WorldWideScience

Sample records for net income subsidy

  1. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  2. 42 CFR 423.904 - Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies... Rules for States-Eligibility Determinations for Subsidies and General Payment Provisions § 423.904 Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies. (a) General rule. The State agency must make eligibility...

  3. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  4. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  5. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  6. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  7. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  8. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  9. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  10. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE... minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. (a) Introduction... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were de...

  11. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  12. Should higher education subsidies depend on parental income?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); C.N. Teulings (Coen); T. van Rens (Thijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries, student grants, tuition fees, and subsidized loans depend on parental income. This paper examines the efficiency and distributional effects of such conditioning, and assesses whether it is optimal practice when the government wants to reduce after-tax income inequality

  13. Better methods will be needed to project incomes to estimate eligibility for subsidies in health insurance exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, John A

    2012-07-01

    Under the Affordable Care Act, people who meet certain income eligibility criteria will be eligible for subsidies to offset costs of premiums and cost sharing for health insurance plans purchased through new health insurance exchanges. But determining the correct level of these subsidies will not be easy, because of several factors. These include the way in which eligibility will be calculated for participation in Medicaid or for subsidies through the exchanges; possibly inaccurate income projections; the use of different income time periods to determine eligibility; and fluctuations in income. I performed a simulation that shows that under the most likely methods to be used to determine eligibility for Medicaid or for receiving subsidies through exchanges, one-third of people with incomes initially judged to be below the Medicaid threshold would actually "churn" into an exchange at the end of the year. Other people would be wrongly deemed ineligible for advance subsidy payments because their projected income was too high, while still others judged eligible for subsidies would receive advance payments on those subsidies that were too high by $208 per year, on average. To reduce these errors, I recommend the adoption of a single eligibility standard based on income data derived from prior tax returns, along with generous accommodations during a given enrollment year for people who claim a change in circumstances, such as a change in income.

  14. 47 CFR 32.7990 - Nonregulated net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be recorded on separate books of account for such operations. Only the net of the total revenues... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated net income. 32.7990 Section 32... Nonregulated net income. (a) This account shall be used by those companies who offer nonregulated activities...

  15. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... total of $30,000. The undistributed net income of the trust at the close of taxable year 1963 is $28,500...,500 Total 31,500 Undistributed net income 28,500 Example 2. The facts are the same as in example 1...

  16. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance.

  17. 78 FR 6781 - Net Investment Income Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of public... paragraph heading Sec. 1.1411-4 Definition of net investment income., Sec. 1.1411-4(c)(2), line 3, the...

  18. Modelling income group differences in the health and economic impacts of targeted food taxes and subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoaham, Kelechi E; Sacks, Gary; Rayner, Mike; Mytton, Oliver; Gray, Alastair

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects, by income group, of targeted food taxes and subsidies on nutrition, health and expenditure in the UK. A model based on consumption data and demand elasticity was constructed to predict the effects of four food taxation-subsidy regimens. Resulting changes in demand, expenditure, nutrition, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality were estimated. Data Expenditure data were taken from the Expenditure and Food Survey; estimates of price elasticities of demand for food were taken from a report based on the National Food Survey 1988-2000. Estimates of effect on CVD and cancer mortality of changing fat, salt, fruit and vegetable intake were taken from previous meta-analyses. (i) Taxing principal sources of dietary saturated fat is unlikely to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer mortality. (ii) Taxing 'less healthy' foods (defined by the WXYfm nutrient profiling model) could increase CVD and cancer deaths by 35-1300 yearly. (iii) Taxing 'less healthy' foods and subsidising fruits and vegetables by 17.5% could avert up to 2900 CVD and cancer deaths yearly. (iv) Taxing 'less healthy' foods and using all tax revenue to subsidize fruits and vegetables could avert up to 6400 CVD and cancer deaths yearly. Few obesity-related CVD deaths are averted by any of the regimens. All four regimens would be economically regressive and positive health effects will not necessarily be greater in lower-income groups where the need for dietary improvement is higher. A targeted food tax combined with the appropriate subsidy on fruits and vegetables could reduce deaths from CVD and cancer.

  19. Modernizing Medicare's Benefit Design and Low-Income Subsidies to Ensure Access and Affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen; Buttorff, Christine; Andersen, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Insurance coverage through the traditional Medicare program is complex, fragmented, and incomplete. Beneficiaries must purchase supplemental private insurance to fill in the gaps. While impoverished beneficiaries may receive supplemental coverage through Medicaid and subsidies for prescription drugs, help is limited for people with incomes above the poverty level. This patchwork quilt leads to confusion for beneficiaries and high administrative costs, while also undermining coverage and care coordination. Most important, Medicare's benefits fail to limit out-of-pocket costs or ensure adequate financial protection, especially for beneficiaries with low incomes and serious health problems. This brief, part of a series about Medicare's past, present, and future, presents options for an integrated benefit for enrollees in traditional Medicare. The new benefit would not only reduce cost burdens but also could potentially strengthen the Medicare program and enhance its role in stimulating and supporting innovations throughout the health care delivery system.

  20. 47 CFR 36.506 - Net current deferred operating income taxes-Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred operating income taxes-Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes-Account 4340. 36.506 Section 36.506... operating income taxes—Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes—Account 4340. (a...

  1. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Andrew P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to

  2. 26 CFR 1.857-5 - Net income and loss from prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income and loss from prohibited transactions... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-5 Net income and loss... equal to 100 percent of the net income derived from prohibited transactions. A prohibited transaction is...

  3. Access to housing subsidies, housing status, drug use and HIV risk among low-income U.S. urban residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; Convey, Mark; Weeks, Margaret; Owczarzak, Jill

    2011-11-23

    Much research has shown an association between homelessness and unstable housing and HIV risk but most has relied on relatively narrow definitions of housing status that preclude a deeper understanding of this relationship. Fewer studies have examined access to housing subsidies and supportive housing programs among low-income populations with different personal characteristics. This paper explores personal characteristics associated with access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, the relationship between personal characteristics and housing status, and the relationship between housing status and sexual risk behaviors among low-income urban residents. Surveys were conducted with 392 low-income residents from Hartford and East Harford, Connecticut through a targeted sampling plan. We measured personal characteristics (income, education, use of crack, heroin, or cocaine in the last 6 months, receipt of welfare benefits, mental illness diagnosis, arrest, criminal conviction, longest prison term served, and self-reported HIV diagnosis); access to housing subsidies or supportive housing programs; current housing status; and sexual risk behaviors. To answer the aims above, we performed univariate analyses using Chi-square or 2-sided ANOVA's. Those with significance levels above (0.10) were included in multivariate analyses. We performed 2 separate multiple regressions to determine the effects of personal characteristics on access to housing subsidies and access to supportive housing respectively. We used multinomial main effects logistic regression to determine the effects of housing status on sexual risk behavior. Being HIV positive or having a mental illness predicted access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, while having a criminal conviction was not related to access to either housing subsidies or supportive housing. Drug use was associated with poorer housing statuses such as living on the street or in a shelter, or temporarily doubling up with

  4. Access to housing subsidies, housing status, drug use and HIV risk among low-income U.S. urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Gomez Julia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much research has shown an association between homelessness and unstable housing and HIV risk but most has relied on relatively narrow definitions of housing status that preclude a deeper understanding of this relationship. Fewer studies have examined access to housing subsidies and supportive housing programs among low-income populations with different personal characteristics. This paper explores personal characteristics associated with access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, the relationship between personal characteristics and housing status, and the relationship between housing status and sexual risk behaviors among low-income urban residents. Methods Surveys were conducted with 392 low-income residents from Hartford and East Harford, Connecticut through a targeted sampling plan. We measured personal characteristics (income, education, use of crack, heroin, or cocaine in the last 6 months, receipt of welfare benefits, mental illness diagnosis, arrest, criminal conviction, longest prison term served, and self-reported HIV diagnosis; access to housing subsidies or supportive housing programs; current housing status; and sexual risk behaviors. To answer the aims above, we performed univariate analyses using Chi-square or 2-sided ANOVA's. Those with significance levels above (0.10 were included in multivariate analyses. We performed 2 separate multiple regressions to determine the effects of personal characteristics on access to housing subsidies and access to supportive housing respectively. We used multinomial main effects logistic regression to determine the effects of housing status on sexual risk behavior. Results Being HIV positive or having a mental illness predicted access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, while having a criminal conviction was not related to access to either housing subsidies or supportive housing. Drug use was associated with poorer housing statuses such as living on the

  5. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers in the study area, evaluate the costs and returns of maize production in the study area, and evaluate factors affecting ...

  6. More choice in health insurance marketplaces may reduce the value of the subsidies available to low-income enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin A; Saltzman, Evan; Bauhoff, Sebastian; Pacula, Rosalie L; Eibner, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Federal subsidies available to enrollees in health insurance Marketplaces are pegged to the premium of the second-lowest-cost silver plan available in each rating area (as defined by each state). People who qualify for the subsidy contribute a percentage of their income to purchase coverage, and the federal government covers the remaining cost up to the price of that premium. Because the number of plans offered and plan premiums vary substantially across rating areas, the effective value of the subsidy may vary geographically. We found that the availability of more plans in a rating area was associated with lower premiums but higher deductibles for enrollees in the second-lowest-cost silver plan. In rating areas with more than twenty plans, the average deductible in the second-lowest-cost silver plan was nearly $1,000 higher than it was in rating areas with fewer than thirteen plans. Because premium costs for second-lowest-cost silver plans are capped, deductibles may be a more salient measure of plan value for enrollees than premiums are. Greater standardization of plans or an alternative approach to calculating the subsidy could provide a more consistent benefit to enrollees across various rating areas. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-0 - Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributable net income; deduction for... § 1.643(a)-0 Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general. The term distributable net income has no application except in the taxation of estates and trusts and their beneficiaries. It...

  9. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement. OMB Control Number... to obtain current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a...

  10. 47 CFR 32.4100 - Net current deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred operating income taxes. 32... Accounts § 32.4100 Net current deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance... appropriate deferred income tax shall be reclassified from Account 4340, Net Noncurrent Deferred Operating...

  11. 26 CFR 1.860C-2 - Determination of REMIC taxable income or net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of REMIC taxable income or net... REMIC taxable income or net loss. (a) Treatment of gain or loss. For purposes of determining the taxable income or net loss of a REMIC under section 860C(b), any gain or loss from the disposition of any asset...

  12. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1A - Undistributed net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1A Section 1... income (see § 1.665(d)-1A) 2,190 Total 22,190 Undistributed net income 7,910 (b) Foreign trusts. The... income from Country X sources for a total of $30,000. The undistributed net income of the trust at the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.857-3 - Net income from foreclosure property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income from foreclosure property. 1.857-3 Section 1.857-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-3 Net income from foreclosure...

  14. 26 CFR 1.408-11 - Net income calculation for returned or recharacterized IRA contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income calculation for returned or... Internal Revenue Code section that the return of a contribution be accompanied by the amount of net income... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus...

  15. 42 CFR 423.34 - Enrollment of low-income subsidy eligible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to enroll in a Part D plan. (b) Definitions—Full-benefit dual-eligible individual. For purposes of... (medically needy) or section 1902(f) of the Act (States that use more restrictive eligibility criteria than... individual means an individual who meets the definition of full subsidy eligible (including full benefit dual...

  16. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-2 - Distributions in excess of distributable net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions in excess of distributable net income. 1.652(a)-2 Section 1.652(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....652(a)-2 Distributions in excess of distributable net income. If the amount of income required to be...

  17. 47 CFR 32.4350 - Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... included in the determination of book income or for the tax effect of nonoperating expenses and... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income... Sheet Accounts § 32.4350 Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income taxes. (a) This account shall...

  18. 47 CFR 32.4340 - Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... book income or for the tax effect of revenues and expenses from regulated operations which have been... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes... Sheet Accounts § 32.4340 Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include...

  19. 47 CFR 32.4110 - Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes... Sheet Accounts § 32.4110 Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance of income tax expense resulting from comprehensive interpreted tax allocation which has...

  20. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment trust taxable...

  1. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement. OMB Control Number...

  2. Multiple regression analysis of the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Wa; Xiao, Hong; Zhuo, Ma

    2009-01-01

    We use the regression analysis method of multivariate statistical analysis to establish a multiple linear regression model about the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during the year 2007. This paper analyzes the internal relation between the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households according to the regression result. Some reasonable suggestions are put forward for raising the income of rural households and stimulating consumption.

  3. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are includible in gross investment income. Therefore, for example, interest received on a student loan... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on net investment income. 53.4940-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940...

  4. 47 CFR 32.7250 - Provision for deferred operating income taxes-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Accounts § 32.7250 Provision for deferred operating income taxes—net. (a) This account shall be charged or credited, as appropriate, with contra entries recorded to the following accounts for income tax expense... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for deferred operating income taxes...

  5. 47 CFR 32.7910 - Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Income Accounts § 32.7910 Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences—net. This account shall include the impact on revenues and expenses of the jurisdictional ratemaking practices which vary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking...

  6. 26 CFR 1.172-5 - Taxable income which is subtracted from net operating loss to determine carryback or carryover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1955 net operating loss 3,000 Adjusted gross income 6,000 Less: Deduction for medical expense ($410... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxable income which is subtracted from net... taxable income is to be deducted. Thus, for such purposes, the net operating loss for the loss year or any...

  7. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  8. The Value of a Purposeful Life: Sense of Purpose Predicts Greater Income and Net Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Burrow, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    Having a sense of purpose in life appears valuable across life domains, though it remains unclear whether purpose also provides financial value to individuals. The current study examined sense of purpose as a predictor of concurrent and longitudinal income and net worth levels, using two waves of the MIDUS sample of adults (N = 4660 across both assessments). Participants who reported a higher sense of purpose had higher levels of household income and net worth initially, and were more likely to increase on these financial outcomes over the nine years between assessments. Interaction tests suggested some evidence of age moderation, but gender did not appear to moderate the influence of purpose on economic outcomes.

  9. Long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI income: Creating health-promoting contexts for families experiencing housing instability with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendening, Zachary S; McCauley, Erin; Shinn, Marybeth; Brown, Scott R

    2017-08-26

    Though disability and housing instability are discussed separately in public health literature, few studies address families at their intersection. As a result, little is known about families who experience both homelessness and disability, how many receive disability benefits like SSI and SSDI, or the influence of those benefits on health-promoting outcomes like housing stability and self-sufficiency. Moreover, no previous research compares the ability of different housing and service interventions to increase disability benefit access. We examine relationships between disabilities and SSI/SSDI income reported when families enter emergency shelters and later health-promoting outcomes (housing stability and self-sufficiency) and how housing interventions affect SSI/SSDI receipt. Families in the (name removed) Study (N = 1857) were interviewed in emergency shelters, randomly offered of one of three housing interventions or usual care (i.e., no immediate referral to any intervention beyond shelter), and re-interviewed 20 months later. A third of families reported a disability at shelter entry. SSI/SSDI coverage of these families increased nearly 10% points over 20 months but never exceeded 40%. Disabilities predicted greater housing instability, food insecurity, and economic stress and less work and income. Among families reporting disabilities, SSI/SSDI receipt predicted fewer returns to emergency shelter, and more income despite less work. Offers of long-term housing subsidies increased SSI/SSDI receipt. Many families experiencing homelessness have disabilities; those receiving SSI/SSDI benefits have better housing and income outcomes. Providing families experiencing homelessness with long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI could improve public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  11. Studying the consumption and health outcomes of fiscal interventions (taxes and subsidies) on food and beverages in countries of different income classifications; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiyawanna, Amaap; Townsend, Nick; Mytton, Oli; Scarborough, Pete; Roberts, Nia; Rayner, Mike

    2015-09-14

    Governments use fiscal interventions (FIs) on food and beverages to encourage healthy food behaviour and positive health outcomes. The objective of this review was to study the behavioural and health outcomes of implemented food and beverage FIs in the form of taxes and subsidies in countries of different income classifications. The present systematic review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane protocols. The search was carried out on academic and grey literature in English, for studies conducted in different countries on implemented FIs on food and non-alcoholic beverages and health outcomes, with a special focus on the income of those countries. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria and 14 were from peer- reviewed journals. Thirteen studies came from high-income (HI) countries, four from upper middle-income (UMI) countries and only one came from a lower middle-income (LMI) country. There were no studies from lower-income (LI) countries. Of these 18 studies; nine focused on taxes, all of which were from HI countries. Evidence suggests that FIs on foods can influence consumption of taxed and subsidized foods and consequently have the potential to improve health. Although this review supports previous findings that FIs can have an impact on healthy food consumption, it also highlights the lack of evidence available from UMI, LMI and LI countries on such interventions. Therefore, evidence from HI countries may not be directly applicable to middle-income and LI countries. Similar research conducted in middle and low income countries will be beneficial in advocating policy makers on the effectiveness of FIs in countering the growing issues of non-communicable diseases in these countries.

  12. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement, VA Form 21-527. OMB Control Number: 2900-0002...

  13. Redistribution and Education Subsidies are Siamese Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Jacobs, B.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a model of human capital formation with endogenous labor supply and heterogeneous agents to explore the optimal level of education subsidies along with the optimal progressive schedule of the labor income tax and optimal capital income taxes.Subsidies on education ensure efficiency in

  14. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ....Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources ] and Housing Branch, New Executive Office... current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a claimant's...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of net... claim for credit or refund relates to an overpayment of income tax attributable to a net operating loss... net operating loss deduction or capital loss carryback (or the effect of such deduction or carryback...

  16. Government net income in the fuel alcohol marketing; Estimativa do saldo do governo na comercializacao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnaro, Caetano

    1992-12-31

    This study aims to analyse the fuel price formation structures in order to estimate the governmental net income in fuel alcohol marketing and to develop a mathematical model to forecast these estimates under alternative economic scenarios. Three scenarios - an optimistic, an intermediary and a pessimistic were set up through intuitive projections and the mathematical model developed was applied to them. 33 refs., 9 tabs.

  17. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  18. Proximity to safety-net clinics and HPV vaccine uptake among low-income, ethnic minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gee, Gilbert C; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-04-12

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake remains low. Although publicly funded programs provide free or low cost vaccines to low-income children, barriers aside from cost may prevent disadvantaged girls from getting vaccinated. Prior studies have shown distance to health care as a potential barrier to utilizing pediatric preventive services. This study examines whether HPV vaccines are geographically accessible for low-income girls in Los Angeles County and whether proximity to safety-net clinics is associated with vaccine initiation. Interviews were conducted in multiple languages with largely immigrant, low-income mothers of girls ages 9 to 18 via a county health hotline to assess uptake and correlates of uptake. Addresses of respondents and safety-net clinics that provide the HPV vaccine for free or low cost were geo-coded and linked to create measures of geographic proximity. Logistic regression models were estimated for each proximity measure on HPV vaccine initiation while controlling for other factors. On average, 83% of the 468 girls had at least one clinic within 3-miles of their residence. The average travel time on public transportation to the nearest clinic among all girls was 21min. Average proximity to clinics differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Latinas had both the shortest travel distances (2.2 miles) and public transportation times (16min) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The overall HPV vaccine initiation rate was 25%. Increased proximity to the nearest clinic was not significantly associated with initiation. By contrast, daughter's age and insurance status were significantly associated with increased uptake. This study is among the first to examine geographic access to HPV vaccines for underserved girls. Although the majority of girls live in close proximity to safety-net vaccination services, rates of initiation were low. Expanding clinic outreach in this urban area is likely more important than increasing geographic access to the

  19. Implementation of an insecticide-treated net subsidy scheme under a public-private partnership for malaria control in Tanzania – challenges in implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Lucy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade there has been increasing visibility of malaria control efforts at the national and international levels. The factors that have enhanced this scenario are the availability of proven interventions such as artemisinin-based combination therapy, the wide scale use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and a renewed emphasis in indoor residual house-spraying. Concurrently, there has been a window of opportunity of financial commitments from organizations such as the Global Fund for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, the President's Malaria Initiative and the World Bank Booster programme. Methods The case study uses the health policy analysis framework to analyse the implementation of a public-private partnership approach embarked upon by the government of Tanzania in malaria control – 'The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme'- and in this synthesis, emphasis is on the challenges faced by the scheme during the pre-implementation (2001 – 2004 and implementation phases (2004 – 2005. Qualitative research tools used include: document review, interview with key informants, stakeholder's analysis, force-field analysis, time line of events, policy characteristic analysis and focus group discussions. The study is also complemented by a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted at the Rufiji Health Demographic Surveillance Site, where a cohort of women of child-bearing age were followed up regarding access and use of ITNs. Results The major challenges observed include: the re-introduction of taxes on mosquito nets and related products, procurement and tendering procedures in the implementation of the GFATM, and organizational arrangements and free delivery of mosquito nets through a Presidential initiative. Conclusion The lessons gleaned from this synthesis include: (a the consistency of the stakeholders with a common vision, was an important strength in overcoming obstacles, (b senior politicians often steered

  20. Implementation of an insecticide-treated net subsidy scheme under a public-private partnership for malaria control in Tanzania--challenges in implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, Ritha J A; de Savigny, Don; Gilson, Lucy; Mwageni, Eleuther; Mosha, Franklin W

    2009-08-21

    In the past decade there has been increasing visibility of malaria control efforts at the national and international levels. The factors that have enhanced this scenario are the availability of proven interventions such as artemisinin-based combination therapy, the wide scale use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and a renewed emphasis in indoor residual house-spraying. Concurrently, there has been a window of opportunity of financial commitments from organizations such as the Global Fund for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), the President's Malaria Initiative and the World Bank Booster programme. The case study uses the health policy analysis framework to analyse the implementation of a public-private partnership approach embarked upon by the government of Tanzania in malaria control - 'The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme'- and in this synthesis, emphasis is on the challenges faced by the scheme during the pre-implementation (2001 - 2004) and implementation phases (2004 - 2005). Qualitative research tools used include: document review, interview with key informants, stakeholder's analysis, force-field analysis, time line of events, policy characteristic analysis and focus group discussions. The study is also complemented by a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted at the Rufiji Health Demographic Surveillance Site, where a cohort of women of child-bearing age were followed up regarding access and use of ITNs. The major challenges observed include: the re-introduction of taxes on mosquito nets and related products, procurement and tendering procedures in the implementation of the GFATM, and organizational arrangements and free delivery of mosquito nets through a Presidential initiative. The lessons gleaned from this synthesis include: (a) the consistency of the stakeholders with a common vision, was an important strength in overcoming obstacles, (b) senior politicians often steered the policy agenda when the policy in question was a 'crisis event

  1. Tax subsidies for private health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claudia; Burman, Len; Uccello, Cori; Wheaton, Laura; Kobes, Deborah; Khitatrakun, Surachai; Goodell, Sarah

    2003-05-01

    The exclusion from income and payroll taxes for employer-paid health insurance premiums amounted to more than $240 billion in 2010. As policy-makers search for ways to pay for health care reform and contain health care costs, this exclusion is coming under scrutiny, despite the fact that employee-sponsored insurance (ESI) is an integral part of the health insurance system. This update of a 2003 synthesis looks at the tax subsidy for private health insurance. Key findings include: The current tax subsidy benefits higher-income workers the most. The tax exclusion is worth more to those in higher tax brackets, higher-income workers are three times more likely to work for firms who offer ESI than lower-income workers, and they are more likely to purchase ESI when offered because they can afford it. Families earning $10,000 to $20,000 annually spend more than 25 percent of their income on health insurance but the value of their tax subsidy is only $1,500. By contrast, earners over $200,000 spend less than 5 percent on health insurance but their benefit is worth $4,500. Workers who cannot afford ESI or are ineligible, including the self-employed and many part-time workers, do not receive this subsidy when they purchase private, non-group coverage.

  2. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  3. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  4. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How to Design a Targeted Agricultural Subsidy System: Efficiency or Equity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is “reverse redistribution” in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems...... (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined....

  6. Sports Subsidies Soar. Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…

  7. Subsidies in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gössling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little attention has been paid to the existence of subsidies in aviation. As the sector’s importance for economic development is often highlighted, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual overview of the various forms of subsidies in aviation, as a contribution to a more holistic understanding of economic interrelationships. Based on a purposive sampling strategy, existing forms of subsidies are identified and categorized along the value chain. Focus is on industrialized countries, for which more information is available. Results indicate that significant subsidies are extended to manufacturers, infrastructure providers and airlines. These contribute to global economic growth related to aviation, but they also influence capacity in global aviation markets, strengthen the market position of individual airlines, and create conflicts between airlines and the countries they are based in. While the actual scale of subsidies cannot be determined within the scope of this paper, it provides a discussion of options to empirically assess the effects of aviation subsidies on market outcomes. Finally, general conclusions regarding the impact of subsidies on the overall sustainability of the air transport sector are drawn: These include rapidly growing capacity in the aviation system, economic vulnerabilities, and negative climate change related impacts. Results call for a better understanding of the distribution, character and implications of subsidies.

  8. Federal Aid to Postsecondary Students: Tax Allowances and Alternative Subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Congressional Budget Office.

    Various aspects of tax allowances for the expenses of higher education, and alternative subsidies are analyzed. A tax allowance for education is presented as one way to give more financial relief to middle-income families. The current distribution of student aid among income groups is discussed and data on college enrollment rates, family incomes,…

  9. Do Employment Subsidies Work? Evidence from Regionally Targeted Subsidies in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Betcherman, Gordon; Pages, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    subsidy programs did lead to significant net increases in registered jobs in eligible provinces (5%-13% for the first program and 11%-15% for the second). However, the cost of the actual job creation was high because of substantial deadweight losses, particularly for the first program (47% and 78...

  10. Peeling tomato paste subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, Frank H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Common Market Organisation (CMO) for fruit and vegetable products is currently evaluated by the European Commission. The evaluation may lead to a reform of the CMO. One of the elements under debate is the production subsidy for processing tomatoes. The processing tomato sector is one of most heavily subsidized sectors in primary production of fruit and vegetables. The current production subsidy equals approximately 50% of producer turnover. This paper evaluates two possible reforms of the...

  11. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  12. Premium subsidies and social health insurance: substitutes or complements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifmann, Mathias; Roeder, Kerstin

    2011-12-01

    Premium subsidies have been advocated as an alternative to social health insurance. These subsidies are paid if expenditure on health insurance exceeds a given share of income. In this paper, we examine whether this approach is superior to social health insurance from a welfare perspective. We show that the results crucially depend on the correlation of health and productivity. For a positive correlation, we find that combining premium subsidies with social health insurance is the optimal policy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Worker-level and Firm-level Effects of a Wage Subsidy Program for Highly Educated Labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of a Danish wage subsidy program for highly educated workers on the performance of the persons and firms participating in the program. Using data on the population of program participants, both workers and firms, we find that the program had positive effects on employment and....... For the total number of employees we only find positive effects during program participation while there are no statistically significant effects for value added, net income, return on assets, wages per employee and labor productivity....

  14. How to design a targeted agricultural subsidy system: efficiency or equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers' incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is "reverse redistribution" in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined.

  15. How to design a targeted agricultural subsidy system: efficiency or equity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Gang Cong

    Full Text Available In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers' incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is "reverse redistribution" in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan are presented and examined.

  16. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution

    OpenAIRE

    Komenaka, Ian K.; Nodora, Jesse N.; Madlensky, Lisa; Lisa M. Winton; Heberer, Meredith A.; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mut...

  17. Analysing oil-production subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblik, Ronald

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how subsidies affect fossil-fuel investment returns and production is crucial to commencing new reforms. New analysis on the impact of subsidies on US crude-oil producers finds that, at recent oil prices of around US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new oil investments into profitability.

  18. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ecker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for a successful reform combines fuel subsidy reduction with direct income transfers to the poorest one-third of households during reform, and productivity-enhancing investment in infrastructure, plus fiscal consolidation. Public investments should be used for integrating economic spaces and restructuring of agricultural, industrial and service value chains in order to create a framework that encourages private-sector-led and job-creating growth.

  19. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan; Poweo resultats du 1. semestre 2006. Resultat net positif, mise en oeuvre des 1. etapes du plan industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre.

