainable? Insights on the costs of school feeding compared with investments in primary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Daryanani, Roshan

    2013-09-01

    School feeding programs are ubiquitous. Benchmarking expenditures for school feeding is an important component of program accountability and sustainability. To analyze the costs of school feeding and the cost relative to education expenditure and other measures of economic growth. Data on the costs of school feeding were collected from multiple sources, including United Nations databases, gray literature, and published reviews. Relationships between costs of school feeding, costs of education, and GDP per capita were analyzed through standard linear regression. Data on costs of school feeding were obtained for 74 countries, including 12 high-income, 40 middle-income, and 22 in low-income countries. School feeding programs were found to cost US$173 per child per year, ranging from US$54 in low-income countries to US$693 in high-income countries. In high-income countries, school feeding costs per capita were on average equivalent to 11% of the per capita investments in primary education, compared with 19% in middle-income countries and 68% in low-income countries. In middle- and low-income countries, school feeding programs covered on average 18% and 13% of the children enrolled in primary school, respectively. The total budget for school feeding in low-income countries was found to be on average 11% of the estimated total primary school education budget, compared to 4% in middle-income countries. School feeding investments are targeted in low- and middle-income settings, reaching only a portion of primary schoolchildren, with total costs only a fraction of the overall investment in education. As countries get richer, school feeding costs become a much smaller proportion of education costs. The findings of this study provide an updated framework for benchmarking school feeding programs.

  7. Equilibrium Investment Strategy for DC Pension Plan with Inflation and Stochastic Income under Heston’s SV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyun Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a portfolio selection problem for a defined contribution (DC pension plan under the mean-variance criteria. We take into account the inflation risk and assume that the salary income process of the pension plan member is stochastic. Furthermore, the financial market consists of a risk-free asset, an inflation-linked bond, and a risky asset with Heston’s stochastic volatility (SV. Under the framework of game theory, we derive two extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations systems and give the corresponding verification theorems in both the periods of accumulation and distribution of the DC pension plan. The explicit expressions of the equilibrium investment strategies, corresponding equilibrium value functions, and the efficient frontiers are also obtained. Finally, some numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis are presented to verify our theoretical results.

  8. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the

  9. Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Neijhoft, Anastasia Naomi; Cook, Sarah; Palermo, Tia M

    2017-09-01

    As many as one billion children experience violence every year, and household- and community-level poverty are among the risk factors for child protection violations. Social safety nets (SSNs) are a main policy tool to address poverty and vulnerability, and there is substantial evidence demonstrating positive effects on children's health and human capital. This paper reviews evidence and develops a framework to understand linkages between non-contributory SSNs and the experience of childhood emotional, physical and sexual violence in low- and middle-income countries. We catalogue 14 rigorous impact evaluations, 11 of which are completed, analysing 57 unique impacts on diverse violence indicators. Among these impacts, approximately one in five represent statistically significant protective effects on childhood violence. Promising evidence relates to sexual violence among female adolescents in Africa, while there is less clear evidence of significant impacts in other parts of the developing world, and on young child measures, including violent discipline. Further, few studies are set up to meaningfully unpack mechanisms between SSNs and childhood violence; however, those most commonly hypothesized operate at the household level (through increases in economic security and reductions in poverty-related stress), the interpersonal level (improved parental behaviours, caregiving practices, improved psychosocial well-being) and at the child-level (protective education and decreases in problem or risky behaviours). It is important to emphasize that traditional SSNs are never designed with violence prevention as primary objectives, and thus should not be considered as standalone interventions to reduce risks for childhood violence. However, SSNs, particularly within integrated protection systems, appear to have potential to reduce violence risk. Linkages between SSNs and childhood violence are understudied, and investments should be made to close this evidence gap. © The

  10. Considering barriers to investment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KB Afful

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.

  11. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  12. Is foreign direct investment good for health in low and middle income countries? An instrumental variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-05-01

    There is a scarcity of quantitative research into the effect of FDI on population health in low and middle income countries (LMICs). This paper investigates the relationship using annual panel data from 85 LMICs between 1974 and 2012. When controlling for time trends, country fixed effects, correlation between repeated observations, relevant covariates, and endogeneity via a novel instrumental variable approach, we find FDI to have a beneficial effect on overall health, proxied by life expectancy. When investigating age-specific mortality rates, we find a stronger beneficial effect of FDI on adult mortality, yet no association with either infant or child mortality. Notably, FDI effects on health remain undetected in all models which do not control for endogeneity. Exploring the effect of sector-specific FDI on health in LMICs, we provide preliminary evidence of a weak inverse association between secondary (i.e. manufacturing) sector FDI and overall life expectancy. Our results thus suggest that FDI has provided an overall benefit to population health in LMICs, particularly in adults, yet investments into the secondary sector could be harmful to health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship with English: Language Use, Attitudes, and Investment in Learning among Low-Income Latino Immigrant Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonder, Linda E.

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have explored language learning investment since Norton Peirce (1995) introduced the concept. However, most investment studies have recruited participants through language classes, which presupposes participant investment in formal learning. The current study went outside the classroom context by conducting ethnographic interviews…

  14. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution

    OpenAIRE

    Komenaka, Ian K.; Nodora, Jesse N.; Madlensky, Lisa; Lisa M. Winton; Heberer, Meredith A.; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mut...

  15. 26 CFR 1.804-4 - Investment yield of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income and excess profits taxes, if any. In cases where the investment expenses allowable as deductions... rendered by the station. (iv) The deduction for net operating losses provided in section 172, and the... in section 804(c) and paragraph (b) of this section for investment expenses, real estate expenses...

  16. DYNAMICS OF ASSETS AND INVESTMENTS IN ROMANIA VOLUNTARY PENSION FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN DURAC

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, private pensions have an increasingly more important place in the current pension systems. Their importance consist on the one hand, by their contribution that have to preserve a level of income in retirement, comparable to the active period, and on the other side, by the amounts collected from the participants and investments in various investment instruments. In this article I analyze the overall evolution of total assets and net assets on 30 September 2007 - September 30, 2016, and dynamics of the main investment instruments in which pension funds have made investments optional.

  17. COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN STOCK MARKETS (ROMANIA, GERMANY, FRANCE AND POLAND FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NET ASSETS INVESTMENT OF THE ROMANIAN MANDATORY PRIVATE PENSION FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Cristina PETRICA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate cointegration between Bucharest Stock Exchange and three European Stock Markets: Germany,France and Poland, respectively. The choice of the European markets is based on the net assets investment of the Romanian mandatory private pension funds. On June 30, 2016, according to the Romanian Financial Supervisory Authority 91.28% of all investments in shares of private pension funds have been performed in Romanian shares, while the rest of 8.72% (0.44 billion lei have been performed in shares issued by Germany (2.34%, France (2.23%, Poland (0.89% and other countries. Having the intention of achieving maximizing returns by managing risk, and also to capture the co-movements in the above markets,we perform the cointegration analysis to examine portfolio diversification of the Romanian mandatory private pension funds. The empirical analysis is based on daily closing prices of the BET Index, DAX 30 Index, CAC 40 Index and WIG 20 Index and covers the period from 30 January 2006 to 27 September 2016 (2713 observations.

  18. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan; Poweo resultats du 1. semestre 2006. Resultat net positif, mise en oeuvre des 1. etapes du plan industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre.

  19. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver, E-mail: mtk@atp.dk [ATP (Danish Labour Market Supplementary Pension Scheme) (Denmark); Steffensen, Mogens, E-mail: mogens@math.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  20. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Madlensky, Lisa; Winton, Lisa M; Heberer, Meredith A; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mutation profile for affected women. All 125 patients who were offered GCRA accepted to undergo GCRA. Of these, 72 % had a breast cancer diagnosis, 70 % were Hispanic, 52.8 % were non-English speakers, and 66 % did not have health insurance. Eighty four (67 %) were offered genetic testing and 81 (96 %) agreed. Hispanic women, those with no medical insurance, and those with a family history of breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo testing (p > 0.01). Twelve of 81 (15 %) patients were found to have deleterious mutations, seven BRCA1, and five BRCA2. Our experience shows that it is possible to offer GCRA and genetic testing even in the setting of limited resources for these services. This is important given that a large majority of the low-income women in our study agreed to undergo counseling and testing. Our experience could serve as a model for similar low-resource safety-net health settings.

  1. 26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entitled to the net operating loss deduction provided in section 172, and a deduction shall not be.... Investment expenses do not include Federal income and excess profits taxes, if any. (iii) If any general.... (b) The deduction for net operating losses provided in section 172 shall not be allowed. (9...

  2. 24 CFR 203.421 - Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund income or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.421 Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund... of the entire Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, such net income or such loss to the General Surplus... into consideration all income received from fees, premiums and earnings on investments of the fund...

  3. College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society. Report #C412

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Barbara; Reichlin, Lindsey; Román, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This report examines how efforts to understand and improve college affordability can be informed by the experiences and circumstances of low-income adults, students of color, and students with dependent children. The report discusses how the time and financial demands associated with financial independence, parenthood, and work affect a student's…

  4. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  5. Mom-net: Evaluation of an internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral intervention for low-income depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Feil, Edward G; Seeley, John R; Leve, Craig; Gau, Jeff M; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Allan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Economically disadvantaged mothers (N = 266) of preschool aged children, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to Motivational Interviewing and Referral to Services (MIRS). Outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I Disorders (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS; Hamilton, 1960). Relative to participants in the MIRS condition, participants in Mom-Net demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression as indexed by self-report questionnaire (primary outcome), interviewer-rated symptoms, and diagnostic outcomes. Results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is effective as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Race/Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Income Are Not Demographic Drivers of Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients at a Diverse Safety Net Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya A. Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code, and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p=0.006, age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p=0.014, and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p<0.0001. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes.

  7. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-7 - Reporting of income, deductions and investment tax credit; at risk rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tax credit; at risk rules. 5c.168(f)(8)-7 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-7 Reporting of income, deductions and... has the option to sell the property to X for $2,160,000. Under § 5c.168(f)(8)-7(d), the aggregate...

  8. Universal coverage for primary health care is a wise investment: evidence from 102 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Wu, Jennifer Chun-li; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to provide systemic, empirical evidence on the coverage expansion of primary health care (PHC) linking to good health in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a pooled, cross-sectional analysis using the 2011 World Health Statistics for World Health Organization Member States at low- and middle-income levels (n = 102). With life expectancy, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality as health indicators, we examined the effect of service coverage rate using variables under 2 domains: health expenditure and PHC (public health provision, primary care access). Our results indicated that after controlling for gross national income per capita, higher total health expenditure as share of gross domestic product was associated with shorter life expectancy (β = -0.99; P = .014), higher infant mortality (β = 1.65; P = .155), and under-5 mortality (β = 4.82; P = .020). Multivariate analysis showed higher coverage of public health services was significantly associated with improved population health. Making public health and primary care services accessible and be used by everyone is the wise means toward improved health. © 2013 APJPH.

  9. Self-care behavior change and depression among low-income predominantly Hispanic patients in safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunsung; Ell, Kathleen; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether changes in self-care behaviors during a 12-month period predicted the likelihood of screening positive for depression concurrently and prospectively among low-income Hispanic patients with diabetes. Secondary analyses were conducted with longitudinal data collected from a randomized controlled trial that had tested effectiveness of collaborative depression care. We examined whether changes in self-care behaviors observed during the 12 months after baseline predicted the likelihood of screening positive for depression at 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Self-care behaviors included healthy diet, exercise, self-blood glucose monitoring, and foot care, which were measured by a validated self-reported instrument. Logistic regression analyses indicated that patients with more frequent healthy diet during the 12 months after baseline had significantly lower likelihood of depression. Patients with more frequent exercise had a lower likelihood of screening for depression at 18- and 24-month follow-up. No significant association was found with self-blood glucose monitoring and foot care. These findings suggest the importance of integrated care that emphasizes healthy diet and exercise, together with traditional depression treatment, when helping low-income Hispanic patients with diabetes and comorbid depression.

  10. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  11. The short-term health and psychosocial impacts of domestic energy efficiency investments in low-income areas: a controlled before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte N. B. Grey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that living in fuel poverty and cold homes contributes to poor physical and mental health, and that interventions targeted at those living in poor quality housing may lead to health improvements. However, little is known about the socio-economic intermediaries and processes that contribute to better health. This study examined the relationship between energy efficiency investments to homes in low-income areas and mental and physical health of residents, as well as a number of psychosocial outcomes likely to be part of the complex relationship between energy efficiency measures and health outcomes. Methods A quasi-experimental field study with a controlled pretest-posttest design was conducted (intervention n = 364; control n = 418 to investigate the short-term health and psychosocial impacts of a domestic energy efficiency programme that took place across Wales between 2013 and 2015. Survey data were collected in the winters before and after installation of energy efficiency measures, including external wall insulation. The study used a multilevel modelling repeated measures approach to analyse the data. Results The energy efficiency programme was not associated with improvements in physical and mental health (using the SF-12v2 physical and mental health composite scales or reductions in self-reported respiratory and asthma symptoms. However, the programme was associated with improved subjective wellbeing (B = 0.38, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.65, as well as improvements in a number of psychosocial outcomes, including increased thermal satisfaction (OR = 3.83, 95% CI 2.40 to 5.90, reduced reports of putting up with feeling cold to save heating costs (OR = 0.49, CI = 0.25 to 0.94, fewer financial difficulties (B = −0.15, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.05, and reduced social isolation (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.77. Conclusion The study showed that investing in energy efficiency in low-income

  12. The economic rationale for investing decisions innovative projects rationalization of investments for innovative projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Zhitinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a selection of methods for determining the feasibility of an investment-innovative project. Estimated indicators are identified analytically, on their basis a conclusion is made about the economic efficiency and feasibility of the project, which is the basis of its competitiveness. Such growth analytics is necessary, since the social and economic development of the country and the region largely depends on the investment climate, which is facilitated by the legislation of the Russian Federation (the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, the law of the Russian Federation on the regulation of investment activities, etc.. Since competitiveness is also determined by the economic feasibility and financial solvency of innovative projects, modern information and software, as well as the methodology for project appraisal and the corresponding order of their implementation, are needed. In the Russian Federation, a method is used to assess the efficiency of capital investments in capitalist countries, as well as the methodology of economic (competitive analysis of investment-innovative projects. The basis of the method is that reimbursement of investments occurs in two economic forms: net profit and depreciation (net income. Of the numerous methods for assessing the feasibility of investment, the most often used along with discount methods (taking into account the factor of money changes over time, statistical methods with determining the payback period and the average rate of return on investment. Defined indicators: the net present value (NPV and the internal rate of return (IRR. The methodology specified in the article is useful to the investor in order to rationalize investment flows, helps to achieve the maximum IRR. The implementation of the innovative project serves the competitiveness of the manufacturing enterprise by increasing the technical and technological levels of the products.

  13. Schools of public health in low and middle-income countries: an imperative investment for improving the health of populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Rabbani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health has multicultural origins. By the close of the nineteenth century, Schools of Public Health (SPHs began to emerge in western countries in response to major contemporary public health challenges. The Flexner Report (1910 emphasized the centrality of preventive medicine, sanitation, and public health measures in health professional education. The Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care (PHC in 1978 was a critical milestone, especially for low and middle-income countries (LMICs, conceptualizing a close working relationship between PHC and public health measures. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2005–2008 strengthened the case for SPHs in LMICs as key stakeholders in efforts to reduce global health inequities. This scoping review groups text into public health challenges faced by LMICs and the role of SPHs in addressing these challenges. Main text The challenges faced by LMICs include rapid urbanization, environmental degradation, unfair terms of global trade, limited capacity for equitable growth, mass displacements associated with conflicts and natural disasters, and universal health coverage. Poor governance and externally imposed donor policies and agendas, further strain the fragile health systems of LMICs faced with epidemiological transition. Moreover barriers to education and research imposed by limited resources, political and economic instability, and unbalanced partnerships additionally aggravate the crisis. To address these contextual challenges effectively, SPHs are offering broad based health professional education, conducting multidisciplinary population based research and fostering collaborative partnerships. SPHs are also looked upon as the key drivers to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs. Conclusion SPHs in LMICs can contribute to overcoming several public health challenges being faced by LMICs, including achieving SDGs. Most importantly they can develop cadres of

  14. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  15. Investimento direto externo, acumulação de capital produtivo e distribuição de renda: uma abordagem pós-keynesiana Foreign direct investment, productive capital accumulation and income distribution: a post-keynesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Augusto Bertella

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It is developed a macrodynamic model in the post-keynesian tradition of political economy of the productive capital accumulation and income distribution to analyze some of the impacts of the (flow of foreign direct investment and the (stock of foreign productive capital on capital accumulation, economic growth and functional income distribution in a stylized economy. Alongside a usual demand effect, the impacts of such an internationalization of local capital through labor productivity and market concentration are taken into account as well.

