WorldWideScience

Sample records for net income subsidy

  1. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  2. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  3. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  4. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  5. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  6. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... of Article 23 (Relief from Double Taxation) of the 2006 United States Model Income Tax Convention... taxation of ANSTs at the lowest individual tax rate. Furthermore, section 646 treats all distributions, to... of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet...

  7. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  8. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments.

  9. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  10. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share

  11. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... avoid double taxation of net investment income and the taxation of amounts distributed to charities. The.... The proposed regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts. This document also contains a notice... calculated correctly. The likely respondents are individuals, estates, and trusts. Estimated total annual...

  12. Medicare Part D: Are Insurers Gaming the Low Income Subsidy Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarolis, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows how in Medicare Part D insurers' gaming of the subsidy paid to low-income enrollees distorts premiums and raises the program cost. Using plan-level data from the first five years of the program, I find multiple instances of pricing strategy distortions for the largest insurers. Instrumental variable estimates indicate that the changes in a concentration index measuring the manipulability of the subsidy can explain a large share of the premium growth observed between 2006 and 2011. Removing this distortion could reduce the cost of the program without worsening consumer welfare.

  13. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. OO Alabi, AAA Coker, ME Idegbesor. Abstract. This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the ...

  14. The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Cherrelle; Reneses Guillén, Javier; Frías Marín, Pablo; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering is commonly known as a practice by which owners of distributed generation (DG) units may offset their electricity consumption from the grid with local generation. The increasing number of prosumers (consumers that both produce and consume electricity) with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation combined with net-metering results in reduced incomes for many network utilities worldwide. Consequently, this pushes utilities to increase charges per kW h in order to recover costs. For non-PV owners, this could result into inequality issues due to the fact that also non-PV owners have to pay higher chargers for their electricity consumed to make up for netted costs of PV-owners. In order to provide insight in those inequality issues caused by net-metering, this study presents the effects on cross-subsidies, cost recovery and policy objectives evolving from different applied netmetering and tariff designs for a residential consumer. Eventually this paper provides recommendations regarding tariffs and metering that will result in more explicit incentives for PV, instead of the current implicit incentives which are present to PV owners due to net-metering. - Highlights: • Network users are frequently charged by energy charging and fixed charging. • Net-metering with energy charging causes potential problems for DSO cost recovery. • Increasing rolling credit timeframes amplify net-metering impacts on cost recovery. • Observed capacity charging can incentivize local storage and self-consumption. • PV owners should receive direct incentives in order to avoid cross subsidization

  15. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew P; Brimblecombe, Julie; Eyles, Helen; Morris, Peter; Vally, Hassan; O Dea, Kerin

    2012-12-21

    Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10-20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23-29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and justify the investment in food subsidy

  16. Basis Risk and Net Interest Income of Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mielus Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the banking sector are shaped primarily by commissions and net interest income. Net interest income is determined by the difference between the profitability of bank assets and liabilities. In the case when a different method is used to determine interest for each side of the balance sheet, there occurs a basis risk that may lead to the deterioration in the net interest income of the sector. This is the situation in the Polish banking sector, which is characterized by the presence of variable interest rates for long-term assets and fixed interest rates for short-term liabilities. The study aims to verify the following thesis: in an environment of falling interest rates we can observe the deterioration in net interest income of the banking sector, as a result of the materialization of the basis risk. The authors of the article state that the source of the basis risk is the mismatch between the reference rate used to define the interest flow of loans and the actual cost of financing the balance through term deposits collected from non-financial entities.

  17. Access to housing subsidies, housing status, drug use and HIV risk among low-income U.S. urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Gomez Julia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much research has shown an association between homelessness and unstable housing and HIV risk but most has relied on relatively narrow definitions of housing status that preclude a deeper understanding of this relationship. Fewer studies have examined access to housing subsidies and supportive housing programs among low-income populations with different personal characteristics. This paper explores personal characteristics associated with access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, the relationship between personal characteristics and housing status, and the relationship between housing status and sexual risk behaviors among low-income urban residents. Methods Surveys were conducted with 392 low-income residents from Hartford and East Harford, Connecticut through a targeted sampling plan. We measured personal characteristics (income, education, use of crack, heroin, or cocaine in the last 6 months, receipt of welfare benefits, mental illness diagnosis, arrest, criminal conviction, longest prison term served, and self-reported HIV diagnosis; access to housing subsidies or supportive housing programs; current housing status; and sexual risk behaviors. To answer the aims above, we performed univariate analyses using Chi-square or 2-sided ANOVA's. Those with significance levels above (0.10 were included in multivariate analyses. We performed 2 separate multiple regressions to determine the effects of personal characteristics on access to housing subsidies and access to supportive housing respectively. We used multinomial main effects logistic regression to determine the effects of housing status on sexual risk behavior. Results Being HIV positive or having a mental illness predicted access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, while having a criminal conviction was not related to access to either housing subsidies or supportive housing. Drug use was associated with poorer housing statuses such as living on the