  20. Child Care Subsidies and Childhood Obesity. NBER Working Paper No. 15007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    Child care subsidies play a critical role in facilitating the transition of disadvantaged mothers from welfare to work. However, little is known about the influence of these policies on children's health and well-being. In this paper, we study the impact of subsidy receipt on low-income children's weight outcomes in the fall and spring of…

  1. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  2. Do Child Care Subsidies Influence Single Mothers' Decision to Invest in Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…

  3. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  4. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Madlensky, Lisa; Winton, Lisa M; Heberer, Meredith A; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mutation profile for affected women. All 125 patients who were offered GCRA accepted to undergo GCRA. Of these, 72 % had a breast cancer diagnosis, 70 % were Hispanic, 52.8 % were non-English speakers, and 66 % did not have health insurance. Eighty four (67 %) were offered genetic testing and 81 (96 %) agreed. Hispanic women, those with no medical insurance, and those with a family history of breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo testing (p > 0.01). Twelve of 81 (15 %) patients were found to have deleterious mutations, seven BRCA1, and five BRCA2. Our experience shows that it is possible to offer GCRA and genetic testing even in the setting of limited resources for these services. This is important given that a large majority of the low-income women in our study agreed to undergo counseling and testing. Our experience could serve as a model for similar low-resource safety-net health settings.

  5. Tax subsidies for employment-related health insurance: estimates for 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Thomas M; Gray, Bradley M

    2006-01-01

    Employment-related health insurance is subsidized through exemptions from federal and state income taxes, as well as from taxes for Social Security and Medicare. Proposals to modify this subsidy are a perennial subject of policy debate. We present tax-subsidy projections from a new data resource constructed using a statistical linkage between the establishment and household components of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We project that the total federal and state tax subsidy in 2006 for employment-related coverage of active workers will exceed 200 billion dollars. We present per worker tax-subsidy estimates and an analysis of insurance incidence by establishment characteristics.

  6. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.514 Export subsidies. (a) In general. The Secretary will consider a subsidy to be an export subsidy if the Secretary determines that eligibility for...

  7. Preserving Neighborhood Opportunity: Where Federal Housing Subsidies Expire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Michael C; Reina, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Rent burdens are increasing in U.S. metropolitan areas while subsidies on privately owned, publicly subsidized rental units are expiring. As a result, some of the few remaining affordable units in opportunity neighborhoods are at risk of being converted to market rate. Policy makers face a decision about whether to devote their efforts and scarce resources toward developing new affordable housing, recapitalizing existing subsidized housing, and/or preserving properties with expiring subsidies. There are several reasons to preserve these subsidies, one being that properties may be located in neighborhoods with greater opportunity. In this article, we use several sources of data at the census tract level to learn how subsidy expirations affect neighborhood opportunity for low-income households. Our analysis presents several key findings. First, we find that units that left the project-based Section 8 program were - on average - in lower opportunity neighborhoods, but these neighborhoods were improving. In addition, properties due to expiry from the Section 8 program between 2011 and 2020 are in higher opportunity neighborhoods than any other subsidy program. On the contrary, new Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) units were developed in tracts similar to those where LIHTC units are currently active, which tend to be lower opportunity neighborhoods.

  8. The Government Subsidy Strategy Choice for Firm’s R&D: Input Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To encourage enterprises to conduct technology innovation, the government needs to formulate appropriate subsidies policy. This paper compares two R&D subsidy policies in a supplier-manufacturer supply chain, in which the manufacturer conducts R&D activity for quality improvement. By means of game theory, we investigate the optimal decisions of the players under the two R&D subsidy policies, that is, input subsidy policy and product subsidy policy. Finally, we compare the profits and welfare to explore the better R&D subsidy policy and provide decision support for government to formulate subsidy policy. The results show that under input subsidy policy the optimal production output, quality improvement, profits, government subsidies, and social welfare are all lower than those of product subsidy policy. Therefore, the government should use product subsidy strategy to encourage enterprise R&D activities.

  9. Shallow groundwater subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Jayawickreme, D.; Nosetto, M.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the world, shallow groundwater systems subsidize much higher net primary productivity (NPP) than would be expected based solely on local rainfall. Such subsidies are far more prevalent and less recognized in upland systems than in more commonly studied riparian ones. We present a quantitative framework for examining and quantifying groundwater subsidies globally, illustrating subsidies to NPP across rainfall gradients in Argentina and the southern United States, including Texas and California. In the Argentine Pampas, we determined that the presence of relatively shallow ground water increased the transpiration of forest plantations by 300 to 400 mm. Farther west, the presence of well developed Prosopis flexuosa woodlands in the Monte desert region east of the Andes has puzzled scientists for decades. We explored the vulnerability and importance of phreatic ground water for the productivity of the region, comparing the contributions of local rainfall to that of remote mountain recharge that is increasingly being diverted for irrigated agriculture before it reaches the desert. The isotopic composition of phreatic ground waters (δ2H; -137±5 ‰) closely matched the signature of water brought to the region by the Mendoza River (-137±6 ‰), suggesting that mountain river infiltration rather than in-situ rainfall deep drainage (-39±19 ‰) was the dominant mechanism of recharge. Vegetation in woodland ecosystems there relied on regionally derived ground water from Andean snowmelt located from 6.5 to 9.5 m underground. Understanding the ecohydrological coupling of surface and ground waters is vital for estimating net primary productivity and for balancing the demands of managed ecosystems with the conservation of unique natural systems.

  10. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  11. Mom-net: Evaluation of an internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral intervention for low-income depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Feil, Edward G; Seeley, John R; Leve, Craig; Gau, Jeff M; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Allan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Economically disadvantaged mothers (N = 266) of preschool aged children, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to Motivational Interviewing and Referral to Services (MIRS). Outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I Disorders (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS; Hamilton, 1960). Relative to participants in the MIRS condition, participants in Mom-Net demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression as indexed by self-report questionnaire (primary outcome), interviewer-rated symptoms, and diagnostic outcomes. Results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is effective as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Race/Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Income Are Not Demographic Drivers of Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients at a Diverse Safety Net Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya A. Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code, and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p=0.006, age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p=0.014, and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p<0.0001. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes.

  13. Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, David; Gakii Gatua, Josephine; Ikiara, Moses; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Mwaura, Mbutu; Whittington, Dale

    2016-06-01

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that high-income residential and nonresidential customers receive a disproportionate share of subsidies and that subsidy targeting is poor even among households with a private metered connection. We also find that stated expenditure on water, a commonly used means of estimating water use, is a poor proxy for metered use and that previous studies on subsidy incidence underestimate the magnitude of the subsidy delivered through water tariffs. These findings have implications for both the design and evaluation of water tariffs in developing countries.

  14. Self-care behavior change and depression among low-income predominantly Hispanic patients in safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunsung; Ell, Kathleen; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether changes in self-care behaviors during a 12-month period predicted the likelihood of screening positive for depression concurrently and prospectively among low-income Hispanic patients with diabetes. Secondary analyses were conducted with longitudinal data collected from a randomized controlled trial that had tested effectiveness of collaborative depression care. We examined whether changes in self-care behaviors observed during the 12 months after baseline predicted the likelihood of screening positive for depression at 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Self-care behaviors included healthy diet, exercise, self-blood glucose monitoring, and foot care, which were measured by a validated self-reported instrument. Logistic regression analyses indicated that patients with more frequent healthy diet during the 12 months after baseline had significantly lower likelihood of depression. Patients with more frequent exercise had a lower likelihood of screening for depression at 18- and 24-month follow-up. No significant association was found with self-blood glucose monitoring and foot care. These findings suggest the importance of integrated care that emphasizes healthy diet and exercise, together with traditional depression treatment, when helping low-income Hispanic patients with diabetes and comorbid depression.

  15. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  16. The “Cadillac Tax” on Health Benefits in the United States Will Hit the Middle Class Hardest: Refuting the Myth That Health Benefit Tax Subsidies Are Regressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2016-01-01

    U.S. employment-based health benefits are exempt from income and payroll taxes, an exemption that provided tax subsidies of $326.2 billion in 2015. Both liberal and conservative economists have denounced these subsidies as “regressive” and lauded a provision of the Affordable Care Act—the Cadillac Tax—that would curtail them. The claim that the subsidies are regressive rests on estimates showing that the affluent receive the largest subsidies in absolute dollars. But this claim ignores the standard definition of regressivity, which is based on the share of income paid by the wealthy versus the poor, rather than on dollar amounts. In this study, we calculate the value of tax subsidies in 2009 as a share of income for each income quintile and for the wealthiest Americans. In absolute dollars, tax subsidies were highest for families between the 80th and 95th percentiles of family income and lowest for the poorest 20%. However, as shares of income, subsidies were largest for the middle and fourth income quintiles and smallest for the wealthiest 0.5% of Americans. We conclude that the tax subsidy to employment-based insurance is neither markedly regressive, nor progressive. The Cadillac Tax will disproportionately harm families with (2009) incomes between $38,550 and $100,000, while sparing the wealthy.

  17. 76 FR 60805 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... ($/ Net \\2\\ lb) subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\...... European Union Restitution... of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia..., Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. BILLING...

  18. Government Preference and the Optimal Choice of R&D Subsidy Policy: Innovation Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking government preference into consideration, we consider a three-stage game model to compare the differences of innovation subsidy and product subsidy. The findings reveal that stronger preference to consumers’ welfare leads to higher subsidy rates, which benefit not only consumers but also firms. To choose between the two subsidies, the optimal choice varies with the changing preference of policymakers. According to the results of numerical simulation, product subsidy is better than innovation subsidy in most cases, while the government’s expenditure of the former one is larger than the latter one. Moreover, subsidizing firms symmetrically and asymmetrically has different effects on the consequences.

  19. Measuring the effects of reducing subsidies for private insurance on public expenditure for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Terence Chai

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of reducing subsidies for private health insurance on public sector expenditure for hospital care. An econometric framework using simultaneous equation models is developed to analyse the interrelated decisions on the intensity and type of health care use and private insurance. The framework is applied to the context of the mixed public-private system in Australia. The simulation projections show that reducing premium subsidies is expected to generate net cost savings. This arises because the cost savings achieved from reducing subsidies are larger than the potential increase in public expenditure on hospital care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 75 FR 32495 - Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... the Operating Fund Program. PHAs compute their operating subsidy eligibility by completing the...-52722); Operating Fund Calculation of Operating Subsidy (HUD-52723); and Calculation of Subsidies for...

  1. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E H J; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-07

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today's low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO 2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  2. 7 CFR 3550.68 - Payment subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment subsidies. 3550.68 Section 3550.68... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.68 Payment subsidies. RHS administers three types of payment subsidies: interest credit, payment assistance method 1, and...

  3. 19 CFR 351.523 - Upstream subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Upstream subsidies. 351.523 Section 351.523 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... all of the following elements exist: (i) A countervailable subsidy, other than an export subsidy, is...

  4. 19 CFR 351.527 - Transnational subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transnational subsidies. 351.527 Section 351.527 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.527 Transnational subsidies...

  5. The economics of agricultural subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    PART ONE

    1. Agricultural subsidies have been defined as a government induced change of relative prices of goods, services and factors of production in the agricultural sector. These agricultural price changes may result from a large number of different government measures varying

  6. Ud af subsidie-sumpen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen tager afsæt i, at subsidier hverken er i samfundets eller landbrugernes interesse. Subsidierne kapitaliseres i jordpriserne og medfører endvidere højere priser på landbrugets inputs. Da subsidierne blev indført, fik de daværende jordejere frit foræret en kapitalgevinst. Når subsidierne...

  7. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  8. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Neijhoft, Anastasia Naomi; Cook, Sarah; Palermo, Tia M

    2017-09-01

    As many as one billion children experience violence every year, and household- and community-level poverty are among the risk factors for child protection violations. Social safety nets (SSNs) are a main policy tool to address poverty and vulnerability, and there is substantial evidence demonstrating positive effects on children's health and human capital. This paper reviews evidence and develops a framework to understand linkages between non-contributory SSNs and the experience of childhood emotional, physical and sexual violence in low- and middle-income countries. We catalogue 14 rigorous impact evaluations, 11 of which are completed, analysing 57 unique impacts on diverse violence indicators. Among these impacts, approximately one in five represent statistically significant protective effects on childhood violence. Promising evidence relates to sexual violence among female adolescents in Africa, while there is less clear evidence of significant impacts in other parts of the developing world, and on young child measures, including violent discipline. Further, few studies are set up to meaningfully unpack mechanisms between SSNs and childhood violence; however, those most commonly hypothesized operate at the household level (through increases in economic security and reductions in poverty-related stress), the interpersonal level (improved parental behaviours, caregiving practices, improved psychosocial well-being) and at the child-level (protective education and decreases in problem or risky behaviours). It is important to emphasize that traditional SSNs are never designed with violence prevention as primary objectives, and thus should not be considered as standalone interventions to reduce risks for childhood violence. However, SSNs, particularly within integrated protection systems, appear to have potential to reduce violence risk. Linkages between SSNs and childhood violence are understudied, and investments should be made to close this evidence gap. © The

  10. The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: An empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea's energy subsidy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Hyun

    reforms, first of all, humans need a new energy paradigm to replace the hitherto dominant commodification paradigm. On an international level, creation of an international renewable energy agency and creation of renewable funds will spur on energy subsidy reforms of all nations, especially developing countries. On a national level, government's role should change from growth-oriented economic policy to sustainable development that includes environmentally friendly energy systems. In terms of social welfare, energy subsidies should be transformed to direct income policy, which is more effective for the welfare of the poor. The South Korean government should exchange its current supply-oriented fishery policy, which relies heavily on energy subsidies, to a Marine Reserves policy and direct income policy. For successful energy subsidy reforms, the government, NGOs, and private market should cooperate. Specifically, NGOs' role in monitoring and pushing government's energy subsidy reform is invaluable, considering the limits of modern bureaucracy and the profit-oriented market character. Most environmental problems, including global warming, have a close relation with fossil fuel and nuclear energy use. Historically, these energy systems have become entrenched deeply in society through energy subsidy policy. Energy subsidy reforms are a key to the environmental problem and accelerated transition to renewable energy.

  11. Impact of Subsidies and Socioeconomic Status on Varicella Vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Kei; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers' socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included in routine immunization program. Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378) undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N = 315) undergoing a health checkup in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city. Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-10.7] and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6), respectively, compared to low household income. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization. Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization programs, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine coverage.

  12. The Impact of Child-Care Subsidies on Child Development: Evidence from Geographic Variation in the Distance to Social Service Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of U.S. child-care subsidies on the cognitive and behavioral development of children in low-income female-headed families. We identify the effect of subsidy receipt by exploiting geographic variation in the distance that families must travel from home to reach the nearest social service agency that administers…

  13. Essays on land use decisions for energy crop production and the effects of subsidies under uncertainty and costly reversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng

    The U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates blending into transportation fuels of 16 billion gallons of cellulosic fuels annually by 2022. Dedicated energy crops are being explored to provide more efficient and environmental friendly feedstocks for cellulosic biofuel production. Devoting land to energy crops represents a long-term commitment, involves adjustment costs and great uncertainties. This research develops a dynamic land conversion model to take into account these factors. The model is applied to address two separate but related questions: under what conditions farmers are willing to convert production land to energy crops? Which subsidy policies encourage energy crop production most cost effectively? This dissertation is divided into two essays. The first essay studies a farmer's decision to convert a unit of traditional crop land into dedicated energy crops, taking into account sunk conversion costs, uncertainties of traditional and energy crop returns, and learning. The optimal decision rules differ significantly from the expected net present value rule, which ignores learning, and from real option models that allow only one way conversions into energy crops. These models also predict drastically different patterns of land conversions into and out of energy crops over time. Using corn-soybean rotation and switchgrass as examples, we show that the model predictions are sensitive to assumptions about stochastic processes of the returns. The second essay evaluates the cost-effectiveness of four types of governmental subsidies in encouraging energy crop production. We first present a land conversion model to show how the subsidies that are expected net present value (ENPV) equivalent can change a representative farmer's optimal land conversion rules differently for converting land into an alternative use as well as converting out of it. This is because these subsidies affect the land conversion costs, land return level and uncertainty

  14. DO CONSUMER PRICE SUBSIDIES REALLY IMPROVE NUTRITION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert T; Miller, Nolan H

    2011-11-01

    Many developing countries use food-price subsidies or controls to improve nutrition. However, subsidizing goods on which households spend a high proportion of their budget can create large wealth effects. Consumers may then substitute towards foods with higher non-nutritional attributes (e.g., taste), but lower nutritional content per unit of currency, weakening or perhaps even reversing the subsidy's intended impact. We analyze data from a randomized program of large price subsidies for poor households in two provinces of China and find no evidence that the subsidies improved nutrition. In fact, it may have had a negative impact for some households. (JEL I38; O12; Q18).

  15. Child-Care Subsidies: Do They Impact the Quality of Care Children Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…

  16. Is There a Case for Fuel Subsidy Removal in Malaysia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azam Abdul Razak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the indirect welfare effect of removing fuel subsidy on the Malaysian households. The analysis is based on the price-shifting model developed by Coady and Newhouse (2006 and carried out using the data from the Household Expenditure Survey 2004-2005 and the input-output table 2004-2005. The analysis yields the following key results: a The removal of fuel subsidy is expected to have a relatively huge indirect welfare effect on the society; b The indirect welfare effect is expected to be uneven across different broad categories of goods (of which the most affected ones are: i Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages, ii Housing, Water and Electricity; and iii Transportation; and c The indirect welfare effect is expected to be uniform across different income-based segments of households. Overall, the findings seem to constitute a case against fuel subsidy removal unless the adverse impact on the three categories of goods is mitigated in some way.

  17. 19 CFR 351.521 - Import substitution subsidies. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Import substitution subsidies. 351.521 Section 351... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.521 Import substitution subsidies. ...

  18. Taxes, Tax Subsidies and the Impact of Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Gregory M.

    1995-01-01

    Tax subsidies are an often overlooked method by which government subsidises agriculture. An examination of tax policies in Australia, Canada, Germany and the United States reveals several different tax subsidies provided to farmers in these countries. Most of these subsidies are in theory subject to reduction under GATT. For various reasons, however, most tax subsidies are not included in subsidy measures. Failure to include these kinds of subsidies in AMS measures could encourage their proli...

  19. Export subsidies, countervailing duties, and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ter Wang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple Cournot duopoly model, this paper provides an important policy implication for trade disputes involving export subsidies. In this paper, the possibility that a foreign export subsidy could benefit the domestic country as well as the foreign country by appropriately using countervailing duties is identified.

  20. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  1. ANALISIS DAMPAK SUBSIDI HARGA PUPUK TERHADAP OUTPUT SEKTOR PRODUKSI DAN TINGKAT PENDAPATAN RUMAH TANGGA DI JAWA TENGAH (Pendekatan Analisis I-O dan SNSE Jawa Tengah Tahun 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kasiyati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the impact of price subsidy on change in output of product sector as well as the influence of the subsidy on the level of household income in Central Java. This research used input-output and SAM (Social Accounting Matrix analysis. To analyze the impact of fertilizer price subsidy on the changes in output, this research used supply side aproach with matrix output inverse. While to know fertilizer price subsidy on household income, this research used SAM analysis analysis that stimulated the impact of fertilize price by income distribution patern analysis by using Matrix Decomposition Analysis. The research to referred SNSE Central Java 2004. The findings showed that fertilizer price subsidy in Central Java 2008 affected changes in output. The sector that showed highest changes was chemistry industrial and fertilizer sector (Rp 2.122.497 million, followed by mining sector ( Rp 1.274.906 million. Subsidy of fertilizer price in Central Java also affected the total increase in household income in Central Java (0,6435 percents. The household that showed income increases was simulation analysis was farmer entrepreneur household that showed income increase Rp 257.288,92 million or rise as high as 0,6024 percents. The second highest increase was urban affairs upper crust household with value of Rp 257.046,84 million.

  2. A welfare perspective on Nordic media subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2016-01-01

    this context, this article revisits the foundation of media subsidies in certain developed democracies, aiming at qualifying the current discussions. Focusing on the Nordic countries, the article explores the connection between the social-democratic welfare-state regime and the extensive public frameworks......Subsidies constitute a prominent media-policy instrument, serving to correct media-market failures. However, because they interfere in the market, and because the commercial media market is under structural pressure in the digital age, there is much debate about the role of media subsidies. Within...... for media subsidies found in this region. The article argues that even though continuity rather than disruption characterises the systems of direct and indirect subsidies, the current developments point towards a recalibration of the ways the Nordic countries subsidise media in the future....

  3. A welfare perspective on Nordic media subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2016-01-01

    this context, this article revisits the foundation of media subsidies in certain developed democracies, aiming at qualifying the current discussions. Focusing on the Nordic countries, the article explores the connection between the social-democratic welfare-state regime and the extensive public frameworks...... for media subsidies found in this region. The article argues that even though continuity rather than disruption characterises the systems of direct and indirect subsidies, the current developments point towards a recalibration of the ways the Nordic countries subsidise media in the future.......Subsidies constitute a prominent media-policy instrument, serving to correct media-market failures. However, because they interfere in the market, and because the commercial media market is under structural pressure in the digital age, there is much debate about the role of media subsidies. Within...

  4. A welfare perspective on Nordic media subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2016-01-01

    Subsidies constitute a prominent media-policy instrument, serving to correct media-market failures. However, because they interfere in the market, and because the commercial media market is under structural pressure in the digital age, there is much debate about the role of media subsidies. Within...... this context, this article revisits the foundation of media subsidies in certain developed democracies, aiming at qualifying the current discussions. Focusing on the Nordic countries, the article explores the connection between the social-democratic welfare-state regime and the extensive public frameworks...... for media subsidies found in this region. The article argues that even though continuity rather than disruption characterises the systems of direct and indirect subsidies, the current developments point towards a recalibration of the ways the Nordic countries subsidise media in the future....

  5. Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Mineau, Madeleine M; Hall, Robert O

    2011-06-01

    Although the study of resource subsidies has emerged as a key topic in both ecosystem and food web ecology, the dialogue over their role has been limited by separate approaches that emphasize either subsidy quantity or quality. Considering quantity and quality together may provide a simple, but previously unexplored, framework for identifying the mechanisms that govern the importance of subsidies for recipient food webs and ecosystems. Using a literature review of > 90 studies of open-water metabolism in lakes and streams, we show that high-flux, low-quality subsidies can drive freshwater ecosystem dynamics. Because most of these ecosystems are net heterotrophic, allochthonous inputs must subsidize respiration. Second, using a literature review of subsidy quality and use, we demonstrate that animals select for high-quality food resources in proportions greater than would be predicted based on food quantity, and regardless of allochthonous or autochthonous origin. This finding suggests that low-flux, high-quality subsidies may be selected for by animals, and in turn may disproportionately affect food web and ecosystem processes (e.g., animal production, trophic energy or organic matter flow, trophic cascades). We then synthesize and review approaches that evaluate the role of subsidies and explicitly merge ecosystem and food web perspectives by placing food web measurements in the context of ecosystem budgets, by comparing trophic and ecosystem production and fluxes, and by constructing flow food webs. These tools can and should be used to address future questions about subsidies, such as the relative importance of subsidies to different trophic levels and how subsidies may maintain or disrupt ecosystem stability and food web interactions.

  6. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  7. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Sistema de informação geográfica para mapeamento da renda líquida aplicado no planejamento da agricultura irrigada Algorithm to mapping net income applied in irrigated agriculture planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um algoritmo na linguagem computacional MATLAB para aplicações em sistemas de informações geográficas, visando ao mapeamento da renda líquida maximizada de cultivos irrigados. O estudo foi desenvolvido para as culturas do maracujá, da cana-de-açúcar, do abacaxi e do mamão, em área de aproximadamente 2.500 ha, localizada no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados de entrada do algoritmo foram informações edafoclimáticas, funções de resposta das culturas à água, dados de localização geográfica da área e índices econômicos referentes ao custo do processo produtivo. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o algoritmo desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente para o mapeamento da renda líquida de cultivos irrigados, sendo capaz de localizar áreas que apresentam maiores retornos econômicos.The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm in MATLAB computational language to be applied in geographical information systems to map net income irrigated crops to plan irrigated agriculture. The study was developed for the crops of passion fruit plant, sugarcane, pineapple and papaya, in an area of approximately 2,500 ha, at Campos dos Goytacazes, located at north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The algorithm input data were: information about soil, climate, crop water response functions, geographical location and economical cost indexes of the productive process. The results allowed concluding that developed algorithm was efficient to map net income of irrigated crops, been able to locate areas that present larger economical net income.

  9. Rationality of the subsidy regime for wind power in Sweden and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    1995-12-31

    This study comprise analysis and discussion of incentives inherent in the Swedish and Danish subsidy regimes for household owned wind power. New results include an evaluation of the subsidy value of income and VAT tax breaks available to investors, and a demonstration of the importance of the choice of ownership arrangements for the profitability of wind power projects. The study outlines the complex restrictions associated with different forms of wind power ownership. These cause the investment market to be highly segmented. The discussion includes several irrational system effects of the subsidy regimes. Among these are collision with energy saving goals, excessive capital costs, dubious siting decisions, and distorted competition among technologies. In conclusion, come policy recommendations are suggested. (author)

  10. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252 Authorized rental subsidies. (a) General. The purpose of rental subsidies is to reduce amounts paid by tenants for...

  11. 19 CFR 351.502 - Specificity of domestic subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specificity of domestic subsidies. 351.502 Section... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.502 Specificity of domestic subsidies. (a) Sequential analysis. In determining whether a subsidy is de facto specific, the...

  12. Reducing rebound effect through fossil subsidies reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Yang, Yingkui; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    by rebound effect. Energy subsidy as an economic regulation policy would significantly affect rebound effect. To explore how China's fossil subsidies reform would affect rebound effect, this study conducts a comprehensive evaluation based on a multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Rebound...... for electricity than for primary energies. Secondly, by removing fossil energy subsides, the rebound effect would be effectively mitigated, and removing all subsides would reduce the rebound effect most, however, it would bring significant negative impacts on the macro economy. Thirdly, an integrated policy...... with removal of fossil energy subsidies and increment of clean energy subsidies would be more effective, greatly reducing rebound effect and also bring benefits for both economy and environment. Our findings would be critical for China’s low-carbon policy making in the future....

  13. On the Incidence of Employment Subsidies to Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    The present paper analyses employment subsidies to vocational training under union wage bargaining. The analysis includes an investigation of the consequences of financing the subsidy by a levy on employment, which is the typical way of financing these types of subsidies in many countries....... The paper demonstrates high incidence rates of subsidies to vocational training under standard assumptions about the preference structure of the union. The financing scheme appears to counteract the purpose of the subsidy....

  14. The Incidence of Employment Subsidies for Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses employment subsidies for vocational training under union wage bargaining. The analysis includes an investigation of the consequences of financing the subsidy by a levy on employment, which is the typical way of financing these types of subsidies in many countries. The paper...... demonstrates high incidence rates of subsidies for vocational training under standard assumptions about the preference structure of the union. The financing scheme appears to counteract the purpose of the subsidy....

  15. Subsidies to Increase Remote Pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestikova, Jana; Krizanova, Anna; Corejova, Tatiana; Kral, Pavol; Spuchlakova, Erika

    2017-04-12

    During the last decade, Central Europe became a cynosure for the world for its unparalleled public support for renewable energy. For instance, the production of electricity from purpose-grown biomass received approximately twice the amount in subsidies as that produced from biowaste. Moreover, the guaranteed purchase price of electricity from solar panels was set approximately five times higher than that from conventional sources. This controversial environmental donation policy led to the devastation of large areas of arable land, a worsening of food availability, unprecedented market distortions, and serious threats to national budgets, among other things. Now, the first proposals to donate the purchase price of electric vehicles (and related infrastructure) from national budgets have appeared for public debate. Advocates of these ideas argue that they can solve the issue of electricity overproduction, and that electric vehicles will reduce emissions in cities. However, our analysis reveals that, as a result of previous scandals, environmental issues have become less significant to local citizens. Given that electric cars are not yet affordable for most people, in terms of local purchasing power, this action would further undermine national budgets. Furthermore, while today's electromobiles produce zero pollution when operated, their sum of emissions (i.e. global warming potential) remains much higher than that of conventional combustion engines. Therefore, we conclude that the mass usage of electromobiles could result in the unethical improvement of a city environment at the expense of marginal regions.

  16. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME....823-4 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with the gross amount of income...