  16. Investment for food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, D.

    1961-01-01

    Groenveld attempted to show the magnitude of investments in agriculture, which were necessary to meet the increasing world demand for food. The formula S = K/Y (ΔN +ΔH) was assumed as a description that for a community the proportion of national income saved and invested must equal the product of

  17. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  18. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  19. Theoretical approaches to the construction of innovative investment model of raw-mineral complex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Mikhaylovich Shvets

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes investment and innovative model of development of the mineral resources sector in Russia. It is proved that the emphasis in today's economy is made on the development of both raw materials industries, most of which are associated with the extraction and primary processing of renewable natural resources, and processing industries, which leads to an increase in national wealth. The formation of the demand for investment in mineral resources under the influence of the complex growth of net investment income is caused by technological progress. The mechanism of action of the investment multiplier and accelerator, linked to the autonomous investment, influencing thecommissioning of mineral deposits, providing a subsequent impact on the associated industries is considered in details. The author has proposed to introduce a macroeconomic model of subsoil group of indicators characterizing the volume of autonomous investments in the development of the mineral resources sector and related industries.

  20. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  1. Investment and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2006-01-01

    A severe collapse of fixed capital formation distinguished the onset of the Great Depression from other investment downturns between the world wars. Using a model estimated for the years 1890-2000, we show that the expected profitability of capital measured by Tobin's q, and the uncertainty...... surrounding expected profits indicated by share price volatility, were the chief influences on investment levels, and that heightened share price volatility played the dominant role in the crucial investment collapse in 1930. Investment did not simply follow the downward course of income at the onset...

  2. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy......The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...

  3. Sistema de informação geográfica para mapeamento da renda líquida aplicado no planejamento da agricultura irrigada Algorithm to mapping net income applied in irrigated agriculture planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um algoritmo na linguagem computacional MATLAB para aplicações em sistemas de informações geográficas, visando ao mapeamento da renda líquida maximizada de cultivos irrigados. O estudo foi desenvolvido para as culturas do maracujá, da cana-de-açúcar, do abacaxi e do mamão, em área de aproximadamente 2.500 ha, localizada no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados de entrada do algoritmo foram informações edafoclimáticas, funções de resposta das culturas à água, dados de localização geográfica da área e índices econômicos referentes ao custo do processo produtivo. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o algoritmo desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente para o mapeamento da renda líquida de cultivos irrigados, sendo capaz de localizar áreas que apresentam maiores retornos econômicos.The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm in MATLAB computational language to be applied in geographical information systems to map net income irrigated crops to plan irrigated agriculture. The study was developed for the crops of passion fruit plant, sugarcane, pineapple and papaya, in an area of approximately 2,500 ha, at Campos dos Goytacazes, located at north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The algorithm input data were: information about soil, climate, crop water response functions, geographical location and economical cost indexes of the productive process. The results allowed concluding that developed algorithm was efficient to map net income of irrigated crops, been able to locate areas that present larger economical net income.

  4. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  5. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts. 1.58-6 Section 1.58-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-6 Regulated investment companies; real...

  6. Investment Project Efficiency Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Miljenko Crnjac; Dominika Crnjac

    2006-01-01

    Financial efficiency of investment project is being evaluated in this paper. It is showed that the net present value function is constant and that quota value is equal to c0 when i converges to the infinite. Optimal rates i are analyzed in certain cases and everything is illustrated through examples.

  7. Ranking independent timber investments by alternative investment criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratio—the last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percent—to determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...

  8. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality; Bilan RTE 2002: un resultat net positif (+112 M d'euros), conforme aux previsions, au terme d'une annee placee sous le signe de la qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of

  9. Essays on investment and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Thang Long

    2017-01-01

    This thesis combines four related essays that examine investment activities and housing dynamics in Australia. The first essay investigates the key drivers of Australian aggregate business investment. Tobin’s q, income, cash flow and uncertainty impacts on investment are determined and disentangled. Uncertainty and demand constraints are revealed to be highly significant for investment over business cycle frequencies. The second essay examines the firm-level investment determinants of listed ...

  10. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME....823-4 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with the gross amount of income...

  12. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  13. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a unit investment...

  14. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...

  15. 26 CFR 1.857-6 - Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-6 Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. (a) Ordinary income. Except... receiving dividends from a real estate investment trust shall include such dividends in gross income for the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.852-5 - Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-5 Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company. (a) Any regulated investment... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a regulated investment...

  17. 26 CFR 1.851-1 - Definition of regulated investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of regulated investment company. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-1 Definition of regulated investment company. (a) In general. The term “regulated investment...

  18. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  19. Effect of investment on financial and sports results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatović Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the correlation between investment, financial results and sport results achieved and to evaluate the relative efficiency of Serbian football clubs. In this regard, two postulations were examined: firstly, investments in football clubs produce better sports results; secondly, investments in football clubs result in a stronger financial position. A correlation analysis and Data Envelopment Analysis (CCR model were applied. Thirteen football clubs were included in the analysis, which represents eighty per cent of the Serbian Football League First Division Clubs. The study was conducted in the period 2009-2011that includes football seasons 2009-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. A strong positive correlation between investment and sport results was found only for the top football clubs, while the econometric regression did not show any correlation. The findings also show that there is no relation between investment and net income. The analysis of technical efficiency confirmed these findings, which revealed that the best football clubs are usually the farthest away from the efficiency frontier.

  20. Investment Evaluation Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial criteria used for evaluation of the enterprise are not numerous; however, they are causing heated discussion on whether using a criterion at the expense of another. The most utilized financial criteria used in the ranking of investment alternatives are: the net present value criterion, the internal rate of return criterion, the payback period limit criterion and last, but not least, the profitability index criterion. These criteria have in mind, in the first place: \tinvestments impact on enterprise profitableness and results, by recording the future positive cash-flow \tinvestments influence on the balance of an enterprise, traced through the evolution, on one side of the working capital , on the other hand, the size of necessary working capital \tincidence of the investment project on enterprise risk level Therefore, to ensure the best possible decision making, investors must choose of using, and why not, even construction of relevant indicators regarding the opportunity of an investment decision in one alternative or another. It is advisable to take into account a number of principles, which are nothing more than to highlight various aspects of technical analysis of investment projects. As a result, it is preferable not to neglect the value of money in time problem, solved by using dynamic indicators of investment; investment project analysis with reference the binomial risk - profitableness, ensuring that profitableness of an investment is directly proportional to the risk category in which is framed; the basis for the investment decision to materialize with the help of marginal cash flow analysis and, certainly not with the help of paper profits; taking into consideration the fiscal policy of the company; elimination of the inflationary phenomenon in the decision process; targeting of low risk investment projects, because this risk adds to the whole risk of the enterprise etc.

  1. Gasto social no Brasil: programas de transferência de renda versus investimento social Social spending in Brazil: income transfer programs versus social investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lavinas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo contrapõe a evolução recente do gasto no Brasil: redução do gasto com infra-estrutura social e aumento das transferências monetárias sujeitas à comprovação de renda. Evidencia-se que o modelo de combate à pobreza vigente no Brasil concentrado em programas focalizados de transferência de renda sem promover em simultâneo o aumento do gasto per capita em educação, saneamento básico, habitação não equaciona a questão da desigualdade. Neste artigo, trabalhamos com dados secundários da PNAD e do orçamento da União, estados e municípios.This paper compares the dynamics of social spending in Brazil, with lower outlays on basic services and more direct monetary transfers through means-test programs, highlighting the fact that as Brazil's social safety net concentrates on cash transfer programs without simultaneously increasing per capita outlays on education, basic sanitation and housing, it is not resolving the issue of inequality. This paper works with secondary data from the National Household Sampling Survey, together with Federal, State and Municipal budgets.

  2. Tax, Stimuli of Investment and Firm Value

    OpenAIRE

    Maoz, Yishay

    2007-01-01

    Pennings (2000) has shown that the government can speed-up investment by subsidizing the potential investing firm's entry cost while taxing the future proceeds from the investment, so as to render the net expected value of its subsidy program zero. This note argues that while speeding-up the investment timing, this subsidy-tax program also lowers the value of the firm and therefore will be rejected by it.

  3. 26 CFR 1.72-6 - Investment in the contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment in the contract. 1.72-6 Section 1.72... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72-6 Investment in the contract. (a) General rule. (1) For the purpose of computing the “investment in the contract”, it is first...

  4. 5 CFR 2634.302 - Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... has an ownership interest in a fast-food restaurant, from which she receives $10,000 in annual income... or joint investment income of the filer with the filer's spouse and/or dependent children, the...

  5. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings-to-investment ratio. 436.21 Section 436.21 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...

  6. Federal Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…

  7. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...... of underinvestment and, hence, induces cutting down investment. On the other hand, severely constrained firms benefit more by getting closer to the first-best investment implying higher investment....

  8. 7 CFR 1280.213 - Investment of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment of funds. 1280.213 Section 1280.213... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses § 1280.213 Investment of funds. The... the United States. Income from any such investment may be used for any purpose for which the invested...

  9. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    .... foreign direct investment is concentrated in high-income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years...

  10. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2007-01-01

    .... foreign direct investment is concentrated in high income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years...

  11. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2006-01-01

    .... foreign direct investment is concentrated in high income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years...

  12. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  13. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  14. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-2 - Currently distributable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Currently distributable income. 1.662(a)-2... distributable net income (as defined in section 643(a) but computed without taking into account the payment... amount which bears the same ratio to distributable net income (as so computed) as the amount of income...

  15. Aquaponics Cultivation of Ipome Aquatica and the Peasant Financial Income of Cirata Cistern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Gandhy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research paper analyzes the financial income of a poor community living around the Cirata cistern, in West Java, Indonesia, before and after the community employed the aquaponics strategy of planting ipomoea aquatica. Data are gathered from observation, interviews and statistical analysis of the incomes of community members. In addition, analysis of the data applies Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Payback Period (PP. The findings clearly demonstrate an increased annual income of more than 1.117.296 rupiah among those community members using the aquaponics strategy. Once the community has adjusted to professionally implementing this aquaponics strategy, it would be practically useful to invite investors to invest their capital to develop this area.   Keywords: aquaponics, financial income, West Java, internal rate of return, payback period

  16. 77 FR 34095 - Federated Investment Management Company and Federated ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Federated Investment Management Company and Federated ETF Trust; Notice of Application June 1...: Federated Investment Management Company (``Federated'') and Federated ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of... offer one actively- managed investment series: Federated Active Ultrashort Fixed Income ETF (the...

  17. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubínyi, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  18. 26 CFR 1.856-1 - Definition of real estate investment trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of real estate investment trust. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-1 Definition of real estate investment trust. (a) In general. The term “real estate investment trust” means a corporation, trust, or...

  19. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not such trust...

  20. 26 CFR 1.857-8 - Records to be kept by a real estate investment trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records to be kept by a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-8 Records to be kept by a real estate investment trust. (a) In general. Under section 857(a)(2) a real estate investment...

  1. 26 CFR 1.852-10 - Distributions in redemption of interests in unit investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment trusts. 1.852-10 Section 1.852-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-10 Distributions in redemption of interests in unit investment trusts. (a) In...

  2. 26 CFR 1.852-4 - Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-4 Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. (a... investment trusts. In any case where a notice is mailed pursuant to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph by a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.852-2 - Method of taxation of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-2 Method of taxation of regulated investment companies. (a) Imposition of normal tax and... redemption of interests in unit investment trusts which, for purposes of the deduction for dividends paid...

  4. 26 CFR 1.852-1 - Taxation of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of regulated investment companies. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-1 Taxation of regulated investment companies. (a) Requirements applicable thereto—(1) In general...

  5. 76 FR 32882 - New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... dollars invested in qualified active low-income community businesses were invested in non-real estate...) re-invest those proceeds into other qualified low-income community investments during the seven-year... equipment loans to non-real estate businesses because these loans are ordinarily amortizing loans with a...

  6. The Resilience of Dependency Effects in Explaining Income Inequality in the Global Economy: A Cross National Analysis, 1975-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary era is one of both accelerated economic globalization and rising inequality. There is an increasing awareness among both academic scholars and development professionals that globalization puts certain populations at risk. However, there has been inadequate theoretical analysis and a lack of up to date empirical studies that explain just how contemporary globalization a?ects inequality and the well being of individuals. This study explores the conditions under which TNC penetration and other globalization processes in?uence change in domestic income distribution. Its aim is to investigate whether theoretical models that have proven successful in explaining di?erences in income inequality cross-sectionally also allow for an understanding of the dynamics of income distribution during the 1980s and early 1990s, an era characterized by a dramatic acceleration of globalization. We present an analysis of change in national income distribution using linear regression models with a panel design. This study suggests that dependence on foreign investment as a development strategy, especially compared to domestic and human capital investment, may be misguided for nations concerned with equality. Net of other factors, foreign investment dependence bene?ts the elite segments of the income-earning population over the poorer eighty percent. Our analysis provides evidence of a shift in capital/labor relations brought about by globalization that has signi? cantly contributed to the rise in income inequality seen throughout the world.

  7. Cost Estimates and Investment Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Kjetil; Emhjellen Magne; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-08-01

    When evaluating new investment projects, oil companies traditionally use the discounted cashflow method. This method requires expected cashflows in the numerator and a risk adjusted required rate of return in the denominator in order to calculate net present value. The capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a project is one of the major cashflows used to calculate net present value. Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. In the oil industry and many other industries, it is common practice to report a CAPEX that is the estimated 50/50 (median) CAPEX instead of the estimated expected (expected value) CAPEX. In this article we demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX, when the cost distributions are asymmetric, causes project valuation errors and therefore may lead to wrong investment decisions with acceptance of projects that have negative net present values. (author)

  8. Housing Market and Housing Investment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    UNAYAMA Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explain why housing investment in Japan stagnated in the 2000s. Housing investment consists of two parts: replacement and a net increase of housing stock, which can be further decomposed into changes in the number of households and the housing utilization rate. Using the Housing and Land Survey, it is shown that all of the following factors caused the decrease in housing investment: house replacement decreased due to an increasing share of non-wooden houses and collective h...

  9. Human Capital Investment: Measuring Returns to Education

    OpenAIRE

    Potelienė, Simona; Tamašauskienė, Zita

    2013-01-01

    According to human capital theory, knowledge and skills incorporated in the individual can be referred to as capital and all activities with which the present input makes future yields while the productivity of the individual grows can be interpreted as an investment. This research considers higher education as an investment decision and presents empirical evidence on the private return on this investment. We calculate the private net present value of higher education (i.e. human capital) and...

  10. The financial management as a tool for development investment decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damnjanović Radovan M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment decisions, which influence the investment of financial resources to achieve economic, non-economic, or of both objectives and effects in the future, the central subject of financial management. Using the methods of financial mathematics can predict the effects of the investment which is from the standpoint of efficiency ratings are expressed in the form of cash future income. Periods, the investments and the use of investment, may be the same or different lengths. From an economic standpoint it is desirable that the period of the investment is short, and the economic effects of the eyelids investments as long as possible. For an investment is said to be cost-effective or cost-effective if the current value of the investment is less than the present value of income from investments.