  18. Price subsidies and the market for mosquito nets in developing countries: A study of Tanzania's discount voucher scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara; Marchant, Tanya; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-07-01

    This study uses a partial equilibrium simulation model to explore how price subsidies for insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) affect households' purchases of ITNs. The model describes the ITN market in a typical developing country and is applied to the situation in Tanzania, where the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) provides a targeted subsidy to vulnerable population groups by means of a discount voucher. The data for this study come from a nationally-representative household survey completed July-August 2006 covering over 4300 households in 21 districts. The simulation results show the impact of the voucher program on ITN coverage among target households, namely those that experienced the birth of a child. More specifically, the share of target households purchasing an ITN increased from 18 to 62 percent because of the discount voucher. The model also suggests that the voucher program could cause the retail ITN price to rise due to an overall increase in demand. As a result, ITN purchases by households without a voucher may actually decline. The simulation model suggests that additional increases toward the stated goal of 80 percent ITN coverage for pregnant women and children could best be achieved through a combination of "catch up" mass distribution programs and expanding the target group for the voucher program to cover additional households. The model can be employed in other countries considering use of a targeted price subsidy for ITNs, and could be adapted to assess the impact of subsidies for other public health commodities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. More choice in health insurance marketplaces may reduce the value of the subsidies available to low-income enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin A; Saltzman, Evan; Bauhoff, Sebastian; Pacula, Rosalie L; Eibner, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Federal subsidies available to enrollees in health insurance Marketplaces are pegged to the premium of the second-lowest-cost silver plan available in each rating area (as defined by each state). People who qualify for the subsidy contribute a percentage of their income to purchase coverage, and the federal government covers the remaining cost up to the price of that premium. Because the number of plans offered and plan premiums vary substantially across rating areas, the effective value of the subsidy may vary geographically. We found that the availability of more plans in a rating area was associated with lower premiums but higher deductibles for enrollees in the second-lowest-cost silver plan. In rating areas with more than twenty plans, the average deductible in the second-lowest-cost silver plan was nearly $1,000 higher than it was in rating areas with fewer than thirteen plans. Because premium costs for second-lowest-cost silver plans are capped, deductibles may be a more salient measure of plan value for enrollees than premiums are. Greater standardization of plans or an alternative approach to calculating the subsidy could provide a more consistent benefit to enrollees across various rating areas. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.857-3 - Net income from foreclosure property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income from foreclosure property. 1.857-3 Section 1.857-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-3 Net income from foreclosure...

  2. 26 CFR 1.857-5 - Net income and loss from prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income and loss from prohibited transactions. 1.857-5 Section 1.857-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-5 Net income and loss...

  3. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment...

  4. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment...

  5. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment trust taxable... paid during the taxable year, and the net capital gain is excluded in computing real estate investment... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and...

  6. 26 CFR 1.860C-2 - Determination of REMIC taxable income or net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of REMIC taxable income or net loss. 1.860C-2 Section 1.860C-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-2 Determination of...

  7. The effects of agricultural subsidies on sunflower cultivation and farmers income: evidence from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of both premium support application on sunflower cultivation area, production amount and support payments on producer income are investigated. In this study it is concluded that premium supports are inefficient on increasing sunflower cultivation area and production whereas it is concluded that it has an important role on producer income and in the determination of the market price. In fact, from a survey that we have carried out, it emerges that the area-based support (diesel oil, fertilizer etc. support) together with premium support increase the revenue of sunflower up to 27.74% per unit area and the gross profit in the proportion of 98.87%. This study indicates that in order to increase the sunflower production in Turkey the amounts of sunflower premium support, diesel oil and fertilizer should be rearranged in compliance with current market conditions. Moreover, for other agricultural products, the use of certified seed should also be included into agricultural support programmes. Production on well irrigated areas should be widened and the use of oil crops varieties with high oil ratio should be extended. (author)

  8. 47 CFR 32.4100 - Net current deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4100 Net current deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance...