  17. Consequences of Food Safety Abolishing Energy Subsidies on Iranian Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fathi

    2016-10-01

    Methods: Equilibrium displacement models (EDMs have used in applied economics. EDM allows the researchers to focus on result of various supply and demand shifter. In this study,to decide the effects of elimination of energy subsidy policy on meat producers and consumers. The model comprises horizontally linked beef, sheep, and poultry demands at the retail level as well as vertical linkages between the farm and retail sectors. Results and Discussion: Scenarios for energy price rise are created following three steps. First, a 38 % increase created in prices of energy carriers. Then change in balance, an increase of 50 % considered as the second stage. Up to this point we have about 88 % rise in energy prices, which must raise by another 300 % to reach the global prices which created in the third scenario. Alongside policies for elimination of energy subsidies, there has been a policy of cash subsidies in the country. In this study, to calculate the effect of cash subsidy, it was necessary to calculate the increase in family expenditures in exchange for a certain percentage of increase in the meat price. Therefore, with increase of average meat price, the average family expenditures for meat were also calculated. This average is the value which will pay to families in cash. Like assumptions used in the demand model, if all income rise spent on food, the percentage of increase in expenditure can be calculated. Using this percentage and income elasticity elements, the effect of cash subsidies on increasing meat expenditure can be calculated. Though accepting the premise that all families spend their income rise to buy meat is difficult, it helps us take a general attitude about paying cash that increases demand and shocks the retail demand. Therefore, an increase of 2 and 5 % considered for the average family expenditure. A 2 percent increase in the family expenditure increased the demand for poultry, sheep, beef by about 0.63, 1.13 and 0.92 percent and a 5 percent increase

  18. High subsidies for energy conservation measures. Hoge subsidies voor energiebesparende maatregelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frerejean, J.A.M. (Regionaal Energiebedrijf in Dordrecht (Netherlands))

    1993-02-01

    350 million Dutch guilders of subsidies are waiting for industries and businesses who want to implement energy saving measures. This amount of money is divided over five different subsidy regulations. A Dutch energy utility (Regionaal Energiebedrijf Dordrecht) summarized the most important regulations to inform interested businesses and industries. 2 figs.

  19. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...

  20. Impact of a Lower Oil Subsidy on Indonesian Macroeconomic Performance, Agricultural Sector and Poverty Incidences: a Recursive Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Oktaviani; Dedi Budiman Hakim; Hermanto Siregar; Sahara Sahara

    2007-01-01

    Budget deficit, exchange rate fluctuation and high fuel world price provides a pressure on budget capacity to stimulate the Indonesian economy. The government has designed several fiscal policies, including reducing the fuel subsidy. The study objective is to analyse the impact of reducing fuel subsidy on macroeconomic variables, agricultural sector, and income distribution. The modification on the basic model, which is a recursive-dynamic CGE model, is made in this study. The data used in th...

  1. A randomized pilot trial of a full subsidy vs. a partial subsidy for obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Adam G; Felton, Sue; Hill, James O; Atherly, Adam J

    2012-09-01

    Intensive obesity treatment is mandated by federal health care reform but is costly. A partial subsidy for obesity treatment could lower the cost of treatment, without reducing its efficacy. This study sought to test whether a partial subsidy for obesity treatment would be feasible, as compared to a fully subsidized intervention. The study was a pilot randomized trial. Participants (n = 50) were primary care patients with obesity and at least one comorbid condition (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or obstructive sleep apnea). Each participant received eight weight loss counseling visits as well as portion-controlled foods for weight loss. Participants were randomized to full subsidy or partial subsidy (2 vs. 1 meal per day provided). The primary outcome was weight change after 4 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in blood pressure, waist circumference, and health-related quality of life. Participants in the full and partial subsidy groups lost 5.9 and 5.3 kg, equivalent to 5.3% and 5.1% of initial weight, respectively (P = 0.71). Changes in secondary outcomes were similar in the two groups. A partial subsidy was feasible and induced a clinically similar amount of weight loss, compared to a full subsidy. Large-scale testing of economic incentives for weight control is merited given the federal mandate to offer weight loss counseling to obese patients.

  2. 76 FR 45208 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... entering into a Federally recognized marriage. That is because child care subsidies are currently available... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 792 RIN 3206-AL36 Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower... agencies' use of appropriated funds to provide child care subsidies for lower-income civilian employees, to...

  3. Improving The Affordable Care Act: An Assessment Of Policy Options For Providing Subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Evan A; Eibner, Christine; Enthoven, Alain C

    2015-12-01

    A key challenge of health reform efforts is to make health insurance affordable for individuals and families who lack coverage without harming those with coverage or increasing federal spending. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) addresses this challenge in part by providing tax subsidies to qualified individuals for purchasing individual insurance and retaining tax exemptions for employer and employee contributions to the cost of premiums of employer-sponsored insurance. These tax exemptions cost approximately $250 billion annually in lost tax revenue and have been criticized for favoring higher earners and conferring preferential treatment of employer-sponsored over individual insurance. We analyzed three options for leveling the financial playing field between the two insurance markets by reallocating the value of tax benefits of employer coverage. We found that one option that uses the subsidy formula employed in the insurance Marketplaces under the ACA for both the individual and employer-sponsored insurance markets, and additionally requires the subsidy to be at least $1,250 without an upper income limit on subsidy eligibility imposed, could expand insurance coverage and reduce individual market premiums relative to the ACA with no additional federal spending. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Demand for pneumococcal vaccination under subsidy program for the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Yamamura, Mariko; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Okubo, Ichiro

    2012-09-12

    Vaccination programs often organize subsidies and public relations in order to obtain high uptake rates and coverage. However, effects of subsidies and public relations have not been studied well in the literature. In this study, the demand function of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly in Japan is estimated, incorporating effects of public relations and subsidy. Using a data from a questionnaire survey sent to municipalities, the varying and constant elasticity models were applied to estimate the demand function. The response variable is the uptake rate. Explanatory variables are: subsidy supported shot price, operating years of the program, target population size for vaccination, shot location intensity, income and various public relations tools. The best model is selected by c-AIC, and varying and constant price elasticities are calculated from estimation results. The vaccine uptake rate and the shot price have a negative relation. From the results of varying price elasticity, the demand for vaccination is elastic at municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD). Effects of public relations on the uptake rate are not found. It can be suggested that municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD) could subsidize more and reduce price to increase the demand for vaccination. Effects of public relations are not confirmed in this study, probably due to measurement errors of variables used for public relations, and studies at micro level exploring individual's response to public relations would be required.

  5. 19 CFR 351.513 - Worker-related subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Worker-related subsidies. 351.513 Section 351.513 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.513 Worker-related subsidies. (a...

  6. Child-Care Subsidies and School Readiness in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child-care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old…

  7. Nigerian government and oil subsidy regime: a horn of dilemma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the nature and politics of oil subsidy in Nigeria with the aim of identifying the forces behind subsidy removal. To scientifically analyze the issues raised, the study utilized political economy and public choice theories, an eclectic approach. The paper argued that the removal of fuel subsidy by the Federal ...

  8. Impacts of subsidy policies on vaccination decisions in contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Lin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-07-01

    To motivate more people to participate in vaccination campaigns, various subsidy policies are often supplied by government and the health sectors. However, these external incentives may also alter the vaccination decisions of the broader public, and hence the choice of incentive needs to be carefully considered. Since human behavior and the networking-constrained interactions among individuals significantly impact the evolution of an epidemic, here we consider the voluntary vaccination on human contact networks. To this end, two categories of typical subsidy policies are considered: (1) under the free subsidy policy, the total amount of subsidy is distributed to a certain fraction of individual and who are vaccinated without personal cost, and (2) under the partial-offset subsidy policy, each vaccinated person is offset by a certain amount of subsidy. A vaccination decision model based on evolutionary game theory is established to study the effects of these different subsidy policies on disease control. Simulations suggest that, because the partial-offset subsidy policy encourages more people to take vaccination, its performance is significantly better than that of the free subsidy policy. However, an interesting phenomenon emerges in the partial-offset scenario: with limited amount of total subsidy, a moderate subsidy rate for each vaccinated individual can guarantee the group-optimal vaccination, leading to the maximal social benefits, while such an optimal phenomenon is not evident for the free subsidy scenario.

  9. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... represents the cost differential between the subsidized vessel and its foreign-flag competition. A daily rate...

  10. PENGATURAN SUBSIDI PERIKANAN DALAM WTO DAN DAMPAKNYA BAGI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton T. Putra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries subsidies have been practiced by many states in the world. Such actions are considered as one of the causes of over-fishing. Its also endanger sustainable fisheries management. There is no specific regulation on fisheries subsidies in the WTO. To date, negotiation over fisheries subsidies came out with the draft and it would be attach as Annexes VIII of SCM Agreement. The draft of fisheries subsidies specifically regulates prohibited subsidies, general exception and special and different treatment. The impact of the WTO fisheries subsidies draft will be negative to the Indonesian fisheries market, fishery resources and employment.   Subsidi perikanan telah dipraktikkan oleh negara-negara di dunia. Tindakan tersebut dianggap sebagai salah satu penyebab terjadinya eksploitasi sumber daya perikanan sehingga membahayakan pengelolaan perikanan berkelanjutan. Terkait dengan perdagangan dan subsidi perikanan, belum ada regulasi khusus tentang subsidi perikanan di WTO. Negosiasi di WTO hingga saat ini baru pada rancangan yang akan menjadi lampiran VIII SCM Agreement. Rancangan subsidi perikanan di WTO mengatur secara khusus tentang subsidi perikanan yang dilarang dan pengecualian secara umum. Dampak dari rancangan subsidi perikanan WTO tersebut apabila berhasil disahkan akan memberikan dampak negatif kepada Indonesia terkait dengan pasar perikanan, sumber daya perikanan dan lapangan pekerjaan.

  11. Do Employment Subsidies Reduce Early Apprenticeship Dropout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Jan; Göbel, Christian; Maier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of the Apprenticeship Bonus, an employment subsidy programme, on early apprenticeship dropout. Eligibility for the programme is restricted to school leavers who have actively looked for an apprenticeship to start immediately after leaving school, but were unsuccessful in finding one. Our analysis is based on rich survey data…

  12. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Franić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.

  13. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  14. Agricultural subsidies and the American obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-09-01

    Government-issued agricultural subsidies are worsening obesity trends in America. Current agricultural policy remains largely uninformed by public health discourse. Although findings suggest that eliminating all subsidies would have a mild impact on the prevalence of obesity, a revision of commodity programs could have a measurable public health impact on a population scale, over time. Policy reforms will be important determinants of the future of obesity in America, primarily through indemnity program revisions, and the allocation of increasing amounts of resources to sustainable agriculture. Public health intervention will be required at the policy level to promote healthy behavioral changes in consumers. The 2013 Farm Bill will be the key mechanism to induce such policy change in the near future. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do individuals respond to cost-sharing subsidies in their selections of marketplace health insurance plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeire, Thomas; Chappel, Andre; Finegold, Kenneth; Gee, Emily

    2017-09-20

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides assistance to low-income consumers through both premium subsidies and cost-sharing reductions (CSRs). Low-income consumers' lack of health insurance literacy or information regarding CSRs may lead them to not take-up CSR benefits for which they are eligible. We use administrative data from 2014 to 2016 on roughly 22 million health insurance plan choices of low-income individuals enrolled in ACA Marketplace coverage to assess whether they behave in a manner consistent with being aware of the availability of CSRs. We take advantage of discontinuous changes in the schedule of CSR benefits to show that consumers are highly sensitive to the value of CSRs when selecting insurance plans and that a very low percentage select dominated plans. These findings suggest that CSR subsidies are salient to consumers and that the program is well designed to account for any lack of health insurance literacy among the low-income population it serves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  17. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  18. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-2 - Currently distributable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Currently distributable income. 1.662(a)-2... distributable net income (as defined in section 643(a) but computed without taking into account the payment... amount which bears the same ratio to distributable net income (as so computed) as the amount of income...

  19. Perceptions of the quality of low-income houses in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in low-income houses from the perspective of both owners and contractors. A .... issues (35%). Therefore, as state-delivered subsidy or low-income houses will continue to dominate the South African landscape in terms of housing provision for lower income households ( ... Quality issues in construction management corpus.

  20. Child Care Subsidies and School Readiness in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769

  1. The Impact of Subsidies on Production Innovation and Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žampa Sabina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates correlation between subsidies to invest in development projects, innovation, financial performance and sustainable growth. The focus of the study is on subsidies for co-financing purchases of new technological equipment aimed at promoting innovation and production of new products. Subsidies are distributed based on the prepared European Union (EU and national programs for the purposes of faster economic growth in accordance with the policies and guidelines of the EU. The paper employs a combination of enterprises’ accounting data, data on subsidies and unique in-depth data obtained through a survey at the enterprise level. The results revealed a positive impact of subsidies on financial indicators, and only limited effect on innovation. While analyzing sustainable growth, we have established that the enterprises that received subsidies had a higher growth of financial indicators.

  2. Protectionism through Exporting: Subsidies with Export Share Requirements in China

    OpenAIRE

    Defever, Fabrice; Riaño, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of subsidies subject to export share requirements (ESR) that is, conditioned on a firm exporting at least a given fraction of its output - on exports, the intensity of competition and welfare, through the lens of a two-country model of trade with heterogeneous firms. Our calibrated model suggests that this type of subsidy boosts exports more and provides greater protection for domestic firms than a standard unconditional export subsidy, albeit at a substantial welfare cost.

  3. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy.

  4. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    ABSTRACT: To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed and profiling techniques are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service (PES) and random search. Jobseekers choose between...... with re-spect to the hiring subsidy. The hiring subsidy raises not only the job destruction rate, but in-creases contrary to the Mortensen-Pissarides model also the duration of unemployment. Like the subsidy, profiling measures, which improve the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd-out the active...

  5. Cost-sharing strategies combining targeted public subsidies with private-sector delivery achieve high bednet coverage and reduced malaria transmission in Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasigudi N

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-sharing schemes incorporating modest targeted subsidies have promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for malaria prevention in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania, since 1996. Here we evaluate resulting changes in bednet coverage and malaria transmission. Methods Bednets were sold through local agents at fixed prices representing a 34% subsidy relative to full delivery cost. A further targeted subsidy of 15% was provided to vulnerable groups through discount vouchers delivered through antenatal clinics and regular immunizations. Continuous entomological surveys (2,376 trap nights were conducted from October 2001 to September 2003 in 25 randomly-selected population clusters of a demographic surveillance system which monitored net coverage. Results Mean net usage of 75% (11,982/16,086 across all age groups was achieved but now-obsolete technologies available at the time resulted in low insecticide treatment rates. Malaria transmission remained intense but was substantially reduced: Compared with an exceptionally high historical mean EIR of 1481, even non-users of nets were protected (EIR [fold reduction] = 349 infectious bites per person per year [×4], while the average resident (244 [×6], users of typical nets (210 [×7] and users of insecticidal nets (105 [×14] enjoyed increasing benefits. Conclusion Despite low net treatment levels, community-level protection was equivalent to the personal protection of an ITN. Greater gains for net users and non-users are predicted if more expensive long-lasting ITN technologies can be similarly promoted with correspondingly augmented subsidies. Cost sharing strategies represent an important option for national programmes lacking adequate financing to fully subsidize comprehensive ITN coverage.

  6. Yield and net income of unripe corn in function of the hilling dates / Produção e renda líquida de milho verde em função da época de amontoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovany Doffinger Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agromen 2029 unripe corn was studied without and with hilling on 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 and 14-28-42 days after sowing (DAS. Those eight treatments were arranged in a randomized experimental block design, with four replications. The highest heights of plant (176.9 cm and of first ear (83.9 cm were from those with no hilling (SA and the smallest ones (162.4 and 72.9 cm, respectively were from those with hilling on 28 DAS. The greatest yield of ears (56,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (47,000 ears ha-1. The greatest yield of non commercial ears (15,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (7,000 ears ha-1. Yield of commercial ears varied from 38,000 ears ha-1, on 28 DAS treatment to 41,000 ears ha-1, on 14, 42, 28-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments. Costs of yield varied from R$ 1,315.90 ha-1, in SA treatment, to R$ 1,774.17 ha-1, with hilling on 14-28-42 DAS. The greatest net income was R$ 2,684.10 ha-1 with no hilling and the smallest was R$ 2,166.81 ha-1 with hilling on 14-42 DAS. In the conditions that the experiment was carried out it was concluded that the cultivation with no hilling is recommended because it showed the smallest yield cost and the greatest net income.Foi estudado o milho-verde Agromen 2029, sem amontoa e com amontoa aos 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 e 14-28-42 dias após a semeadura-DAS. Os oito tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As maiores alturas da planta (176,9 cm e da primeira espiga (83,9 cm foram encontradas no tratamento sem amontoa e as menores (162,4 e 72,9 cm, respectivamente no tratamento com amontoa aos 28 DAS. A maior produção total de espigas (56.000 espigas ha-1 foi obtida no tratamento 14-28-42 DAS e a menor foi no sem amontoa (47.000 espigas ha-1. A maior produção de espigas não comerciais (15.000 espigas ha-1

  7. Duurzaamheidseffecten aanpak milieuschadelijke subsidies: de duurzaamheidseffecten van aanpassing of afschaffing van milieuschadelijke subsidies nader onderzocht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko); K.E.H. Maas (Karen); J.J. Bouma (Jan Jaap)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDit onderzoek heeft betrekking op enerzijds het ontwikkelen van een transparante methodiek voor het bepalen van de sociale en economische effecten van subsidies en anderzijds het toepassen van de ontwikkelde methodiek voor het bepalen van sociale, economische en ook milieueffecten van

  8. Subsidies for energy conservation by municipalities. Subsidie voor energiebesparing door gemeenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frerejean, J.A.M. (Regionaal Energiebedrijf Dordrecht (Netherlands))

    1992-01-01

    For the implementation of its Environment Action Plan (MAP in Dutch), the Regionaal Energiebedrijf Dordrecht RED (Regional Energy Distribution Company) needs the cooperation of the 30 municipalities within its supply area. Therefore the RED drafted a Guide to Subsidies for the municipalities, which must serve as a tool in selecting energy and environment saving options.

  9. The Impact of Increased Tax Subsidies on the Insurance Coverage of Self-Employed Families: Evidence from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    The share of health insurance premiums that self-employed workers can deduct when computing federal income taxes rose from 30 percent in 1996 to 100 percent in 2003. Data from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey are used to show that the increased tax subsidy was associated with substantial increases in private coverage among…

  10. Premium subsidies, the mandate, and Medicaid expansion: Coverage effects of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frean, Molly; Gruber, Jonathan; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2017-05-01

    Using premium subsidies for private coverage, an individual mandate, and Medicaid expansion, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased insurance coverage. We provide the first comprehensive assessment of these provisions' effects, using the 2012-2015 American Community Survey and a triple-difference estimation strategy that exploits variation by income, geography, and time. Overall, our model explains 60% of the coverage gains in 2014-2015. We find that coverage was moderately responsive to price subsidies, with larger gains in state-based insurance exchanges than the federal exchange. The individual mandate's exemptions and penalties had little impact on coverage rates. The law increased Medicaid among individuals gaining eligibility under the ACA and among previously-eligible populations ("woodwork effect") even in non-expansion states, with no resulting reductions in private insurance. Overall, exchange premium subsidies produced 40% of the coverage gains explained by our ACA policy measures, and Medicaid the other 60%, of which 1/2 occurred among previously-eligible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Subsidies on the Prevalence of Climate-Sensitive Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Tan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on air-conditioning (AC for residential cooling and ventilation is a health and sustainability challenge. In hot temperatures, climate-sensitive buildings (CSB can complement and/or substitute for AC usage in achieving thermal comfort. Many countries facing such conditions—particularly in tropical climates—are developing quickly, with rising populations and income creating demand for new housing and AC. This presents a window for adoption of CSB but could also result in long term lock-in of AC-dependent buildings. Here, a simple system dynamics model is used to explore the potential and limitations of subsidies to affect futures of housing stock and night-time AC usage in Malaysia. The effectiveness of subsidies in achieving high uptake of CSB and resulting health benefits is highly dependent on homebuyer willingness to pay (WTP. A detailed understanding of WTP in the Malaysian context and factors that can shift WTP is necessary to determine if CSB subsidies can be a good policy mechanism for achieving CSB uptake.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-7 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.1402(a)-7...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-7 Net operating loss deduction. The deduction provided by section 172, relating to net operating losses sustained in years other...

  13. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  14. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints, and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2011-01-01

    to many earlier studies, the results suggest that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12–15) is a more important......I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with Programme for International Student Assessment test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary...... determinant of child achievement than earlier income....

  15. Effectiveness of subsidies in promoting healthy food purchases and consumption: a review of field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2013-07-01

    To systematically review evidence from field interventions on the effectiveness of monetary subsidies in promoting healthier food purchases and consumption. Keyword and reference searches were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane Library, EconLit, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies were included based on the following criteria: (i) intervention: field experiments; (ii) population: adolescents 12–17 years old or adults 18 years and older; (iii) design: randomized controlled trials, cohort studies or pre–post studies; (iv) subsidy: price discounts or vouchers for healthier foods; (v) outcome: food purchases or consumption; (vi) period: 1990–2012; and (vii) language: English. Twenty-four articles on twenty distinct experiments were included with study quality assessed using predefined methodological criteria. Interventions were conducted in seven countries: the USA (n 14), Canada (n 1), France (n 1), Germany (n 1), Netherlands (n 1), South Africa (n 1) and the UK (n 1). Subsidies applied to different types of foods such as fruits, vegetables and low-fat snacks sold in supermarkets, cafeterias, vending machines, farmers’ markets or restaurants. Interventions enrolled various population subgroups such as school/ university students, metropolitan transit workers and low-income women. All but one study found subsidies on healthier foods to significantly increase the purchase and consumption of promoted products. Study limitations include small and convenience samples, short intervention and follow-up duration, and lack of cost-effectiveness and overall diet assessment. Subsidizing healthier foods tends to be effective in modifying dietary behaviour. Future studies should examine its long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at the population level and its impact on overall diet intake.

  16. Who are the uninsured eligible for premium subsidies in the health insurance exchanges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    A key provision of the national health reform law is the creation of state-based exchanges to provide more affordable insurance options for people, especially the uninsured. Despite premium subsidies for people with incomes up to 400 percent of the poverty level, or $88,200 for a family of four in 2010, and an individual requirement to enroll in coverage, no one knows who will enroll in the exchanges and who will not, at least initially. Almost 40 percent of uninsured people eligible to receive subsidies through the exchanges have chronic conditions or report fair or poor health, and another 28 percent report recent problems with access to care or paying medical bills, according to a new national study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). However, about one-third of uninsured people eligible for subsidies have had no recent problems with their health, access to medical care or paying medical bills. Enrolling these apparently healthy uninsured people is likely to be challenging but essential to avoiding adverse selection, or enrolling sicker-than-average people, in the exchanges. Otherwise, health insurance costs in the exchanges could be higher than expected. Contrary to popular perception, many of these healthy and low-cost uninsured people view themselves as risk-averse, which could motivate them to gain coverage in the absence of health or access problems. Also, most uninsured people believe they need health coverage, although fewer believe that health insurance is currently worth the cost, a situation that could change once premium subsidies are available in 2014.

  17. Demand for pneumococcal vaccination under subsidy program for the elderly in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Masahide

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination programs often organize subsidies and public relations in order to obtain high uptake rates and coverage. However, effects of subsidies and public relations have not been studied well in the literature. In this study, the demand function of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly in Japan is estimated, incorporating effects of public relations and subsidy. Methods Using a data from a questionnaire survey sent to municipalities, the varying and constant elasticity models were applied to estimate the demand function. The response variable is the uptake rate. Explanatory variables are: subsidy supported shot price, operating years of the program, target population size for vaccination, shot location intensity, income and various public relations tools. The best model is selected by c-AIC, and varying and constant price elasticities are calculated from estimation results. Results The vaccine uptake rate and the shot price have a negative relation. From the results of varying price elasticity, the demand for vaccination is elastic at municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD. Effects of public relations on the uptake rate are not found. Conclusions It can be suggested that municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD could subsidize more and reduce price to increase the demand for vaccination. Effects of public relations are not confirmed in this study, probably due to measurement errors of variables used for public relations, and studies at micro level exploring individual’s response to public relations would be required.

  18. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  19. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous…

  20. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  1. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  2. Evolving An Effective Trade Policy Against Agricultural Subsidies Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an analysis of Nigeria's trade policy in tackling the issue of agricultural subsidies. This took the form of an in-depth assessment of the impact of agricultural subsidies, drawing from the experiences of other African countries and qualitative analysis of Nigeria's present trade policy. This revealed a lack of ...

  3. SHORT-RUN SUBSIDIES AND LONG-RUN ADOPTION OF NEW HEALTH PRODUCTS: EVIDENCE FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Pascaline

    2014-01-01

    Short-run subsidies for health products are common in poor countries. How do they affect long-run adoption? A common fear among development practitioners is that one-off subsidies may negatively affect long-run adoption through reference-dependence: People might anchor around the subsidized price and be unwilling to pay more for the product later. But for experience goods, one-off subsidies could also boost long-run adoption through learning. This paper uses data from a two-stage randomized pricing experiment in Kenya to estimate the relative importance of these effects for a new, improved antimalarial bed net. Reduced form estimates show that a one-time subsidy has a positive impact on willingness to pay a year later inherit. To separately identify the learning and anchoring effects, we estimate a parsimonious experience-good model. Estimation results show a large, positive learning effect but no anchoring. We black then discuss the types of products and the contexts inherit for which these results may apply.

  4. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  5. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. Are Education Subsidies an Efficient Redistributive Device?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe argue that promoting education may be a means to re- duce income inequality. When workers of different skilllevels are imperfect substitutes in production, an increase in the level of human capital in the economy reduces the return to education and, hence, pre-tax income inequality.

  7. Health insurance subsidies and deductible choice: Evidence from regional variation in subsidy schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Cornel; Schmid, Christian; Boes, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    The extent to which premium subsidies can influence health insurance choices is an open question. In this paper, we explore the regional variation in subsidy schemes in Switzerland, designed as either in-kind or cash transfers, to study their impact on the choice of health insurance deductibles. Using health survey data and a difference-in-differences methodology, we find that in-kind transfers increase the likelihood of choosing a low deductible plan by approximately 4 percentage points (or 7%). Our results indicate that the response to in-kind transfers is strongest among women, middle-aged and unmarried individuals, which we explain by differences in risk-taking behavior, health status, financial constraints, health insurance and financial literacy. We discuss our results in the light of potential extra-marginal effects on the demand for health care services, which are however not supported by our data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  9. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  10. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of State Subsidies on Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdas Ginevičius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of market regulation tools on business is a complex phenomenon, and the after-effects of such regulation could be both favourable and adverse. The enhancement of the positive effect is a scientific task, which requires a systematic approach. In order to find a solution to this problem, it is necessary: a to identify the relevant factors; b to make a coherent evaluation of these factors and their influence on the phenomenon under investigation; c to establish the optimal form and extent of the SRB (State Regulation of Business tool required for the achievement of the desired results. The study analyses aims of economic regulation and business management from the point of view of a state. It also examines the practice in economic research and evaluation of EU Structural Funds in Lithuania and abroad. The research is focused on problems caused by state subsidies for business enterprises as one of the forms of SRB. The research also focuses on possibilities to enhance the effectiveness of business regulation. The main objects of this study are: state subsidies for business enterprises as a form of state intervention in the market, and the possible correlation between the specifications of subsidies and their effect on business. The evaluation presented in this study proved that EU subsidies had a direct positive influence on the effect of subsidies. The research into the influence of various subsidy criteria on the effect of subsidies revealed that a greater effect results from the rate rather than the size of funding.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Price Subsidies on Fortified Packaged Infant Cereals in Reducing Iron Deficiency Anemia in 6-23-Month-Old-Children in Urban India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Plessow

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a major public health problem in India and especially harmful in early childhood due to its impact on cognitive development and increased all-cause mortality. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of price subsidies on fortified packaged infant cereals (F-PICs in reducing IDA in 6-23-monthold children in urban India.Cost-effectiveness is estimated by comparing the net social cost of price subsidies with the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs averted with price subsidies. The net social costs correspond to the cost of the subsidy minus the monetary costs saved by reducing IDA. The estimation proceeds in three steps: 1 the current lifetime costs of IDA are assessed with a health economic model combining the prevalence of anemia, derived from a large population survey, with information on the health consequences of IDA and their costs in terms of mortality, morbidity, and DALYs. 2 The effects of price subsidies on the demand for F-PICs are assessed with a market survey among 4801 households in 12 large Indian cities. 3 The cost-effectiveness is calculated by combining the findings of the first two steps with the results of a systematic review on the effectiveness of F-PICs in reducing IDA. We compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that differ in the level of the subsidy and in the socio-economic strata (SES eligible for the subsidy.The lifetime social costs of IDA in 6-23-month-old children in large Indian cities amount to production losses of 3222 USD and to 726,000 DALYs. Poor households incur the highest costs, yet even wealthier households suffer substantial losses. The market survey reveals that few households currently buy F-PICs, with the share ranging from 14% to 36%. Wealthier households are generally more likely to buy FPICs. The costs of the subsidies per DALY averted range from 909 to 3649 USD. Interventions targeted at poorer households are most effective. Almost all interventions are cost

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Price Subsidies on Fortified Packaged Infant Cereals in Reducing Iron Deficiency Anemia in 6-23-Month-Old-Children in Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessow, Rafael; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Brunner, Beatrice; Wieser, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in India and especially harmful in early childhood due to its impact on cognitive development and increased all-cause mortality. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of price subsidies on fortified packaged infant cereals (F-PICs) in reducing IDA in 6-23-monthold children in urban India. Cost-effectiveness is estimated by comparing the net social cost of price subsidies with the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted with price subsidies. The net social costs correspond to the cost of the subsidy minus the monetary costs saved by reducing IDA. The estimation proceeds in three steps: 1) the current lifetime costs of IDA are assessed with a health economic model combining the prevalence of anemia, derived from a large population survey, with information on the health consequences of IDA and their costs in terms of mortality, morbidity, and DALYs. 2) The effects of price subsidies on the demand for F-PICs are assessed with a market survey among 4801 households in 12 large Indian cities. 3) The cost-effectiveness is calculated by combining the findings of the first two steps with the results of a systematic review on the effectiveness of F-PICs in reducing IDA. We compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that differ in the level of the subsidy and in the socio-economic strata (SES) eligible for the subsidy. The lifetime social costs of IDA in 6-23-month-old children in large Indian cities amount to production losses of 3222 USD and to 726,000 DALYs. Poor households incur the highest costs, yet even wealthier households suffer substantial losses. The market survey reveals that few households currently buy F-PICs, with the share ranging from 14% to 36%. Wealthier households are generally more likely to buy FPICs. The costs of the subsidies per DALY averted range from 909 to 3649 USD. Interventions targeted at poorer households are most effective. Almost all interventions are cost saving from a

  14. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...... match depends on the applicant's unemployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration of a job search, so that equilibrium unemployment increases. Like the subsidy, organizational reforms...