  11. Yield and net income of unripe corn in function of the hilling dates / Produção e renda líquida de milho verde em função da época de amontoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovany Doffinger Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agromen 2029 unripe corn was studied without and with hilling on 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 and 14-28-42 days after sowing (DAS. Those eight treatments were arranged in a randomized experimental block design, with four replications. The highest heights of plant (176.9 cm and of first ear (83.9 cm were from those with no hilling (SA and the smallest ones (162.4 and 72.9 cm, respectively were from those with hilling on 28 DAS. The greatest yield of ears (56,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (47,000 ears ha-1. The greatest yield of non commercial ears (15,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (7,000 ears ha-1. Yield of commercial ears varied from 38,000 ears ha-1, on 28 DAS treatment to 41,000 ears ha-1, on 14, 42, 28-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments. Costs of yield varied from R$ 1,315.90 ha-1, in SA treatment, to R$ 1,774.17 ha-1, with hilling on 14-28-42 DAS. The greatest net income was R$ 2,684.10 ha-1 with no hilling and the smallest was R$ 2,166.81 ha-1 with hilling on 14-42 DAS. In the conditions that the experiment was carried out it was concluded that the cultivation with no hilling is recommended because it showed the smallest yield cost and the greatest net income.Foi estudado o milho-verde Agromen 2029, sem amontoa e com amontoa aos 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 e 14-28-42 dias após a semeadura-DAS. Os oito tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As maiores alturas da planta (176,9 cm e da primeira espiga (83,9 cm foram encontradas no tratamento sem amontoa e as menores (162,4 e 72,9 cm, respectivamente no tratamento com amontoa aos 28 DAS. A maior produção total de espigas (56.000 espigas ha-1 foi obtida no tratamento 14-28-42 DAS e a menor foi no sem amontoa (47.000 espigas ha-1. A maior produção de espigas não comerciais (15.000 espigas ha-1

  12. VALUATION AND INVESTMENT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment professionals, particularly financial analysts or security analysts evaluate securities and try to determine characteristics of securities and to identify mispriced securities. For that purpose they use different models to estimate the intrinsic value of the common stocks. Traditional valuation models based on the present value of future cash flows are affected by estimated growth rate of the variable used and by the investor’s required rate of return. These models can be used for valuing fixed income securities, such as bonds and preferred stocks. However, in valuing companies with significant growth opportunities they have to expand traditional analysis with option valuation.

  13. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-7 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.1402(a)-7...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-7 Net operating loss deduction. The deduction provided by section 172, relating to net operating losses sustained in years other...

  14. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  15. 32 CFR 37.1335 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 37.1335 Section 37.1335 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1335 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as a...

  16. Commercial mortgages: An underutilized channel for scaling energy efficiency investments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul; Wallace, Nancy; Alschuler, Elena; Kolstad, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Commercial mortgages currently do not fully account for energy factors in underwriting and valuation, particularly as it relates to the impact of energy costs and volatility on an owner’s net operating income. As a consequence, energy efficiency is not properly valued and energy risks are not properly assessed and mitigated. Commercial mortgages are a large lever and could be a significant channel for scaling energy efficiency investments. A pilot analysis of loans with different mortgage contract structures and locations showed that when energy cost volatility was included in mortgage valuation, a 20% reduction in energy use resulted in a 1.3% average increase in mortgage value. This suggests that the explicit inclusion of energy use and volatility in mortgage valuation can send a strong price signal that financially rewards and values energy efficiency in commercial properties. This paper presents findings from a scoping study addressing energy factors in commercial mortgages. First, we present a review of current practices as it relates to incorporating energy factors into commercial mortgage underwriting and valuation. Next, we detail the impacts of energy factors on property values, net operating income and mortgage valuation. Building operational practices alone can result in energy use variations from -17% to 87%. Finally, we present a set of proposed interventions to properly address energy factors in commercial mortgages, based on extensive discussions with stakeholders including mortgage originators, underwriters, building owners and regulators.

  17. UBIT and Investing in a Real Estate Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marc P.

    2000-01-01

    Offers guidelines to college business officers concerning investments in real estate and the unrelated business income tax (UBIT), which requires tax-exempt organizations to pay federal and state taxes on income earned from a trade or business unrelated to their tax-exempt purpose. Considers real estate investment funds, exposure to UBIT, avoiding…

  18. 26 CFR 1.1502-32 - Investment adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment adjustments. 1.1502-32 Section 1.1502-32 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules § 1.1502-32 Investment...

  19. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  20. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  1. Market evaluation and investment planning in natural gas industry in Brazil: development of the net distribution pipeline; Avaliacao de mercado e planejamento de investimentos na industria de gas natural no Brasil: perspectivas de crescimento da malha de gasodutos de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro L.; Pamplona, Edson O. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes to develop a real options model to decision-making investments in flexible technologies. As a result, finding a closed-form solution, derived from the partial differential equation of the value of flexibility provided by alternative fuels. However, you can present and analysis the results of a practical application using the method to solve real options problems known as binomial model. Initially presents a brief explanation on the method of discounted cash flow, its failures and changes to the real options analysis. In the sequence chart an overview of the natural gas industry on Brazil, emphasizing the need for consistent investments evaluations in the sector. The next section shows the proposed development of mathematical model for assessing the flexibility to choose, obtained by the exchange of fuel for transport of gas pipeline distribution of natural gas. The model takes as the case scenario where the flexible pipeline can carry both natural gas and hydrogen, and the evaluation of the option of exchanging input gives more value to the investment opportunity, and consider the optimum conditions where the option to be exercised. Keywords: Decision Making, Real Options; Natural Gas, Flexible Technology. (author)

  2. 17 CFR 256.411.5 - Investment tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment tax credit. 256.411... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.411.5 Investment tax credit. (a) This account shall be debited with the amounts of investment tax credits related to service company property...

  3. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  4. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  5. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  6. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  7. 26 CFR 1.172-2 - Net operating loss in case of a corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... real estate investment trusts. For taxable years ending after October 4, 1976, the net operating loss of a qualified real estate investment trust (as defined in § 1.172-10(b)) is computed by taking into... allowed in computing the net operating loss of a qualified real estate investment trust. ...

  8. FARM MACHINERY INVESTMENT AND THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, Michael; Hrubovcak, James; Durst, Ron L.; Conway, Roger K.

    1992-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 significantly changed incentives for investing. This analysis specifically examines how changes in marginal tax rates, depreciation schedules, and the investment tax credit altered the cost of capital and net investment in agriculture. A stochastic coefficients econometric methodology is used to estimate an investment function which is then used to simulate the effects of tax reform. Estimates indicated that relative to prior law, the Tax Reform Act will reduce the ...

  9. Receitas bruta e líquida parcial e custo de dietas contendo polpa cítrica para suínos abatidos com 130kg de peso Gross and partial net incomes and feeding cost of diets containing citrus pulp for pigs slaughtered with 130kg of weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Watanabe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o custo de inclusão da polpa cítrica em programa de restrição alimentar qualitativa, utilizando dados de desempenho de 36 suínos da linhagem Topigs, dos 83,7±5,1kg aos 129,8±1,9kg de peso, alimentados com dietas contendo porcentagens crescentes (0, 10, 20 e 30% de polpa cítrica. Os animais foram abatidos aos 130kg e dos valores (R$ da carcaça foram descontados o valor de compra dos animais e o custo com alimentação, de acordo com cada tratamento. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 da inclusão da polpa cítrica sobre o custo com ração e receita bruta, porém houve efeito linear negativo (PThe cost of inclusion of citrus pulp was evaluated in a qualitative feed restriction program using performance data of 36 pigs of Topigs lineage (from 83.7±5.1kg to 129.8±1.9kg fed with crescent levels of citrus pulp (0, 10, 20, and 30%. The animals were slaughtered when they reached 130kg. The value paid for animal and its feeding cost were discounted from the carcass value (R$, according to each treatment. No effect (P>0.05 of the inclusion of citrus pulp on ration cost and gross income was observed. A negative linear effect (<0.05 on partial net income with the increasing participation of the citrus pulp in diets was found. The decreasing trend in the partial net income was caused by the reduction on carcass weight of animals fed on crescent levels of citrus pulp. Considering the increase on corn, soybean, and swine prices from June 2005 to May 2006, 12 different sceneries were determined for partial net income analysis. In all situations, linear reductions on partial net income were observed as a function of citrus pulp inclusion, evidencing that the ingredient was not efficient in promoting profits for producers.

  10. 26 CFR 1.854-1 - Limitations applicable to dividends received from regulated investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from regulated investment company. 1.854-1 Section 1.854-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.854-1 Limitations applicable to dividends received from regulated...

  11. 77 FR 55880 - Prudential Short Duration High Yield Fund, Inc. and Prudential Investments LLC; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... outstanding preferred stock that such investment companies may issue. Applicants: Prudential Short Duration... seeks to qualify as a regulated investment company under the Code and that has both common stock and preferred stock outstanding designate the types of income, e.g., investment income and capital gains, in the...

  12. Aggregate Measures of Income and Output in Canada and the United States: Implications for Productivity and Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Ross; Alexander Murray

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to clarify definitions and to produce estimates of the eight aggregate measures of income and product (gross domestic product, gross domestic income, gross national product, gross national income, net domestic product, net domestic income, net national product and net national income) for Canada and the United States over the 1980-2008 period. The article also discusses the implications of the eight measures for productivity and living standards analysis. It...

  13. The Determinant Factors of Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT’s Performance: Evidence from Asian REITs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Edi Azhar Binti Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates the factors that can influence the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT’s performance, paying particular attention to the listed REIT’s in Asian.  Samples of 45 Asian listed REITs are selected from five different countries namely Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore for 5 years basis from 2007 to 2011 with 225 observations. Study used Net Asset value (NAV and Return as the proxy for REITs performance while risk, dividend yield, net income and size to represent the determinants variable. Applying correlations and multiple regression analysis, the results provide evidence on the association between NAV and return with risk, dividend yield, net income and size of REITs. Results of this study are hoped to help the investors and portfolio managers to deepen their understanding of the dependence factors that might influence the performance of REITs in Asian. Keywords: Net asset value (NAV, Real Estate Investment Trust (REITs, Risk and Dividend Yield.

  14. 26 CFR 1.7704-3 - Qualifying income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualifying income. 1.7704-3 Section 1.7704-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7704-3 Qualifying income. (a) Certain investment income—(1...

  15. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  16. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by subsidiary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of...

  17. The Good Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John E; Fresne, Julie A; Youngclaus, James A

    2017-07-01

    The authors reflect on the article in this issue entitled "Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education" by Marcu and colleagues, which makes a compelling case that a medical school education is a good investment, no matter what financing option students use, from federal service programs to federal loans. The lead author of this Commentary shares lessons learned from his own medical school education, which was funded by an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship, and from his current position interacting with medical students across the United States.Regardless of the financing path they choose, all students should understand basic financial concepts and the details of the various pathways that are available to pay for their medical school education, as well as how each could potentially impact their own future and that of their families. One underappreciated aspect of financing a medical school education is that federal repayment scenarios can link loan payments to income, rather than debt levels, which means that all physicians are able to afford their loan payments no matter what specialty they practice, what they are paid, or where they live.Medical education, while expensive, remains the good investment. An MD degree can lead to a lifetime of personal fulfillment and societal contributions. Everyone, with rare exceptions, accepted to a U.S. medical school will be able to finance their medical education via a path that aligns with their personal values and priorities.

  18. INVESTMENT STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODAU CIPRIAN-CRACIUN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is the evolution analysis of net investment in Romania between economic growth and international economic crisis. The analysis captures both the evolution of net investment by structure elements (buildings, outfits, other investments and the structure and evolution of investments by sources of financing. Also there is an analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI share in the total net investment and the impact of the economic crisis on this share. The article aims to identify the main factors for the evolution of investments in Romania before the financial crisis and determine how the financial crisis influenced the structure and volume of investments in the national economy. Most previous studies have focused either on a small part of the investments made in Romania (in most cases the FDI have been analyzed or on the period of economic expansion without capturing the evolution of investment during the economic crisis. Previous research has highlighted especially the FDI influence on macroeconomic indicators of high importance for the economy (unemployment rate, GDP growth rate, etc. with less focus on the factors influencing these investments and the close connection between the economic context (economy status and the volume of these investments. For the analysis of the investment evolution during the mentioned period statistical data was used that captured both the investment evolution trend and the changes occurred by the national economy stepping into recession amid the global financial crisis established. To get an overview of the situation it was considered a time internal that captured both the economic growth and the period after the onset of the economic crisis. Thereby information was obtained on the volume of net investment during 2000-2010, on foreign direct investment in the period 2003-2010 and their share in total net investment and also on the main sources of investment financing during the

  19. A comparison of the educational costs and incomes of physicians and other professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, W B; Wallace, A E; Wallace, M M; Welch, H G

    1994-05-05

    Efforts at physician-payment reform in the United States have focused largely on the relative incomes of primary care physicians and specialists, who more often have procedure-based practices. Comparisons of the incomes of physicians and other professional groups have received less attention. We used standard financial techniques to determine the return on educational investment over a working lifetime for five groups of professionals: primary care physicians, specialist physicians, dentists, attorneys, and graduates of business schools. In current dollars, the difference in the average future hourly income between a given professional and a high-school graduate of the same age, after educational expenses are subtracted (average hours-adjusted net present value of the educational investment) was greatest for specialist physicians and attorneys; dentists and businesspeople had intermediate values; and primary care physicians had the lowest value. The annual yield on the educational investment over a working life (hours-adjusted internal rate of return) was 15.9 percent for primary care physicians, as compared with 29.0 percent for businesspeople, 25.4 percent for attorneys, 20.9 percent for specialist physicians, and 20.7 percent for dentists. A sensitivity analysis showed that primary care physicians did less well in terms of the return on investment than the other groups even when we varied the assumptions in our model widely and that specialist physicians did less well than attorneys working in law firms and dental specialists. Students can expect a poorer financial return on their educational investment when they choose a career in primary care medicine than when they choose a procedure-based medical or surgical specialty, business, the law, or dentistry.

  20. Investments in Human Capital in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina MOISESCU; Madalina Cosmina MANOLE; Cristina Georgiana DASCALEANU

    2012-01-01

    The human capital represents the most important investment made both by state and companies and also individually for the education and development of skills, knowledge, qualifications and capabilities of individuals, in order to obtain various incomes from certain economic activities. Both the expenses made for education and long term benefits influence the value of the investment in education. The analysis performed on the Romanian economy shows that between the educational level and the in...

  1. Much Ado about Nothing? Do Domestic Firms Really Benefit from Foreign Direct Investment?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holger Görg; David Greenaway

    2004-01-01

    Governments the world over offer significant inducements to attract investment, motivated by the expectation of spillover benefits to augment the primary benefits of a boost to national income from new investment...

  2. Investment research and investment advice: real differences?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggi Manuela; Settanni Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the investment research - a service introduced by MIFID - in order to describe the major application problems. In particular, the paper will an- alyse similarities and differences between investment research and investment advice, highlighting the potential problems in practice, and outlining possible solutions from an operational point of view.

  3. Internet access and investment incentives for broadband service providers

    OpenAIRE

    Baranes, Edmond; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a model of the Internet broadband market as a platform in order to show how di¤erent pricing schemes from the so-called "net neutrality " can increase economic e¢ ciency by allowing more investment of access providers and enhancing consumers surplus and social welfare. We show that departing from the "net neutrality", where at rates are used, introducing termination fees can increase incentives to invest for the ISP and enhance social surplus. Keywords : Network neutrality,...

  4. INVESTMENT POTENTIAL OF REGION: THE ESSENCE AND FACTORS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yusupova Liliya Mirgaziyanovna

    2012-01-01

    In this article we propose our view on investment potential of region as the potential of its balanced development that provides normal guaranteed level of economic income for all owners of capital resources...

  5. The more things change: revisiting a comparison of educational costs and incomes of physicians and other professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Amy E

    2002-04-01

    The authors previously compared the 1990 educational costs and incomes of physicians and other professional groups. Since then, there have been dramatic changes in the market for the groups examined. This article reports their update of the previous analysis, using 1997 data. For this update, the authors applied standard financial techniques to expected incomes and educational costs to determine the return on educational investment over the working lifetime for five professional groups: primary care physicians, procedure-based physicians, dentists, attorneys, and graduates of the top 20 business schools. The hours-adjusted net present values of the educational investments for attorneys ($10.73) and procedure-based physicians ($10.40) are considerably higher than those for dentists ($8.90) and businessmen ($8.27); the return for primary care physicians ($5.97) remains much lower than all others. Primary care physicians have an hours-adjusted internal rate of return on their educational investment equal to 16%, compared with 18% for procedure-based medicine, 22% for dentistry, 23% for law, and 26% for business. Although it remains the lowest of all professional groups examined, primary care medicine has made the largest percentage gain in net present value of all groups. Although anticipated changes in physician incomes have occurred, the standing of physicians relative to other professional groups has not changed. Students can still anticipate relatively poorer returns on their educational investment when they choose a career in primary care medicine as compared with careers in procedure-based medicine or surgical specialties, business, law, or dentistry.