  9. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  10. Cash flow is cash and is a fact. Net income is just an opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    A company's profit after tax (or net income) is quite an arbitrary figure, obtained after assuming certain accounting hypotheses regarding expenses and revenues. On the other hand, its cash flow is an objective measure, a single figure that is not subject to any personal criterion. In general, to study a company's situation, it is more useful to operate with the cash flow (equity cash flow, free cash flow or capital cash flow) as it is a single figure, while the net income is one of several t...

  11. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  12. Long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI income: Creating health-promoting contexts for families experiencing housing instability with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendening, Zachary S; McCauley, Erin; Shinn, Marybeth; Brown, Scott R

    2018-04-01

    Though disability and housing instability are discussed separately in public health literature, few studies address families at their intersection. As a result, little is known about families who experience both homelessness and disability, how many receive disability benefits like SSI and SSDI, or the influence of those benefits on health-promoting outcomes like housing stability and self-sufficiency. Moreover, no previous research compares the ability of different housing and service interventions to increase disability benefit access. We examine relationships between disabilities and SSI/SSDI income reported when families enter emergency shelters and later health-promoting outcomes (housing stability and self-sufficiency) and how housing interventions affect SSI/SSDI receipt. Families in the (name removed) Study (N = 1857) were interviewed in emergency shelters, randomly offered of one of three housing interventions or usual care (i.e., no immediate referral to any intervention beyond shelter), and re-interviewed 20 months later. A third of families reported a disability at shelter entry. SSI/SSDI coverage of these families increased nearly 10% points over 20 months but never exceeded 40%. Disabilities predicted greater housing instability, food insecurity, and economic stress and less work and income. Among families reporting disabilities, SSI/SSDI receipt predicted fewer returns to emergency shelter, and more income despite less work. Offers of long-term housing subsidies increased SSI/SSDI receipt. Many families experiencing homelessness have disabilities; those receiving SSI/SSDI benefits have better housing and income outcomes. Providing families experiencing homelessness with long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI could improve public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studying the consumption and health outcomes of fiscal interventions (taxes and subsidies) on food and beverages in countries of different income classifications; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiyawanna, Amaap; Townsend, Nick; Mytton, Oli; Scarborough, Pete; Roberts, Nia; Rayner, Mike

    2015-09-14

    Governments use fiscal interventions (FIs) on food and beverages to encourage healthy food behaviour and positive health outcomes. The objective of this review was to study the behavioural and health outcomes of implemented food and beverage FIs in the form of taxes and subsidies in countries of different income classifications. The present systematic review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane protocols. The search was carried out on academic and grey literature in English, for studies conducted in different countries on implemented FIs on food and non-alcoholic beverages and health outcomes, with a special focus on the income of those countries. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria and 14 were from peer- reviewed journals. Thirteen studies came from high-income (HI) countries, four from upper middle-income (UMI) countries and only one came from a lower middle-income (LMI) country. There were no studies from lower-income (LI) countries. Of these 18 studies; nine focused on taxes, all of which were from HI countries. Evidence suggests that FIs on foods can influence consumption of taxed and subsidized foods and consequently have the potential to improve health. Although this review supports previous findings that FIs can have an impact on healthy food consumption, it also highlights the lack of evidence available from UMI, LMI and LI countries on such interventions. Therefore, evidence from HI countries may not be directly applicable to middle-income and LI countries. Similar research conducted in middle and low income countries will be beneficial in advocating policy makers on the effectiveness of FIs in countering the growing issues of non-communicable diseases in these countries.

  14. Subsidy Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle Bagwell; Robert W. Staiger

    2004-01-01

    International disputes over subsidies are increasingly disrupting the world trading system. The creation of the WTO was nearly prevented by disputes in the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations over the issue of negotiating disciplines on agricultural subsidies, an issue which continues to plague the ongoing Doha Round of WTO negotiations. Ongoing disputes over subsidies that violate existing WTO rules have led to the largest amount of authorized retaliation in GATT/WTO history. Yet the internat...