  15. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... that under both regimes the equilibrium unemployment rate is increasing with respect to the hiring subsidy. The subsidy like the profiling measures, which improve the effectiveness of the public placement service, crowd-out the active jobseekers among the short- and the long-term unemployed and reduce total...

  16. Receitas bruta e líquida parcial e custo de dietas contendo polpa cítrica para suínos abatidos com 130kg de peso Gross and partial net incomes and feeding cost of diets containing citrus pulp for pigs slaughtered with 130kg of weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Watanabe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o custo de inclusão da polpa cítrica em programa de restrição alimentar qualitativa, utilizando dados de desempenho de 36 suínos da linhagem Topigs, dos 83,7±5,1kg aos 129,8±1,9kg de peso, alimentados com dietas contendo porcentagens crescentes (0, 10, 20 e 30% de polpa cítrica. Os animais foram abatidos aos 130kg e dos valores (R$ da carcaça foram descontados o valor de compra dos animais e o custo com alimentação, de acordo com cada tratamento. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 da inclusão da polpa cítrica sobre o custo com ração e receita bruta, porém houve efeito linear negativo (PThe cost of inclusion of citrus pulp was evaluated in a qualitative feed restriction program using performance data of 36 pigs of Topigs lineage (from 83.7±5.1kg to 129.8±1.9kg fed with crescent levels of citrus pulp (0, 10, 20, and 30%. The animals were slaughtered when they reached 130kg. The value paid for animal and its feeding cost were discounted from the carcass value (R$, according to each treatment. No effect (P>0.05 of the inclusion of citrus pulp on ration cost and gross income was observed. A negative linear effect (<0.05 on partial net income with the increasing participation of the citrus pulp in diets was found. The decreasing trend in the partial net income was caused by the reduction on carcass weight of animals fed on crescent levels of citrus pulp. Considering the increase on corn, soybean, and swine prices from June 2005 to May 2006, 12 different sceneries were determined for partial net income analysis. In all situations, linear reductions on partial net income were observed as a function of citrus pulp inclusion, evidencing that the ingredient was not efficient in promoting profits for producers.

  17. Low Income and Impoverished Families Pay More Disproportionately for Child Care. Policy Brief Number 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin; Gozjolko, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    According to research based on the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation, working families with young children living in poverty pay 32 percent of their income on child care, nearly five times more than families living at more than 200 percent of the poverty level. This brief asks policy makers to consider allowing more subsidies to be…

  18. 46 CFR 289.3 - Provision in subsidy agreements and mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.3 Provision in subsidy agreements and mortgages. (a) All construction-differential subsidy agreements and...

  19. Survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by housing subsidy in a tiered public housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting Hway; Skanthakumar, Thakshayeni; Nadkarni, Nivedita; Nguyen, Hai Van; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna

    2017-06-01

    Socioeconomic status affects survival in patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), even in health systems with universal health care. Singapore has a tiered subsidized housing system, in which income determines eligibility for subsidies by size of apartment. The objective of this study was to assess whether a patient's residential type (small/heavily subsidized, medium/moderate subsidy, large/minimal or no subsidy) influenced mortality. A secondary analysis examined whether patients in smaller subsidized apartments were more likely to present with advanced disease. An historical cohort study of patients in a tertiary referral center with HNSCC was identified in the multidisciplinary cancer database from 1992 to 2014. Clinicopathologic data were extracted for analysis. Patient residential postal codes were matched to type of housing. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between all-cause mortality and the predictors of interest as well as the association between housing type and disease stage at presentation. Of the 758 patients identified, most were men (73.4%), the median age was 64 years, 30.5% and 15.2% were smokers and former smokers, respectively. Over one-half (56.8%) of patients presented with advanced disease. Male gender, age, stage at presentation, survival time from diagnosis, and smoker status were significant predictors of mortality. Patients living in the smaller, higher subsidy apartments had poorer survival, although they were not more likely to present with advanced disease, suggesting that the survival difference was not because of delayed presentation. Patients with HNSCC living in smaller, higher-subsidy apartments have poorer survival despite no apparent delays in presentation. Cancer 2017;123:1998-2005. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Aggregate Measures of Income and Output in Canada and the United States: Implications for Productivity and Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Ross; Alexander Murray

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to clarify definitions and to produce estimates of the eight aggregate measures of income and product (gross domestic product, gross domestic income, gross national product, gross national income, net domestic product, net domestic income, net national product and net national income) for Canada and the United States over the 1980-2008 period. The article also discusses the implications of the eight measures for productivity and living standards analysis. It...

  1. Fertilizer procurement, distribution and subsidy policies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Port Harcourt should be revitalized and privatized to enhance local production of the input. Keywords: fertilizer procurement, distribution, subsidy policies, Nigeria International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol. 6 2005: 58-65 ...

  2. 46 CFR 252.30 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR BULK CARGO VESSELS ENGAGED IN WORLDWIDE SERVICES Calculation of..., as described separately in § 252.32. The daily ODS rate represents the cost differential between the...

  3. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  4. Water, Electricity, and the Poor : Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Komives; Vivien Foster; Jonathan Halpern; Quentin Wodon; Roohi Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Utility subsidies to consumers of water and electricity services are often justified as a mechanism for making services affordable for the poor. After all, an estimated 1.1 billion people in the developing world lack access to safe water, 2 billion are without electricity, and 2.4 billion without sanitation. But critics object that such subsidies can work against improving quality of service to ...

  5. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  6. Estimating Effective Subsidy Rates of Student Aid Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey H. CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Every year millions of high school students and their parents in the US are asked to fill out complicated financial aid application forms. However, few studies have estimated the responsiveness of government financial aid schemes to changes in financial needs of the students. This paper identifies the effective subsidy rate (ESR) of student aid, as defined by the coefficient of financial needs in the regression of financial aid. The ESR measures the proportion of subsidy of student aid under ...

  7. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (b... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits expected to reduce future taxes... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits previously recorded in this account...

  8. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by subsidiary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of...

  9. Contrasting effects of aquatic subsidies on a terrestrial trophic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Nadin; Bucher, Roman; Schäfer, Ralf B; Entling, Martin H

    2017-05-01

    Subsidies from adjacent ecosystems can alter recipient food webs and ecosystem functions, such as herbivory. Emerging aquatic insects from streams can be an important prey in the riparian zone. Such aquatic subsidies can enhance predator abundances or cause predators to switch prey, depending on the herbivores. This can lead to an increase or decrease of in situ herbivores and herbivory. We examined the effects of aquatic subsidies on a simplified terrestrial food web consisting of two types of herbivores, plants and predators (spiders). In our six-week experiment, we focused on the prey choice of the spiders by excluding predator immigration and reproduction. In accordance with predator switching, survival of leafhoppers increased in the presence of aquatic subsidies. By contrast, the presence of aquatic subsidies indirectly reduced weevils and herbivory. Our study shows that effects of aquatic subsidies on terrestrial predators can propagate through the food web in contrasting ways. Thereby, the outcome of the trophic cascade is determined by the prey choice of predators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Impact of subsidies on cancer genetic testing uptake in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Tzu; Yuen, Jeanette; Zhou, Ke; Binte Ishak, Nur Diana; Chen, Yanni; Met-Domestici, Marie; Chan, Sock Hoai; Tan, Yee Pin; Allen, John Carson; Lim, Soon Thye; Soo, Khee Chee; Ngeow, Joanne

    2017-04-01

    Previous reports cite high costs of clinical cancer genetic testing as main barriers to patient's willingness to test. We report findings of a pilot study that evaluates how different subsidy schemes impact genetic testing uptake and total cost of cancer management. We included all patients who attended the Cancer Genetics Service at the National Cancer Centre Singapore (January 2014-May 2016). Two subsidy schemes, the blanket scheme (100% subsidy to all eligible patients), and the varied scheme (patients received 50%-100% subsidy dependent on financial status) were compared. We estimated total spending on cancer management from government's perspective using a decision model. 445 patients were included. Contrasting against the blanket scheme, the varied scheme observed a higher attendance of patients (34 vs 8 patients per month), of which a higher proportion underwent genetic testing (5% vs 38%), while lowering subsidy spending per person (S$1098 vs S$1161). The varied scheme may potentially save cost by reducing unnecessary cancer surveillance when first-degree relatives uptake rate is above 36%. Provision of subsidy leads to a considerable increase in genetic testing uptake rate. From the government's perspective, subsidising genetic testing may potentially reduce total costs on cancer management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Who Benefits from Public Healthcare Subsidies in Egypt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shoukry Rashad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct subsidization of healthcare services has been widely used in many countries to improve health outcomes. It is commonly believed that the poor are the main beneficiaries from these subsidies. We test this hypothesis in Egypt by empirically analyzing the distribution of public healthcare subsidies using data from Egypt Demographic and Health Survey and Egypt National Health Accounts. To determine the distribution of public health care subsidies, we conducted a Benefit Incidence Analysis. As a robustness check, both concentration and Kakwani indices for outpatient, inpatient, and total healthcare were also calculated. Results show some degree of inequality in the benefits from public healthcare services, which varied by the type of healthcare provided. In particular, subsidies associated with University hospitals are pro-rich and have inequality increasing effect, while subsidies associated with outpatient and inpatient care provided by the Ministry of Health and Population have not been pro-poor but have inequality reducing effect (weakly progressive. Results were robust to the different analytical methods. While it is widely perceived that the poor benefit the most from health subsidies, the findings of this study refute this hypothesis in the case of Egypt. Poverty reduction measures and healthcare reforms in Egypt should not only focus on expanding the coverage of healthcare benefits, but also on improving the equity of its distribution.

  12. Advancing research on animal-transported subsidies by integrating animal movement and ecosystem modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E; Zollner, Patrick A

    2017-09-01

    Connections between ecosystems via animals (active subsidies) support ecosystem services and contribute to numerous ecological effects. Thus, the ability to predict the spatial distribution of active subsidies would be useful for ecology and conservation. Previous work modelling active subsidies focused on implicit space or static distributions, which treat passive and active subsidies similarly. Active subsidies are fundamentally different from passive subsidies, because animals can respond to the process of subsidy deposition and ecosystem changes caused by subsidy deposition. We propose addressing this disparity by integrating animal movement and ecosystem ecology to advance active subsidy investigations, make more accurate predictions of subsidy spatial distributions, and enable a mechanistic understanding of subsidy spatial distributions. We review selected quantitative techniques that could be used to accomplish integration and lead to novel insights. The ultimate objective for these types of studies is predictions of subsidy spatial distributions from characteristics of the subsidy and the movement strategy employed by animals that transport subsidies. These advances will be critical in informing the management of ecosystem services, species conservation and ecosystem degradation related to active subsidies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  13. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Analysis of Federal Subsidies: Implied Price of Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper; Thomas Foulke

    2010-10-01

    For informed climate change policy, it is important for decision makers to be able to assess how the costs and benefits of federal energy subsidies are distributed and to be able to have some measure to compare them. One way to do this is to evaluate the implied price of carbon (IPC) for a federal subsidy, or set of subsidies; where the IPC is the cost of the subsidy to the U.S. Treasury divided by the emissions reductions it generated. Subsidies with lower IPC are more cost effective at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while subsidies with a negative IPC act to increase emissions. While simple in concept, the IPC is difficult to calculate in practice. Calculation of the IPC requires knowledge of (i) the amount of energy associated with the subsidy, (ii) the amount and type of energy that would have been produced in the absence of the subsidy, and (iii) the greenhouse gas emissions associated with both the subsidized energy and the potential replacement energy. These pieces of information are not consistently available for federal subsidies, and there is considerable uncertainty in cases where the information is available. Thus, exact values for the IPC based upon fully consistent standards cannot be calculated with available data. However, it is possible to estimate a range of potential values sufficient for initial comparisons. This study has employed a range of methods to generate “first order” estimates for the IPC of a range of federal subsidies using static methods that do not account for the dynamics of supply and demand. The study demonstrates that, while the IPC value depends upon how the inquiry is framed and the IPC cannot be calculated in a “one size fits all” manner, IPC calculations can provide a valuable perspective for climate policy analysis. IPC values are most useful when calculated within the perspective of a case study, with the method and parameters of the calculation determined by the case. The IPC of different policy measures can

  15. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, James E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability – and hence their long-term ability to provide services – and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations, and for estimating the extent to which local benefits are dependent upon other locations. We also describe a method for estimating the net payment, or subsidy, owed by or to a location that balances benefits received and support provided by locations throughout the migratory range of multiple species. The ability to quantify these spatial subsidies could provide a foundation for the establishment of markets that incentivize cross-jurisdictional cooperative management of migratory species. It could also provide a mechanism for resolving conflicts over the sustainable and equitable allocation of exploited migratory species.

  16. Does Renewable Energy Still Need Subsidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Eng. Mohamed Mostafa El Khayat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, it has been stated that renewable energy, RE, needs subsidy, otherwise it will not be able to compete or sustain. For a certain level, this statement was valid. In this period, the investment costs for both wind and photovoltaic, PV, were high. In other words, production costs of both of them reached around 7.0 and 13.0 Cent US$ per kWh. On the other hand, oil and natural gas, NG, prices were low; i.e. less than US$ 30.0 per oil barrel and around US$ 4.0 per million British thermal unit, MMBTU, of NG. Also, policies of promoting RE were limited; almost there are two main policies, Feed-in-Tariff, FiT, in limited developed countries and international tenders. As a result, investment in RE was usually led by developed countries and minor share from the developing countries. This was the scene of RE before around 10 years. Nowadays, the scene of RE totally differs. Starting from the policies side, through auctions in both solar and wind energies, new records of prices have been reached. In numbers, in the field of wind energy Morocco and Egypt already signed contracts with prices lower than 4.0 US$ Cents/kWh. For PV, there is a dramatic devaluation in the prices. Now we are speaking for less than 0.7 million US$ per MW for turnkey projects. As a result, during the last couple of years, the global RE market witnessed a bundle of an outstanding prices, El-Sewihan Project at Abu Dhabi, 2.42 US$ Cent/kWh. Mexico and Dubai projects, 3.6 and 3.0 US$ Cent/kWh. Few days ago, Dubai Electricity and Water Authority, DEWA, received $9.45 cents per kilowatt-hour for its 200MW concentrated solar power (CSP plant. All these figures, and others, gave us important messages; 1 Despite low prices of oil and NG, RE is able to compete and offer outstanding prices, 2 Wind and PV technologies do not need any kind of subsidy, rather than they need a real free market to compete, 3 CSP is a low hanging fruit and it will witness a frog-leap during the

  17. Autumn leaf subsidies influence spring dynamics of freshwater plankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Samuel B; Mertens, Andrew N; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    While ecologists primarily focus on the immediate impact of ecological subsidies, understanding the importance of ecological subsidies requires quantifying the long-term temporal dynamics of subsidies on recipient ecosystems. Deciduous leaf litter transferred from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exerts both immediate and lasting effects on stream food webs. Recently, deciduous leaf additions have also been shown to be important subsidies for planktonic food webs in ponds during autumn; however, the inter-seasonal effects of autumn leaf subsidies on planktonic food webs have not been studied. We hypothesized that autumn leaf drop will affect the spring dynamics of freshwater pond food webs by altering the availability of resources, water transparency, and the metabolic state of ponds. We created leaf-added and no-leaf-added field mesocosms in autumn 2012, allowed mesocosms to ice-over for the winter, and began sampling the physical, chemical, and biological properties of mesocosms immediately following ice-off in spring 2013. At ice-off, leaf additions reduced dissolved oxygen, elevated total phosphorus concentrations and dissolved materials, and did not alter temperature or total nitrogen. These initial abiotic effects contributed to higher bacterial densities and lower chlorophyll concentrations, but by the end of spring, the abiotic environment, chlorophyll and bacterial densities converged. By contrast, zooplankton densities diverged between treatments during the spring, with leaf additions stimulating copepods but inhibiting cladocerans. We hypothesized that these differences between zooplankton orders resulted from resource shifts following leaf additions. These results suggest that leaf subsidies can alter both the short- and long-term dynamics of planktonic food webs, and highlight the importance of fully understanding how ecological subsidies are integrated into recipient food webs.

  18. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality; Bilan RTE 2002: un resultat net positif (+112 M d'euros), conforme aux previsions, au terme d'une annee placee sous le signe de la qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of

  19. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Alison; Green, Josephine M; Williams, Victoria; McLeish, Jenny; McCormick, Felicia; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Renfrew, Mary J

    2014-02-11

    Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve nutrition for pregnant women and young

  20. Subsidies and sustainable development. Concepts, methodology and state of the art in literature; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Concepten, methodologie en stand van zaken van de literatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 1st research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. It gives a conceptual and methodological framework on the relation between subsidies and sustainable development. In the 2nd paper attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 1e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Het geeft een conceptueel en methodologisch kader over het verband tussen subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  1. Effects of Health-Related Food Taxes and Subsidies on Mortality from Diet-Related Disease in New Zealand: An Econometric-Epidemiologic Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Genc, Murat; Scarborough, Peter; Rayner, Mike; Mizdrak, Anja; Nnoaham, Kelechi; Blakely, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Health-related food taxes and subsidies may promote healthier diets and reduce mortality. Our aim was to estimate the effects of health-related food taxes and subsidies on deaths prevented or postponed (DPP) in New Zealand. A macrosimulation model based on household expenditure data, demand elasticities and population impact fractions for 18 diet-related diseases was used to estimate effects of five tax and subsidy regimens. We used price elasticity values for 24 major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, and food expenditure data from national Household Economic Surveys. Changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diet-related diseases were estimated. A 20% subsidy on fruit and vegetables would result in 560 (95% uncertainty interval, 400 to 700) DPP each year (1.9% annual all-cause mortality). A 20% tax on major dietary sources of saturated fat would result in 1,500 (950 to 2,100) DPP (5.0%), and a 20% tax on major dietary sources of sodium would result in 2,000 (1300 to 2,700) DPP (6.8%). Combining taxes on saturated fat and sodium with a fruit and vegetable subsidy would result in 2,400 (1,800 to 3,000) DPP (8.1% mortality annually). A tax on major dietary sources of greenhouse gas emissions would generate 1,200 (750 to 1,700) DPP annually (4.0%). Effects were similar or greater for Maori and low-income households in relative terms. Health-related food taxes and subsidies could improve diets and reduce mortality from diet-related disease in New Zealand. Our study adds to the growing evidence base suggesting food pricing policies should improve population health and reduce inequalities, but there is still much work to be done to improve estimation of health impacts.

  2. Effects of Health-Related Food Taxes and Subsidies on Mortality from Diet-Related Disease in New Zealand: An Econometric-Epidemiologic Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available Health-related food taxes and subsidies may promote healthier diets and reduce mortality. Our aim was to estimate the effects of health-related food taxes and subsidies on deaths prevented or postponed (DPP in New Zealand.A macrosimulation model based on household expenditure data, demand elasticities and population impact fractions for 18 diet-related diseases was used to estimate effects of five tax and subsidy regimens. We used price elasticity values for 24 major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, and food expenditure data from national Household Economic Surveys. Changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diet-related diseases were estimated.A 20% subsidy on fruit and vegetables would result in 560 (95% uncertainty interval, 400 to 700 DPP each year (1.9% annual all-cause mortality. A 20% tax on major dietary sources of saturated fat would result in 1,500 (950 to 2,100 DPP (5.0%, and a 20% tax on major dietary sources of sodium would result in 2,000 (1300 to 2,700 DPP (6.8%. Combining taxes on saturated fat and sodium with a fruit and vegetable subsidy would result in 2,400 (1,800 to 3,000 DPP (8.1% mortality annually. A tax on major dietary sources of greenhouse gas emissions would generate 1,200 (750 to 1,700 DPP annually (4.0%. Effects were similar or greater for Maori and low-income households in relative terms.Health-related food taxes and subsidies could improve diets and reduce mortality from diet-related disease in New Zealand. Our study adds to the growing evidence base suggesting food pricing policies should improve population health and reduce inequalities, but there is still much work to be done to improve estimation of health impacts.

  3. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood.Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (<1% change. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the interventions individually, then determined the optimal combination based on maximising net monetary benefit at a threshold of AU$50,000 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY. The simulations suggested that the combination of taxes and subsidy might avert as many as 470,000 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 420,000 to 510,000 in the Australian population of 22 million, with a net cost-saving of AU$3.4 billion (95% UI: AU$2.4 billion to AU$4.6 billion; US$2.3 billion to the health sector. Of the taxes evaluated, the sugar tax produced the biggest estimates of health gain (270,000 [95% UI: 250,000 to 290,000] DALYs averted, followed by the salt tax (130,000 [95% UI: 120,000 to 140,000] DALYs, the saturated fat tax (97,000 [95% UI: 77,000 to 120,000] DALYs, and the sugar-sweetened beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs. The fruit and vegetable subsidy (-13,000 [95% UI: -44,000 to 18,000] DALYs was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e.g., foods high in

  4. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Lennert

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood. Methods and Findings Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the interventions individually, then determined the optimal combination based on maximising net monetary benefit at a threshold of AU$50,000 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY). The simulations suggested that the combination of taxes and subsidy might avert as many as 470,000 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 420,000 to 510,000) in the Australian population of 22 million, with a net cost-saving of AU$3.4 billion (95% UI: AU$2.4 billion to AU$4.6 billion; US$2.3 billion) to the health sector. Of the taxes evaluated, the sugar tax produced the biggest estimates of health gain (270,000 [95% UI: 250,000 to 290,000] DALYs averted), followed by the salt tax (130,000 [95% UI: 120,000 to 140,000] DALYs), the saturated fat tax (97,000 [95% UI: 77,000 to 120,000] DALYs), and the sugar-sweetened beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs). The fruit and vegetable subsidy (−13,000 [95% UI: −44,000 to 18,000] DALYs) was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e

  5. Staffing subsidies and the quality of care in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew D; Lee, Yong Suk

    2015-05-01

    Concerns about the quality of state-financed nursing home care has led to the wide-scale adoption by states of pass-through subsidies, in which Medicaid reimbursement rates are directly tied to staffing expenditure. We examine the effects of Medicaid pass-through on nursing home staffing and quality of care by adapting a two-step FGLS method that addresses clustering and state-level temporal autocorrelation. We find that pass-through subsidies increases staffing by about 1% on average and 2.7% in nursing homes with a low share of Medicaid patients. Furthermore, pass-through subsidies reduce the incidences of pressure ulcer worsening by about 0.9%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 'Frozen' media subsidies during a time of media change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    Media systems around the world have changed in significant ways in the early 21st century. In this article, I analyse how various forms of media subsidies have changed in response to these transformations in a sample of six different affluent democracies. On the basis of interviews, official...... documents and secondary sources, I show that media subsidies have largely remained frozen in their late-20th century form. The absence of major reform means that media subsidies are increasingly subject to policy drift, a process by which the operations and effectiveness of policies change not because...... of deliberate reform, but because of changing conditions on the ground. Analysis of interviews with relevant stakeholders suggests that the main obstacles to reform across all six countries are: (1) limited political attention to the problem; (2) strong incumbent industries protecting their interests; and (3...

  7. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    , which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration......To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...... match depends on the applicant's unem­ployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration of a job search, so that equilibrium unemployment increases. Like the subsidy, organizational reforms...

  8. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Lesner, Tine Hjernø; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-11-04

    Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice of presumptive diagnosis. A global subsidy on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has recently been suggested to increase access to the most effective malaria treatment. Following the recommendation by World Health Organization that parasitological testing should be performed before treatment and ACT prescribed to confirmed cases only, it is investigated in this paper if a subsidy on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) should be incorporated. A model is developed consisting of a representative individual with fever suspected to be malaria, seeking care at a specialized drug shop where RDTs, ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs, such as low trust in RDT accuracy and strong belief that a fever is malaria, subsidization is not sufficient to incentivize appropriate behaviour. A combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT rather than a single subsidy is likely required to improve diagnosis-treatment behaviour among individuals seeking care for malaria in the private sector.

  9. The Effect of Subsidies on the Offer of Sea Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Pupavac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this academic discussion is to study the effect of subsidies on the offer of sea transport. Research results are based on the method of microeconomic analysis. The knowledge obtained through this academic discussion may prove to be of assistance to managers in the area of sea transport in deliberating on more efficient and market-oriented business models. The results of this work reveal that subsidies in sea transport make sense if they contribute to the improvement of the quality of transport or are of help to those for whom they are intended.

  10. 26 CFR 1.668(b)-3A - Computation of the beneficiary's income and tax for a prior taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of tax that should have been properly paid. (b) Effect of allocation of undistributed net income on items based on amount of income and with respect to a net operating loss, a charitable... income on a net operating loss carryback or carryover, a charitable contributions carryover, or a capital...

  11. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  12. 75 FR 16160 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Subsidies Under the Operating Fund Formula: Data Collection AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Allocation of Operating Subsidies Under the... subsidy eligibility by completing the following HUD prescribed forms, as applicable, each fiscal year...

  13. 19 CFR 351.601 - Annual list and quarterly update of subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual list and quarterly update of subsidies. 351... ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Subsidy Determinations Regarding Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty § 351.601 Annual list and quarterly update of subsidies. The Secretary will make the...

  14. Child-Care Subsidies and Child-Care Choices over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence to date on the federal child-care subsidy program's effect on preschool child-care quality is mixed. However, an as-yet untested outcome of subsidy receipt is subsequent child-care choice. Specifically, it is possible that subsidy receipt in toddlerhood increases the likelihood of attending other publicly funded preschool…

  15. 75 FR 70279 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Operating Subsidies under the Operating Fund Formula: Data Collection AGENCY: Office of the Chief... field offices as the basis for obligating operating subsidies. This information is necessary to calculate the eligibility for operating subsidies under the Operating Fund Program regulation, as amended...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.260 - Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources. 3560.260... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.260 Rental subsidies from non-Agency sources. (a) General. The Agency may authorize the use of rental...

  17. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086. Form...

  18. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This is a proposed.... Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB...

  19. 78 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). This request for... concerning the following information collection: Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset...

  20. 78 FR 55280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (ADPs). This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic...

  1. 20 CFR 418.3101 - How do you become eligible for a subsidy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Part D Subsidies Eligibility for A Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy § 418.3101 How do you become...), you are eligible for a Medicare Part D prescription drug subsidy if you meet all of the following... Medicare Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance) or both under title XVIII of the Act. (b) You are...