  6. Scaling-up treatment of depression and anxiety: a global return on investment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Dan; Sweeny, Kim; Sheehan, Peter; Rasmussen, Bruce; Smit, Filip; Cuijpers, Pim; Saxena, Shekhar

    2016-05-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling disorders, which result not only in an enormous amount of human misery and lost health, but also lost economic output. Here we propose a global investment case for a scaled-up response to the public health and economic burden of depression and anxiety disorders. In this global return on investment analysis, we used the mental health module of the OneHealth tool to calculate treatment costs and health outcomes in 36 countries between 2016 and 2030. We assumed a linear increase in treatment coverage. We factored in a modest improvement of 5% in both the ability to work and productivity at work as a result of treatment, subsequently mapped to the prevailing rates of labour participation and gross domestic product (GDP) per worker in each country. The net present value of investment needed over the period 2016-30 to substantially scale up effective treatment coverage for depression and anxiety disorders is estimated to be US$147 billion. The expected returns to this investment are also substantial. In terms of health impact, scaled-up treatment leads to 43 million extra years of healthy life over the scale-up period. Placing an economic value on these healthy life-years produces a net present value of $310 billion. As well as these intrinsic benefits associated with improved health, scaled-up treatment of common mental disorders also leads to large economic productivity gains (a net present value of $230 billion for scaled-up depression treatment and $169 billion for anxiety disorders). Across country income groups, resulting benefit to cost ratios amount to 2·3-3·0 to 1 when economic benefits only are considered, and 3·3-5·7 to 1 when the value of health returns is also included. Return on investment analysis of the kind reported here can contribute strongly to a balanced investment case for enhanced action to address the large and growing burden of common mental disorders worldwide. Grand

  7. Accounting for the income of non-renewable resources - Four essays on new theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Taoyuan

    2009-01-15

    , 1997, Sections II.C and IV). However, as pointed out by Hicks (1946, p. 174), income as interest on wealth can not serve as an indicator of prudent behavior if the real interest rate is expected to change. An advantage of the new method is that it is still plausible even if real interest rate is expected to change over time. Another advantage is that the new method provides an alternative way to estimate net investments of a sector. This can be applied when information on sectoral capital stocks is not available as it may be difficult to observe, measure, or evaluate the change of capital stocks. This dissertation consists of four essays. In the first essay, Geir Asheim and I propose the theory of sectoral income. In the second essay, I apply this theory to identify and classify the income generated by a non-renewable resource. In particular, sectoral net investments is shown to coincide with the shadow value of the change in capital stocks of the sector in a general framework. Then I illustrate the new theory by estimating sectoral income based on real data of the Norwegian petroleum sector in the third essay. As a first step to take into account real world uncertainty, I study the concept of national income in a stochastic setting in the last essay. (Author)

  8. 76 FR 50631 - Grant of Individual Exemption Involving BlackRock, Inc. and Its Investment Advisory, Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... $5 billion as of the last day of its most recent fiscal year and shareholders' or partners' equity in..., investment adviser, bank, insurance ] company or fiduciary; income tax evasion; any felony involving the...

  9. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  10. 26 CFR 1.858-1 - Dividends paid by a real estate investment trust after close of taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dividends paid by a real estate investment trust..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.858-1 Dividends paid by a real estate investment trust after close of taxable year. (a) General rule...

  11. Investing in European market real property through reits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuscin, A.

    2010-03-01

    For institutional and private investors, investing in real estate represents an attractive form of the consignment of their money. Real estate provides a regular source of income in the form of the rent from or interest on the credit provided. At the same time, real estate is a good investment instrument, because it provides diversified contributions and security against inflation for investors. In their efforts to diversify risk, investors are expressing growing interest in investing in the whole European Union. The success of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) in the U.S. also opened the door for investing in this market for small investors, which is the reason for the development of this type of investment company in the European arena. One problem concerning the development of European real estate investment funds is the unsolved issue of the harmonization of the legislation and regulatory safety measures, which would enable the creation of a common market for new investment products in Europe.

  12. 26 CFR 1.668(b)-3A - Computation of the beneficiary's income and tax for a prior taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of tax that should have been properly paid. (b) Effect of allocation of undistributed net income on items based on amount of income and with respect to a net operating loss, a charitable... income on a net operating loss carryback or carryover, a charitable contributions carryover, or a capital...

  13. 26 CFR 1.857-4 - Tax imposed by reason of the failure to meet certain source-of-income requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1...(b)(5) imposes a tax on a real estate investment trust that is considered, by reason of section 856(c...

  14. Investments in Human Capital in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina MOISESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The human capital represents the most important investment made both by state and companies and also individually for the education and development of skills, knowledge, qualifications and capabilities of individuals, in order to obtain various incomes from certain economic activities. Both the expenses made for education and long term benefits influence the value of the investment in education. The analysis performed on the Romanian economy shows that between the educational level and the income, there is a positive relationship as the one, that numbers are showing with no doubt, between the manpower occupancy and the education period (the amount of investments in human capital. Therefore, the analysis of the Romanian labor market shows that the most affected by unemployment are the individuals with a modest education level while persons with a university degree suffer less from this phenomenon.

  15. ANALYSIS OF INVESTMENT DIVERSIFICATION OF THE PRECIOUS METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Agafonov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the impact of investment portfolio of precious metals on its minimum risk with limited mean income is carried out based on the data from the beginning of 2009 to the July of 2013. Vector and matrix criteria of assessment of the effects of investment diversification at the precious metals market are offered.

  16. Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC Countries? W Mina. Abstract. This paper empirically examines the short and long term FDI impact of Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) countries contracting of bilateral investment treaties and distinguishes it by the income level of the contracting partner.

  17. Parental Care and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    González-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, N.

    2010-01-01

    Parental care is common throughout the animal kingdom and among caring species there is a bewildering variation in how parents care for offspring, as well as in the amount of resources parents invest in care. For instance, there is considerable variation in the relative parental investment by the sexes – in some species females invest more, in others males invest more, and in some investment is more or less equally shared. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain patterns of parenta...

  18. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  19. Real Options Analysis of Electricity Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggedal, Ane Marte

    2012-07-01

    This thesis utilizes real options analysis for evaluating investment opportunities in the electricity sector. It also formally tests how investors in hydropower plants have included uncertainty when considering their investment opportunities. The real options method applies financial options theory to quantify the value of management flexibility and is chosen due to three important characteristics of investments in the electricity sector. First; the investment is completely or partially irreversible, second; the investor can choose when to invest in the facility, and third; there is uncertainty in several factors affecting the cash flows of the investments. Factors of uncertainty include the development of electricity prices, policies, technological advances, and macroeconomics measures.Four papers are included in this thesis. Paper 1, Upgrading hydropower plants with storage: Timing and capacity choice, presents a valuation framework for deciding when to upgrade an existing hydropower plant and which capacity to choose. The second paper, Transmission capacity between Norway and Germany: A real options analysis, sheds light on when two electricity markets, in this case Norway and Germany, should be connected through a sub sea cable. The investor can choose when to invest and the capacity of the cable, and may also choose to invest sequentially. Paper 3, Optimal timing and capacity choice for pumped hydropower storage, investigates when investment in a pumped hydropower plant with storage should be undertaken and what the capacity of the facility should be. Whereas the three first papers investigate investment opportunities, Paper 4, Uncertain climate policy decisions and investment timing: Evidence from small hydropower plants, studies when investors in small hydropower plants chose to invest. The analyses disclose whether the net present value approach or the real options method best describe the investment decisions made by the investors. Viewing investment

  20. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Centineo; Santo Centineo

    2017-01-01

    This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and curre...

  1. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital

  2. Human capital and optimal positive taxation of capital income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear and non-linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heterogenous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also

  3. Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Laitner, S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

  4. Understanding the Effects of Marriage and Divorce on Financial Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanne S.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how changes in marital status affect financial investments and how these effects vary with background risk. We use detailed register-based panel data and difference-in-differences estimatiors to benchmark common unobserved influences on financial investments. Women increase...... the fraction of wealth invested in stocks after marriage and decrease it after divorce, whereas men show the opposite behavior. Households whose joint labor income risk is reduced more by marriage have a higher increase in their exposure to risky assets in marriage. Thus income risk sharing in the household...

  5. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  6. 77 FR 12890 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... to DWS Blue Chip Fund, a series of DWS Investment Trust, based on net asset value. Expenses of $1,772... COMMISSION Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under the Investment Company Act of 1940 February 24, 2012. The following is a notice of applications for deregistration under section 8(f) of the Investment...

  7. 26 CFR 1.857-1 - Taxation of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of real estate investment trusts. 1.857...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-1 Taxation of real estate... revocation or termination of an election, and 857(d), relating to earnings and profits) to a real estate...

  8. 26 CFR 1.38-1 - Investment in certain depreciable property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Investment in certain depreciable property. 1.38-1 Section 1.38-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.38-1 Investment in certain depreciable property. Regulations under...

  9. 26 CFR 1.67-3 - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits. 1.67-3 Section 1.67-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3 Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS BETWEEN FINANCIAL INVESTMENTS SERVICES COMPANIES (1995-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuţa IANCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature there are studies that deal with intermediaries in banking services (especially, mutual funds and pensions, insurance, real estate, etc. Most of them focus on subjects like investor behaviour, ethical issues and market manipulation. In this paper we intend to observe the stages in the evolution of the Financial Investment Services Companies (SSIF between 1995-2016 in relation with the number of transactions, the volume of traded shares, the number of issuing companies as well as the economic and political situation of our country. Moreover, our study shows that the number of SSIF's is little affected by economic crises or declines and is rather influenced by the annual net incomes of the population. Basically, SSIF’s are in constant competition with the rest of the financial institutions, banks being a good example.

  11. HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  12. Investing in Marine Scrubber under Uncertainty with Real Option Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liping; Hansen, Carsten Ørts

    works that examine the economic feasibility of scrubber retrofitting through the net present value rule, this paper applies the Real Option Analysis to find the optimal investment strategies. The proposed decision-making framework addresses the uncertainty and the value of deferral option embedded...... in the scrubber investment. The multiple sources of investment uncertainties are explicitly analyzed and integrated in the modeling by using Rainbow option. The results demonstrate that the value of the scrubber investment has significantly increased for several cases by considering the deferral option...

  13. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  14. Needs, Investments, and Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    What is the state of school infrastructure for primary and secondary education in Paraguay? How much is invested by the government in order to improve school infrastructure, and how have these investments evolved over time? What is the legal framework for such investments and is it appropriate? Given budget constraints, which types of investments are likely to be most needed in order to help improve student learning? Finally, how well targeted to the schools most in need are the infrastructur...

  15. HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan

    2012-01-01

    Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in hu...

  16. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  17. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  18. Impact of cotrimoxazole and insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention on key outcomes among HIV-infected adults in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadani Hassani, Ahmed; Marston, Barbara J

    2015-04-15

    HIV-infected adults are at increased risk of severe malaria and death. Malaria prevention in people living with HIV (PLHIV) consists of several interventions, including cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence. MEDLINE, EmBase, Global Health, CINAHL, SOCA, and African Index Medicus were used to identify articles relevant to the CTX prophylaxis and ITNs interventions from 1995 to July 2014. For each individual study, we assessed the quality of evidence and the impact of the 2 interventions on the outcomes of mortality, morbidity, retention in care, quality of life, and/or prevention of ongoing HIV transmission. For each outcome, we summarized the quality of the overall body of evidence, the expected impact, and costing and cost-effectiveness (CE). The overall quality of evidence regarding malaria-related morbidity was rated as "good" for CTX prophylaxis and "fair" for ITN use; the expected "impact" of these interventions on morbidity was rated "high" and "uncertain," respectively. Three studies that addressed the costing and CE of ITN provision for malaria prevention in PLHIV consisted of 2 full "level 1" and 1 partial "level 2" economic evaluations. CTX prophylaxis is effective in reducing malaria-related morbidity among PLHIV. Limited evidence is available with respect to the impact and the CE of ITN use and/or provision in this population.

  19. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  20. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  1. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  2. 5 CFR 1645.3 - Calculation of total net earnings for each TSP Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each TSP Fund. 1645.3 Section 1645.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD CALCULATION OF SHARE PRICES § 1645.3 Calculation of total net earnings for each TSP Fund. (a) Each business day, net earnings will be calculated separately for each TSP Fund. (b) Net earnings for each fund...

  3. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power... Operating Income § 367.4114 Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. This account must include the amount of those investment tax credit adjustments that relate to service company...

  4. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: International arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fifth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 5 explains how international arbitration works to resolve disputes between foreign investors and host states, and outlines some of the problems associated with its use, from a sustainable development perspective.

  5. Optimal Time to Invest Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongma Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal investment time for energy storage systems (ESSs in a price arbitrage trade application under conditions of uncertainty over future profits. The adoption of ESSs can generate profits from price arbitrage trade, which are uncertain because the future marginal prices of electricity will change depending on supply and demand. In addition, since the investment is optional, an investor can delay adopting an ESS until it becomes profitable, and can decide the optimal time. Thus, when we evaluate this investment, we need to incorporate the investor’s option which is not captured by traditional evaluation methods. In order to incorporate these aspects, we applied real option theory to our proposed model, which provides an optimal investment threshold. Our results concerning the optimal time to invest show that if future profits that are expected to be obtained from arbitrage trade become more uncertain, an investor needs to wait longer to invest. Also, improvement in efficiency of ESSs can reduce the uncertainty of arbitrage profit and, consequently, the reduced uncertainty enables earlier ESS investment, even for the same power capacity. Besides, when a higher rate of profits is expected and ESS costs are higher, an investor needs to wait longer. Also, by comparing a widely used net present value model to our real option model, we show that the net present value method underestimates the value for ESS investment and misleads the investor to make an investment earlier.

  6. Evolutionary model of the personal income distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a qualitative picture of the personal income distribution. Treating an economy as a self-organized system the key idea of the model is that the income distribution contains competitive and non-competitive contributions. The presented model distinguishes between three main income classes. 1. Capital income from private firms is shown to be the result of an evolutionary competition between products. A direct consequence of this competition is Gibrat’s law suggesting a lognormal income distribution for small private firms. Taking into account an additional preferential attachment mechanism for large private firms the income distribution is supplemented by a power law (Pareto) tail. 2. Due to the division of labor a diversified labor market is seen as a non-competitive market. In this case wage income exhibits an exponential distribution. 3. Also included is income from a social insurance system. It can be approximated by a Gaussian peak. A consequence of this theory is that for short time intervals a fixed ratio of total labor (total capital) to net income exists (Cobb-Douglas relation). A comparison with empirical high resolution income data confirms this pattern of the total income distribution. The theory suggests that competition is the ultimate origin of the uneven income distribution.

  7. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...

  8. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  9. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  10. 26 CFR 1.642(d)-1 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.642(d)-1 Section 1.642(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(d)-1 Net operating loss...

  11. 26 CFR 1.702-2 - Net operating loss deduction of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction of partner. 1.702-2 Section 1.702-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-2 Net operating loss deduction of...

  12. Individual and Social optimality of Intergenerational Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Padilla Rosa; Joan Pasqual Rocabert

    2005-01-01

    Conventional evaluation methods, as the net present value, consider any future consumption applying the time preference of present individuals. A more coherent analysis requires distinguishing between time preferences and the preferences about the consumption to be enjoyed by the individuals of future generations. In this paper we use an overlapping generations model with intergenerational altruism for studying optimality conditions of intergenerational investments. This tool allows us to con...

  13. Are Public Investment Efficient in Creating Capital Stock in Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Arestoff, Florence; Hurlin, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In many poor countries, the problem is not that governments do not invest, but that these investments do not create productive capital. So, the cost of public investments does not correspond to the value of the capital stocks. In this paper, we propose an original non parametric approach to evaluate the efficiency function that links variations (net of depreciation) of stocks to public investments. We consider four sectors (electricity, telecommunications, roads and railways) of two Latin Ame...

  14. Are Public Investment Efficient in Creating Capital Stocks in Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Hurlin; Florence Arestoff

    2010-01-01

    In many poor countries, the problem is not that governments do not invest, but that these investments do not create productive capital. So, the cost of public investments does not correspond to the value of the capital stocks. In this paper, we propose an original non parametric approach to evaluate the efficiency function that links variations (net of depreciation) of stocks to public investments. We consider four sectors (electricity, telecommunications, roads and railways) of two Latin Ame...