  15. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  16. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  17. Redistribution and Education Subsidies are Siamese Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Jacobs, B.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a model of human capital formation with endogenous labor supply and heterogeneous agents to explore the optimal level of education subsidies along with the optimal progressive schedule of the labor income tax and optimal capital income taxes.Subsidies on education ensure efficiency in

  18. The Potential for Increasing Net Incomes on Limited-Resource Farms in Eastern Kentucky. Research Report 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fred J.; And Others

    The study identified possibilities for improving farm incomes on limited-resource farms in eastern Kentucky. Objectives were to describe farm operations of full-time Appalachian farmers who had gross sales of less than $5,000 in 1972, estimate potential increases in net farm incomes from given resources, and identify nonresource constraints on…

  19. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago; Martins, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  20. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago [Environment and Energy Section, DEM, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Martins, Victor [Department of Economics, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao (Portugal)

    2010-08-15

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  1. Government subsidies for the Chinese photovoltaic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Yongqing; Yang, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, the subsidy for large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plants had been launched, which effectively promoted the development of PV industry. At the same time, negative effects, like serious oversupply of PV industry, were brought about by these large scale governmental subsidies. Although governmental subsidy strongly supports the China PV companies, few of them have competitiveness in the global market. This dramatically conflictive phenomenon attracted many researchers’ attentions in recent years. However, investigations on the best entry and exit occasions of governmental subsidies for the PV industry were rarely reported in previous studies. Therefore, based on the existing division method of enterprise development model, classification of 72 PV companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in China was firstly carried out in this paper. This is followed by studying the influence of governmental subsidies on the indexes of different stages of enterprise development. Finally, a conclusion was drawn that the governmental subsidies at Early Exploratory Stage can maximize the social and economic effects, suggesting the best entry occasion, and subsidies at Intermediate Stage and Mature Stage have little effects on its turnover and aggravate the overcapacity of PV supply, suggesting a suitable exit occasion. - Highlights: • Enterprise development stages were determined based on net revenue. • Subsidy effects on PV companies at different developing stages were studied. • The occasion to provide subsidy at different developing stages was investigated. • Z-score formula method was used to find the best exit occasion of subsidy.

  2. Tax shift : eliminating subsidies and moving to full cost electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to ensure that Ontario's service needs are met at the lowest possible total cost, energy conservation and small-scale distributed generation options must be able to compete with large scale-centralized generation and transmission options on a level playing field. This report discussed how electricity is priced in Ontario. The report described the policies that subsidize coal and nuclear generation and promote excessive consumption of grid-supplied electricity. The report also presented an analysis of the impact of these subsidies and policies on Ontario's electricity consumption, electricity productivity, standard of living and air pollutant emissions. It described a practical strategy whereby these subsidies can be eliminated by recycling or shifting the monies currently spent on subsidies in a way that creates an incentive to reduce electricity consumption. It also described how full cost pricing could lead to a net financial benefit for residential customers as well as an adaptation strategy for businesses that would ensure that they remain competitive. Finally the report identified ten major subsidies that artificially reduce the cost of electricity in Ontario. These included below-market water royalty rates; corporate income tax revenue subsidy for nuclear debt; sales tax exemption; average cost pricing; and bulk metering. It was concluded that phasing out the subsidies for grid-supplied electricity and moving to full cost pricing will provide multiple benefits for Ontario. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Distributional incidence of green electricity price subsidies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Distributional incidences are fundamental to environmental and energy policies, a condition that has led to controversies on the equity of environmental and energy policy. Using data from China's Urban Household Income and Expenditure Survey data from 2007, this study quantified the distributional effects of the green electricity price subsidy policy among Chinese urban household and compared its effects by using lifetime income and annual income to classify households, respectively. The results show that total electricity subsidies are mainly driven by indirect electricity subsidies. By using lifetime income to classify households, subsidies to households in the poorest two groups accounted for less than 10.2% of the total subsidies, whereas money distributed to households in the top two deciles reached 35.4%. The comparison using annual income to group households also demonstrated the similar impact of the green electricity price subsidy policy. China’s future market reforms should allow electricity prices to reflect pollution abatement costs. Additionally, a multi-step block electricity price schedule can reduce the regressivity of the policy. - Highlights: • We quantified the distributional effects of the green electricity price subsidy. • The distributional effects of different income groups were compared. • The poorest two groups accounted for less than 10.2% of the total subsidies. • The green electricity price subsidy policy benefited the rich at household level.

  4. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  5. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre

  6. MANA YANG LEBIH MEMILIKI VALUE-RELEVANT: NET INCOME ATAU CASH FLOWS (Studi Terhadap Siklus Hidup Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniarti Juniarti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine the relative value-relevant of net income and cash flow measures in different life cycle stages. Corporate life cycle consists of four stages: start up, growth, mature, and decline stage. Firms in different life cycle stages have different characteristics, and therefore in each life cycle stages the usefulness of accounting measures also different. Net incomes are predicted to be more value relevant in mature stages, while cash flows are expected to be more value relevant in stages characterized by start up, growth, and decline stages. The results prove that in the growth stage, the analysis supports the hypothesis that cash flows are more value relevant than net income. However, in the mature stage, the analysis results reject the hypothesis. This research do not analyze for the start up stage and decline stage, because of the limitation of the sample data. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji manakah yang lebih memiliki value-relevant pengukuran laba atau arus kas pada masing-masing siklus hidup perusahaan. Siklus hidup perusahaan umumnya terbagi dalam tahap start-up, growth, mature dan decline. Karakteristik perusahaan berbeda untuk setiap tahap siklus hidup tersebut, karena itu kegunaan pengukuran akuntansi juga akan berbeda. Laba diperkirakan lebih memiliki value-relevant pada tahap mature, sementara arus kas diekspektasikan lebih memiliki value-relevant ketika perusahaan berada pada tahap start-up, growth dan decline. Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa pada tahap growth, hasil pengujian yang dilakukan mendukung hipotesis bahwa cash flow lebih memiliki value relevant dibanding laba. Tetapi, untuk tahap mature, hipotesis yang diajukan tidak berhasil dibuktikan. Penelitian ini tidak dapat melakukan pengujian untuk tahap start-up dan decline, dikarenakan data sampel untuk kedua tahap tersebut tidak mencukupi untuk dilakukan pengujian. Kata kunci: siklus hidup organisasi, value

  7. Millennial Learners and Net-Savvy Teens? Examining Internet Use among Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Walker, J. D.; Kim, Seongdok

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses access and use of information and communication technologies among urban high school students from low-income families, a topic of great interest to teacher educators, educational policymakers, and others concerned with digital literacy instruction. Recent reports from national digital learning initiatives have portrayed…

  8. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  9. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  10. Sports Subsidies Soar. Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…

  11. How to Design a Targeted Agricultural Subsidy System: Efficiency or Equity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is “reverse redistribution” in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems...... (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined....

  12. Impacts of removing fuel import subsidies in Nigeria on poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddig, Khalid; Aguiar, Angel; Grethe, Harald; Minor, Peter; Walmsley, Terrie

    2014-01-01

    The petroleum sector contributes substantially to the Nigerian economy; however, the potential benefits are diminished due to the existence of significant subsidies on imports of petroleum products. Subsidies on imported petroleum products are considered to be an important instrument for keeping fuel prices, and hence the cost of living, low. The costs of these subsidies, however, has risen dramatically in recent years due to increased volatility in world petroleum and petroleum product prices and increased illegal exportation of subsidized petroleum products into neighboring countries. Removing the subsidy on fuel is one of the most contentious socio-economic policy issues in Nigeria today. In this paper, an economy-wide framework is used to identify the impact of removing the fuel subsidy on the Nigerian economy and investigates how alternative policies might be used to meet socio-economic objectives related to fuel subsidies. The results show that while a reduction in the subsidy generally results in an increase in Nigerian GDP, it can have a detrimental impact on household income, and in particular on poor households. Accompanying the subsidy reduction with income transfers aimed at poor households or domestic production of petroleum products can alleviate the negative impacts on household income. - Highlights: • Subsidies on imported fuel compromise the contribution of crude oil in Nigeria. • Fuel subsidies benefit households, but harm the economy. • We use an economy-wide model to identify the impact of removing the fuel subsidy. • We simulate scenarios that target the poor and promote fuel's domestic production

  13. Social solidarity and willingness to tolerate risk- and income-related cross-subsidies within health insurance: experiences from Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, Jane; Akazili, James; Ataguba, John; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Borghi, Josephine; Harris, Bronwyn; Mills, Anne

    2012-03-01

    The importance of ill-health in perpetuating poverty is well recognized. In order to prevent the damaging downward spiral of poverty and illness, there is a need for a greater level of social protection, with greater cross-subsidization between the poor and wealthy, and the healthy and those with ill-health. The aim of this paper is to examine individual preferences for willingness to pre-pay for health care and willingness to cross-subsidize the sick and the poor in Ghana, South Africa and Tanzania. Household surveys in the three countries elicited views on cross-subsidization within health care financing. The paper examines how these preferences varied by socio-economic status, other respondent characteristics, and the extent and type of experience of health insurance in the light of country context. In South Africa and Ghana, 62% and 55% of total respondents, respectively, were in favour of a progressive financing system in which richer groups would pay a higher proportion of income than poorer groups, rather than a system where individuals pay the same proportion of income irrespective of their wealth (proportional). In Tanzania, 45% of the total sample were willing to pay for the health care of the poor. However, in all three countries, a progressive system was favoured by a smaller proportion of the most well off than of less well off groups. Solidarity has been considered to be a collective property of a specific socio-political culture, based on shared expectations and developed as part of a communal, historical learning process. The three countries had different experiences of health insurance and this may have contributed to the above differences in expressed willingness to pay between countries. Building and 'living with' institutions that provide affordable universal coverage is likely to be an essential part of the learning process which supports the development of social solidarity.