  2. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  3. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  4. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  5. Anthropogenic resource subsidies decouple predator-prey relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Amanda D; Kearns, Laura J; Shustack, Daniel P

    2011-04-01

    The extent to which resource subsidies affect food web dynamics is poorly understood in anthropogenic landscapes. To better understand how species interactions are influenced by subsidies, we studied breeding birds and nest predators along a rural-to-urban landscape gradient that varied in subsidies provided to generalist predators. We hypothesized that resource subsidies in urban landscapes would decouple predator-prey relationships, as predators switch from natural to anthropogenic foods. From 2004 to 2009, we surveyed nest predators and monitored 2942 nests of five songbird species breeding in 19 mature forest stands in Ohio, USA. Eighteen species were video-recorded depredating nests. Numbers of avian and mammalian nest predators were positively associated with the amount of urban development surrounding forests, with the exception of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Although nest survival strongly declined with detections of nest predators in rural landscapes, nest survival and predator numbers were unrelated in urban landscapes. Thus, the strength of interaction between breeding birds and nest predators diminished as landscapes surrounding forested parks became more urbanized. Our work suggests that decoupling of predator-prey relationships can arise when synanthropic predators are heavily subsidized by anthropogenic resources. In this way, human drivers can alter, and completely disarticulate, relationships among species that are well established in more natural systems.

  6. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in the annexes report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  7. 75 FR 41874 - Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations AGENCY: Office of the.... This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental... agency's estimate of the burden of the proposed collection of information; (3) Enhance the quality...

  8. Milwaukee County User-Side Subsidy Program : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, instituted a user-side subsidy program in June 1978 for handicapped users of taxi and chair-car services. The program is funded entirely by county and state contributions. A distinctive feature of the program is that, unl...

  9. New national foreign trade legislation on subsidies and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the subsidies are one of the main sources of restrictions in international trade, and a disturbance factor of liberalization process in that field, which is particularly emphasized in the times of economic crises. Due to its economic impact, such behavior causes unavoidably the implementation of countervailing measures. However, as its extensive use has the potential to turn them into the instrument of protectionism, it is necessary to deploy the appropriate legal rules in order to determine precisely the conditions and regime for the use of such subsidies, as well as the implementation of countervailing measures in the case of violation of that regime. The processes of liberalization of our foreign trade system and constant foreign trade deficit make the need for protection of our own economy and creating of appropriate set of defense instruments against non-permitted/illegal subsidies in our law more and more relevant. The reply to that need in new economic circumstances was the enactment of a new Law on Foreign Trade Operations in 2009 and, in particular the enactment of the accompanying bylaws. Its rules in the field of subsidies have been largely harmonized with the requirements of the World Trade Organizations, and consequently with the European Union standards, in both the conceptual aspect and aspect of individual solutions. However, there is still a chronic issue of the lack of institutional and appropriate human resources assumptions for its full and optimum implementation.

  10. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. S.; Lesner, T. H.; Østerdal, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    of presumptive diagnosis. A global subsidy on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has recently been suggested to increase access to the most effective malaria treatment. Methods: Following the recommendation by World Health Organization that parasitological testing should be performed before treatment...

  11. Labour subsidies for the cultural sector: extent and impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1997-01-01

    The job training schemes have been and still are important for the supply of labour to cultural institutions in Denmark. Particularly the young and experimental cultural manifestations are depending on labour market subsidies for their development and survival. The article discusses the clashes...

  12. Planktonic Subsidies to Surf-Zone and Intertidal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Shanks, Alan L; MacMahan, Jamie H; Reniers, Ad J H M; Feddersen, Falk

    2018-01-03

    Plankton are transported onshore, providing subsidies of food and new recruits to surf-zone and intertidal communities. The transport of plankton to the surf zone is influenced by wind, wave, and tidal forcing, and whether they enter the surf zone depends on alongshore variation in surf-zone hydrodynamics caused by the interaction of breaking waves with coastal morphology. Areas with gently sloping shores and wide surf zones typically have orders-of-magnitude-higher concentrations of plankton in the surf zone and dense larval settlement in intertidal communities because of the presence of bathymetric rip currents, which are absent in areas with steep shores and narrow surf zones. These striking differences in subsidies have profound consequences; areas with greater subsidies support more productive surf-zone communities and possibly more productive rocky intertidal communities. Recognition of the importance of spatial subsidies for rocky community dynamics has recently advanced ecological theory, and incorporating surf-zone hydrodynamics would be an especially fruitful line of investigation.

  13. Food Access, Food Subsidy, and Residue-Based Bioenergy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research conducted by the Liu Institute for Global Issues at the University of British Columbia will first focus on access to food and the need for food subsidies in India, hindered by rising food prices, a poorly functioning distribution system, and widespread corruption. The goal is to show how the Indian government can ...

  14. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Tam, King; Veerman, Lennert; Blakely, Tony

    2017-02-01

    An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood. Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (taxes and subsidy might avert as many as 470,000 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 420,000 to 510,000) in the Australian population of 22 million, with a net cost-saving of AU$3.4 billion (95% UI: AU$2.4 billion to AU$4.6 billion; US$2.3 billion) to the health sector. Of the taxes evaluated, the sugar tax produced the biggest estimates of health gain (270,000 [95% UI: 250,000 to 290,000] DALYs averted), followed by the salt tax (130,000 [95% UI: 120,000 to 140,000] DALYs), the saturated fat tax (97,000 [95% UI: 77,000 to 120,000] DALYs), and the sugar-sweetened beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs). The fruit and vegetable subsidy (-13,000 [95% UI: -44,000 to 18,000] DALYs) was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e.g., foods high in saturated fat and salt). The study suggests that taxes and subsidies on foods and beverages can potentially be combined to achieve substantial improvements in population health and cost-savings to the health sector. However, the magnitude of health benefits is sensitive to measures of price

  15. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  16. Subsidies and sustainable development. Case studies in the Flemish agricultural and housing policies; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Casestudies in het Vlaamse landbouw- en woonbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 2nd research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. Attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies. In the 1st paper the concept and method are discussed. The method was used for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 2e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Aandacht wordt besteed aan een toepassing van de methodologie om subsidies in kaart te brengen. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  17. Role of Subsidies Allocated by the Second Pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy and Diversification in Romanian Farms through Agritourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the role and the economic impact of subsidies allocated by the Common Agricultural Policy between 2007 and 2012, predominantly through the second pillar, in order to stimulate farmers to stay in the countryside and diversify their activities by agritourism. The analysis has used a quantitative approach aimed at assessing the main correlations between the growth of agritourisms and the financial supports paid by the European Union in eight Romanian administrative regions using the Farm Accountancy Data Network. Findings have pointed out that in regions where the higher has been the development of agritourism, the more significant has been the positive socio-economic impact of the funds allocated by the European Union in favour of rural development. Rural areas characterized by a low level of farmer’s income and by a high incidence of subsidies paid by the European Union in supporting rural development have brought about a considerable growth of farm diversification through agritourism. This has also corroborated the hypothesis according to which the diversification in the countryside is sensitive both to the funds allocated by the EU and to a low level of income in farms.

  18. Why has the Universal Coverage Scheme in Thailand achieved a pro-poor public subsidy for health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limwattananon, Supon; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Tisayaticom, Kanjana; Boonyapaisarncharoen, Tawekiat; Prakongsai, Phusit

    2012-01-01

    Thailand has achieved universal health coverage since 2002 through the implementation of the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) for 47 million of the population who were neither private sector employees nor government employees. A well performing UCS should achieve health equity goals in terms of health service use and distribution of government subsidy on health. With these goals in mind, this paper assesses the magnitude and trend of government health budget benefiting the poor as compared to the rich UCS members. Benefit incidence analysis was conducted using the nationally representative household surveys, Health and Welfare Surveys, between 2003 and 2009. UCS members are grouped into five different socio-economic status using asset indexes and wealth quintiles. The total government subsidy, net of direct household payment, for combined outpatient (OP) and inpatient (IP) services to public hospitals and health facilities provided to UCS members, had increased from 30 billion Baht (US$ 1 billion) in 2003 to 40-46 billion Baht in 2004-2009. In 2003 for 23% and 12% of the UCS members who belonged to the poorest and richest quintiles of the whole-country populations respectively, the share of public subsidies for OP service was 28% and 7% for the poorest and the richest quintiles, whereby for IP services the share was 27% and 6% for the poorest and richest quintiles respectively. This reflects a pro-poor outcome of public subsidies to healthcare. The OP and IP public subsidies remained consistently pro-poor in subsequent years.The pro-poor benefit incidence is determined by higher utilization by the poorest than the richest quintiles, especially at health centres and district hospitals. Thus the probability and the amount of household direct health payment for public facilities by the poorest UCS members were less than their richest counterparts. Higher utilization and better financial risk protection benefiting the poor UCS members are the results of extensive

  19. Quantitative gradient of subsidies reveals a threshold in community-level trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemmer, Amanda J; Richardson, John S

    2013-09-01

    Evidence varies on how subsidies affect trophic cascades within recipient food webs. This could be due to complex nonlinearities being masked by single-level manipulations (presence/absence) of subsidies in past studies. We predicted that trophic cascade strength would increase nonlinearly across a gradient of subsidies. We set out to reveal these complex, nonlinear relationships through manipulating a quantitative gradient of detrital subsidies to lake benthic food webs along with the presence/absence of trout. Contrary to our prediction, we found that trophic cascades only occurred at low subsidy levels, disappearing as subsidies increased. This threshold in trophic cascade strength may be due to an increase in intermediate predators in the absence of top predators, as well as changes in the proportion of armored vs. un-armored primary consumers. Future studies on the effect of subsidies on trophic cascade strength need to incorporate naturally occurring gradients to reveal the complex direct and indirect interactions within food webs.

  20. The Puzzle of Simultaneous Anti-Dumping and Anti-Subsidy Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    Quite frequently an anti-subsidy investigation in the EU is paired with an anti-dumping investigation against the same non-EU producers. The final outcome may be a two-component duty where one duty addresses the ‘unfairness’ of the subsidy and the other the dumping behavior. The procedure may...... be a surprise, as the same total level of protection may be obtained by using the anti-dumping procedure exclusively. When calculating the two duties in the EU the outcome depends on whether the subsidies are export subsidies or domestic subsidies and this may also cause surprise. This paper addresses......’ competition completely and because a parallel investigation may increase the probability of a successful outcome for the petitioners. In contrast, we find that the different assumptions about the effect of export subsidies and domestic production subsidies on the dumping margin in the EU dual anti...

  1. The Impacts of Subsidy Policies on Vaccination Decisions in Contact Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Often, vaccination programs are carried out based on self-interest rather than being mandatory. Owing to the perceptions about risks associated with vaccines and the `herd immunity' effect, it may provide suboptimal vaccination coverage for the population as a whole. In this case, some subsidy policies may be offered by the government to promote vaccination coverage. But, not all subsidy policies are effective in controlling the transmission of infectious diseases. We address the question of which subsidy policy is best, and how to appropriately distribute the limited subsidies to maximize vaccine coverage. To answer these questions, we establish a model based on evolutionary game theory, where individuals try to maximize their personal payoffs when considering the voluntary vaccination mechanism. Our model shows that voluntary vaccination alone is insufficient to control an epidemic. Hence, two subsidy policies are systematically studied: (1) in the free subsidy policy the total amount of subsidies is distri...

  2. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  3. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  4. Impact of cotrimoxazole and insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention on key outcomes among HIV-infected adults in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadani Hassani, Ahmed; Marston, Barbara J

    2015-04-15

    HIV-infected adults are at increased risk of severe malaria and death. Malaria prevention in people living with HIV (PLHIV) consists of several interventions, including cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence. MEDLINE, EmBase, Global Health, CINAHL, SOCA, and African Index Medicus were used to identify articles relevant to the CTX prophylaxis and ITNs interventions from 1995 to July 2014. For each individual study, we assessed the quality of evidence and the impact of the 2 interventions on the outcomes of mortality, morbidity, retention in care, quality of life, and/or prevention of ongoing HIV transmission. For each outcome, we summarized the quality of the overall body of evidence, the expected impact, and costing and cost-effectiveness (CE). The overall quality of evidence regarding malaria-related morbidity was rated as "good" for CTX prophylaxis and "fair" for ITN use; the expected "impact" of these interventions on morbidity was rated "high" and "uncertain," respectively. Three studies that addressed the costing and CE of ITN provision for malaria prevention in PLHIV consisted of 2 full "level 1" and 1 partial "level 2" economic evaluations. CTX prophylaxis is effective in reducing malaria-related morbidity among PLHIV. Limited evidence is available with respect to the impact and the CE of ITN use and/or provision in this population.

  5. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  6. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  7. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  8. Availability of Japanese subsidies for international telemedicine projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, I; Tsurumi, T; Sawada, Y; Juzoji, H; Ogushi, Y

    1999-10-01

    In this article, the authors report the methods for obtaining subsidies for overseas telemedicine projects from Japanese sources based on their own personal experiences. The Japanese Government is already subsidizing such specialized NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) as the Telemedicine Society of Japan and Basic Human Needs and, Japanese trading companies are also hiring telemedicine experts. Prospective methods for obtaining subsidies are outlined as under the following headings: Assistance without compensation, Technology transfer, Grass-roots grant assistance, the Telecommunications Advancement Organization, Postal Savings for International Voluntary Aid, Venture business development funds provided by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Mission demonstration satellites by the National Space Development Agency of Japan, the Sasakawa Pacific Island Nations Fund, and International Communications Foundation. Key points of the applications are noted under (1) Degree of contribution to local residents, (2) Significance of project continuation and (3) Novelty and economic impact.

  9. Fiscal Policy, Economic Growth and Income Inequality: A Case of Indian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deven Bansod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Through this study, we try to evaluate the effects that the direct and indirect taxation and the subsidies provided by the Government have on income inequality. We use Gini coefficient as a measure of inequality and use annual data for Indian economy for years 1982-2015 and employ an ARDL-based bounds test approach for testing co-integration. We ascertain the stationarity properties for all the series, separately using the ADF test, the DF-GLS test and the KPSS test. We estimate the long-run and short-run coefficients and find that a long-run negative relationship exists between Gini coefficient and subsidy-related expenditure. The long-run coefficients of direct and indirect taxation terms are positive but are significant only at 10%. The short-run coefficients obtained from ECM show that a negative relationship exists between expenditure on subsidies and Gini coefficient. In short run, direct tax seems to have an insignificant positive coefficient while indirect tax seems to have a significant unbalancing effect. We employ the Granger causality tests to confirm direction of causality and find that there runs a unidirectional causality from direct tax, indirect tax and subsidy to Gini coefficient, while any causality from Gini to any series is largely insignificant. The results imply that the government should use the calculated hybrid of tools like direct and indirect taxation and subsidies to have an equalizing impact on the economy. Moreover, the significant causal relationship from subsidies to Gini opens up an opportunity for the government to improve the income distribution using targeted subsidies, for example the Aadhaar-linked Direct Transfer Benefits etc.

  10. Anthropogenic subsidies mitigate environmental variability for insular rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Lise; Russell, James; Vidal, Eric

    2013-07-01

    The exogenous input of nutrients and energy into island systems fuels a large array of consumers and drives bottom-up trophic cascades in island communities. The input of anthropogenic resources has increased on islands and particularly supplemented non-native consumers with extra resources. We test the hypothesis that the anthropogenic establishments of super-abundant gulls and invasive iceplants Carpobrotus spp. have both altered the dynamics of an introduced black rat Rattus rattus population. On Bagaud Island, two habitats have been substantially modified by the anthropogenic subsidies of gulls and iceplants, in contrast to the native Mediterranean scrubland with no anthropogenic inputs. Rats were trapped in all three habitats over two contrasting years of rainfall patterns to investigate: (1) the effect of anthropogenic subsidies on rat density, age-ratio and growth rates, and (2) the role of rainfall variability in modulating the effects of subsidies between years. We found that the growth rates of rats dwelling in the non-subsidized habitat varied with environmental fluctuation, whereas rats dwelling in the gull colony maintained high growth rates during both dry and rainy years. The presence of anthropogenic subsidies apparently mitigated environmental stress. Age ratio and rat density varied significantly and predictably among years, seasons, and habitats. While rat densities always peaked higher in the gull colony, especially after rat breeding in spring, higher captures of immature rats were recorded during the second year in all habitats, associated with higher rainfall. The potential for non-native rats to benefit from anthropogenic resources has important implications for the management of similar species on islands.

  11. Do wage subsidies enhance employability? Evidence from Australian youth

    OpenAIRE

    James Richardson

    1998-01-01

    We examine a panel of unemployed Australian youth to investigate whether participation in a wage subsidy programme offers merely a temporary respite from unemployment, or whether there are longer-lasting positive employability effects. Controlling for selection bias using a bivariate probit analysis, we estimate the effect of participation in the Special Youth Employment Training Program on the probability of being employed in subsequent waves of the data, up to an average of 26 months after ...

  12. Assessing Protectionism and Subsidies in Agriculture; A Gravity Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio A Paiva

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides the first comprehensive empirical analysis of agricultural trade using a gravity model. The data set covers bilateral trade in agricultural goods for 152 countries over the periods 1990-93 and 1999-2002. The estimations support claims that protectionism and distortive subsidies to agriculture remain widespread in more developed nations, which are shown to import less and export more agricultural products than expected given other economic, political, and geographic determi...

  13. The Labor Managed Firm: Permanent or Start Subsidies?

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, L.F.M.; van der Linde, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Given a range of market failures that persist in the present-day capitalist firm, we explore a novel argument of why the alternative of the labor managed firm is largely absent and argue public intervention should primarily be aimed at the start-up phase of labor managed firms rather than providing permanent tax subsidies. We derive the crucial condition for the emergence of labor managed firms, and show that this condition is unduly restrictive from an efficiency point of view.

  14. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints...

  15. Consequences of Food Safety Abolishing Energy Subsidies on Iranian Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Fathi, F.(Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349, Iran); M. Bakhshoodeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Policies of the Fifth Five-year Socio Economic Development Plan on Iran emphasize on improving factors such as air quality and food security, reduction of the risks and infections that threatens health as well as to change dietary patterns by improving food composition and safety. To this end, the government required to support measures to increase production of animal protein obtained from livestock and poultry. The Iranian targeted subsidy plan started in 2010 which increased ...

  16. NAFTA and Farm Subsidies: A Recipe for Poor Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    the repeal of farm subsidies in New Zealand , the number of sheep dropped to about 40 million from 58 million, dairy cows have risen over five...later for New Zealand in the mid 1980’s. Although New Zealand is a smaller country, its economy is five times more dependent on farming than is the...domestically and internationally as proven by New Zealand . Counter-arguments Three counter-arguments to the removal or elimination of domestic farm

  17. Evolutionary model of the personal income distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a qualitative picture of the personal income distribution. Treating an economy as a self-organized system the key idea of the model is that the income distribution contains competitive and non-competitive contributions. The presented model distinguishes between three main income classes. 1. Capital income from private firms is shown to be the result of an evolutionary competition between products. A direct consequence of this competition is Gibrat’s law suggesting a lognormal income distribution for small private firms. Taking into account an additional preferential attachment mechanism for large private firms the income distribution is supplemented by a power law (Pareto) tail. 2. Due to the division of labor a diversified labor market is seen as a non-competitive market. In this case wage income exhibits an exponential distribution. 3. Also included is income from a social insurance system. It can be approximated by a Gaussian peak. A consequence of this theory is that for short time intervals a fixed ratio of total labor (total capital) to net income exists (Cobb-Douglas relation). A comparison with empirical high resolution income data confirms this pattern of the total income distribution. The theory suggests that competition is the ultimate origin of the uneven income distribution.

  18. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  19. The Economic Feasibility of Residential Energy Storage Combined with PV Panels: The Role of Subsidies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A solar photovoltaic system produces electricity by converting energy from the sun. By the end of 2016, the global installed solar photovoltaic capacity reached 305 GW. Its growth is impressive in the last years; in fact, it was only equal to 41 GW in 2010. However, Europe has installed only 6.9 GW in 2016 (−1.7 GW in comparison to previous year and this annual power installed is equal to 9% of global one in according to data released by Solar Power Europe. The profitability of PV systems in mature markets depends on the harmonization between demanded energy and produced one residential energy storage when combined with photovoltaic panels is able to increase the share of self-consumption. This work proposes a mathematical model, in which a Discounted Cash Flow analysis is conducted to evaluate the financial feasibility of photovoltaic-integrated lead acid battery systems in Italy. The indicator used is Net Present Value. Furthermore, a break-even point analysis, in terms of an increase of self-consumption, is conducted. The residential sector is investigated and energy storage system investment is incentivized by fiscal deduction and regional subsidies. The analysis provides several case studies, determined by combinations of the following variables: photovoltaic plant size, battery capacity, the increase of the share of self-consumption, and the useful lifetime of energy storage system. The same case studies are proposed also in four alternative scenarios, where is the modified the structure of subsidies. Results confirm that the profitability can be reached in presence of subsidies.

  20. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(d)-1 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.642(d)-1 Section 1.642(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(d)-1 Net operating loss...

  2. 26 CFR 1.702-2 - Net operating loss deduction of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction of partner. 1.702-2 Section 1.702-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-2 Net operating loss deduction of...

  3. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  4. Analisis Penentuan Variabel dari Biaya Kapal Sebagai Acuan Penentuan Subsidi untuk Kapal Perintis :Studi Kasus Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Jagarin Silaban

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Subsidi diberikan untuk menjembatani ketidak-seimbangan antara harga atau tarip yang ditetapkan produsen dengan kekuatan daya beli konsumen dikarenakan konsumen tersebut tidak dapat membayar sesuai dengan tarip yang ditetapkan. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengkaji formula penentuan subsidi saat ini dan mengeloborasi dengan solusi alternatife. Studi dilakukan dengan  menentukan  variabel jarak, yang ada di biaya kapal perintis dan dapat dijadikan sebagai acuan penentuan  subsidi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penentuan subsidi saat ini  hanya ditentukan oleh variabel Jarak saja dan variabel penentu saat ini belum bisa menghitung besaran subsidi dengan lebih objektif karena ada beberapa variabel penentu lainnya yang bisa dijadikan sebagai acuan penentuan subsidi seperti GT, BHP, ABK dan Umur.

  5. Preferential imitation of vaccinating behavior can invalidate the targeted subsidy on complex network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Tang, Ming; Small, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of inducement to vaccinate during the spread of an infectious disease on complex networks. Suppose that public resources are finite and that only a small proportion of individuals can be vaccinated freely (complete subsidy), for the remainder of the population vaccination is a voluntary behavior --- and each vaccinated individual carries a perceived cost. We ask whether the classical targeted subsidy strategy is definitely better than the random strategy: does targeting subsidy at individuals perceived to be with the greatest risk actually help? With these questions, we propose a model to investigate the \\emph{interaction effects} of the subsidy policies and individuals responses when facing subsidy policies on the epidemic dynamics on complex networks. In the model, a small proportion of individuals are freely vaccinated according to either the targeted or random subsidy policy, the remainder choose to vaccinate (or not) based on voluntary principle and update their vaccination decisio...

  6. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels are not h......We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels...... are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...

  7. Policy Surveillance in the G20 Fossil Fuel Subsidies Agreement: Lessons for Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Aldy, Joseph Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate policy surveillance has undermined the effectiveness of multilateral climate agreements. To illustrate an alternative approach to transparency, I evaluate policy surveillance under the 2009 G-20 fossil fuel subsidies agreement. The Leaders of the Group of 20 nations tasked their energy and finance ministers to identify and phase-out fossil fuel subsidies. The G-20 leaders agreed to submit their subsidy reform strategies to peer review and to independent expert review conducted by i...

  8. Effects of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy on hospitals competition under non-price regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-Yan

    2016-11-15

    Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation. We establish a three-stage duopoly model with quantity and quality competition. In the model, qualitative difference and asymmetric medical insurance subsidy among hospitals are considered. The government decides subsidy (or reimbursement) ratios in the first stage. Hospitals choose the quality in the second stage and then support the quantity in the third stage. We obtain our conclusions by mathematical model analyses and all the results are achieved by backward induction. The importance of medical quality to patients has stronger influence on the small hospital, while subsidy has greater effect on the large hospital. Meanwhile, the importance of medical quality to patients strengthens competition, but subsidy effect weakens it. Besides, subsidy ratios difference affects the relationship between subsidy and hospital competition. Furthermore, we capture the optimal reimbursement ratio based on social welfare maximization. More importantly, this paper finds that the higher management efficiency of the medical insurance investment funds is, the higher the best subsidy ratio is. This paper states that subsidy is a two-edged sword. On one hand, subsidy stimulates medical demand. On the other hand, subsidy raises price and inhibits hospital competition. Therefore, government must set an appropriate subsidy ratio difference between large and small hospitals to maximize the total social welfare. For a developing country with limited medical resources

  9. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Tsuneishi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating to the net income. The results of the articles showed that distribution of net income has become positively skewed, with the mean dragged to the right by a few high scores. This means that the median is more appropriate than the mean as a measure of central tendency of net income. Factors relating to net income of private dental clinics have changed: private dental clinics that were opened after 1989 (new and had dental hygienists, who may conduct dental maintenance, had high net income, suggesting that they are well-managed or having a different type of patient mix in recent years. These analyses provide important and useful information for not only better management of private dental clinics but also policy-making in dental health care.

  10. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-6 - Income of foreign trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of foreign trust. 1.643(a)-6 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(a)-6 Income of foreign trust. (a) Distributable net income of a foreign trust. In the case of a foreign trust (see section 7701(a)(31)), the...

  11. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all net income derived from such a use, less Federal, State and local taxes paid on such income, shall... resulting in income. 9004.5 Section 9004.5 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or...

  12. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

  13. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

  14. Can Production Subsidies Explain China's Export Performance? Evidence from Firm-level Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yundan; Yu, Zhihong; Girma, Sourafel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity...... at the intensive margin, although this effect is conditional on firm characteristics. In particular, the positive relationship between subsidies and the intensive margin of exports is strongest among profit-making firms, firms in capital-intensive industries, and those located in non-coastal regions. Compared...

  15. 47 CFR 32.4370 - Other jurisdictional liabilities and deferred credits-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by appropriate subsidiary records... credits-net. 32.4370 Section 32.4370 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4370 Other jurisdictional liabilities and deferred credits—net. This account...

  16. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with an universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-1 - Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...

  18. How to Turn an Industry Green: Taxes versus Subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dröge, Susanne; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Environmental policies frequently target the ratio of dirty to green output within the same industry. To achieve such targets the green sector may be subsidised or the dirty sector be taxed. This paper shows that in a monopolistic competition setting the two policy instruments have different...... welfare effects. For a strong green policy (a severe reduction of the dirty sector) a tax is the dominant instrument. For moderate policy targets, a subsidy will be superior (inferior) if the initial situation features a large (small) share of dirty output. These findings have implications for policies...

  19. Apprenticeship training in Denmark : the impacts of subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Rasmussen, Anders Rue

    1997-01-01

    For years, Denmark has maintained and developed its apprenticeship system which is comparable to the German system. Today, about 40% of the youth cohorts get apprenticeship training. The paper describes the basic functioning of the labour market of apprentices. It is initially shown how the wage...... and unemployment rates of skilled workers who have served an apprenticeship differ from those of non-skilled workers. In recent years there have been periods with serious mismatches between the demand for and the supply of apprenticeships. Through the 80's subsidies were introduced to overcome this shortage...

  20. R&D Subsidies and the Surplus Appropriability Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    It may be optimal from a welfare perspective to use R&D subsidies when the source of R&D distortions originates from the surplus appropriability problem and technological spillovers in the form of knowledge spillovers, creative destruction, and duplication externalities are absent. Hence, R...... or unwilling to use the level of spending required to implement the optimum policy. The argument is developed in a semi-endogenous growth model where the only distortion is monopoly pricing of intermediate goods.Keywords: R&D, policy instruments, welfare, market powerJEL: O38, O41...

  1. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  2. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  3. Fortifying baladi bread in Egypt: reaching more than 50 million people through the subsidy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakim, Nadine; Laillou, Arnaud; El Nakeeb, Anwar; Yacoub, Rukia; Shehata, Magdy

    2012-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron-deficiency anemia, are a public health problem in Egypt, where anemia rates almost doubled in the years from 2000 to 2005. In 2008, the Government of Egypt began implementation of a 5-year national program to fortify with iron and folic acid the wheat flour used in baking subsidized baladi bread, the staple food consumed by a majority of low- income groups. To project the achievements of this national Wheat Flour Fortification Program. This paper describes the program, estimates the production of fortified flour and consumption of fortified bread, and identifies program challenges and sustainability issues. Through the national Wheat Flour Fortification Program, ferrous sulfate and folic acid are now added to all wheat flour produced under the national Food Subsidy Program. Up to 50 million Egyptians nationwide are now consuming quality-assured fortified baladi bread on a daily basis. In 2011, 6.5 million MT of fortified wheat flour was produced by 143 participating public- and private-sector mills. Political changes in Egypt in 2011 did not seem to affect the program; the new leadership in the Ministry of Supply and Internal Trade remains committed to fortification of wheat flour. The daily intake of approximately 12 mg of iron and 600 microg of folic acid through the consumption of baladi bread suggests that the impact of the program on the prevention and reduction of iron and folate deficiencies among the Egyptian population could be significant; the results of an end-line survey are pending.