  15. Possibility of choosing development investment programs of a production company by applying discounted investment appraisal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić-Vasović Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of development investment programs is one of the most important decisions in industrial production. The paper sets out the possibilities of applying dynamic criteria for investment decision making. It presents a practical numerical example for the value calculation of investment criteria Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return for the reviewed investment project solutions. In this manner it is possible to make an orderly set of alternatives with clear preferences for the most suitable alternative in comparison with other ones. Such rating of project solutions will enable the decision maker to emphasize advantages with more arguments and select the most suitable project solution in accordance with the established criteria, conditions and limitations.

  16. 26 CFR 1.528-10 - Special rules for computation of homeowners association taxable income and tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... X, a homeowners association, pays its manager a salary of $10,000 a year and that it derives gross income other than exempt function income. If 10 percent of the manager's time during the year is devoted... income. (d) Investment credit. A homeowners association is not entitled to an investment credit. (e...

  17. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  18. Can listed property shares be a surrogate for direct property investment behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Douw Boshoff; Chris E Cloete

    2012-01-01

    The listed property sector in South Africa has grown to a size which could be considered to be a good representation of the income producing property market in general. Stock market listed property investment funds offer the opportunity to compare indirect property investment to direct property investment, which could bridge the gap between irrational investment behaviour and intrinsic asset values. This study investigates the relationship between listed property share prices and the property...

  19. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels are not h......We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels...... are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...

  20. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Tsuneishi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating to the net income. The results of the articles showed that distribution of net income has become positively skewed, with the mean dragged to the right by a few high scores. This means that the median is more appropriate than the mean as a measure of central tendency of net income. Factors relating to net income of private dental clinics have changed: private dental clinics that were opened after 1989 (new and had dental hygienists, who may conduct dental maintenance, had high net income, suggesting that they are well-managed or having a different type of patient mix in recent years. These analyses provide important and useful information for not only better management of private dental clinics but also policy-making in dental health care.

  1. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-6 - Income of foreign trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of foreign trust. 1.643(a)-6 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(a)-6 Income of foreign trust. (a) Distributable net income of a foreign trust. In the case of a foreign trust (see section 7701(a)(31)), the...

  2. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

  3. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

  4. Sustainable Investment. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-08-15

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.

  5. Determinants of Discretionary Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have focused on discretionary investments such as research and development (R&D and advertisement as value-creating activities. This empirical research article examines the determinants of the discretionary investment policy of food sector firms in India. The study aims to analyze the impact of financial policies and firm characteristics on the discretionary investment strategy of the food industry firms. The article uses the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM to understand the drivers of discretionary investment policy of food sector firms. The study finds that investment policy of firms is a major determinant of profitability of food sector firms. Higher investments in capital expenditures and working capital result in higher profitability. Management efficiency significantly influences firm profitability. The results suggest that riskier firms in food sector might focus on R&D investments as a strategy to generate more cash flows. Size of firm is negatively related to R&D intensity. Smaller firms in food sector tend to invest more in R&D. The study does not provide evidence to suggest that profitable firms invest more in R&D activities.

  6. 47 CFR 32.4370 - Other jurisdictional liabilities and deferred credits-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by appropriate subsidiary records... credits-net. 32.4370 Section 32.4370 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4370 Other jurisdictional liabilities and deferred credits—net. This account...

  7. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with an universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-1 - Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...

  9. The Impact of Agricultural Research on Poverty and Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    credit and thus cannot carry out productive investments, which finally reduces the long-term growth rate. Secondly, demographic literature shows that unequal distribution of income may generate a rise in the fertility rate and discourage investment in human capital among the poor and less educated households, and this in ...

  10. FDI, Human Capital and Income Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This study examines income convergence in regional GDP per capita for a sample of 269 regions within the European Union (EU) between 2003 and 2010. We use an endogenous broad capital model based on foreign direct investment (FDI) induced agglomeration economies and human capital. By applying...... within Central and East European countries (CEECs), where we find indications of a poverty trap. In contrast to FDI, regional human capital seems to be associated with higher income levels. However, we identify a positive interaction of FDI and human capital in their relation with income growth dynamics....

  11. Stability in Bank Income through Fee-based Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Uppal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to study the trends in non-interest income which is a vital source of stability in bank income. For this, the study takes some parameters like interest and non-interest income as a percentage to total income, share of non-interest income components like exchange & brokerage, sale in investment and exchange transaction. On the basis of these parameters the study concludes that interest income is continuously declining due to deregulation in interest rates and non-interest income is rising. Among the non-interest income components, commodity exchange & brokerage witnessed a large share while exchange transaction witnessed a meager part. The paper also gives some ways and means to bring stability in the total income.

  12. THE COST OF DIRECT TAXATION ON INVESTMENT IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Leitão Paes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper analyzed the impact of taxation on the investment in Brazil, focusing on the taxation of corporate income. Following the literature, it was used an economic model to calculate two indicators of effective tax rates - Effective Marginal Tax Rate (EMTR and Effective Average Tax Rate (EATR. The EMTR measures the increase of the cost of capital due to corporate income tax. The EATR represents a measure of the average tax rate levied on an investment that has a pre-defined economic profit. The results suggest Brazil may face some difficulties to attract foreign investment. The country presents high rates for EATR and EMTR, higher than the average of the rich countries and well above the figures of development countries like Chile, Mexico, South Africa, Russia and China, potential competitors in attracting investments.

  13. Investment characteristics, stock characteristics and portfolio diversification of finance professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariqul Islam Khan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates if Malaysian finance professionals' investment characteristics and stock characteristics' preferences affect their portfolio diversification, and whether the effects of these predictors vary across professionals' gender, income and experience. Employing a survey and ordinal regression models, the findings demonstrate that investment characteristics such as active trading, usage of internet and telephone, and saving for retirement objective are likely to improve diversification, whereas diversification worsens with the spending less time on researching investment. With respect to stock's characteristics, trading volume and return on asset are related to better diversification, whereas profit margin and return on equity are related to least diversification. The predictors are found to vary across professionals' gender, income and experience. The results suggest that finance professionals need to consider spending more time on researching investment and stock's characteristics in portfolio composition.

  14. Investment in Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Operating a financial investment company in an unstable economy is not easy. But the right training at Vanguard ensures satisfied customers. The company made an investment of its own in learning and development that paid off big in 2009. The learning offerings, both innovative and efficient, keep its workers updated on strategies that bring…

  15. Missouri airport investment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The studys purpose is to provide MoDOT with insight to the potential ROI for airport : investments in terms of economic development. To do so, this study addresses two central : objectives: first, an approach to evaluate airport investments; and s...

  16. The Investment Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Successful investing for long-term funds requires a strategic plan. This is true despite--indeed, because of--the fact that the future is unknowable. The plan must be specific, embodying in concrete terms the best thinking of the board of trustees about the investment pool, its goals and purposes; but it also needs to be sufficiently flexible to…

  17. Investing in Preschool Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greg J. Duncan; Katherine Magnuson

    2013-01-01

    ... capital investment in young children, particu- greatest potential value is as a human capital investment in young children, particularly children from economically disadvantaged families (Heckman 2006). After all, larly children from economically disadvantaged families (Heckman 2006). After all, both human and animal studies highlight the critical...

  18. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...

  19. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  20. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  2. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  3. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  4. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  5. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  6. The Effect of Corporate Taxes on Investment and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Ganser, Tim; McLiesh, Caralee; Ramalho, Rita; Shleifer, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    We present new data on effective corporate income tax rates in 85 countries in 2004. The data come from a survey, conducted jointly with PricewaterhouseCoopers, of all taxes imposed on "the same" standardized mid-size domestic firm. In a cross-section of countries, our estimates of the effective corporate tax rate have a large adverse impact on aggregate investment, FDI, and entrepreneurial activity. Corporate tax rates are correlated with investment in manufacturing but not services, as well...

  7. Human capital development and parental investment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Attanasio, Orazio P.; Meghir, Costas; Nix, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate production functions for cognition and health throughout four stages of childhood from 5-15 years of age using two cohorts of children drawn from the Young Lives Survey for India. The inputs into the production function include parental background, prior child cognition and health and child investments. We allow investments to be endogenous and they depend on local prices and household income, as well as on the exogenous determinants of cognition and health. We find ...

  8. Self-Regulation and the Income-Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Rosenbaum, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The pervasive income-related achievement gap among children has been partially explained by parental investments. Wealthier parents provide more cognitively enriched environments (e.g., books, informal learning opportunities such as music lessons) and converse more with their children relative to low-income parents. However parental investment…

  9. 75 FR 31820 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Fund, a series of AIM Investment Securities Funds, based on net asset value. Expenses of $371,600... COMMISSION Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940... Investment Company Act of 1940 for the month of May, 2010. A copy of each application may be obtained via the...

  10. 76 FR 17971 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Fundamental Value Fund Summary: Each applicant seeks an order declaring that it has ceased to be an investment... Investment Funds, based on net asset value. Expenses of approximately $183,371, $191,468, $410,968, $186,821... Investment Advisors Inc., 522 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10036. ] Morgan Stanley Special Value Fund ; Morgan...

  11. 75 FR 72848 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... series of RS Investment Trust, based on net asset value. Expenses of $546,124 incurred in connection with... COMMISSION Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940... Investment Company Act of 1940 for the month of November 2010. A copy of each application may be obtained via...

  12. 75 FR 17179 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... corresponding series of Dreyfus Investment Grade Funds, Inc., based on net asset value. Expenses of $84,052 and... COMMISSION Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940... Investment Company Act of 1940 for the month of March, 2010. A copy of each application may be obtained via...

  13. 76 FR 32245 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... AIM Investment Securities Funds, based on net asset value. Expenses of approximately $297,718 incurred... Floor, New York, NY 10116. Blue Chip Value Fund, Inc. Summary: Applicant, a closed-end investment... COMMISSION Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940...

  14. 75 FR 5812 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... net asset value. BlackRock Broad Investment Grade 2009 Term Trust Inc. paid expenses of approximately... COMMISSION Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940... Investment Company Act of 1940 for the month of January, 2010. A copy of each application may be obtained via...

  15. 77 FR 5584 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... investment company. On November 4, 2011, applicant transferred its assets to Schooner Global Absolute Return... Growth Stock Summary: Applicant seeks an order declaring that it has ceased to be an investment company... Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-8010. ABT Utility Income Fund Inc. ABT Growth and Income Trust Summary...

  16. The Mutual Investments in Romania - Current Developments and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund industry in Romania has undergone significant growth in recent years in the number of investors and the net assets managed, but still very small compared to other European countries. Capital market development in Romania, the emergence of new investment instruments provides a greater variety of mutual funds investments. Managers decide on the structure of the portfolio by selecting categories of assets in accordance with the rules set out in the Prospectus and according to the degree of risk. In this paper we propose to realize an analysis of mutual investments system in Romania, the progress and their efficiency.

  17. Adam Smith on Capital and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Ormazabal Sánchez, Kepa Mirena

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I critically analyze Smith's thesis in book I, chapter 6 of the "Wealth of Nations" that the replacement of the capital goods consumed in production becomes fully income. I argue that Smith’s argument is defective and does not imply this, and that, once it is properly corrected, it implies that the full value of commodities does not become income; in other words: that GNP is not equal to aggregate income. On this basis, I proceed to analyze Smith's definitions of gross and net i...

  18. Investment Lending as a Method Of Investment Projects Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Urvantseva

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the genesis consideration of "investment loan" definition. The author provides comparative characteristics of the main forms of investment projects financing involving credit institution. A generalized definition of the project financing and investment lending essence are suggested.

  19. Pension fund regulation: Unintended consequences of foreign investment restrictions in an emerging market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coert Frederik Erasmus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retirement savings allow investors to earn income after retirement by saving while being part of the workforce. Retirement savings comprise the largest portion of retirement savings and should be safeguarded by effective regulation. To safeguard retirement savings, exposure to foreign asset investments is limited. However, in an emerging economy, limiting foreign asset investments, especially investment in developed markets, could hamper the potential investment returns due to the translation risk. To assess the effect of translation risk, a preservation provident fund was used in the present study to determine whether the returns of this preservation provident fund would be adversely affected by investment allocation regulation. The findings indicated how the translation effect affected the preservation provident fund, illustrating the adverse unintended consequences of investment regulation in emerging market economies. Consequently, regulators should reconsider the maximum allowed foreign asset investment in pension fund regulations to enhance investment returns from foreign asset investments

  20. The relationship between human resource investments and organizational performance: a firm-level examination of equilibrium theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Mahesh; Krause, Nicole; Norton, Jacqueline; Burns, Gary N

    2008-07-01

    It is commonly believed that human resource investments can yield positive performance-related outcomes for organizations. Utilizing the theory of organizational equilibrium (H. A. Simon, D. W. Smithburg, & V. A. Thompson, 1950; J. G. March & H. A. Simon, 1958), the authors proposed that organizational inducements in the form of competitive pay will lead to 2 firm-level performance outcomes--labor productivity and customer satisfaction--and that financially successful organizations would be more likely to provide these inducements to their employees. To test their hypotheses, the authors gathered employee-survey and objective performance data from a sample of 126 large publicly traded U.S. organizations over a period of 3 years. Results indicated that (a) firm-level financial performance (net income) predicted employees' shared perceptions of competitive pay, (b) shared pay perceptions predicted future labor productivity, and (c) the relationship between shared pay perceptions and customer satisfaction was fully mediated by employee morale.

  1. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  2. 75 FR 42177 - Federated Enhanced Treasury Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... preferred stock that such investment companies may issue. Applicants: Federated Enhanced Treasury Income... Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from section 19(b) of the Act and rule 19b-1 under... registered closed-end management investment companies to make periodic distributions of long-term capital...

  3. The Performance of Shariah Real Estate Investment Trust and Conventional Real Estate Investment Trust in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Edi Azhar Binti Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performances of two Real Estate Investment Trust (REITs) structure in Malaysian capital market by comparing the Dividend Yield (DY), Distribution per Unit (DU), Net asset Value (NAV), and Earning per Unit (EU) of shariah REITSs (iREITs) and conventional REITSs (cREITs) from Malaysia perspective. The secondary data are retrieved from Bloomberg's Database for 13 listed REITs in the Bursa Malaysia main board for a five-year period from 2009 to 2013 with yearly observation...

  4. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  5. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  6. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  7. Socially responsible investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Socially responsible investing, as an investment strategy which seeks to consider both the increase of an investment's financial returns and the achievement of certain social goals, today is a global phenomenon and one of the strongest trends in socially responsible business. Its ultimate result is that shareholders and investors have the discretionary power to force companies to become more attentive and dedicated to the treatment of social, environmental and ethical problems and principles, thereby realizing their potential to change not only a particular industry, but the entire economy as well.

  8. INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Anwer, Muhammad Sarfraz; Sampath, Rajan K.

    1999-01-01

    We used unit root and cointegration techniques to determine the long run relationship between GDP and investment for 90 countries using data from World Bank for the period 1960-1992. In the first step of our analysis we found GDP and investment integrated of different orders for 33 countries. Second step of our analysis shows no cointegration between GDP and investment for 25 countries and cointegration for 25 countries with both variables of order I(1). The other 7 countries with both variab...

  9. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: the regulatory taking doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the third of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 3 introduces one of the most controversial legal doctrines of investment law – 'regulatory taking' – and sets out its implications for sustainable development.

  10. FACTORS OF DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENTS INVOLVEMENT INTO RUSSIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Nesterova

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The factors of direct foreign investments involvement into Russian regions are analyzed, and the classification of groups of factors forming regional comparable advantages in the process of direct foreign investments involvement is worked out in the article: economical indicators, the level of physical infrastructure development, the level of regional institutional development, regional economic policy, regional openness for the external economic relations, geographical peculiarities of the region. Ranging of factors of direct foreign investments involvement is conducted on the base of econometrical research, the recommendations for working out of economic policy on the foreign capital income to the Russian economy stimulation are given in the article.

  11. Financial Investing Made for Women: The Economic and Psychological Reasons Why Women Invest Differently Than Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Reece

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial Investing is becoming not only a way to plan for a future source of retirement, but also a method to control a personal financial situation without having to rely on government aid or family member support to survive during the elderly years. Today, individuals cannot depend on social security being available in the future for financial support. It is especially vital for women to become more interested in making long-term investments that will provide a secure and effective approach to money management and financial planning. However, as various studies have concluded, women are less interested than men in managing their finances due to various economic and psychological reasons related to risk aversion, sociopolitical and biological factors, and income. This study reviews previous research findings related to the relationship between women and investments, as well as several economic and psychological reasons behind the gender gap on financial investing are presented. Surveys were used to identify the main reasons for women’s tendency to rely less on financial investments. It was found that women who had some source of financial investment showed confidence in the stock market, as well as in their financial decisions. These results contradict some of the findings shown in previous research.