  14. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  15. Business Subsidies in Canada Comprehensive Estimates for the Government of Canada and the Four Largest Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2018-01-01

    capital to its most productive uses, governments express concern about the ability of small firms to access external financing. Just over half of business subsidies are intended to address these two issues. Governments also provide subsidies in order to create what are often described as “good jobs,” meaning employment in high-wage, high-productivity industries. There is ample evidence that wages differ by sector even after differences in worker skills and working conditions are taken into account. That opens up the possibility that subsidizing high-wage jobs will make us better off. Almost 10 per cent of government subsidies are pursuing “industrial policy” objectives. But real income won't necessarily go up, even in these circumstances. Benefit-cost analyses of key programs suggest that, at best, only a third of subsidies intended to raise real income achieve their objective. The main reason these subsidies are unsuccessful is that they have to be funded, either by raising taxes or cutting program spending, both of which harm economic performance. And avoiding the pitfall of excessive subsidization can be challenging. For example, small firms performing R&D get about 43% of their funding from governments, which is substantially beyond an effective level. Industrial policy measures are particularly tricky to get right. Governments have to identify sectors and firms that pay a premium for a given set of skills and working conditions, determine the subsidy that generates a social benefit net of the costs of providing assistance and avoid transferring income from low to high-wage taxpayers. With so much money at play, business subsidies should be reported more transparently and managed more effectively. For greater transparency, governments should prepare a comprehensive annual report on business subsidies delivered through program spending, the tax system and through the activities of government business enterprises. The report would describe the programs, state

  16. 26 CFR 6a.103A-1 - Interest on mortgage subsidy bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interest on a mortgage subsidy bond is includable in gross income and subject to Federal income taxation... the regulations thereunder. (4) Advance refunding. On or after December 5, 1980, no tax-exempt obligation may be issued for the advance refunding of a mortgage subsidy bond (determined without regard to...

  17. Cross subsidy removal in electricity pricing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Ranajoy; Ganguly, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    In India electricity price for agriculture is cross subsidized by the industries. The Indian government has started a process through which the extent of cross subsidization is gradually being reduced. The idea is to replace the cross subsidization by 2030 and introduce a rate structure that will increase with the amount of electricity usage. This paper uses the Computable General Equilibrium framework to evaluate the ex-ante impact of these policy changes on the Indian economy. The paper finds that removal of cross subsidies will increase inflation particularly food inflation resulting in a decline in household incomes more so in rural areas. Replacing cross subsidies with a progressive rate structure will compensate for only a small part of the negative effects of the removal of cross subsidies. Four other policy options are also investigated targeting household incomes, food inflation and general inflation. Most of these options do not work as the required increase in budget deficit is unlikely to be bearable to the government. The only feasible option appears to be a direct price subsidy to agricultural sector: in this case food prices are held down, inflation is moderate and effect on household incomes is minimal. - Highlights: • Removal of cross subsidies in electricity sector will increase inflation in India. • Different policy options are investigated targeting household incomes, food inflation and general inflation. • Feasible option appears to be a direct price subsidy to agricultural sector.

  18. Markets up on subsidies - but dilemma on disbursement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya Jaideep N.

    2013-04-01

    To encourage the masses and ensure rapid augmentation of solar thermal installations, India introduced capital subsidies of 30 % on systems traded during the Solar Mission plan. A scheme of 'channel partners' was worked out under which manufacturers, suppliers and other bulk users would sell systems as net-of-subsidy to the end users and would later claim reimbursement from the MNRE. Now with delays in the settlement of subsidy amounts the manufacturers have barely left enough capital to do business. (orig.)