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  5. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  6. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  7. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  8. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, subsidies are the amounts of government payments in order to provide all society members with minimum well-being. In several countries such as Iran, the agriculture sector is supported by different methods to achieve goals such as increasing farmers' income, supporting domestic producers and eliminating dependence on imports, preserving employment and reducing poverty. A significant part of agriculture subsidies has been allocated to energy resources, chemical fertilizers, seeds, agriculture machines, vaccines, animal toxins, the interest on bank loans, insurance fees, certain airplane services, distributing young saplings, and government guaranteed purchase of products. However, examining the subsidies system in Iran reveals that most government payments are in the agriculture sector and more specifically on energy resources. Recently, the extra low cost of energy in the agriculture sector, which has had certain government supports, has resulted in low productivity and environmental damage, and has resulted in increased demand for agricultural products due to population growth, changes in life pattern, deviation in energy cost in agricultural sector, environment destruction and influences on sustainable agriculture indicators. Moreover, among different production units, agriculture has the closest relationship with the environment. This relationship is a mutual.On the one hand, erosion and destruction of the environment along with pollution growth and shortage of water resources negatively influences the production and efficiency of agricultural products, and on the other hand, agricultural pollutants and irregular use of chemical fertilizers in this sector impose indispensable damages to the environment.This study aims to apply a partial equilibrium model in order to examine direct and indirect effects of reduction of energy subsidies on economic and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Qorveh

  9. Adam Smith on Capital and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Ormazabal Sánchez, Kepa Mirena

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I critically analyze Smith's thesis in book I, chapter 6 of the "Wealth of Nations" that the replacement of the capital goods consumed in production becomes fully income. I argue that Smith’s argument is defective and does not imply this, and that, once it is properly corrected, it implies that the full value of commodities does not become income; in other words: that GNP is not equal to aggregate income. On this basis, I proceed to analyze Smith's definitions of gross and net i...

  10. Temperate marine protected area provides recruitment subsidies to local fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, A; Montgomery, J C; Smith, A N H; Croucher, A E; McLeod, I M; Lavery, S D

    2017-10-25

    The utility of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a means of protecting exploited species and conserving biodiversity within MPA boundaries is supported by strong empirical evidence. However, the potential contribution of MPAs to fished populations beyond their boundaries is still highly controversial; empirical measures are scarce and modelling studies have produced a range of predictions, including both positive and negative effects. Using a combination of genetic parentage and relatedness analysis, we measured larval subsidies to local fisheries replenishment for Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus: Sparidae) from a small (5.2 km(2)), well-established, temperate, coastal MPA in northern New Zealand. Adult snapper within the MPA contributed an estimated 10.6% (95% CI: 5.5-18.1%) of newly settled juveniles to surrounding areas (approx. 400 km(2)), with no decreasing trend in contributions up to 40 km away. Biophysical modelling of larval dispersal matched experimental data, showing larvae produced inside the MPA dispersed over a comparable distance. These results demonstrate that temperate MPAs have the potential to provide recruitment subsidies at magnitudes and spatial scales relevant to fisheries management. The validated biophysical model provides a cost-efficient opportunity to generalize these findings to other locations and climate conditions, and potentially informs the design of MPA networks for enhancing fisheries management. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Application of agricultural subsidy inspection using UAV image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Das, Amrita; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    The most important parameters, should be considered during application of remote sensing techniques in agricultural sector, is to acquire image data in appropriate moment in accordance with the growth of the crop. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages over conventional remote sensing techniques. They can acquire high-resolution images quickly and repeatedly with a comparatively lower flight altitude i.e. 80 400m nullifying the effect of extreme weather and cloud. This study discussed the use of low cost-effective UAV based remote sensing application in inspection of agricultural subsidy. The study area includes 129.1km2 of Miwon town. UAV images acquired 41 times from July 17 to August 10, 2015 for 7 days. The UAV images identify a significant amount of incorrect applications for agricultural subsidy, almost 29.6% (559 of 1,889). Surveying with UAV for agricultural payment instead of field stuff can reduce the time as much as 76.7 % and increase the effectiveness of inspection methods.

  12. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu, E-mail: f-akamt55@pwri.go.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Toda, Hideshige [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider {delta}{sup 15}N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: > {delta}{sup 15}N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. > {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. > The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  13. Choosers and Losers: The Impact of Government Subsidies on Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Louise; Ryan, Chris

    2010-01-01

    For over three decades, government subsidies have been a major source of funds for private schools in Australia. Private schools now enrol more than one-third of all students. Analysing administrative and participation data, we find that Australian private schools have used government subsidies to increase the quality of their services (that is,…

  14. Wage subsidies and hiring chances for the disabled: some causal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of wage subsidies as a policy instrument to integrate disabled individuals into the labor market. To identify causal effects, a large-scale field experiment was conducted in Belgium. The results show that the likelihood of a disabled candidate receiving a positive response to a job application is not positively influenced by disclosing entitlement to the Flemish Supporting Subsidy.

  15. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development. NBER Working Paper No. 14474

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2008-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  16. Reciprocal subsidies between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems structure consumer resource dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Pia; Cucherousset, Julien; Steger, Kristin; Eklöv, Peter; Tranvik, Lars J; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2012-05-01

    Cross-ecosystem movements of material and energy, particularly reciprocal resource fluxes across the freshwater-land interface, have received major attention. Freshwater ecosystems may receive higher amounts of subsidies (i.e., resources produced outside the focal ecosystem) than terrestrial ecosystems, potentially leading to increased secondary production in freshwaters. Here we used a meta-analytic approach to quantify the magnitude and direction of subsidy inputs across the freshwater-land interface and to determine subsequent responses in recipient animals. Terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems differed in the magnitude of subsidies they received, with aquatic ecosystems generally receiving higher subsidies than terrestrial ecosystems. Surprisingly, and despite the large discrepancy in magnitude, the contribution of these subsidies to animal carbon inferred from stable isotope composition did not differ between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, likely due to the differences in subsidy quality. The contribution of allochthonous subsidies was highest to primary consumers and predators, suggesting that bottom-up and top-down effects may be affected considerably by the input of allochthonous resources. Future work on subsidies will profit from a food web dynamic approach including indirect trophic interactions and propagating effects.

  17. Studying Child Care Subsidies with Secondary Data Sources. Methodological Brief OPRE 2012-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonsook; Johnson, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes four national surveys with data relevant to subsidy-related research and provides a useful set of considerations for subsidy researchers considering use of secondary data. Specifically, this brief describes each of the four datasets reviewed, highlighting unique features of each dataset and providing information on the survey…

  18. 49 CFR 27.77 - Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies. 27.77 Section 27.77 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies. Any air carrier receiving Federal financial assistance from...

  19. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green... government revenue foregone) not involving transfers from consumers; (2) Does not have the effect of...

  20. 78 FR 55281 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Collection Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval... million households covered by the Public Housing and Section 8 housing subsidies. The Quality Control...

  1. Econometric analysis of the effects of subsidies on farm production in case of endogenous input quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Lien, Gudbrand

    The effect of subsidies on farm production has been a major topic in agricultural economics for several decades. We present a new approach for analyzing the effects of different types of coupled and decoupled subsidies on farm production with econometric methods. In contrast to most previous...

  2. 24 CFR 983.304 - Other subsidy: effect on rent to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other subsidy: effect on rent to... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.304 Other subsidy: effect on rent to owner. (a) General. In addition to the rent limits established in accordance with § 983.301 and...

  3. 75 FR 82130 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Subsidies on Wind Power Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Proceeding Regarding China--Subsidies on Wind Power Equipment AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... consultations regarding certain subsidies provided by the People's Republic of China (China) on wind power... Administration of Special Fund for Industrialization of Wind Power Equipment'' (``Wind Power Equipment Fund...

  4. An Approach to Granting Subsidies to College Students in China Using Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    China has made great improvement on subsidizing poverty-stricken students, but the current approaches of granting subsidies is not scientific or humane. Poverty-stricken students who couldn't get sufficient subsidies in suitable ways need some new and more scientific granting approaches, which inspires me to go about this study. The approach, we…

  5. Subsidies for New Technologies and Knowledge Spillovers from Learning by Doing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Gregory F.

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically examines a prominent justification for public subsidies of emerging technologies: that stimulating demand for them provides opportunities for learning by doing. Even if firms learn from their experience, subsidies are still second best to pricing negative externalities if firms can appropriate the benefits of learning. I…

  6. Child Care Subsidies and the School Readiness of Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first to test whether receipt of a federal child care subsidy is associated with children of immigrants' school readiness skills. Using nationally representative data (n ˜ 2,900), this study estimates the associations between subsidy receipt at age 4 and kindergarten cognitive and social outcomes, for children of immigrant…

  7. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  8. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  9. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  10. Relationship between Fiscal Subsidies and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Cross-Country Empirical Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchidananda Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries disburse subsidies with various motivations, for example, to promote industrial development, facilitate innovation, support national champions, and ensure redistribution. The devolution of subsidies may however also encourage economic activities leading to climate change related concerns, reflected through higher greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions, if such activities are conducted beyond sustainable point. Through a cross-country empirical analysis involving 131 countries over 1990–2010, the present analysis observes that higher proportional devolution of budgetary subsidies leads to higher CO2 emissions. The countries with higher CO2 emissions are also characterized by higher per capita GDP, greater share of manufacturing sector in their GDP, and higher level of urbanization. In addition, the empirical findings underline the importance of the type of government subsidy devolution on CO2 emission pattern. The analysis underlines the importance of limiting provision of subsidies both in developed and developing countries.

  11. Effect of subsidies to fossil fuel companies on United States crude oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Down, Adrian; Lazarus, Michael; Koplow, Doug

    2017-11-01

    Countries in the G20 have committed to phase out `inefficient' fossil fuel subsidies. However, there remains a limited understanding of how subsidy removal would affect fossil fuel investment returns and production, particularly for subsidies to producers. Here, we assess the impact of major federal and state subsidies on US crude oil producers. We find that, at recent oil prices of US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new, yet-to-be-developed oil investments into profitability, potentially increasing US oil production by 17 billion barrels over the next few decades. This oil, equivalent to 6 billion tonnes of CO2, could make up as much as 20% of US oil production through 2050 under a carbon budget aimed at limiting warming to 2 °C. Our findings show that removal of tax incentives and other fossil fuel support policies could both fulfil G20 commitments and yield climate benefits.

  12. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversityverification in Danish greening subsidy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    farmers for greening subsidy claims, with no instances of suggesting a greening subsidy for a holding that the farmer did not report as meeting the required conditions. These results suggest that the proposed RS based method shows great promise for validating the new greening subsidies in Denmark.......’ declarations to war-rant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers’ subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing...... compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014–2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach(proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring...

  13. Comparison of Operational Subsidies on Less Favoured Areas in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lososová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at an analysis of operational subsidies on the Less Favoured Areas (LFA in the European Union countries. With the help of cluster analysis, the EU countries were divided into groups and, using correlation and regression analyses, the relations between defined indicators were evaluate. The indicators of FADN EU related to the cultivated land area were completed with relative indicators. Some differences were proved in subsidy effectiveness between particular groups of the countries. The amount of operational subsidies only has a positive impact on subsidised costs in the mountain LFAs. Worse productive and climate conditions increase the dependence of the output on subsidies related to cost effectiveness. No dependence of the output share of subsidies and the subsidised costs was proven in all groups.

  14. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy A; Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Hathaway, Stacie A; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fisher, Robert N

    2012-01-01

    While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies--the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries--can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp.) that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated) forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ strongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  15. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A Briggs

    Full Text Available While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies--the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries--can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp. that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ strongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  16. 17 CFR 210.7-04 - Income statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF... face of the income statements and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this article pertains... premiums earned. 2. Net investment income. State in a note to the financial statements, in tabular form...

  17. 47 CFR 32.7100 - Other operating income and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other operating income and expenses. 32.7100....7100 Other operating income and expenses. This account shall be used to record the results of... net gain or loss. This account shall include the following: (a) Profits realized from custom work...

  18. Dutch social housing sector reforms : Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income

  19. 14 CFR 331.15 - How will other grants, subsidies, or incentives be treated by the Department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will other grants, subsidies, or incentives be treated by the Department? 331.15 Section 331.15 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... How will other grants, subsidies, or incentives be treated by the Department? Grants, subsidies, or...

  20. 5 CFR 792.224 - Are child care subsidies paid to the Federal employee using the child care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are child care subsidies paid to the... the Child Care Subsidy Program Legislation and to Whom Does It Apply? § 792.224 Are child care subsidies paid to the Federal employee using the child care? Agencies must pay the child care provider...

  1. 25 CFR 20.503 - When can Child Assistance funds be used for Indian adoption or guardianship subsidies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adoption or guardianship subsidies? 20.503 Section 20.503 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... or guardianship subsidies? You, the social services program, can use Child Assistance funds to provide either adoption or guardianship subsidies if all of the following are true: (a) The child is 17 or...

  2. Care or Cash? The Effect of Child Care Subsidies on Student Performance. NBER Working Paper No. 18086

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Loken, Katrine V.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide use of childcare subsidies across countries, it is surprising how little we know about the effect of these subsidies on children's longer run outcomes. Using a sharp discontinuity in the price of childcare in Norway, we are able to isolate the effects of childcare subsidies on both parental and student outcomes. We find very small…

  3. 19 CFR 351.217 - Reviews to implement results of subsidies enforcement proceeding under section 751(g) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reviews to implement results of subsidies... Countervailing Duty Procedures § 351.217 Reviews to implement results of subsidies enforcement proceeding under... ongoing countervailing duty proceeding the results of certain subsidy-related disputes under the WTO...

  4. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Subsidies in Telephone Pricing Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider the provision of telephone service to rural and/or low income customers. The first paper, "An Analysis of Telephone Penetration" (Alexander Belinfante), analyzes the relationship between telephone penetration (the proportion of households with phone service) and prices, household income, and other factors. This…

  5. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  6. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  7. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  8. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Kramer, Karen; Msengwa, Amina; Mandike, Renata; Lengeler, Christian

    2014-05-27

    To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007-2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.

  9. Utilization of long-term care services under the public long-term care insurance program in Korea: Implications of a subsidy policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsoo; Kwon, Soonman; Yoon, Nan-He; Hyun, Kyung-Rae

    2013-07-01

    South Korea introduced public long-term care insurance (LTCI) in 2008. This study examined the patterns of and factors associated with public long-term care (LTC) utilization among older LTCI beneficiaries in Korea, with special attention to the policy for subsidizing the co-payments of lower income populations. Using a 5% national representative sample of 280,290 older people aged 65 or older obtained from the 2010 national LTCI claims database, we examined socio-demographic and health factors associated with service utilization decisions, service type chosen, and the intensity of service use. About 5.48% of older adults in 2010 utilized the LTC provided under the Korean public LTCI, among which about 26.1% received a subsidy. Compared to their counterparts, the subsidized users were more likely to be low-income, female, and living alone. They were more likely to choose institutionalized care and spend to their monthly benefit limit while paying a lower co-payment. The factors associated with pattern and intensity of LTC utilization were not the same between subsidized and non-subsidized users. The findings imply the subsidy policy promotes equity of access to public LTC services. Further evaluation is necessary on the impact of the policy on the effectiveness of LTC utilization by socially marginalized populations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  11. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  12. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  13. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies, te...... with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12-15) is a more important determinant of child achievement than earlier income.......In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies......, tests for early borrowing constraints suggest that parents are not constrained in early investments in their children's achievement, and thus that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state...

  14. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  15. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  16. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  17. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  18. Conserving connectivity: Human influence on subsidy transfer and relevant restoration efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Emily V; Hernández, Daniel L; Samhouri, Jameal F

    2017-11-10

    Conservation efforts tend to focus on the direct impacts humans have on their surrounding environment; however there are also many ways in which people indirectly affect ecosystems. Recent research on ecological subsidies-the transfer of energy and nutrients from one ecosystem to another-has highlighted the importance of nutrient exchange for maintaining productivity and diversity at a landscape scale, while also pointing toward the fragility of ecotones and vulnerability of subsidies to human activities. We review the recent literature on landscape connectivity and ecosystem subsidies from aquatic systems to terrestrial systems. Based on this review, we propose a conceptual model of how human activities may alter or eliminate the flow of energy and nutrients between ecosystems by influencing the delivery of subsidies along the pathway of transfer. To demonstrate the utility of this conceptual model, we discuss it in the context of case studies of subsidies derived from salmon, marine mammals, sea turtles, sea birds, and shoreline debris. Subsidy restoration may require a different set of actions from simply reversing the pathway of degradation. We suggest that effective restoration and conservation efforts will require a multifaceted approach, targeting many steps along the subsidy transfer pathway, to address these issues.

  19. The impact of subsidies on the ecological sustainability and future profits from North Sea fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Mackinson, Steven; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Dyck, Andrew; Little, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of subsidies on the profitability and ecological stability of the North Sea fisheries over the past 20 years. It shows the negative impact that subsidies can have on both the biomass of important fish species and the possible profit from fisheries. The study includes subsidies in an ecosystem model of the North Sea and examines the possible effects of eliminating fishery subsidies. Hindcast analysis between 1991 and 2003 indicates that subsidies reduced the profitability of the fishery even though gross revenue might have been high for specific fisheries sectors. Simulations seeking to maximise the total revenue between 2004 and 2010 suggest that this can be achieved by increasing the effort of Nephrops trawlers, beam trawlers, and the pelagic trawl-and-seine fleet, while reducing the effort of demersal trawlers. Simulations show that ecological stability can be realised by reducing the effort of the beam trawlers, Nephrops trawlers, pelagic- and demersal trawl-and-seine fleets. This analysis also shows that when subsidies are included, effort will always be higher for all fleets, because it effectively reduces the cost of fishing. The study found that while removing subsidies might reduce the total catch and revenue, it increases the overall profitability of the fishery and the total biomass of commercially important species. For example, cod, haddock, herring and plaice biomass increased over the simulation when optimising for profit, and when optimising for ecological stability, the biomass for cod, plaice and sole also increased. When subsidies are eliminated, the study shows that rather than forcing those involved in the fishery into the red, fisheries become more profitable, despite a decrease in total revenue due to a loss of subsidies from the government.

  20. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy A.; Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies—the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries—can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp.) that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated) forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ trongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  1. The Impact of Subsidies on the Ecological Sustainability and Future Profits from North Sea Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Mackinson, Steven; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Dyck, Andrew; Little, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examines the impact of subsidies on the profitability and ecological stability of the North Sea fisheries over the past 20 years. It shows the negative impact that subsidies can have on both the biomass of important fish species and the possible profit from fisheries. The study includes subsidies in an ecosystem model of the North Sea and examines the possible effects of eliminating fishery subsidies. Methodology/Principal Findings Hindcast analysis between 1991 and 2003 indicates that subsidies reduced the profitability of the fishery even though gross revenue might have been high for specific fisheries sectors. Simulations seeking to maximise the total revenue between 2004 and 2010 suggest that this can be achieved by increasing the effort of Nephrops trawlers, beam trawlers, and the pelagic trawl-and-seine fleet, while reducing the effort of demersal trawlers. Simulations show that ecological stability can be realised by reducing the effort of the beam trawlers, Nephrops trawlers, pelagic- and demersal trawl-and-seine fleets. This analysis also shows that when subsidies are included, effort will always be higher for all fleets, because it effectively reduces the cost of fishing. Conclusions/Significance The study found that while removing subsidies might reduce the total catch and revenue, it increases the overall profitability of the fishery and the total biomass of commercially important species. For example, cod, haddock, herring and plaice biomass increased over the simulation when optimising for profit, and when optimising for ecological stability, the biomass for cod, plaice and sole also increased. When subsidies are eliminated, the study shows that rather than forcing those involved in the fishery into the red, fisheries become more profitable, despite a decrease in total revenue due to a loss of subsidies from the government. PMID:21637848

  2. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses distributional effects of revenue-neutral tax reforms aimed at improving dietary quality and encouraging healthier grain consumption. Using data on household grain purchases, we analyse both the impact on dietary quality and the tax incidence among income groups of VAT reforms...... added sugar or saturated fat. Our results suggest that the VAT reforms have a similar impact on dietary quality across all income groups, with increases in fibre intake, but also unwanted increases in the intake of nutrients frequently overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. The impact on dietary quality...... of the VAT reforms is therefore difficult to evaluate. With the exception of the lowest income group, the excise duty reforms seem to have a positive health effect across all other income groups, with increases in the intake of fibre and reductions in the intake of saturated fat, sugar and added sugar...

  4. Size, structure and distribution of transport subsidies in Europe; Die Subventionierung des Verkehrs in Europa. Umfang, Struktur und Verteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckestein, Burkhard (comp.)

    2008-06-15

    Transport contributes to several environmental problems such as climate change, air emissions and noise and is at the same time favoured by significant subsidies. An EEA report identifies European transport subsidies worth at least EUR 270 to 290 billion a year. Road transport receives EUR 125 billion in annual subsidies, most of it as infrastructure subsidies, assuming that taxes on road transport are not regarded as contributions to finance infrastructure. Aviation, as the mode with the highest specific climate impact, gets significant subsidies in the form of preferential tax treatment, in particular exemptions from fuel tax and VAT, which add up to EUR 27 to 35 billion per year. Rail is subsidised with EUR 73 billion per year and benefits the most from other on-budget subsidies. For water-borne transport, EUR 14 to 30 billion in subsidies have been identified. (orig.)

  5. Subsidies for Oral Chemotherapy and Use of Immunomodulatory Drugs Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Adam J; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Eaton, Charles B; Davidoff, Amy J; Trivedi, Amal N

    2017-10-10

    Purpose The low-income subsidy (LIS) substantially lowers out-of-pocket costs for qualifying Medicare Part D beneficiaries who receive orally administered chemotherapy. We examined the association of LIS with the use of novel oral immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs; lenalidomide and thalidomide) among beneficiaries with myeloma, who can receive either orally administered or parenteral (bortezomib-based) therapy. Methods Using SEER-Medicare data, we identified Part D beneficiaries diagnosed with myeloma in 2007 to 2011. In multivariable models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, we analyzed associations between the LIS and use of IMiD-based therapy, delays between IMiD refills, and select health outcomes during the first year of therapy. Results Among 3,038 beneficiaries, 41% received first-line IMiDs. Median out-of-pocket cost for the first IMiD prescription was $3,178 for LIS nonrecipients and $3 for LIS recipients, whereas the respective median costs for the first year of therapy were $5,623 and $6, respectively. Receipt of the LIS was associated with a 32% higher (95% CI, 16% to 47%) probability of receiving IMiDs among beneficiaries age 75 to 84 years and a significantly lower risk of delays between refills in all age groups (adjusted relative risk, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.92). Duration of therapy did not significantly differ between LIS recipients and nonrecipients (median, 7.6 months). Patients treated with IMiDs had significantly fewer emergency department visits and hospitalizations compared with patients receiving bortezomib (without IMiDs), but 1-year overall survival and cumulative Medicare costs were similar. Conclusion Medicare beneficiaries with myeloma who do not receive LISs face a substantial financial barrier to accessing orally administered anticancer therapy, warranting urgent attention from policymakers. Limiting out-of-pocket costs for expensive anticancer drugs like the IMiDs may improve access to oral therapy for patients

  6. Social Security income measurement in two surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    As a major source of income for retired persons in the United States, Social Security benefits directly influence economic well-being. That fact underscores the importance of measuring Social Security income accurately in household surveys. Using Social Security Administration (SSA) records, we examine Social Security income as reported in two Census Bureau surveys, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). Although SSA usually deducts Medicare premiums from benefit payments, both the CPS and the SIPP aim to collect and record gross Social Security benefit amounts (before Medicare premium deductions). We find that the Social Security benefit recorded in the CPS closely approximates the gross benefit recorded for CPS respondents in SSA's records, but the Social Security benefit recorded in the SIPP more closely approximates SSA's record of net benefit payments (after deducting Medicare premiums).

  7. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-2 - Allocation of income items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distributable net income of the trust (as defined in section 643(a)) as the total of each class bears to such... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of income items. 1.652(b)-2 Section 1.652(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX...

  8. 75 FR 61248 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... solicits comments on information needed to determine net income derived from farming. DATES: Written... claimant's countable annual income and available assets due to farm operations. Farm income is not necessarily received on a weekly or monthly basis, and farm operating expenses must be considered in...

  9. 26 CFR 509.111 - Real property income and natural resource royalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property income and natural resource... of income are subject to taxation under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 generally...: “Return of Swiss Corporation Electing to File on a Net Basis Pursuant to Article IX of Swiss Income Tax...

  10. 78 FR 34174 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... solicits comments on information needed to determine net income derived from farming. DATES: Written... claimant's countable annual ] income and available assets due to farm operations. Farm income is not necessarily received on a weekly or monthly basis, and farm operating expenses must be considered in...

  11. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  12. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval Number... Quality Control process involves selecting a nationally representative sample of assisted households to...

  13. A note on duplication of R&D and R&D subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Dakhlia; Akram Temimi; Flavio Menezes

    2004-01-01

    We show that the presumed incompatibility of uncoordinated R&D and competition is not fundamental, but hinges on the nature of R&D spillovers. As a consequence, R&D subsidies may be more effective than previously thought.

  14. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  15. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  16. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  17. Subsidies to target specialist outreach services into more remote locations: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; McGrail, Matthew R; Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2017-07-01

    Objective Targeting rural outreach services to areas of highest relative need is challenging because of the higher costs it imposes on health workers to travel longer distances. This paper studied whether subsidies have the potential to support the provision of specialist outreach services into more remote locations. Methods National data about subsidies for medical specialist outreach providers as part of the Wave 7 Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) Survey in 2014. Results Nearly half received subsidies: 19% (n=110) from a formal policy, namely the Australian Government Rural Health Outreach Fund (RHOF), and 27% (n=154) from other sources. Subsidised specialists travelled for longer and visited more remote locations relative to the non-subsidised group. In addition, compared with non-subsidised specialists, RHOF-subsidised specialists worked in priority areas and provided equally regular services they intended to continue, despite visiting more remote locations. Conclusion This suggests the RHOF, although limited to one in five specialist outreach providers, is important to increase targeted and stable outreach services in areas of highest relative need. Other subsidies also play a role in facilitating remote service distribution, but may need to be more structured to promote regular, sustained outreach practice. What is known about this topic? There are no studies describing subsidies for specialist doctors to undertake rural outreach work and whether subsidies, including formal and structured subsidies via the Australian Government RHOF, support targeted outreach services compared with no financial support. What does this paper add? Using national data from Australia, we describe subsidisation among specialist outreach providers and show that specialists subsidised via the RHOF or another source are more likely to provide remote outreach services. What are the implications for practitioners? Subsidised specialist outreach providers are

  18. Assessing the Market for Poultry Litter in Georgia: Are Subsidies Needed to Protect Water Quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Bekchanov, Ulugbek; Karali, Berna; Kissel, David; Risse, Mark L.; Rowles, Kristin; Collier, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about nutrient loads into our waters have focused attention on poultry litter applications. Like many states with a large poultry industry, Georgia recently designed a subsidy program to facilitate the transportation of poultry litter out of vulnerable watersheds. This paper uses a transportation model to examine the necessity of a poultry litter subsidy to achieve water protection goals in Georgia. We also demonstrate the relationship between diesel and synthetic fertilizer prices a...

  19. Price and Subsidy Policy on Soil Conservation: Application to Smallholder Tea Growers

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Jayanath; Herath, Gamini

    2001-01-01

    The role of commodity prices and subsidies on the adoption of soil conservation has been widely debated yet is poorly understood. One reason for this is the complex nature of the relationship between soil loss and yield damage. This paper examines the effects of price and subsidy policy on adoption of soil conservation measures in tea lands in Sri Lanka. The soil conservation technologies considered are lateral drains, stone terraces and Sloping Agricultural Land Technique (SALT). The study u...

  20. Do wage subsidies for disabled workers reduce their non-employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Larsen, Mona; Thomsen, Lars Stage

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the potential of wage subsidy programs for reducing non-employment of the disabled by exploiting a reform of the Danish Flexjob scheme targeted towards employing the long-term (partially) disabled. Firms received a salary reimbursement for all employees granted a Flexjob. We examine....... A reduction in subsidies thus leads to a decrease in the hiring of the non-employed disabled....