  12. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Bardi, Ugo; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy fl...

  13. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  14. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  15. Socially responsible investment engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessling, T.; Buijter, Bas; Freeman, R.E.; Kujala, J.; Sachs, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores engagement in socially responsible investment (SRI) processes. More specifically, it researches the impact of shareholder salience on the success of engagement activities. The research question asks: What is the relationship between shareholder salience and engagement effort

  16. Sustainable investment: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns

  17. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results: This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated...... with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged...

  18. 47 CFR 32.7100 - Other operating income and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other operating income and expenses. 32.7100....7100 Other operating income and expenses. This account shall be used to record the results of... net gain or loss. This account shall include the following: (a) Profits realized from custom work...

  19. Dutch social housing sector reforms : Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income

  20. Investment and Technology Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mushtaq

    2007-01-01

    This United Nations Policy Note on Investment and Technology provides practical guidance on how to operationalize alternative equitable and employment-generating investment and technology policies in National Development Strategies. This Policy Note has been developed in cooperation with UN agencies, and has been officially reviewed by distinguished academics/ development specialists such as Jose Antonio Ocampo, Jomo K.S. and Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz.

  1. Finding Lightweight Opportunities for Parallelism in .NET C#

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bos

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractAdding parallelism to .NET C# software programs has become a great option that can be used to enable performance. But how can we find out if the existing large complex software programs are even suitable for parallelism, other than investing a lot of time by checking it by hand? By

  2. Maximising net returns to fertiliser use by financially constrained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Fertiliser Optimisation Tool was developed for Uganda to maximise net returns to fertiliser use for finance-limited crop management in consideration of the area of each crop to be planted, fertiliser costs, expected grain value, and money available for investment. The tool optimises across the 15 response functions to ...

  3. Determinants of net return among fish marketers in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ordinary least squares multiple regression technique was also used to estimate the determinants of net returns of the marketers. The result showed that fish marketing in the area is profitable and has a return on investment of N1.17. Educational level and marketing experience positively and significantly influenced the ...

  4. Maximising net returns to fertiliser use by financially constrained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Financial constraints usually limit fertiliser use by smallholder farmers and it is important that they maximise net returns on their investment. Fifteen crop-nutrient response functions, including six crops, were derived from results of 84 trials conducted in Uganda. The benefit:cost ratio (BC) for typical fertiliser use costs and ...

  5. Estimating net present value variability for deterministic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groenendaal, W.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    For decision makers the variability in the net present value (NPV) of an investment project is an indication of the project's risk. So-called risk analysis is one way to estimate this variability. However, risk analysis requires knowledge about the stochastic character of the inputs. For large,

  6. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline. PMID:24499745

  7. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  8. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  9. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  10. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  11. 76 FR 37175 - FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... net capital cost of factory installed hybrid electric propulsion systems and any equipment related to... investment as well as the existing system, subsystem, facility, vehicle, or component that the investment... Transit Energy Management (energy storage, regenerative braking, solar propulsion engine systems, power...

  12. Costs and benefits of individuals conceived after IVF: a net tax evaluation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, L. M.; Connolly, M.; Huisman, B.; Postma, M. J.; Hompes, P. G. A.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the lifetime future net tax revenues from individuals conceived after IVF relative to those naturally conceived. A model based on the method of generational accounting was developed to evaluate investments in IVF. Calculations were based on average investments paid and received

  13. Costs and benefits of individuals conceived after IVF : a net tax evaluation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, L. M.; Connolly, M.; Huisman, B.; Postma, M. J.; Hompes, P. G. A.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.

    This study evaluated the lifetime future net tax revenues from individuals conceived after IVF relative to those naturally conceived. A model based on the method of generational accounting was developed to evaluate investments in IVF. Calculations were based on average investments paid and received

  14. The Economics of an Investment in Kaizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuwan, Danupun

    2010-10-01

    Kaizen has been widely accepted as a continuous process improvement with the gradualist approach. This paper presents the research carried out to explore the pattern of an investment in Kaizen to enhance overall profit. System dynamics-based simulation has been employed with an optimization technique, a Steepest Ascent approach, to improve experimental variables e.g. the amount of spending on prevention and appraisal activities, the time and the amount to reduce the investment which results in maximum Net Present Value (NPV) of profit. The simulation model in this study is based on a Thai automobile manufacturer as a case study company. The result suggests that the investment in Kaizen should spend on activities to eliminate and detect all defects in the early phase and then reduce economically when the process is under controlled. It can be named as the `Hybrid quality improvement', which was proved in this study that it provides greater overall profit than the Stepwise Kaizen and the constant spending. This study also presents the behavior of quality costs and profit against time scale along the different patterns of the investment in Kaizen.

  15. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  16. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  17. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  18. 75 FR 15465 - RMR Real Estate Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... COMMISSION RMR Real Estate Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application March 23, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and.... APPLICANTS: RMR Real Estate Income Fund and RMR Advisors, Inc. FILING DATES: December 31, 2003, September 23.... Applicants' Representations 1. RMR Real Estate Income Fund (``RIF'') is a closed-end management investment...

  19. A Critical Review of the Literature on Firm-Level Theories on Ship Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Celik Girgin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The maritime industry is one of those rare industries that are both highly international integrated to international trade and also highly capital intensive dependent on substantial investment amount. In the literature, ship investments have not been widely examined through the firm-level investment theories to explore the link between investment level and asset price valuation. The general trend in the literature of ship investments is to analyse the relationship among the shipping markets (newbuilding, second-hand, freight rate and scrap and their impact on asset price valuation, the timing of investments and market entry and exit conditions. In this paper, we extensively reviewed the literature of firm-level investment theories and ship investments. We showed that the application of firm-level investment theories to the ship investments is confined to the basic investment valuation models, such as Net Present Value and Real Option Analysis. Ship investments need to be examined by firm-level investment theories to define firm/industry value maximization level within the approach of the solid investment theories.

  20. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  1. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  2. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  3. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  4. The Impact of Foreign Investment Restrictions on the Stock Returns of Oil Sands Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Beaulieu; Matthew M. Saunders

    2014-01-01

    On December 7, 2012 the Government of Canada released a policy statement and revised the guidelines for investments by State-Owned Enterprises in the Canadian oil sands. This policy statement was in response to the proposed purchase of Nexen by the Chinese SOE, CNOOC. According to the new guidelines, foreign investors must convince the Minister of Industry that a particular investment is likely to be of net benefit to Canada and those investments by foreign SOEs to acquire controlling interes...

  5. Machinery Investment in Illinois: A Study Examining Existing Investment Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Micheels, Eric T; Katchova, Ani L.; Barry, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to prove some previously held ideas of machinery investment decisions using farm level data from Illinois. Investment decisions are analyzed taking into consideration past investment decisions in the county and on the individual farm. The results show there is a correlation between county level purchases and individual farm purchases and investment levels decrease the following year after an initial investment. These results display how non-traditional drivers for in...

  6. Foreign Direct Investment versus Portfolio Investment : A Global Games Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin Ahmad; Pietro Cova; Rodrigo Harrison

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of investment under uncertainty about fundamentals, using a global games approach. Goldstein & Razin (2003) show that there is an information based trade-off between foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment (PI) which rationalizes some well known stylised facts in the literature - the relative volatility and reversibility of foreign direct investment versus portfolio investment. We extend their result and show that uncertainty about fundamentals does not imp...

  7. Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper empirically examines the short and long term FDI impact of Gulf. Cooperation Countries (GCC) countries contracting of bilateral investment treaties and distinguishes it by the income level of the contracting partner. Using panel data for the period 1984-2002 and adopting a GMM estimation methodology ...

  8. Optimal Regulation of Lumpy Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, G.; Broer, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    When a monopolist has discretion over the timing of infrastructure investments, regulation of post-investment prices interferes with incentivizing socially optimal investment timing. In a model of regulated lumpy investment under uncertainty, we study regulation when the regulator can condition

  9. Comparable investment capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai BOTEZATU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Market economy is characterized at a time, among others, by the existence of two partners, so that one has some money, a certain amount of capital, and one needs money. The first has money and wants to capitalize on them as possible, and the second wants to enter into possession of a capital base which is to put up a new business or develop an existing. We can say that in this context we are facing a certain demand and a supply of capital. Meeting supply and demand of the said capital shall be carried out in an organized framework, namely the capital market. Investors as owners of capital seeking to invest capital so advantageous that they must choose from several investment on the one that best suits his or her interests. In the choice between several investment options investor must thoroughly know the subject of its investment capital, form of revenue will occur when they occur, what time is immobilized the capital and the risks of its investment capital.

  10. Income tax consequences of individuals for income citizens in modern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiran Suvdaa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Mongolia has a policy to improve the standard of living and employment, as well as to increase employment at the macroeconomic level. In today's world, the personal income tax is an instrument of regulation of family and personal consumption, savings, employment, marriage, and population growth, as well as the redistribution of income. Over the last 20 years, the country's membership in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD for creation of a safe environment increase investments and carry out tax reform in order to maintain employment and financial competition. The author considers the practice of income tax in different countries and examines the practice of the personal income tax in Mongolia, identifies problem areas and suggests solutions. Also, there are assessed the objectives of the Government of Mongolia to the changes in the tax on personal income

  11. 26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment conduit or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each of...

  12. The Investment Management of Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostenets Alina V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the theoretical value of bank investment and the investment activities of bank, as well as improving the investment management of bank. The main task under this objective is to characterize the investment activities of bank and to consider in detail its credit and investment portfolio. An analysis of the credit and investment portfolio of 10 domestic banks of Ukraine was carried out. Structure of their credit and investment portfolio was studied in detail. A graphic of the credit and investment portfolio of banks, which were the most active in the investment activities as of 1 January 2015-2017, has been provided. Changes in the credit and investment portfolio that impact the performance of bank have been displayed.

  13. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...... literature, the state variables, namely the physical capital and the biological resource, enter the objective function. Due to the nonlinearities in this model some of the results are in sharp contrast to previous literature....

  14. 17 CFR 210.3-15 - Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Statements § 210.3-15 Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts. (a)(1) The income... real estate investment trust under applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code as amended shall... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special provisions as to real...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1334-1 - Restoration of value of investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Restoration of value of investments. 1.1334-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1334-1 Restoration of value of investments. If... interest in the hands of the taxpayer is restored in value, in whole or in part, by reason of a recovery...

  16. 77 FR 59544 - New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... for CDEs to provide working capital and equipment loans to non-real estate businesses because these...-real estate businesses for working capital and equipment, the proposed regulations modify the... qualified low-income community investment in a non-real estate business to invest certain returns of capital...

  17. Stock prices and business investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2007-01-01

    Is there a link between the stock market and business investment? Empirical evidence indicates that there is. A firm tends to invest more when its stock price increases, and it tends to invest less when the price falls. In “Stock Prices and Business Investment,” Yaron Leitner discusses existing research that explains this relationship. One question under consideration is whether the stock market actually improves investment decisions.

  18. 77 FR 20853 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... transferred its assets to Value Line Income and Growth Fund, Inc., based on net asset value. Expenses of $81... distribution to its shareholders, based on net asset value. Expenses of $11,000 incurred in connection with the..., based on net asset value. Expenses of approximately $32,393 incurred in connection with the liquidation...

  19. 76 FR 68520 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Income Fund, based on net asset value. Records listing the expenses incurred in connection with the... net asset value. Records listing the expenses incurred in connection with the reorganization are no... on net asset value. Expenses of $80,330 incurred in connection with the reorganization were paid by...

  20. Social Security income measurement in two surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    As a major source of income for retired persons in the United States, Social Security benefits directly influence economic well-being. That fact underscores the importance of measuring Social Security income accurately in household surveys. Using Social Security Administration (SSA) records, we examine Social Security income as reported in two Census Bureau surveys, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). Although SSA usually deducts Medicare premiums from benefit payments, both the CPS and the SIPP aim to collect and record gross Social Security benefit amounts (before Medicare premium deductions). We find that the Social Security benefit recorded in the CPS closely approximates the gross benefit recorded for CPS respondents in SSA's records, but the Social Security benefit recorded in the SIPP more closely approximates SSA's record of net benefit payments (after deducting Medicare premiums).

  1. 77 FR 37079 - Versus Capital Multi-Manager Real Estate Income Fund LLC and Versus Capital Advisors; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...; File No. 812-14008] Versus Capital Multi-Manager Real Estate Income Fund LLC and Versus Capital...-Manager Real Estate Income Fund LLC (``Initial Fund'') and Versus Capital Advisors LLC (``Adviser... to achieve its objectives by investing in funds that invest indirectly in real estate and by...

  2. The incentives of households to implement the educational investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedospasova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Households (as any other rational investors will make investments in the higher education sphere only in case of being sure that in future invested money will generate a significant money flow at a low risk level. It is important that capital investment should bring return at the rate commensurable with profitability of other assets and time of their expenditure cover should not exceed the horizon, acceptable for the investor. In this article, indices of net present value (NVP and a period of payback (PB in the empirical case format are discussed in detail. A conclusion is made by empirical analysis about economic effectiveness of household investments in the higher education sphere and as a result, in personal human capital. The empiric case, presented in this article, revealed considerable private economic benefits from higher education.

  3. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-2 - Allocation of income items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distributable net income of the trust (as defined in section 643(a)) as the total of each class bears to such... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of income items. 1.652(b)-2 Section 1.652(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX...

  4. 75 FR 61248 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... solicits comments on information needed to determine net income derived from farming. DATES: Written... claimant's countable annual income and available assets due to farm operations. Farm income is not necessarily received on a weekly or monthly basis, and farm operating expenses must be considered in...

  5. 26 CFR 509.111 - Real property income and natural resource royalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property income and natural resource... of income are subject to taxation under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 generally...: “Return of Swiss Corporation Electing to File on a Net Basis Pursuant to Article IX of Swiss Income Tax...

  6. 78 FR 34174 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... solicits comments on information needed to determine net income derived from farming. DATES: Written... claimant's countable annual ] income and available assets due to farm operations. Farm income is not necessarily received on a weekly or monthly basis, and farm operating expenses must be considered in...

  7. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher Aryc W

    2011-04-01

    modifiable factors affecting use of nets that were consistent across both surveys. While net replacement remains important, the findings suggest that: more education about use and care of nets; making nets more resistant to damage; and encouraging net mending are likely to maximize the huge investment in scale up of net ownership by ensuring they are used. Without this step, the widespread benefits of LLIN cannot be realized.

  8. The Effects of Foreign Government Policies on the Location of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Min

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.