  19. Population characteristics of markets of safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J

    1999-09-01

    To compare and contrast the markets of urban safety-net (USN) hospitals with the markets of other urban hospitals. To develop profiles of the actual inpatient markets of hospitals, we linked 1994 patient-level information from hospital discharge abstracts from nine states with 1990 data at the ZIP code level from the US Census Bureau. Each hospital's market was characterized by its racial and ethnic composition, median household income, poverty rate, and educational attainment. Measures of hospital competition were also calculated for each hospital. The analysis compared the market profiles of USN hospitals to those of other urban hospitals. We also compared the level of hospital competition and financial status of USN and other urban hospitals. The markets of USN hospitals had higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities and non-English-speaking residents. Adults residing in markets of USN hospitals were less educated. Families living in markets of USN hospitals had lower incomes and were more likely to be living at or below the federal poverty level. USN hospitals and other urban hospitals faced similar levels of competition and had similar margins. However, USN hospitals were more dependent on Medicare disproportionate share payments and on state and local government subsidies to remain solvent. USN hospitals disproportionately serve vulnerable minority and low-income communities that otherwise face financial and cultural barriers to health care. USN hospitals are dependent on the public subsidies they receive from federal, state, and local governments. Public policies and market pressures that affect the viability of USN hospitals place the access to care by vulnerable populations at risk. Public policy that jeopardizes public subsidies places in peril the financial health of these institutions. As Medicare and Medicaid managed care grow, USN hospitals may lose these patient revenues and public subsidies based on their Medicaid and Medicare patient

  20. Impact of government subsidies on household biogas use in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dingqiang; Bai, Junfei; Qiu, Huanguang; Cai, Yaqing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate empirically the impact of biogas subsidies on household biogas energy use in rural China. Special attention was given to the problem of sample selection bias in assessing the impact of subsidies on biogas energy use because biogas subsidies often change the propensity for installing biogas digesters. Using data from a large-scale household survey, the results indicate that biogas subsidies did promote the construction of biogas digesters. The results suggest that a 10 percentage point increase in subsidy-cost ratio would lead to a 3% increase in digester installations. We also found that biogas subsidies correlated negatively with average time of digester use. A 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio would result in a 4.3% reduction in the average working time of digesters. These results suggest that the net effect of the current subsidy policy on rural household biogas use was near-negligible. Indeed, a 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio resulted in a mere 1.15% increase in biogas use. These findings indicate that biogas subsidies have possibly not been targeted effectively at households that would actually prefer to use biogas energy. - Highlights: • We evaluate empirically the impact of biogas subsidies on household biogas energy use in rural China. • Results indicate that biogas subsidies did promote the construction of biogas digesters. • We also find that biogas subsidies were correlated negatively with average time of digester use. • The results suggest that the net effect of the current subsidy policy on rural household biogas use was near-negligible. • A 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio leads to merely 1.15% increases in biogas use

  1. How to design a targeted agricultural subsidy system: efficiency or equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers' incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is "reverse redistribution" in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined.

  2. How to design a targeted agricultural subsidy system: efficiency or equity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Gang Cong

    Full Text Available In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers' incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is "reverse redistribution" in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan are presented and examined.

  3. Analysing oil-production subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblik, Ronald

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how subsidies affect fossil-fuel investment returns and production is crucial to commencing new reforms. New analysis on the impact of subsidies on US crude-oil producers finds that, at recent oil prices of around US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new oil investments into profitability.

  4. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan; Poweo resultats du 1. semestre 2006. Resultat net positif, mise en oeuvre des 1. etapes du plan industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre.

  5. Global climate change, energy subsidies and national carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.; Shah, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the previous chapter of the book it is indicated that fossil-fuel burning is one of the main environmental culprits. Nevertheless, many countries continue to subsidize fossil fuels. In this chapter estimates of subsidies to energy and energy complements in OECD and non-OECD countries are provided. The authors conclude that the removal of energy subsidies in OECD countries on the order of US$30 billion annually (primarily in the US and Germany) and subsidies to complements on the order of US$50-90 (United States) are likely to have only little impact on CO-emissions. In contrast, the removal of energy subsidies of US$270-330 billion in non-OECD countries could substantially curb the growth of global CO 2 emissions, equivalent to the impact of a carbon tax on the order of US$60-70 per ton in the OECD countries. Nonetheless, even with the removal of energy subsidies, the growth in CO 2 emissions in non-OECD countries is projected to increase by 80% from the year 1990 to 2010. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of a revenue-neutral national carbon tax, in addition to energy subsidy removal, can yield significant health benefits from the reduction in local pollution. The authors note that carbon taxes are considerably less regressive relative to lifetime income or annual consumption expenditures than to annual income. 7 tabs., 23 refs

  6. The Fiscal and Macroeconomic Impacts of Reforming Energy Subsidy Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Yusma Bte Mohamed Yusoff; Hussain Ali Bekhet

    2017-01-01

    The rationalization of a gradual subsidies reforms plan has been set out by the Malaysian government to achieve the high-income nation target. This paper attempts to analyze the impacts of energy subsidy reform policy on fiscal deficit and macroeconomics variables in Malaysia. The Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model is employed. Three simulations based on different groups of scenarios have been developed. Importantly, the overall results indicate that removal of fuel subsidy has signif...