  1. Do Subsidies Provided to Public Transport in Madrid Favor Vertical Equity?

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Cadena, Paola Carolina; Vassallo Magro, José Manuel; Herraiz Tabernero, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread implementation of subsidy policies for urban transport in many cities, the equity evaluation of these policies still remains limited. There is scarce quantitative assessment of the distributional incidence of transport subsidy policies. This paper contributes to fill this research gap by developing a practical approach to evaluate the impact of fare subsidization on vertical equity. In the paper we implement a two-step methodology. First, we develop two main indicat...

  2. Microfinance safety net: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Shi, Qiuhu; Murthy, Padmini

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition among families living in poorer communities has increased in the past two decades. Initiatives advocated by the World Bank include microfinance programs. Research attributing the success of these programs however, has mixed results. In this article we investigate how additional income provided by microfinance is associated with increased consumption of nondurables for households in rural villages in Bangladesh. For our purposes we compare consumption or money expensed on food, medicine, doctor fees, and smoking. Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) procedure was used to address multiple comparison issues among households. Our findings reinforce the importance of microfinance credit as a safety net. Access to additional income for poor villagers improves the consumption of basic needs as expected, regardless of how many loans are taken; consumption of "bads" remains virtually the same.

  3. Effects of Targeted Subsidies Policy on Health Behavior in Iranian Households: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmangir, Leila; Doshmangir, Parinaz; Abolhassani, Nazanin; Moshiri, Esmaeil; Jafari, Mehdi

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of national targeted subsidies policy on health behavior of Iranian households. In this qualitative study, data were collected between January 2012 and December 2013 through face-to-face interviews (23 experts in national and provincial levels of health system and 18 household heads) and through a comprehensive and purposive document analysis. The data was analyzed using a thematic analysis method (inductive-deductive) and assisted by Atlas-ti software. Rising health care costs, removing some food subsidies and the increase in price of most goods and services due to the implementation of economic policy of targeted subsidies have led to significant changes in the demand for health services, changes in the consumption trends of goods and services affecting health as well as changes in the health habits of households. Targeted subsidies and the cash subsidy policy have some negative effects on population health behavior especially among poor people. Hence, maintaining or increasing the cash subsidy is not an efficient allocation of resources toward health care system. So, it is necessary to identify appropriate strategies and policies and apply interventions in order to moderate negative effects and enhance positive effects resulted from implementing this economic reform on population health behavior.

  4. Predator-prey-subsidy population dynamics on stepping-stone domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lulan; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2017-05-07

    Predator-prey-subsidy dynamics on stepping-stone domains are examined using a variety of network configurations. Our problem is motivated by the interactions between arctic foxes (predator) and lemmings (prey) in the presence of seal carrion (subsidy) provided by polar bears. We use the n-Patch Model, which considers space explicitly as a "Stepping Stone" system. We consider the role that the carrying capacity, predator migration rate, input subsidy rate, predator mortality rate, and proportion of predators surviving migration play in the predator-prey-subsidy population dynamics. We find that for certain types of networks, added mobility will help predator populations, allowing them to survive or coexist when they would otherwise go extinct if confined to one location, while in other situations (such as when sparsely distributed nodes in the network have few resources available) the added mobility will hurt the predator population. We also find that a combination of favourable conditions for the prey and subsidy can lead to the formation of limit cycles (boom and bust dynamic) from stable equilibrium states. These modifications to the dynamics vary depending on the specific network structure employed, highlighting the fact that network structure can strongly influence the predator-prey-subsidy dynamics in stepping-stone domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reciprocal subsidies in ponds: does leaf input increase frog biomass export?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2012-12-01

    Reciprocal subsidies occur when ecosystems are paired, both importing and exporting resources to each other. The input of subsidies increases reciprocal subsidy export, but it is unclear how this changes with other important factors, such as ambient resources. We provide a conceptual framework for reciprocal subsidies and empirical data testing this framework using a pond-forest system in Missouri, USA. Our experiment used in situ pond mesocosms and three species of anurans: wood frogs, American toads, and southern leopard frogs. We predicted that increases in ambient resources (primary productivity) and detrital subsidy input (deciduous tree leaves) into pond mesocosms would increase reciprocal export (frog biomass) to the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem. In contrast, we found that increases in primary productivity consistently decreased frog biomass, except with leaf litter inputs. With leaf inputs, primary productivity did not affect the export of frogs, indicating that leaf detritus and associated microbial communities may be more important than algae for frog production. We found that subsidy inputs tended to increase reciprocal exports, and thus partial concordance with our conceptual framework.

  6. Sources, Subsidies and Sinks: Organic Carbon in Coastal Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, William; Smeaton, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Coastal sedimentary environments such as estuaries, deltas and fjords are sites characterised by high sedimentation rates and effective burial of organic carbon (OC). Fjords in particular have been shown to be hotspots for OC burial and storage. Additionally, the unique geomorphology of fjords and their proximity to the terrestrial environment mean that they are important receptors of terrestrially-derived OC. Such natural 'trapping' mechanisms prevent OC from reaching the open shelf where much of it would potentially be lost to the atmosphere through remineralisation. Though it is well documented that terrestrial OC (OCterr) is buried in fjords, the long-term (interglacial timescale) interactions between the OC stored in the terrestrial environment and in coastal sediments is less well defined. In this review, we outline the current understanding of both OCterr and Blue Carbon sources, subsidies and sinks (i.e. sediment stores) in the coastal sediments of the United Kingdom, with a view to outlining a methodology to establish a national coastal carbon inventory.

  7. Economising subsidies for green housing features: A stated preference approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Yau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the enormous amounts of energy and resources consumed by housing development and operations, many governments have started recognising the urgent need to promote green or eco-friendly housing with the aim of achieving sustainable development. Apart from regulations, governments can offer incentives to developers to provide green features in their developments by offering subsidies in various forms. However, such subsidisation is often uneconomical. In theory, market forces can lead to green housing provision without any government intervention if the market players are willing to pay extra for the green features of housing. Against this background, this article presents the findings of a study that compared potential homebuyers’ willingness to pay (WTP for various green housing features based on findings from a structured questionnaire survey in Macau. The housing attributes under investigation included uses of green materials (e.g., sustainable forest products and construction methods (e.g., prefabrication, energy-efficient technologies (e.g., LED lighting and water-saving devices (e.g., grey-water recycling systems. Results indicate that the respondents’ WTP was mainly motivated by economic incentives. Green housing attributes that can offer direct financial benefits corresponded to greater WTP. The policy implications of the research findings then follow.

  8. Time-delayed subsidies: interspecies population effects in salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Nelson

    Full Text Available Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species.

  9. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  10. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  12. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  13. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  15. Who benefits from government healthcare subsidies? An assessment of the equity of healthcare benefits distribution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Fang, Guixia; Wang, Lidan; Wang, Zhonghua; Zhao, Yuxin; Si, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Improving the equitable distribution of government healthcare subsidies (GHS), particularly among low-income citizens, is a major goal of China's healthcare sector reform in China. This study investigates the distribution of GHS in China between socioeconomic populations at two different points in time, examines the comparative distribution of healthcare benefits before and after healthcare reforms in Northwest China, compares the parity of distribution between urban and rural areas, and explores factors that influence equitable GHS distribution. Benefit incidence analysis of GHS progressivity was performed, and concentration and Kakwani indices for outpatient, inpatient, and total healthcare were calculated. Two rounds of household surveys that used multistage stratified samples were conducted in 2003 (13,564 respondents) and 2008 (12,973 respondents). Data on socioeconomics, healthcare payments, and healthcare utilization were collected using household interviews. High-income individuals generally reap larger benefits from GHS, as reflected by positive concentration indices, which indicates a regressive system. Concentration indices for inpatient care were 0.2199 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0829 to 0.3568) and 0.4445 (95% CI, 0.3000 to 0.5890) in 2002 (urban vs. rural, respectively), and 0.3925 (95% CI, 0.2528 to 0.5322) and 0.4084 (95% CI, 0.2977 to 0.5190) in 2007. Outpatient healthcare subsidies showed different distribution patterns in urban and rural areas following the redesign of rural healthcare insurance programs (urban vs. rural: 0.1433 [95% CI, 0.0263 to 0.2603] and 0.3662 [95% CI, 0.2703 to 0.4622] in 2002, respectively; 0.3063 [95% CI, 0.1657 to 0.4469] and -0.0273 [95% CI, -0.1702 to 0.1156] in 2007). Our study demonstrates an inequitable distribution of GHS in China from 2002 to 2007; however, the inequity was reduced, especially in rural outpatient services. Future healthcare reforms in China should not only focus on expanding the coverage

  16. Food Access, Food Subsidy, and Residue-Based Bioenergy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research also aims to examine the effect of biofuels on the poor's incomes and food consumption. It will focus on the use of agricultural residues to produce energy and its trickle-down effect on agricultural productivity and food security at the local level. Diverting residues to commercial energy production could improve ...

  17. Netting down gross earnings data in the LIS database: an evaluation of two procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Rense; Munzi, Teresa; Gornick, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    LIS researchers who seek to perform country-comparative and / or trend analyses have to account for the fact that in some LIS datasets income variables were reported net of taxes and social security contributions, while in other datasets income variables were reported gross of taxes and social

  18. The Impact of the Subsidy Policy on Total Factor Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of China's Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops one model to explore the relationship between the subsidy policy and the agricultural total factor productivity (TFP. It indicates that the agricultural TFP will be lower after the subsidy policy is implemented and there exists a negative relation between the subsidy and TFP, if subsidies are associated with the acreage. Using Malmquist index, this paper measures the changes of TFP in China's cotton production before and after the subsidy policy is implemented. The results verify that the subsidy policy could not increase but decrease the TFP of China's cotton production, not only in the whole country but also in major provinces of China. Based on the positive study, some policy implications are provided in the end of this paper.

  19. Government Subsidy for Remanufacturing or Carbon Tax Rebate: Which Is Better for Firms and a Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government as a policy maker wishing to promote remanufacturing and proper disposal of hazardous old products which are harmful to environment has taken many actions, ranging from carbon regulation and financial incentives such as trade-in subsidy. However, carbon tax can result in loss of profit for firms to some degree, so the government has to give other subsidy to balance the profits and carbon emission. Thus, this article investigates two subsidy mechanisms: remanufacturing subsidy or tax rebate. The optimal pricing and production decision under these policies are examined. Our results show that carbon tax has a great impact on pricing strategies. Trade-in subsidy can encourage customers to replace their existing products with new and remanufactured products. Both remanufacture subsidy and tax rebate are beneficial to manufacturer and can further promote remanufacturing development.

  20. Male Income, Female Income, and Household Income Inequality in Israel: A Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2008-01-01

    Differentiating between the sensitivity of income inequality to male income and female income and decomposing inequality by income determinants, we find that total income inequality is less sensitive to female income variability or the level of female income, than to male income variability or the level of male income. Uniform increases in education reduce income inequality, with increases in female education having a larger effect than increases in male education. An increase in the populati...

  1. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  2. Considering environmental aspects of subsidies - sector study housing; Beruecksichtigung von Umweltgesichtspunkten bei Subventionen - Sektorstudie Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, R.U.; Triebswetter, U.; Behring, K.; Rave, T. [Ifo-Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    This study is linked to another study which took stock of German subsidy policy from an environmental point of view (Sprenger and Rave, 2003). However, subsidies are discussed with respect to sector-specific peculiarities of housing in this report. Due to the fact that the housing sector receives a considerable amount of subsidies on the one hand and influences the state of the environment on the other hand (especially due to land use, high energy and resource consumption, waste) this study aims to develop reform option for a subsidy policy which is committed to sustainable development. First of all the ecological impacts of housing and the subsidy intensity of the housing sector are examined more closely. Then we look at some goals of housing policy and contrast them with goals of environmental policy. Some of the subsidies are singled out to determine their potential environmental impact. For example, it can be shown that the home-owner support scheme (Eigenheimzulage) promotes new construction activites in the country side and contributes to urban sprawl. (Other negative environmental side effects occur in social housing schemes and due to tax subsidies). With respect to the home-owner support scheme we propose to lower the basic support (Grundzulage) in a multi-tier system and to introduce an ecological component. This component is based on criteria which can be administered easily (like kind of land used, amount of land designed for construction or housing, number of persons in household). Overall a policy package is proposed which contributes to a considerable reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and land use. (orig.)

  3. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  4. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  5. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be −1.21, −0.52, −0.49 and −0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  6. Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L M; Chriqui, J F; Khan, T; Wada, R; Chaloupka, F J

    2013-02-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  8. Decree No. 44 approving the Regulations of the Unified General System of Housing Subsidies, 14 March 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree provides that the Chilean Government will confer a housing subsidy under the following conditions: 1) each beneficiary is entitled to only one subsidy; 2) the subsidy is to be a supplement to money saved and at the immediate disposal of the beneficiary; 3) in general, the subsidy is to be used to finance the acquisition or construction of new housing; and 4) the housing must be intended as the permanent residence of the beneficiary. Two kinds of subsidies are to be granted: a direct subsidy in specific amounts not to exceed 75% of the house value and an indirect subsidy to subsidize mortgages. Under the Decree, single or married persons who have reached the age of majority and minors who are married and employed are eligible for subsidies. Applicants awarded subsidies are to be determined on a regional basis according to the particular conditions of the applicants, such as the amount saved by the applicant, lot availability, number of family members, length of time of savings, and the amount of credit needed. Once housing is acquired, a beneficiary may not for five years sell, transfer, rent, or use the housing for any purpose other than living there permanently. Provisions of this Decree were amended by Decree No. 114 of 8 July 1988 (Diario Oficial, No. 33.140, 6 August 1988) and Decree No. 135 of 2 August 1988 (Diario Oficial, No. 33.146, 13 August 1988). full text

  9. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  10. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  11. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure—for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  12. A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Campbell, Kirsten; Ohta, Tamihisa; Richardson, John S

    2016-09-01

    Spatial resource subsidies can alter bottom-up and top-down forces of community regulation across ecosystem boundaries. Most subsidies are temporally variable, and recent theory has suggested that consumer-resource dynamics can be stabilized if the peak timing of a subsidy is desynchronized with that of prey productivity in the recipient ecosystem. However, magnitude of consumer responses per se could depend on the subsidy timing, which may be a critical component for community dynamics and ecosystem processes. The aim of this study was to test (i) whether a recipient consumer (cutthroat trout) responds differently to a resource subsidy occurring early in its growing season than to a subsidy occurring late in the season and, if this is the case, (ii) whether the timing-dependent consumer response has cascading effects on communities and ecosystem functions in streams. To test those hypotheses, we conducted a large-scale field experiment, in which we directly manipulated the timing of augmentation of the terrestrial invertebrates that enter stream (i.e. peak timing of June-August vs. August-October), keeping constant the total amounts of the invertebrates entered. We found large increases in the individual growth rate and population biomass of the cutthroat trout, in response to the early resource pulse, but not to the late pulse. This timing-dependent consumer response cascaded down to reduce benthic invertebrates and leaf breakdown rate, and increased water nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, the early resource pulse resulted in higher maturity rate of the cutthroat trout in the following spring, demonstrating the importance of the subsidy timing on long-term community dynamics via the consumer's numerical response. Our results emphasize the need to acknowledge timing-dependent consumer responses in understanding the effects of subsidies on communities and ecosystem processes. Elucidating the mechanisms by which consumers effectively exploit pulsed subsidies is

  13. Stress and subsidy effects of seagrass wrack duration, frequency, and magnitude on salt marsh community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Torrance C; Kimbro, David L; Hughes, Anne Randall

    2017-07-01

    Environmental perturbations can strongly affect community processes and ecosystem functions by acting primarily as a subsidy that increases productivity, a stress that decreases productivity, or both, with the predominant effect potentially shifting from subsidy to stress as the overall intensity of the perturbation increases. While perturbations are often considered along a single axis of intensity, they consist of multiple components (e.g., magnitude, frequency, and duration) that may not have equivalent stress and/or subsidy effects. Thus, different combinations of perturbation components may elicit community and ecosystem responses that differ in strength and/or direction (i.e., stress or subsidy) even if they reflect a similar overall perturbation intensity. To assess the independent and interactive effects of perturbation components, we experimentally manipulated the magnitude, frequency, and duration of wrack deposition, a common stress-subsidy in a variety of coastal systems. The effects of wrack perturbation on salt marsh community and ecosystem properties were assessed both in the short-term (at the end of a 12-week experimental manipulation) and long-term (6 months after the end of the experiment). In the short-term, plants and associated benthic invertebrates exhibited primarily stress-based responses to wrack perturbation. The extent of these stress effects on density of the dominant plant Spartina alterniflora, total plant percent cover, invertebrate abundance, and sediment oxygen availability were largely determined by perturbation duration. Yet, higher nitrogen content of Spartina, which indicates a subsidy effect of wrack, was influenced primarily by perturbation magnitude in the short-term. In the longer term, perturbation magnitude determined the extent of both stress and subsidy effects of wrack perturbation, with lower subordinate plant percent cover and snail density, and higher Spartina nitrogen content in high wrack biomass treatments

  14. Income inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, Michail|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413292673; Baten, Joerg; Foldvari, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323382045; van Leeuwen, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330811924; van Zanden, Jan Luiten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071115374

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on income inequality as measured by gross (i.e. pre-tax) household income across individuals within a country. It builds upon a number of large-scale initiatives to chart income inequality trends over time, supplementing them with data on wages and heights for the earlier

  15. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  16. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  17. Child care subsidies, maternal health, and child-parent interactions: evidence from three nationally representative datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M; Tekin, Erdal

    2014-08-01

    A complete account of the US child care subsidy system requires an understanding of its implications for both parental and child well-being. Although the effects of child care subsidies on maternal employment and child development have been recently studied, many other dimensions of family well-being have received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of child care subsidy receipt on maternal health and the quality of child-parent interactions. The empirical analyses use data from three nationally representative surveys, providing access to numerous measures of family well-being. In addition, we attempt to handle the possibility of non-random selection into subsidy receipt by using several identification strategies both within and across the surveys. Our results consistently indicate that child care subsidies are associated with worse maternal health and poorer interactions between parents and their children. In particular, subsidized mothers report lower levels of overall health and are more likely to show symptoms consistent with anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. Such mothers also reveal more psychological and physical aggression toward their children and are more likely to utilize spanking as a disciplinary tool. Together, these findings suggest that work-based public policies aimed at economically disadvantaged mothers may ultimately undermine family well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Diet shift of lentic dragonfly larvae in response to reduced terrestrial prey subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Inputs of terrestrial plant detritus and nutrients play an important role in aquatic food webs, but the importance of terrestrial prey inputs in determining aquatic predator distribution and abundance has been appreciated only recently. I examined the numerical, biomass, and diet responses of a common predator, dragonfly larvae, to experimental reduction of terrestrial arthropod input into ponds. I distributed paired enclosures (n  =  7), one with a screen between the land and water (reduced subsidy) and one without a screen (ambient subsidy), near the shoreline of 2 small fishless ponds and sampled each month during the growing season in the southern Appalachian Mountains, Virginia (USA). Screens between water and land reduced the number of terrestrial arthropods that fell into screened enclosures relative to the number that fell into unscreened enclosures and open reference plots by 36%. The δ13C isotopic signatures of dragonfly larvae shifted towards those of aquatic prey in reduced-subsidy enclosures, a result suggesting that dragonflies consumed fewer terrestrial prey when fewer were available (ambient subsidy: 30%, reduced subsidy: 19% of diet). Overall abundance and biomass of dragonfly larvae did not change in response to reduced terrestrial arthropod inputs, despite the fact that enclosures permitted immigration/emigration. These results suggest that terrestrial arthropods can provide resources to aquatic predators in lentic systems, but that their effects on abundance and distribution might be subtle and confounded by in situ factors.

  19. The potential role of taxes and subsidies on food in the prevention of obesity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zapata, Laura Inés; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Millstone, Erik; Clemente-Gómez, Vicente; Holdsworth, Michelle; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio; Lobstein, Tim; Sarri, Katerina; De Marchi, Bruna; Horvath, Katalin Z

    2010-08-01

    Obesity implies costs not only for the individual but also for society. The authors explore the opinions of stakeholders on the potential of taxes or subsidies, as measures for tackling obesity in Europe. Structured interviews were conducted using Multicriteria Mapping, a computer-based, decision-support tool, with 189 interviewees drawn from 21 different stakeholder categories across nine members of the EU interviews, to appraise 20 predefined policy options aimed at reducing obesity, including 'taxing obesity-promoting foods' and 'subsidising healthy foods.' A four-step approach involved selecting options, defining criteria, scoring options quantitatively and weighting criteria to provide overall rankings of options. Interviews were recorded and transcribed to yield qualitative data. Compared with other policy options appraised, taxation and subsidies were not favourably received, mainly because they were considered difficult to implement. Overall, trade unions rated both options more favourably than all other stakeholder groups. As anticipated, both options received their lowest scores from representatives of the farming, food processing and advertising industries. Nutritional/obesity advisory experts and public sector caterers gave the most positive ratings to subsidies overall. Along with public health professionals, large commercial retailers were most in favour of taxation. Taxation and subsidies were poorly appraised compared with other policy measures, with stakeholders expressing reservations mainly focussed on the practicalities and cost of introducing such measures. Although applying taxes/subsidies could be useful to combat obesity, the study suggests that most stakeholders still need to be convinced of their viability and acceptability when compared with other measures.

  20. A social work study on measuring the impact of government subsidies reform on economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Government subsidies have been a major concern in many developing countries and they could create major problems such as increase in smuggling, lack of interest in investment, etc. During the past couple of years, the government of Iran decided to eliminate subsidies in different goods such as energy prices and food. In this paper, we present a survey to measure the impacts of such deregulation on Iranian economic factors including inflation, unemployment, tuition fee, consumer consumption pattern and city transportation facilities. The survey distributes a questionnaire among 51 university students aged 20 to 26 in Likert scale. We have used Pearson correlation test to study the relationship between deregulation on government subsidies and other mentioned factors. The results of the survey indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between government subsidies and unemployment, transportation facilities, consumer consumption pattern. However, the survey does not find sufficient evidence to believe that there is any relationship between government subsidies and inflation, increase in tuition fee.

  1. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  2. Does subsidy work? Price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccination among the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-ling; Okubo, Ichiro

    2009-08-01

    Subsidy for influenza vaccination is often provided to the elderly in order to encourage them to receive a flu shot in developed countries. However, its effect on uptake rate, i.e., price elasticity of demand, has not been well studied. Japan's decentralised vaccination programme allows observation of various pairs in price and uptake rate of flu shots among the elderly by the municipality from 2001/2002 to 2004/2005 season. We combine our sample survey data (n=281), which monitor price, subsidy and uptake rate, with published data on local characteristics in order to estimate price elasticity of demand with panel model. We find price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccine: nearly zero in nationwide, nearly zero in urban area, and -1.07 in rural area. The results question the rationale for subsidy, especially in urban area. There are cases where maintaining or increasing the level of subsidy is not an efficient allocation of finite health care resources. When organising a vaccination programme, health manager should be careful about the balance between subsidy and other efforts in order to encourage the elderly to receive shots with price elasticity in mind.

  3. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  4. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  5. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  6. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  7. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Midori Tsuneishi; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Takuo Ishii

    2013-01-01

    Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating t...

  8. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  9. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  10. Digitalization of incoming mail and incoming bills

    OpenAIRE

    Huč, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the processes involved in the digitalization of materials and having consideration of legal regulations, restrictions and recommendations, make the digitalization process of incoming mail and incoming bills as a cloud-based service. Having an efficient document management system has a significantly positive effect on an organization. In order for documents to be managed more easily and efficiently, they must be converted into an electron...

  11. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiteras, Raymond; Levinsohn, James; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq

    2015-05-22

    Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, P = 0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, P = 0.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, P Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (P < 0.001). Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. A study on the effects of subsidies on market value: Evidence from Petrochemical and steel industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Norouzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s 4th development plan has enrolled the federal government to increase energy prices and remove any subsidies paid to energy sector in an attempt to increase productivity and provide better social welfare. It is, therefore, important to investigate the effects of the law on different industries and the subsequent effects on economic growth. This study investigates the impacts of subsidies on the market value of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange in Petrochemical and Steel industries. The study selects two firms, Esfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company and Fanavaran Petrochemical Co. using Auto Regressive Distributed Lags (ARDL over the period 2008-2013. The results have indicated that there was a meaningful relationships between removal of subsidies and market value of the firms.

  13. Effectiveness of Subsidies in Technology Adoption: A Case Study Involving Reverse Osmosis (RO Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Laili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of new technologies is a process that involves technological learning and penetration of new products into the market. Within the process of new technologies adoption, government usually intervened by providing incentives, in order to support the technology adoption to be succeed. This paper examines the effectiveness of incentives for the sustainability of reverse osmosis (RO membrane technology adoption. The study conducted through single case study on SWRO installation in Mandangin Island, East Java, Indonesia. Results of case study indentify the existence of government incentive in the form of direct subsidies to decrease the price of clean water. Although successful in reducing the price of water, but effectiveness of the subsidy on the sustainability of SWRO is still low, which is operates only 30% in a year. Further analysis shows that these subsidies actually be counter-productive to the sustainability of SWRO installation.

  14. Functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland and other European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marks-Bielska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland. Given the profitable nature of this instrument the particular attention has been paid to the disposal of funds received by agricultural producers in the region of Warmia and Mazury in the form of subsidies. There is no doubt that the direct payments represent an important aid instrument supporting agriculture within the frameworks of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy. The survey revealed that subsidies have significantly contributed to the improvement of financial condition of farms. Funds received in the form of direct payments have been mainly spent on financing current expenditures and to purchase means of production used in the farms (72.88%.

  15. The economics of gasoline subsidy cost reduction policy: Case study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaya, Muhammad I.

    A gasoline subsidy distorts the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies and takes substantial revenues that arguably could be spent elsewhere with a better impact on economic growth. Governments with such subsidies are aware of their cost yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This thesis discusses in three essays the problem faced by the government in removing the gasoline subsidy and provides an alternative policy in reducing the subsidy cost applied to the case of Indonesia. In the first essay, we examine the decision-making process from the government's perspective that has an objective of generating savings to fund other programs while maintaining political power, and the influence that the general population has over the decision. Despite the immense literature on political power, there has yet to be any research that mathematically models the decision-making process of a government with influences from the general population. Under the benchmark scenario, the equilibrium strategy is to keep the subsidy intact. However, the results are found to be very sensitive to the magnitude of the shift in political power as well as the preferences of both the government and the people. In the second essay, we estimate the cross-price elasticity of regular gasoline with respect to premium gasoline price. The importance of such knowledge is to accurately determine the impact of fuel pricing policy that tends to have different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the grade of gasoline. Using data on the Mexican gasoline market, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline is found to be -0.895, which confirms high substitutability among gasoline with different grades. In the third essay, we look at the unique case of Indonesia that

  16. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  17. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  18. Location is everything: evaluating the effects of terrestrial and marine resource subsidies on an estuarine bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Joel M S; Segal, Michelle R; Reynolds, John D

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries are amongst the world's most productive ecosystems, lying at the intersection between terrestrial and marine environments. They receive substantial inputs from adjacent landscapes but the importance of resource subsidies is not well understood. Here, we test hypotheses for the effects of both terrestrial- and salmon-derived resource subsidies on the diet (inferred from stable isotopes of muscle tissue), size and percent nitrogen of the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria), a sedentary estuarine consumer. We examine how these relationships shift across natural gradients among 14 estuaries that vary in upstream watershed size and salmon density on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We also test how assimilation and response to subsidies vary at smaller spatial scales within estuaries. The depletion and enrichment of stable isotope ratios in soft-shell clam muscle tissue correlated with increasing upstream watershed size and salmon density, respectively. The effects of terrestrial- and salmon-derived subsidies were also strongest at locations near stream outlets. When we controlled for age of individual clams, there were larger individuals with higher percent nitrogen content in estuaries below larger watersheds, though this effect was limited to the depositional zones below river mouths. Pink salmon exhibited a stronger effect on isotope ratios of clams than chum salmon, which could reflect increased habitat overlap as spawning pink salmon concentrate in lower stream reaches, closer to intertidal clam beds. However, there were smaller clams in estuaries that had higher upstream pink salmon densities, possibly due to differences in habitat requirements. Our study highlights the importance of upstream resource subsidies to this bivalve species, but that individual responses to subsidies can vary at smaller scales within estuaries.