  9. [Investing in health: the economic case. Report of the WISH Investing in Health Forum 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamey, Gavin; Beyeler, Naomi; Wadge, Hester; Jamison, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Developing country governments and aid agencies face difficult decisions on how best to allocate their finite resources. Investments in many different sectors -including education, water and sanitation, transportation, and health- can all reap social and economic benefits. This report focuses specifically on the health sector. It presents compelling evidence of the value of scaling-up health investments. The economic case for increasing these investments in health has never been stronger. Having made progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, and deaths from infectious diseases, it is essential that policymakers do not become complacent. These gains will be quickly reversed without sustained health investments. Scaled-up investments will be needed to tackle the emerging non-communicable disease (NCD) burden and to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). The value of investment in health far beyond its performance is reflected in economic prosperity through gross domestic product (GDP). People put a high monetary value on the additional years of life that health investments can bring -an inherent value to being alive for longer, unrelated to productivity. Policymakers need to do more to ensure that spending on health reflects people's priorities. To make sure services are accessible to all, governments have a clear role to play in financing health. Without public financing, there will be some who cannot afford the care they need, and they will be forced to choose sickness -perhaps even death- and financial ruin; a devastating choice that already pushes 150 million people into poverty every year. In low-income countries (LICs) and middle-income countries (MICs), public financing should be used to achieve universal coverage with a package of highly cost-effective interventions ('best buys'). Governments failing to protect the health and wealth of their people in this way will be unable to reap the benefits of long-term economic prosperity and growth. Public

  10. Investing in health: the economic case Report of the WISH Investing in Health Forum 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Yamey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing country governments and aid agencies face dif­ficult decisions on how best to allocate their finite resources. Investments in many different sectors –including education, water and sanitation, transportation, and health– can all reap social and economic benefits. This report focuses specifically on the health sector. It presents compelling evidence of the value of scaling-up health investments. The economic case for increasing these investments in health has never been stronger. Having made progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, and deaths from infectious diseases, it is essential that policymakers do not become complacent. These gains will be quickly reversed without sustained health investments. Scaled-up investments will be needed to tackle the emerging non-communicable disease (NCD burden and to achieve universal health coverage (UHC. The value of investment in health far beyond its performance is reflected in economic prosperity through gross domestic product (GDP. People put a high monetary value on the additional years of life that health investments can bring –an inherent value to being alive for longer, unrelated to productivity. Policymakers need to do more to ensure that spending on health reflects people’s priorities. To make sure services are accessible to all, govern­ments have a clear role to play in financing health. Without public financing, there will be some who cannot afford the care they need, and they will be forced to choose sickness –perhaps even death– and financial ruin; a devastating choice that already pushes 150 million people into poverty every year.  In low-income countries (LICs and middle-income countries (MICs, public financing should be used to achieve universal coverage with a package of highly cost-effective interventions (‘best buys’. Governments failing to protect the health and wealth of their people in this way will be unable to reap the benefits of long

  11. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  12. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  13. Evaluating Animal Health Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rushton, J.; Raboisson, D.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Economic evaluation of livestock diseases can either estimate their impact in terms of disease losses and treatment costs or it can examine the value of investments in coordinated disease control or eradication programmes. The latter evaluations can be ex ante and ex post and are useful in

  14. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  15. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  16. Beyond the Investment Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…

  17. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  18. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  19. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  20. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  1. Investing in Upskilling: Gains for Individuals, Employers and Government. Summary Prince Edward Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Literacy and Learning Network, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canadians share a common interest in finding ways to raise incomes and reduce dependence on income support programs. Canadian Literacy and Learning Network (CLLN) and DataAngel Policy Research Incorporated have produced a report that explores the potential of an investment in adult literacy to simultaneously raise Canadians' earnings and reduce…

  2. Investing in Upskilling: Gains for Individuals, Employers and Government. Summary Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Literacy and Learning Network, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canadians share a common interest in finding ways to raise incomes and reduce dependence on income support programs. Canadian Literacy and Learning Network (CLLN) and DataAngel Policy Research Incorporated have produced a report that explores the potential of an investment in adult literacy to simultaneously raise Canadians' earnings and reduce…

  3. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  4. Microfinance safety net: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Shi, Qiuhu; Murthy, Padmini

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition among families living in poorer communities has increased in the past two decades. Initiatives advocated by the World Bank include microfinance programs. Research attributing the success of these programs however, has mixed results. In this article we investigate how additional income provided by microfinance is associated with increased consumption of nondurables for households in rural villages in Bangladesh. For our purposes we compare consumption or money expensed on food, medicine, doctor fees, and smoking. Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) procedure was used to address multiple comparison issues among households. Our findings reinforce the importance of microfinance credit as a safety net. Access to additional income for poor villagers improves the consumption of basic needs as expected, regardless of how many loans are taken; consumption of "bads" remains virtually the same.

  5. On the optimality of the Nordic system of dual income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1997-01-01

    , because the progressivity of the labour income tax serves to reduce the private return to human capital investment, thereby offsetting the tendency of a proportional comprehensive income tax to discriminate in favour of such investment. The analysis is based on an overlapping generations model of a small...... open economy where consumers face a trade-off between investment in human capital and investment in non-human capital. Extended versions of the model allow for liquidity constraints and an endogenous labour-leisure choice...

  6. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  7. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  8. Intangible Capital and International Income Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Aamir Rafique Hashmi

    2008-01-01

    I add intangible capital to a variant of the neoclassical growth model and study the implications for cross-country income differences. I calibrate the parameters associated with intangible capital by using new estimates of investment in intangibles by Corrado et al. (2006). When intangible capital is added to the model, the TFP elasticity of output increases from 2.14 to 2.64. This finding implies that the addition of intangible capital increases the ability of the neoclassical growth model ...

  9. 39 CFR 3060.21 - Income report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 20xx FY 20xx-1 Percent change fromSPLY Percent change fromSPLY Revenue: $x,xxx $x,xxx xxx xx.x (1) Mail and Services Revenues xxx xxx xx xx.x (2) Investment Income x,xx x,xxx xxx xx.x (3) Total Competitive Products Revenue Expenses: (4) Volume-Variable Costs x,xxx x,xxx xxx xx.x (5) Product Specific Costs x,xxx...

  10. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  11. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  13. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  14. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  16. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF UCITS INVESTMENT FUNDS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Curkovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available UCITS investment funds represent an important investment opportunity for retail, as well for institutional investors in the European Union. The aim of this paper is to analyse the performance of the UCITS investment funds in Croatia and to detect relatively homogeneous groups among the UCITS funds based on its performance. The analysis includes 55 UCITS, in the period from the beginning of 2011 until the end of 2014, and it is conducted on daily data of share prices, available from Bloomberg terminal. Analysis is performed separately within the groups of different investment fund by investment strategy. The research methodology is based on the calculation of various indicators of absolute and relative risk-adjusted performance and riskiness of the funds. In general, based on analysis of performance measures, it can be concluded that funds with higher values of net assets were more successful compared to the funds with below-average asset values. Also, funds with below-average values of net assets were more volatile. At the same time, funds run by foreign own management companies were more successful by the absolute performance measures, compared to funds run by management companies with domestic ownership. On the other hand, those funds were more volatile, as well.

  17. ESG Integration and the Investment Management Process : Fundamental Investing Reinvented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duuren, Emiel; Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how conventional asset managers account for environmental, social and governance factors (ESG) in their investment process. We do so on the basis of an international survey among fund managers. We find that many conventional managers integrate responsible investing in their investment

  18. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Socially Responsible Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Stang, Andreas

    This paper analyzes the Scandinavian market for Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) mutual funds in order to determine the returns from discriminatory investment decision compared to the return from conventional portfolios. The analysis is conducted on 642 Scandinavian equity mutual funds....... The methodology adopts the Sharpe ratio to establish the risk return relationship. Moreover, the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Fama and French Three Factor model are used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate the underperformance of Swedish and Danish SRI funds relative to their conventional...... counterparts. In the case of Norway no statistical difference in return is found when conducting the three factor regression. The Scandinavian market is considered particularly relevant for the interest of the investors in SRI mutual funds. However, to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present...

  20. EBRD equity investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The EBRD is the largest investor in private equity funds, mainly focusing on growth and expansion in countries of operation. The significant support to its private equity fund managers accelerates the development and institutionalisation of the private equity industry in the region. For EBRD, equity investments are made indirectly through regional and sector funds. These funds are created by groups of investors, mostly private, to which the EBRD participates with capital.

  1. Modeling Sustainment Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    BASIS. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY...WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO FREEDOM FROM PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT . This material has been approved for public release...forecast the consequences of various alternatives? Sustainment Investment: the Problem Operations Supplying the fleet, customer support, etc

  2. Investment Plans and Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Owen Lamont

    1999-01-01

    Capital expenditure plans at the beginning of the year, from a US government survey of firms, explain more than three quarters of the variation in real annual aggregate investment growth between 1948 and 1993. The negative correlation of contemporaneous investment and stock returns is explained by the negative correlation of planned investment and subsequent stock returns. Unexpected revisions to aggregate investment (actual minus plan) within a year are essentially unrelated to current stock...

  3. RISKS IN INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Tatiana A. Ykovleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of investment risks and their causes, as well as provides a detailed classification of investment risks. The authors reveal the essence and content of the investment process, risk management, providing material for presentation in the form of a diagram. In conclusion, the article explains the use of the system of specialized institutions as a way to exclude the basic, or primary investment risk.

  4. Testing Benjamin Graham’s net current asset value model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsoo An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically test one of Graham’s investment methods based on the net current asset value (NCAV. The NCAV is truly unique, and conservative, and commonly known as the net-net method.  The ratio of the net current asset value to market value (NCAV/MV was employed in this study to test a stock’s performance comparing to the performance of S&P 500 as the market index. We used all stocks in Portfolio123 whose raw data were supplied by Compustat, Standard & Poors, Capital IQ, and Reuters for the period of January 2, 1999 to August 31, 2012. The overall results show that the firms with high net current asset values outperform the market. These results are strong in the up market. It can be argued that the firms with a high NCAV/MV ratio are likely to move toward their fundamental value and generate high excess return because its stock prices are now undervalued. The implications of the study are: (a a positive NCAV/MV ratio may be a good indicator of the underpriced security; (b investing in the growth period and avoiding the downturn period leads investors to earn much higher returns from the firms with a high NCAV/MV ratio; and (c The NCAV/MV strategy requires a longer holding period of the portfolio in order to generate excess returns.

  5. Netting down gross earnings data in the LIS database: an evaluation of two procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Rense; Munzi, Teresa; Gornick, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    LIS researchers who seek to perform country-comparative and / or trend analyses have to account for the fact that in some LIS datasets income variables were reported net of taxes and social security contributions, while in other datasets income variables were reported gross of taxes and social

  6. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    -Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...

  7. Male Income, Female Income, and Household Income Inequality in Israel: A Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2008-01-01

    Differentiating between the sensitivity of income inequality to male income and female income and decomposing inequality by income determinants, we find that total income inequality is less sensitive to female income variability or the level of female income, than to male income variability or the level of male income. Uniform increases in education reduce income inequality, with increases in female education having a larger effect than increases in male education. An increase in the populati...

  8. Value investing or investing in illiquidity? The profitability of contrarian investment strategies, revisited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gottesman, Aron A; Jacoby, Gady; Li, Huijing

    2017-01-01

     We investigate whether the success of contrarian investment strategies can be attributed to differences in the relative illiquidity of stocks categorized as value investments versus those categorized...

  9. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  10. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  11. The Library as Strategic Investment: Results of the Illinois Return on Investment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula T. Kaufman

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available University administrators are asking library directors to demonstrate their library's value to the institution in easily articulated quantitative terms that focus on outputs rather than on traditionally reported input measures. This paper reports on a study undertaken at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign that sought to measure the return on the university's investment in its library. The study sought to develop a quantitative measure that recognizes the library's value in supporting the university's strategic goals, using grant income generated by faculty using library materials. It also sought to confirm the benefits of using electronic resources and the resulting impact on productivity over a 10-year period. The results of this study, which is believed to be the first of its kind, represent only one piece of the answer to the challenge of representing the university's total return from its investment in its library.

  12. Optimal Housing, Consumption, and Investment Decisions over the Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus

    2011-01-01

    We derive explicit solutions to life-cycle utility maximization problems involving stock and bond investment, perishable consumption, and the rental and ownership of residential real estate. Prices of houses, stocks and bonds, and labor income are correlated. Because of a positive correlation...... additional housing units (for renting out) or house price–linked financial assets. In the final years, preferences shift back to home rental. The derived strategies are still useful if housing positions are only reset infrequently. Our results suggest that markets for real estate investment trusts or other...

  13. Advances in Consumption-Investment Problems with Applications to Pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver

    . What differentiates the papers are different wealth dynamics, optimization objectives, and possibly restrictions on the wealth process. The first paper considers an investor, endowed with deterministic labor income, who searches to maximize expected cumulated utility from consumption and terminal...... strategies in the sense of Nash equilibrium strategies. The forth paper of this thesis takes a utility approach to quantify the impact of investment costs. Concretely, we consider a power utility investor searching to maximize expected utility from terminal wealth. The impact of investment costs is split...

  14. Rate of Interest and its Impact on Investment to the Extent of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman D. Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary reason of this study is to test real interest rate and its impact on investment to the extent of Pakistan span from 1964 to 2012. To test the long-term nexus among level of income, interest rate and investment mainly Johansen Cointegration test is employed. The hypothesis of this study is that investment has an inverse association with real interest rate in Pakistan. If relationship exists then policy maker can make better policy for Pakistan. The outcomes confirm economic theory and a number of other studies that investment has significantly inverse association with real interest rate in Pakistan.

  15. THE PROFITABILITY – AN ATTRIBUTE OF FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING NATURE IN THE DECISION TO INVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The investments represent the primary factor in the development strategy of an economic entity. The role of the investments begins with their purpose, meaning that the investments involve the increasing of a stock portfolio. The research methodology that is approached in this article is based on the analysis of two factors: net present value and internal rate of profitability. Capital budgeting in an investment project that, without a prior analysis of the efficiency of such a decision, can lead to the total or partial loss of the invested capital. An investment project is efficient if the net present value is positive and has a larger value. An investment project becomes more profitable as the value of the internal rate of profitability gets higher. If the two factors are correctly interpreted they lead to exactly the same conclusions regarding the determination of an investment profitability. We can conclude that the two efficiency factors are complementary, their simultaneous use leading to a better grounding of the investment decision than their separate use.

  16. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  17. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  18. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  19. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  20. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure—for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  1. The Equity Risk Premium for Securitized Real Estate: The Case for U.S. Real Estate Investment Trusts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert H Edelstein; Konstantin Magin

    2013-01-01

    .... real estate investment trusts (REITs). By employing a novel methodology, explicitly incorporating REIT shareholders taxation for capital gains and ordinary income, the analysis demonstrates that the expected after-tax risk premiums...

  2. Income inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, Michail|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413292673; Baten, Joerg; Foldvari, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323382045; van Leeuwen, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330811924; van Zanden, Jan Luiten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071115374

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on income inequality as measured by gross (i.e. pre-tax) household income across individuals within a country. It builds upon a number of large-scale initiatives to chart income inequality trends over time, supplementing them with data on wages and heights for the earlier

  3. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  4. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  5. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves the efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only...... by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...

  6. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital......-in premium scheme. The effect of differences in risk exposure from the support schemes is significant and cannot be neglected in policy making, especially when deciding between support instruments or when determining adequate support levels....

  7. Support mechanisms for renewables: How risk exposure influences investment incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to giv...

  8. Applying Real Options for Evaluating Investments in ERP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagane, Jun; Sekozawa, Teruji

    This paper intends to verify effectiveness of real options approach for evaluating investments in Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERP) and proves how important it is to disclose shadow options potentially embedded in ERP investment. The net present value (NPV) method is principally adopted to evaluate the value of ERP. However, the NPV method assumes no uncertainties exist in the object. It doesn't satisfy the current business circumstances which are filled with dynamic issues. Since the 1990s the effectiveness of option pricing models for Information System (IS) investment to solve issues in the NPV method has been discussed in the IS literature. This paper presents 3 business cases to review the practical advantages of such techniques for IS investments, especially ERP investments. The first case is EDI development. We evaluate the project by a new approach with lighting one of shadow options, EDI implementation. In the second case we reveal an ERP investment has an “expanding option” in a case of eliminating redundancy. The third case describes an option to contract which is deliberately slotted in ERP development to prepare transferring a manufacturing facility.

  9. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleten, S.-E. [Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Maribu, K.M.; Wangensteen, I. [Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2007-05-15

    This paper presents a method for evaluating investments in decentralized renewable power generation under price un certainty. The analysis is applicable for a client with an electricity load and a renewable resource that can be utilized for power generation. The investor has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one local power generating unit, with the objective to maximize the profits from the opportunity. Renewable electricity generation can serve local load when generation and load coincide in time, and surplus power can be exported to the grid. The problem is to find the price intervals and the capacity of the generator at which to invest. Results from a case with wind power generation for an office building suggests it is optimal to wait for higher prices than the net present value break-even price under price uncertainty, and that capacity choice can depend on the current market price and the price volatility. With low price volatility there can be more than one investment price interval for different units with intermediate waiting regions between them. High price volatility increases the value of the investment opportunity, and therefore makes it more attractive to postpone investment until larger units are profitable. (author)

  10. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  11. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  12. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  13. 78 FR 39984 - Guidance Regarding Deferred Discharge of Indebtedness Income of Corporations and Deferred...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... corporation's assets are not impairment transactions. In addition, an electing corporation's investments and... reduction in gross asset value when applying the net value acceleration rule to any impairment transaction... asset value when applying the net value acceleration rule to any impairment transaction). (iii...

  14. Offshore Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  15. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  16. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  17. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  18. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Midori Tsuneishi; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Takuo Ishii

    2013-01-01

    Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating t...

  19. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  20. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  1. Digitalization of incoming mail and incoming bills

    OpenAIRE

    Huč, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the processes involved in the digitalization of materials and having consideration of legal regulations, restrictions and recommendations, make the digitalization process of incoming mail and incoming bills as a cloud-based service. Having an efficient document management system has a significantly positive effect on an organization. In order for documents to be managed more easily and efficiently, they must be converted into an electron...

  2. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  3. EU Integration and Harmonisation of Personal Income Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of furthering EU integration little attention was given to the role of income taxes. Multiple income tax systems exist across the Union and their differentiation negatively impacts the European labour market, investments and savings, inhibiting economic growth. Individual nations have little motivation to harmonise as they can engage in tax rate competition and income taxes are interwoven with social security systems that make any attempts at reform extremely complex and politically unpopular. Much of current harmonisation is “silent”, paralegal, and occurs in response to market forces rather than following a formal plan and through intergovernmental cooperation.

  4. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  5. Sex Differences in Intergenerational Income Transmission and Educational Attainment: Testing the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Katharina E; Schaman, Anna; Fieder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W) effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI) invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect.

  6. Sex Differences in Intergenerational Income Transmission and Educational Attainment: Testing the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina E. Pink

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect.

  7. Sex Differences in Intergenerational Income Transmission and Educational Attainment: Testing the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Katharina E.; Schaman, Anna; Fieder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W) effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI) invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect. PMID:29163268

  8. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  9. Building scale in community impact investing through nonfinancial performance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, Ben; Dailey, Colby

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of nonfinancial performance is becoming increasingly important in the community impact investing industry, where individuals and institutions actively deploy capital in low-income domestic markets for both financial and social returns. Quality data ensure that the creation of jobs, construction of community facilities, financing of affordable housing, and other benefits that characterize the sector are delivered cost-effectively and transparently. This paper discusses the limi...

  10. Investment Valuation Analysis with Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin İNCE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that discounted cash flow and net present value, which are traditional investment valuation models, can be combined with artificial neural network model forecasting. The main inputs for the valuation models, such as revenue, costs, capital expenditure, and their growth rates, are heavily related to sector dynamics and macroeconomics. The growth rates of those inputs are related to inflation and exchange rates. Therefore, predicting inflation and exchange rates is a critical issue for the valuation output. In this paper, the Turkish economy’s inflation rate and the exchange rate of USD/TRY are forecast by artificial neural networks and implemented to the discounted cash flow model. Finally, the results are benchmarked with conventional practices.

  11. Stock Liquidity and Investment Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    HEIDI HOOI KHUAN QUAH

    2017-01-01

    This PhD study investigates the implications of stock liquidity on firm investments efficiency. The study finds that high stock liquidity has a positive impact on investment efficiency and shows that the beneficial effect of stock liquidity on investment efficiency is stronger among firms with higher information asymmetry and higher monitoring institutional investors. These findings suggest that high stock liquidity plays important informational and governance roles in mitigating information ...

  12. Life cycle cost of biomass power plant: Monte Carlo simulation of investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of life cycle cost is considered as an important instrument for designing and evaluating success of every project. The aim of this work is to determine the precise impact of the investment costs and future operating and maintenance costs of CHP biomass plant. By using the Monte Carlo simulation are determined variations in the settings and the possible impact on the investment risk. The results show that the investment is justified, thanks to the positive outcome of the net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR and the payback period. The greatest impact on the variability of annual profits have operating costs, which have the highest coefficient of variation of 6.44% and the largest share. Variability of net present value of 4% is acceptable, and the investment is considered as stable.

  13. Investments in random environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, Jesús Emeterio; Cantero-Álvarez, Rubén; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Schweitzer, Frank

    2008-03-01

    We present analytical investigations of a multiplicative stochastic process that models a simple investor dynamics in a random environment. The dynamics of the investor's budget, x(t) , depends on the stochasticity of the return on investment, r(t) , for which different model assumptions are discussed. The fat-tail distribution of the budget is investigated and compared with theoretical predictions. We are mainly interested in the most probable value xmp of the budget that reaches a constant value over time. Based on an analytical investigation of the dynamics, we are able to predict xmpstat . We find a scaling law that relates the most probable value to the characteristic parameters describing the stochastic process. Our analytical results are confirmed by stochastic computer simulations that show a very good agreement with the predictions.

  14. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...... on quality care time is correlated with parents’ education, and that marital homogamy reduces couple specialization, but only among the highly educated. In line with earlier research, we identify gendered parental behaviour. The presence of boys is an important condition for fathers’ time dedication......, but primarily among lower educated fathers. To the extent that parental stimulation is decisive for child outcomes, our findings suggest the persistence of important inequalities. This emerges through our special attention to behavioural differences across the educational distribution among households....

  15. Socially responsible investments

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In addition to well-established working principles based on conservative and capital preservation oriented investments that ensure it a sustainable future, the CERN Pension Fund recently introduced a new criterion for selecting the numerous opportunities that the market offers: philanthropy. Its first initiative, which also involves the Staff Association’s Long-Term Collection, will help support two orphanages in China.   The two charities are located near Beijing. Beijing’s “China Children Charity and Foundation” is an orphanage that cares for up to 80 babies who need surgery to correct birth defects. The other, “Hope Healing Home”, is an organization that deals with 300 babies and cares for sick and physically disabled babies who have been abandoned. All these babies are awaiting treatment and a medical solution. The CERN Pension Fund has over 6700 members. To ensure the greatest efficiency and profitability, the Fund’s por...

  16. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  17. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  18. 76 FR 59456 - ASGI Agility Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... COMMISSION ASGI Agility Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application September 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and... sales loads (``CDSCs''). Applicants: ASGI Agility Income Fund (``Agility Fund''), ASGI Aurora... investment company registered under the Act. The Agility Fund is organized as a Delaware statutory trust. The...

  19. Guidelines for integrating socially responsible investment in the investment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, F.J.; Slager, A.

    2009-01-01

    Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) is of growing importance for institutional investors. Our analysis shows that SRI strategies can be grouped in ethically-based, investment-driven and value-ensuring objectives. We demonstrate that this categorization strengthens decisionmaking in SRI. Based on

  20. Investment Horizon to Investment Decision and Mean Reversion: Indonesian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Junarsin

    2008-01-01

    The main findings of this study are as follows: (1 it is significantly proved that Indonesian investors are inclined to assume higher portfolio risk in the longer investment horizon than that in the shorter investment horizon; (2 it is very interesting to see that on average, the investors are inclined to increase their allocation in the risk-free asset in the longer investment horizon although the difference between the risk-free asset holding in the short investment horizon and that in the long investment horizon is not significant; (3 the framing effect significantly influences the investment decisions, both in short investment horizon and in long investment horizon; (4 there is a tendency for the respondents to show a willingness to assume higher portfolio risk when they received the questionnaires that provided the historical five-year returns on the first page; (5 investors predict an asset gaining 50 percent in the first year to continuously gain in the next four years while expecting an asset losing 25 percent in the first year to continuously loss in the next four years.

  1. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Alan C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Loomis, Ross J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Braun, Fern M. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This study is a retrospective analysis of net benefits accruing from DOE's investment in photovoltaic (PV) technology development. The study employed a technology cluster approach. That is, benefits measured for a subset of technologies in a meaningful cluster, or portfolio, of technologies were compared to the total investment in the cluster to provide a lower bound measure of return for the entire cluster.

  2. AGROFOREST SYSTEM INVESTMENT ANALYSIS UNDER RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry System is the ecological and economical interaction of the use of the land, with the combination ofagriculture, livestock and forest production, in temporary sequence and in a simultaneous way. The studies of investments in projectsassume the existence of risks and uncertainties. An alternative to reduce the risk in the forest investment is the association with theagricultural. This work analyzed the situations of risk of a system agroflorestal. Monte Carlo s method comes from the theory ofsimulations and stands out as a powerful and useful tool to provide a distribution of probabilities for the analysis of decision. A totalof 10,000 interactions of the Net Present Value (VPL, of Internal Rate of Return (TIR and of the Equivalent Periodic Benefit (BPEwere made in order to establish the probability distribution. The results presented 78.65% of chance of VPL being US$ 1,410.00;77.56% of chance of TIR being 36.36%, and; 75.39% of chance of BPE being US$ 309.70; the agroforestry system presented lowinvestment risk; and the livestock is the main product of the agrossilvopastoril system, followed by charcoal.

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  4. ANALYSIS OF INCOMES, EXPENSES AND PROFITABILITY IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is centered on presenting some aspects regarding incomes, expenses and results of commercial banks from Romanian banking system such as: income dynamics and structure, expenses dynamics and structure, a set of indicators which reflects the main banks performances. Discussion is focused on a comparative analysis between two commercial banks from Romanian banking system, taking into consideration date from a certain period of time. Profitability indicators are very usefully from banks management having an important informational value, the main discussion being focused on: return on assets, return on equity, net assets margin, rate of profit, equity multiplier, expenses to income ratio.

  5. "What If" Analyses in Investment Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Belanová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, each project`s value is estimated using a discounted cash flow (DCF valuation, and the opportunity with the highest value, as measured by the resultant net present value (NPV will be selected. The problem with such NPV estimates is that they depend on projected future cash flows. If there are errors in those projections, then estimated net present values can be misleading (a forecasting risk. Basic approach to evaluating cash flow and NPV estimates involves asking “what – if” questions. Accordingly, the paper discusses some organized ways of going about a what – if analysis. Its goal in doing so is to assess the degree of forecasting risk and to identify those elements that are the most critical to the success or failure of an investment. However, as we show in examples, as well as in the practical study, though what – if analysis really allows us to obtain the certain idea of degree of forecasting risk, it does not tell us what to do about the possible errors.

  6. 76 FR 62469 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549-8010. Hartford Income Shares Fund Inc. Summary: Applicant, a closed-end.... 650 High Income Fund, Inc. Summary: Applicant, a closed-end investment company, seeks an order... by applicant. Expenses in the amount of $297,816 have been accrued, but have not yet been paid in...

  7. Investment in Green Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Supratim

    Since the middle of the 1970's, there has been considerable research about how to deal with exhaustible natural resources which are essential to production. In the absence of substitution possibilities, the finite stock of these resources acts as a limiting factor to continued growth of output and hence consumption possibilities. In our first chapter, we combine a finite natural resource and human capital in the production function and look at the possibility of maintaining a non-declining or sustainable level of consumption for an infinite horizon. Our results show that the return to human capital accumulation plays a key role in ensuring this objective. In our model without physical capital, we obtain a similar result where this return must be such that the fraction of time devoted to acquiring human capital each period is at least as much as the share of natural resources in output. Our second chapter focuses on the transition from a relatively cheap exhaustible natural resource (coal, gasoline) to an expensive alternative technology assumed to be in nearly unlimited supply (wind, solar). Due to significant cost differences between fossil-fuel based energy sources and these alternative (backstop) technologies, their use is not as widespread. Public subsidies to research can however bring about innovation through cheaper production techniques which would significantly reduce the operating costs of these backstop technologies. But without sufficient incentives for investment and patent protections, individual firms typically underinvest in backstop technologies relative to the socially optimal level. In our paper, we find that this underinvestment in the backstop also leads to an under-extraction of the exhaustible natural resource. This imply firms would conserve the natural resource for too long and switch later to the alternative technology relative to the socially optimal solution. We extend the chapter to include pollution as a flow variable. Pollution from

  8. Income Tax Buyouts and Income Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    A tax buyout is a contract between tax authorities and a tax payer which reduces the marginal income tax rate in exchange for a lump-sum payment. While previous contributions have focussed on labour supply, we consider the interaction with tax evasion and show that a buyout can increase expected tax revenues. This will be the case if (1) the audit probability is constant and the penalty for evasion is a function of undeclared income or (2) the penalty depends on the amount of taxes evaded, an...

  9. Subsidized Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Xingang; Hagspiel, V.; Kort, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies how the subsidy support, e.g. price support and reimbursed investment cost support, affects the investment decision of a monopoly firm under uncertainty and analyzes the implications for social welfare. The analytical results show that the unconditional, i.e., subsidy support that

  10. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  11. Strategic Capacity Investment Under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper considers investment decisions within an uncertain dynamic and competitive framework. Each investment decision involves to determine the timing and the capacity level. In this way we extend the main bulk of the real options theory where the capacity level is given. We consider a

  12. Public investment and intergenerational distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, BJ; Meijdam, L

    We study the effects of public investment in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy. Boosting public investment stimulates private capital formation, output, and wages in the long run. The impact effects depend critically on whether public capital is modelled as a stock or

  13. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  14. Investment opportunities as real options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rovčanin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity (optional approach to capital investment appraisal represents, completely new theoretical and methodological framework for investment analysis. Compared to traditional, discount cash flow (DCF model of analysis, the optional approach provides opportunity for valuation and managing flexibility, i.e. possibility of approaching (amending the previous decisions in compliance with market changes. Risk and uncertainty are inevitably following the capital investment. Therefore, the importance of optional approach to investments is also that it provides possible better “treatment” of risks in the investment analysis, and also more rational allocation of resources, accordingly. This approach should be of more interest to the Countries in transition, considering the limited financial sources as well as risk and uncertainty are emphasized.

  15. Net smart how to thrive online

    CERN Document Server

    Rheingold, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Like it or not, knowing how to make use of online tools without being overloaded with too much information is an essential ingredient to personal success in the twenty-first century. But how can we use digital media so that they make us empowered participants rather than passive receivers, grounded, well-rounded people rather than multitasking basket cases? In Net Smart, cyberculture expert Howard Rheingold shows us how to use social media intelligently, humanely, and, above all, mindfully. Mindful use of digital media means thinking about what we are doing, cultivating an ongoing inner inquiry into how we want to spend our time. Rheingold outlines five fundamental digital literacies, online skills that will help us do this: attention, participation, collaboration, critical consumption of information (or "crap detection"), and network smarts. He explains how attention works, and how we can use our attention to focus on the tiny relevant portion of the incoming tsunami of information. He describes the quality...

  16. Public investment versus private investment: The case of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garikai Makuyana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the growth dynamics of public and private investment in Zambia from 1964 to 2011. The evolution of the two components of investment in Zambia has been a product of market intervention and market-based policies. Initially, after its independence in 1964, the perpetuated market economy limited public investment growth to the basic infrastructural provision – for the first three years. However, the 1967 Mulungushi and the 1968 Matero nationalisation programmes brought about rapid expansion in public investment, especially from the early 1970s to the late 1980s. The market-based reforms that have been implemented in Zambia from 1991 have promoted private investment leadership – thereby, allowing public investment growth in economic activities that have complemented the private sector growth. Although private investment has grown to a position of economic dominance in Zambia, like many developing countries, the country still faces some challenges. These include inadequate and poor infrastructure, the high cost of human capital, cumbersome administrative procedures, and the high cost of financial capital.

  17. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  18. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

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    Kamilia Loukil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of countries have enacted laws aimed at making it easier for firms to invest in their country, while many countries offer various monetary incentives and tax incentives to encourage inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The desire to attract FDI is due not only to the fact that FDI brings in new investment boosting national income and employment, but also due to the expectation that inward FDI would also provide additional spillover benefits to the local economy that can result in higher productivity growth and increased export growth. This study aims to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on innovation in developing countries. The estimation of a panel threshold model on a sample of 54 developing countries for the 1980-2009 period shows the presence of non linear effects in the relationship between FDI and innovation. We find a threshold value of technological development below which FDI has a negative impact on innovation and above which FDI has a significant positive impact on innovation. We conclude that it is not enough for economic policy to attract foreign investments, it is still necessary to support domestic firms to build an absorptive capacity allowing them to enjoy the benefits of multinational firms.

  19. Port Investment Strategies under Uncertainty: The Case of a Southeast Asian Multipurpose Port1

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    Ioannis N. Lagoudis

    2014-12-01

    The methodology has been applied on the expansion evaluation of warehousing facilities in a multipurpose port. For the evaluation of the alternatives, the expected net present value (ENPV is based on earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA. Results show that the investment strategy for a new 4-level warehouse with a flexible option was the optimal choice when compared with strategies of similar scale. However, depending on the emphasis placed on the various investment metrics the optimal investment strategy seems to be closer to a non-flexible 5-level warehouse.

  20. A dynamic-efficiency rationale for public investment in the health of young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we assume away standard distributional and static-efficiency arguments for public health and instead seek a dynamic efficiency rationale. We study a lifecycle model wherein young agents make health investments to reduce mortality risk. We identify a welfare rationale for public health...... under dynamic efficiency and exogenous mortality even when private and public investments are perfect substitutes. If health investment reduces mortality risk but individuals do not internalize its effect on the life-annuity interest rate, the “Philipson-Becker effect” emerges; when the young are net...... borrowers, this works together with dynamic efficiency to support a role for public health....