  19. The influence of resource subsidies on cave invertebrates: results from an ecosystem-level manipulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katie; Christman, Mary C; Fagan, William F

    2011-03-01

    Spatial resource subsidies can greatly affect the composition and dynamics of recipient communities. Caves are especially tractable for studying spatial subsidies because primary productivity is absent. Here, we performed an ecosystem-level manipulation experiment to test the direct influence of detrital subsidies on community structure in terrestrial cave ecosystems. After performing baseline censuses of invertebrates, we removed all organic material from 12 caves and constructed exclusion boxes to prevent natural resource inputs. Next, we stocked each cave with standardized quantities of two major natural subsidies to caves: leaves (leaf packs) and carcasses (commercially supplied rodents), and measured the invertebrate colonization and utilization of these resources for 23 months. Over the course of the experiment, 102 morphospecies were observed. Diplopods and collembolans were most abundant on leaf packs, and dipteran larvae and collembolans were most abundant on the rats. On average, caves receiving either treatment did not differ in species richness, but abundance was significantly higher in rat caves over both the duration of the experiment and the temporal "life" of the individual resources, which were restocked upon exhaustion. Post-manipulation invertebrate communities differed predictably depending on the type of subsidy introduced. Over the course of the experiment, caves that received the same subsidy clustered together based on community composition. In addition, the invertebrate community utilizing the resource changed over the duration of the two-year experiment, and evidence of succession (i.e., directional change) was observed. Results from this study demonstrate how allochthonous resources can drive the community dynamics of terrestrial invertebrates in cave ecosystems and highlight the need for consideration of the surface environment when managing and protecting these unique habitats.

  20. Ecosystem services transcend boundaries: estuaries provide resource subsidies and influence functional diversity in coastal benthic communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Savage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that can export organic matter to coastal seas (the 'outwelling hypothesis'. However the role of this food resource subsidy on coastal ecosystem functioning has not been examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the influence of estuarine primary production as a resource subsidy and the influence of estuaries on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal mollusk-dominated sediment communities. Stable isotope values (δ(13C, δ(15N demonstrated that estuarine primary production was exported to the adjacent coast and contributed to secondary production up to 4 km from the estuary mouth. Further, isotope signatures of suspension feeding bivalves on the adjacent coast (Dosinia subrosea closely mirrored the isotope values of the dominant bivalves inside the estuaries (Austrovenus stutchburyi, indicating utilization of similar organic matter sources. However, the food subsidies varied between estuaries; with estuarine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM dominant at Tairua estuary, while seagrass and fringing vegetation detritus was proportionately more important at Whangapoua estuary, with lesser contributions of estuarine SPOM. Distance from the estuary mouth and the size and density of large bivalves (Dosinia spp. had a significant influence on the composition of biological traits in the coastal macrobenthic communities, signaling the potential influence of these spatial subsidies on ecosystem functioning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrated that the locations where ecosystem services like productivity are generated are not necessarily where the services are utilized. Further, we identified indirect positive effects of the nutrient subsidies on biodiversity (the estuarine subsidies influenced the bivalves, which in turn affected the diversity and functional trait composition of the coastal sediment macrofaunal communities. These findings highlight the

  1. Ecosystem services transcend boundaries: estuaries provide resource subsidies and influence functional diversity in coastal benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Candida; Thrush, Simon F; Lohrer, Andrew M; Hewitt, Judi E

    2012-01-01

    Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that can export organic matter to coastal seas (the 'outwelling hypothesis'). However the role of this food resource subsidy on coastal ecosystem functioning has not been examined. We investigated the influence of estuarine primary production as a resource subsidy and the influence of estuaries on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal mollusk-dominated sediment communities. Stable isotope values (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) demonstrated that estuarine primary production was exported to the adjacent coast and contributed to secondary production up to 4 km from the estuary mouth. Further, isotope signatures of suspension feeding bivalves on the adjacent coast (Dosinia subrosea) closely mirrored the isotope values of the dominant bivalves inside the estuaries (Austrovenus stutchburyi), indicating utilization of similar organic matter sources. However, the food subsidies varied between estuaries; with estuarine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) dominant at Tairua estuary, while seagrass and fringing vegetation detritus was proportionately more important at Whangapoua estuary, with lesser contributions of estuarine SPOM. Distance from the estuary mouth and the size and density of large bivalves (Dosinia spp.) had a significant influence on the composition of biological traits in the coastal macrobenthic communities, signaling the potential influence of these spatial subsidies on ecosystem functioning. Our study demonstrated that the locations where ecosystem services like productivity are generated are not necessarily where the services are utilized. Further, we identified indirect positive effects of the nutrient subsidies on biodiversity (the estuarine subsidies influenced the bivalves, which in turn affected the diversity and functional trait composition of the coastal sediment macrofaunal communities). These findings highlight the importance of integrative ecosystem-based management that maintains the

  2. Adverse selection in a community-based health insurance scheme in rural Africa: implications for introducing targeted subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Divya; Souares, Aurélia; de Allegri, Manuela; Savadogo, Germain; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-06-28

    Although most community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes are voluntary, problem of adverse selection is hardly studied. Evidence on the impact of targeted subsidies on adverse selection is completely missing. This paper investigates adverse selection in a CBHI scheme in Burkina Faso. First, we studied the change in adverse selection over a period of 4 years. Second, we studied the effect of targeted subsidies on adverse selection. The study area, covering 41 villages and 1 town, was divided into 33 clusters and CBHI was randomly offered to these clusters during 2004-06. In 2007, premium subsidies were offered to the poor households. The data was collected by a household panel survey 2004-2007 from randomly selected households in these 33 clusters (n = 6795). We applied fixed effect models. We found weak evidence of adverse selection before the implementation of subsidies. Adverse selection significantly increased the next year and targeted subsidies largely explained this increase. Adverse selection is an important concern for any voluntary health insurance scheme. Targeted subsidies are often used as a tool to pursue the vision of universal coverage. At the same time targeted subsidies are also associated with increased adverse selection as found in this study. Therefore, it's essential that targeted subsidies for poor (or other high-risk groups) must be accompanied with a sound plan to bridge the financial gap due to adverse selection so that these schemes can continue to serve these populations.

  3. 5 CFR 792.217 - Are part-time Federal employees eligible for the child care subsidy program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are part-time Federal employees eligible... the Child Care Subsidy Program Legislation and to Whom Does It Apply? § 792.217 Are part-time Federal employees eligible for the child care subsidy program? Federal employees who work part-time are eligible for...

  4. 78 FR 40102 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... Agriculture, whether any foreign government is providing a subsidy with respect to any article of cheese... subsidies on articles of cheese that were imported during the periods July 1, 2012, through September 30...

  5. 75 FR 52310 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty... government is providing a subsidy with respect to any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty... articles of cheese that were imported during the period April 1, 2010, through June 30, 2010. The...

  6. 78 FR 52504 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ...(s) subsidy ($/lb) subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\ European Union Restitution $0... states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia..., Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. ] BILLING...

  7. 76 FR 14649 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Program(s) Subsidy ($/lb) Subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\........ European Union... states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia..., Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. BILLING...

  8. Do agricultural subsidies crowd out or stimulate rural credit market institutions? The case of EU Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan and Katarina Szegenyova Pokrivcak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of agricultural subsidies granted under the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP on bank loans extended to farms. According to our theoretical analysis, subsidies may either stimulate or crowd out bank loans depending on the timing of subsidies, severity of credit constraint, type of subsidies and bank loans, and the relative cost of internal and external financing. In empirical analysis we use the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN farm level panel data for the period 1995-2007. We employ the fixed effects and generalised method of moment (GMM models. The estimated results suggest that (i big farms tend to use subsidies to increase long-term loans, whereas small farms tend to use subsidies to obtain short-term loans; (ii subsidies tend to crowd out short-term loans for big farms and long-term loans for small farms; (iii when controlling for the endogeneity, the crowding out effect becomes smaller, but the positive causal effect of subsidies on bank loans remains significant.

  9. Olive oil production and soil and water conservation in southern Spain, in relation to EU subsidy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The European Union spent about two billion ECU per year on subsidies for the olive oil sector, of which Spain received about 35%. For the rainfed areas in southern Spain the olive oil sector is crucial, and so are these subsidies. The European Commission has formulated two options to change the

  10. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  11. Potential market size and impact of hepatitis C treatment in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woode, M E; Abu-Zaineh, M; Perriëns, J; Renaud, F; Wiktor, S; Moatti, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has made hepatitis C infection curable in the vast majority of cases and the elimination of the infection possible. Although initially too costly for large-scale use, recent reductions in DAA prices in some low- and middle-income countries (LaMICs) has improved the prospect of many people having access to these drugs/medications in the future. This article assesses the pricing and financing conditions under which the uptake of DAAs can increase to the point where the elimination of the disease in LaMICs is feasible. A Markov simulation model is used to study the dynamics of the infection with the introduction of treatment over a 10-year period. The impact on HCV-related mortality and HCV incidence is assessed under different financing scenarios assuming that the cost of the drugs is completely paid for out-of-pocket or reduced through either subsidy or drug price decreases. It is also assessed under different diagnostic and service delivery capacity scenarios separately for low-income (LIC), lower-middle-income (LMIC) and upper-middle-income countries (UMIC). Monte Carlo simulations are used for sensitivity analyses. At a price of US$ 1680 per 12-week treatment duration (based on negotiated Egyptian prices for an all oral two-DAA regimen), most of the people infected in LICs and LMICs would have limited access to treatment without subsidy or significant drug price decreases. However, people in UMICs would be able to access it even in the absence of a subsidy. For HCV treatment to have a significant impact on mortality and incidence, a significant scaling-up of diagnostic and service delivery capacity for HCV infection is needed. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  13. ANALYSIS OF INCOMES, EXPENSES AND PROFITABILITY IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is centered on presenting some aspects regarding incomes, expenses and results of commercial banks from Romanian banking system such as: income dynamics and structure, expenses dynamics and structure, a set of indicators which reflects the main banks performances. Discussion is focused on a comparative analysis between two commercial banks from Romanian banking system, taking into consideration date from a certain period of time. Profitability indicators are very usefully from banks management having an important informational value, the main discussion being focused on: return on assets, return on equity, net assets margin, rate of profit, equity multiplier, expenses to income ratio.

  14. Do stage-specific functional responses of consumers dampen the effects of subsidies on trophic cascades in streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2014-07-01

    Resource subsidies often weaken trophic cascades in recipient communities via consumers' functional response to the subsidies. Consumer populations are commonly stage-structured and may respond to the subsidies differently among the stages yet less is known about how this might impact the subsidy effects on the strength of trophic cascades in recipient systems. We show here, using a large-scale field experiment, that the stage structure of a recipient consumer would dampen the effects of terrestrial invertebrate subsidies on the strength of trophic cascade in streams. When a high input rate of the terrestrial invertebrates was available, both large and small fish stages switched their diet to the terrestrial subsidy, which weakened the trophic cascade in streams. However, when the input rate of the terrestrial invertebrates was at a moderate level, the terrestrial subsidy did not weaken the trophic cascade. This discrepancy was likely due to small fish stages being competitively excluded from feeding on the subsidy by larger stages of fish and primarily foraging on benthic invertebrates under the moderate input level. Although previous studies using single fish stages have clearly demonstrated that the terrestrial invertebrate input equivalent to our moderate input rate weakened the trophic cascade in streams, this subsidy effect might be overestimated given small fish stage may not switch their diet to the subsidy under competition with large fish stage. Given the ubiquity of consumer stage structure and interaction among consumer stages, the effects we saw might be widespread in nature, requiring future studies that explicitly involve consumer's stage structure into community ecology. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  15. Income Tax Buyouts and Income Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    A tax buyout is a contract between tax authorities and a tax payer which reduces the marginal income tax rate in exchange for a lump-sum payment. While previous contributions have focussed on labour supply, we consider the interaction with tax evasion and show that a buyout can increase expected tax revenues. This will be the case if (1) the audit probability is constant and the penalty for evasion is a function of undeclared income or (2) the penalty depends on the amount of taxes evaded, an...

  16. The Impact of Child Care Subsidies on Child Well-Being: Evidence from Geographic Variation in the Distance to Social Service Agencies. NBER Working Paper No. 16250

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, child care subsidies have become an integral part of federal and state efforts to move economically disadvantaged parents from welfare to work. Although previous empirical studies consistently show that these employment-related subsidies raise work levels among this group, little is known about the impact of subsidy receipt on…

  17. Interest Subsidies on Student Loans: A Better Class of Drain. CEE DP 114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Nicholas; Johnston, Alison

    2010-01-01

    The British system of student loans has a zero real rate of interest, less than it costs the government to borrow the money. This paper discusses the problems that arise from interest subsidies in the UK system of student loans; systems in other countries, for example Australia and New Zealand, face similar problems. The topic appears to be narrow…

  18. Shoreline urbanization interrupts allochthonous subsidies to a benthic consumer over a gradient of lake size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Olden, Julian D; Usio, Nisikawa

    2011-08-23

    The role of resource subsidies across ecosystem boundaries has emerged as an important concept in contemporary ecology. For lake ecosystems, this has led to interest in quantifying the contribution of terrestrial allochthonous carbon to aquatic secondary production. An inverse relationship between habitat area and the role of allochthonous subsidies has been documented on marine islands and assumed for lakes, yet there have been no tests of this pattern among benthic (lake bottom) consumers. Here, we used carbon stable isotopes to trace terrestrial allochthonous and benthic autochthonous carbon use by the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus over a gradient of lake area, productivity and urbanization. Consistent with findings from terrestrial islands, habitat size dictated the importance of allochthonous subsidies, as P. leniusculus transitioned from using predominantly terrestrial carbon in small lakes to an increased reliance on autochthonous production in larger lakes. However, shoreline urbanization interacted with this pattern, particularly for small lakes where greater urbanization resulted in reduced use of allochthonous resources. As such, we provide, to our knowledge, the first confirmation of the predicted relationship between habitat size and importance of allochthonous subsidies to lake benthic consumers, but found that urbanization can interfere with this pattern. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  19. Do State Subsidies for Public Universities Favor the Affluent? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Dancy, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Public universities typically charge students less than the full cost of education, using funds from state and local government and other sources to cover the difference. This indirect subsidy is one of the largest forms of aid in America's higher education system but is less understood in the policy community than grants and loans, which are…

  20. Empirical evidence of the efficiency and efficacy of fat taxes and thin subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Stephen; Dittrich, Ludwig O; Xu, Qin

    2014-09-01

    This study summarizes the empirical literature on fat taxes and thin subsidies to assess their efficiency and efficacy as instruments of public policy to control obesity. Three specific types of taxes are studied in the literature: food group taxes; nutrient taxes; and nutrient index taxes. Anumber of studies use food expenditure data to assess the impact of various taxes on obesity and therefore only indirectly measure the impacts of taxes and subsidies on obesity. These studies generally conclude that food group taxes, nutrient taxes and nutrient index taxes have a small impact on the purchases of food and the nutrients purchased. Other studies use the body mass index as the explanatory variable and thus measure the impacts of taxes on body mass index directly. Nutrient taxes are found to be more effective than food group taxes, although even for nutrient taxes, the effects are small. In general, thin subsidies seem to offer more effective control of obesity than obesity taxes. However, due to the small effects of both fat taxes and thin subsidies, they are not recommended as instruments of food and nutrition policy.

  1. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Annexes to Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in this annex report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  2. Tax Subsidies For Employment-Related Health Insurance: Estimates For 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selden, Thomas M; Gray, Bradley M

    2006-01-01

    ...-related coverage of active workers will exceed $200 billion. We present per worker tax-subsidy estimates and an analysis of insurance incidence by establishment characteristics.[Health Affairs 25, no. 6 (2006): 1568-1579; 10.1377/hlthaff.25.6.1568] EMPLOYMENT-RELATED COVERAGE IS THE PREDOMINANT form of health insurance in the nonelderly, civi...

  3. Redistributive Taxation vs. Education Subsidies: Fostering Equality and Social Mobility in an Intergenerational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Redistributive taxation and education subsidies are common policies intended to foster education attendance of poor children. However, this paper shows that in an intergenerational framework, these policies can raise social mobility only for some investment situations but not in general. I also study the impact of both policies on the aggregate…

  4. Trust in government and the politics of fuel subsidy removal in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHNSON-AYODELE

    Johnson Ayodele PhD is a Lecturer in the Department of Sociology (Criminology & Victimology), Lagos State University, Lagos,. Nigeria. .... those of the environment in which they live. For this reason, it ..... Subsidy Removal and Crime Effect In Nigeria (A Case Study of Nyanyan in Abuja) an Empirical Analysis. International ...

  5. The effect of contract renewal and competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies and ridership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouwen, A.; van Ommeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to estimate the effect of contract renewal as well as competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies, and ridership. More specifically, we examine to what extent (multiple) contract renewals and introduction of competitive tendering for long-term public transport

  6. 24 CFR 401.481 - Subsidy layering limitations on HUD funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsidy layering limitations on HUD...

  7. 77 FR 65009 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Operating Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...'' package to HUD demonstrating conversion to asset management. To appeal the amount of subsidy on any one of... . Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free... is not a toll-free number). Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number via TTY...

  8. Issue Brief #1: Who Pays for Higher Education? Changing Patterns in Cost, Price, and Subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To understand why tuitions are increasing at institutions of higher education, policymakers need to look at the relationships between and among cost, price and subsidy. This brief explains how to understand those relationships, what the trend data show at a national level, places to go for more information, and questions to ask. (Contains 3…

  9. Maximizing Basic Education Subsidy in Pennsylvania Public School Districts by Accounting for Children in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Byron Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Pennsylvania public school districts are largely funded through basic education subsidy for providing educational services for resident students and non-resident students who are placed in residential programs within the school district boundaries. Non-resident placements occur through, but are not limited to, adjudication proceedings, foster home…

  10. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  11. User-Side Subsidies for Shared Ride Taxi Service in Danville, Illinois : Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    An UMTA Service and Methods Demonstration has been implemented in Danville, Illinois. The Purpose of the Demonstration is to test the use of a user-side subsidy on a shared ride taxi service for handicapped and elderly persons. This report presents t...

  12. Cooperation or Competition? Channel Choice for a Remanufacturing Fashion Supply Chain with Government Subsidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangzhou Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of choosing an appropriate channel for the marketing channel structure of remanufactured fashion products. To be specific, we consider a remanufacturer who has two options for selling the products: (1 provide the remanufactured products to a manufacturer, then the manufacturer sells both new products and the remanufactured products to customers, and (2 sell the remanufactured products directly to customers. Because of the relatively low acceptance of remanufactured products and environment consciousness of customers in developing countries like China, we model the two scenarios as decentralized remanufacturing supply chains, with the manufacturer being the Stackelberg leader and the government offering subsidy to the remanufacturer to incentivize remanufacturing activities. We find that the subsidy can incentivize remanufacturing activity regardless of the remanufacturer’s channel choice. A “too high” or “too low” subsidy makes the remanufacturer compete with the manufacturer, and an intermediate subsidy results in cooperation between the two members of the remanufacturing supply chain. Meanwhile, if the customers’ acceptance for remanufactured products is higher, the remanufacturer will be more likely to compete with the manufacturer. However, the remanufacturer’s optimal channel choice may be inefficient in the sense of social welfare and environmental protection.

  13. Net smart how to thrive online

    CERN Document Server

    Rheingold, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Like it or not, knowing how to make use of online tools without being overloaded with too much information is an essential ingredient to personal success in the twenty-first century. But how can we use digital media so that they make us empowered participants rather than passive receivers, grounded, well-rounded people rather than multitasking basket cases? In Net Smart, cyberculture expert Howard Rheingold shows us how to use social media intelligently, humanely, and, above all, mindfully. Mindful use of digital media means thinking about what we are doing, cultivating an ongoing inner inquiry into how we want to spend our time. Rheingold outlines five fundamental digital literacies, online skills that will help us do this: attention, participation, collaboration, critical consumption of information (or "crap detection"), and network smarts. He explains how attention works, and how we can use our attention to focus on the tiny relevant portion of the incoming tsunami of information. He describes the quality...

  14. 26 CFR 1.822-8 - Determination of taxable investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the net operating loss deduction provided in section 172. See, however, section 825 and paragraph (a.... Investment expenses do not include Federal income and excess profits taxes, if any. (iii) If any general... expenses of $25,000. It receives interest of $50,000, dividends of $5,000, royalties of $4,000, and net...

  15. 26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entitled to the net operating loss deduction provided in section 172, and a deduction shall not be.... Investment expenses do not include Federal income and excess profits taxes, if any. (iii) If any general.... (b) The deduction for net operating losses provided in section 172 shall not be allowed. (9...

  16. Healthy food subsidies and unhealthy food taxation: A systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebylski, Mark L; Redburn, Kimbree A; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm R

    2015-06-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study and related studies report unhealthy diet is the leading risk for death and disability globally. Given the evidence associating diet and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), international and national health bodies including the World Health Organization and United Nations have called for population health interventions to improve diet as a means to target NCDs. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods/beverages are more accessible to purchasers and unhealthy ones less accessible via fiscal policy, namely taxation and subsidies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base to assess the effect of healthy food/beverage subsidies and unhealthy food/beverage taxation. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed publications and seventy-eight studies were identified for inclusion in this review. This review was performed in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Although moderate in quality, there was consistent evidence that taxation and subsidy intervention influenced dietary behaviors. The quality, level and strength of evidence along with identified gaps in research support the need for further policies and ongoing evaluation of population-wide food/beverage subsidies and taxation. To maximize success and effect, this review suggests that food taxes and subsidies should be a minimum of 10 to 15% and preferably used in tandem. Implementation of population-wide polices for taxation and subsides with ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects are supported by this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Kerosene subsidies for household lighting in India: what are the impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Pachauri, Shonali; Purohit, Pallav; Nagai, Yu; Bates, Michael N.; Cameron, Colin; Smith, Kirk R.

    2016-04-01

    Kerosene subsidy reform is a key policy concern in India and other developing countries. As kerosene is widely used for lighting in India, any price change will likely have considerable public welfare impacts on the large fraction of the poor who do not have access to reliable electricity supply for lighting. In this study, we assess historic kerosene use for residential lighting across population groups separated by urban/rural, expenditure, and electricity service levels using data from India. Consumption trends are used to inform a service demand model and evaluate how changes in fuel price, electricity connection, and supply reliability influence environmental, health and economic outcomes. We find that users relying on kerosene for supplemental lighting—in combination (‘stacked’) with electricity—accounted for 64% of residential kerosene consumed for lighting in 2005. Tested scenarios that addressed service needs of supplemental users had the greatest welfare benefits, especially in the future. Scenarios reducing PM2.5 emissions from kerosene lighting can avert between 50 and 300 thousand disability adjusted life years relative to a baseline scenario in 2030. Lighting kerosene is highly price sensitive, resulting in a drop in demand of 97% in a scenario in which current subsidies are phased out by 2030. Deadweight loss of the subsidy in 2005 is estimated at 200-950 million, with three quarters attributable to supplemental kerosene lighting. Support for cleaner lighting technologies not reliant on fossil fuel subsidies would appear to be ‘no regrets’ or ‘co-benefits’ options for India, and could be implemented in parallel with subsidy removal.

  18. Supplementing income from farms with income from rural craft: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on supplementation of income from farm enterprises with income from craft (mat-weaving) was conducted in Uturu in Abia state, Nigeria. Primary objective was to compare farm income with income from non-farm activities, especially from mat weaving; and determine factors that influenced decisions to use income ...

  19. Income and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Much empirical work in the social sciences relies on the accuracy of survey responses. Of all the questions answered by survey respondents, few are as common as those concerning income: Income is a crucial determinant of an individual’s attitudes and behaviors and a standard correlate in political...

  20. Factor Determining Income Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractSince the phrase income distribution covers a large number of different concepts, it is necessary to define these and to indicate the choice made in this article. Income for a given recipient may cover lists of items which are not always the same. Apart from popular misunderstandings

  1. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  2. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  3. Income distribution: Second thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractAs a follow-up of his book on income distribution the author reformulates his version on the scarcity theory of income from productive contributions. The need to introduce into an earnings theory several job characteristics, non-cognitive as well as cognitive, and the corresponding

  4. 26 CFR 1.584-2 - Income of participants in common trust fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income of participants in common trust fund. 1... common trust fund. (a) Each participant in a common trust fund is required to include in computing its... ordinary taxable income or the ordinary net loss of the common trust fund, computed as provided in § 1.584...

  5. 24 CFR 203.421 - Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund income or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.421 Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund... of the entire Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, such net income or such loss to the General Surplus... into consideration all income received from fees, premiums and earnings on investments of the fund...

  6. 26 CFR 1.56-1 - Adjustment for the book income of corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Computation of adjusted net book income when taxable year and financial accounting year differ—(i) In general. If a taxpayer's applicable financial statement is prepared on the basis of a financial accounting... book income for each financial accounting year that includes any part of the taxpayer's taxable year...

  7. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...... of resources reflects individual preferences, the distribution of power, and pre-marital experiences. The analyses show that most Danish households use some type of income pooling and that the likelihood of income pooling varies considerably according to individual characteristics (age, education, occupation......, past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  8. Trends in Income Insecurity Among U.S. Children, 1984-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, Bruce; Bloome, Deirdre; Sosnaud, Benjamin; Tach, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    Has income insecurity increased among U.S. children with the emergence of an employment-based safety net and the polarization of labor markets and family structure? We study the trend in insecurity from 1984-2010 by analyzing fluctuations in children's monthly family incomes in the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Going beyond earlier research on income volatility, we examine income insecurity more directly by analyzing income gains and losses separately and by relating them to changes in family composition and employment. The analysis provides new evidence of increased income insecurity by showing that large income losses increased more than large income gains for low-income children. Nearly one-half the increase in extreme income losses is related to trends in single parenthood and parental employment. Large income losses proliferated with the increased incidence of very low incomes (less than $150 per month). Extreme income losses and very low monthly incomes became more common particularly for U.S. children of nonworking single parents from the mid-1990s.

  9. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  10. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  11. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  12. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  13. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  14. Price subsidies increase the use of private sector ACTs: evidence from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alexandra; Ward, Abigail; Moonen, Bruno; Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M

    2015-04-01

    Although artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in most endemic countries, they have been prohibitively expensive in the retail sector where many suspected malaria cases purchase treatment. ACT subsidies seek to stimulate consumer demand for the drugs over cheaper but often ineffective alternatives by reducing their prices. Recent evidence from eight regions implementing such subsidies suggests that they are generally successful in improving availability of the drugs and decreasing their retail prices, but it remains unclear whether these outcomes translate to improved use by patients with suspected malaria. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify reports of experimental or programmatic ACT subsidies to assess the impact of subsidies on consumer use. Relationships between price, use and potential confounding factors were examined using logistic and repeated measures binomial regression models, and approximate magnitudes of associations were assessed with linear regression. In total, 40 studies, 14 peer-reviewed and 26 non-peer-reviewed, were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The reviewed studies found a substantial increase in private sector ACT use following the introduction of a subsidy. Overall, each $1 decrease in price was linked to a 24 percentage point increase in the fraction of suspected malaria cases purchasing ACTs (R(2) = 0.302). No significant differences were evident in this relationship when comparing the poorest and richest groups, rural vs urban populations or children vs adults. These findings suggest that ACT price reductions can increase their use for suspected malaria, even within poorer, more remote populations that may be most at risk of malaria mortality. Whether a subsidy is appropriate will depend upon local context, including treatment-seeking behaviours and malaria prevalence. This review provides an initial foundation for policymakers to make

  15. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  16. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE DETERMINANTS OF SAFETY-NET HOSPITAL FAILURES

    OpenAIRE

    Devin Alan Daugherty; Ernesto Escobedo

    2013-01-01

    Several safety-net hospitals have closed in the United States, but the scholarly literature does not adequately explain why. This study examines the relationship between the operational status (open or closed) of safety-net hospitals and unemployment, median household income, gross profit margin, efficiency ratio, operating margin, excess margin, and salary and benefit expenses per full-time equivalent. Study data were collected and analyzed by means of a logistic regression analysis. A signi...

  17. The evaluation of the trends of Polish farms incomes in the FADN regions after the integration with the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Grzelak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to identify trends regarding income changes in the period of 2004-2008 in Poland between the regions of FADN. In 2004-2008 we noticed the processes of convergence in range of income situation of farms among the FADN regions. It was noticed that the convergence of beta type and the sigma were in place. This situation appears for general group of farms, as well as in farms with mixed production. Although, exclusion of the subsidies would initiate the divergence processes. This means that direct payments make up a kind of catalytic situation in range of levelling incomes situation in farms among these regions. We could initially signal that instruments of the CAP favour getting differences of incomes smaller in spatial range, what would indicate some kind of strategy in the aims of the EU policy with reference to sustainable growth in spatial range.

  18. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  19. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  20. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....