  7. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ecker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for a successful reform combines fuel subsidy reduction with direct income transfers to the poorest one-third of households during reform, and productivity-enhancing investment in infrastructure, plus fiscal consolidation. Public investments should be used for integrating economic spaces and restructuring of agricultural, industrial and service value chains in order to create a framework that encourages private-sector-led and job-creating growth.

  8. Electricity subsidies in low-cost jurisdictions : the case of British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, P.O.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviewed the concept of energy subsidies and estimated their significance to residential consumers in British Columbia. It cautioned that energy subsidies provided to electricity consumers create artificially low electricity prices that result in inefficient consumption levels to the detriment of the environment. An estimate of the indirect subsidies was presented along with an evaluation of potential consumption reduction scenarios if market prices were used. The author argued that subsidies, which are customary in developed countries where electricity use is high, tend to help higher-income households. An evaluation of the distribution of this subsidy across income groups showed that high-income households, which use more electricity than lower-income households, receive more than $500 per year in subsidy through regulated low electricity prices, whereas low-income households get approximately $200. This subsidy is estimated at $489 million per year in British Columbia. The author suggested that profits could be increased by $432 million by setting residential electricity prices nearer to the regional export price. This profit could be realized even after allowing for a direct transfer payment program that compensates low-income households for the higher prices. In addition, such a measure would reduce residential electricity consumption in the province by 25 per cent

  9. Childcare Type and Quality among Subsidy Recipients with and without Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Farnsworth, Elyse M.; Susman-Stillman, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Low-income children, particularly those with special needs, may have limited access to high-quality early care experiences. Childcare subsidies are intended to increase families' access to quality care, but little is known about subsidy use by children with special needs. Using a nationally representative sample of 4,000 young children who…

  10. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  11. Do Child Care Subsidies Influence Single Mothers' Decision to Invest in Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…

  12. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  13. Reducing fuel subsidies and the implication on fiscal balance and poverty in Indonesia: A simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartanto, Teguh

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for phasing out fuel subsidies in Indonesia due to a severe budget deficit and a worsening of income distribution. Fuel subsidies, of which almost 72% are enjoyed by the 30% of the richest income groups, have consumed on average 63.8% of the total subsidies between 1998 and 2013. This paper aims at evaluating the relationship between existing fuel subsidies and fiscal balance and at analysing the poverty impact of phasing out fuel subsidies. Applying a CGE-microsimulation, this study found that removing 25% of fuel subsidies increases the incidence of poverty by 0.259 percentage points. If this money were fully allocated to government spending, the poverty incidence would decrease by 0.27 percentage points. Moreover, the 100% removal of fuel subsidies and the reallocation of 50% of them to government spending, transfers and other subsidies could decrease the incidence of poverty by 0.277 percentage points. However, these reallocation policies might not be effective in compensating for the adverse impacts of the 100% removal of fuel subsidies if economic agents try to seek profit through mark-up pricing over the increase of production costs. - Highlights: ► Massive fuel subsidies reduce fiscal spaces used to alleviate poverty in Indonesia. ► Indonesia can avoid a budget deficit by 78% cutting of fuel subsidies. ► A CGE-microsimulation is applied to analyse the impacts of fuel subsidy reallocation. ► The 50% of reallocation fuel subsidies decreases the poverty by 0.277 percentage points. ► Mark-up pricing done by economic agents reduces the effectiveness of reallocation

  14. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  15. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  16. Mom-net: Evaluation of an internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral intervention for low-income depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Feil, Edward G; Seeley, John R; Leve, Craig; Gau, Jeff M; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Allan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Economically disadvantaged mothers (N = 266) of preschool aged children, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to Motivational Interviewing and Referral to Services (MIRS). Outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I Disorders (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS; Hamilton, 1960). Relative to participants in the MIRS condition, participants in Mom-Net demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression as indexed by self-report questionnaire (primary outcome), interviewer-rated symptoms, and diagnostic outcomes. Results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is effective as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Simulating progressive social transfers. Gas subsidies and solidarity bonds in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, J.; Ponce, J.; Leon, M.

    2004-02-01

    After two decades of neglect, social expending has become a cornerstone in the current fight against poverty in Ecuador. Ecuador is presently considering the elimination of regressive gas subsidies and the shift of these resources into pro-poor targeted Solidarity Bonds. Great distributive gains are expected from this reform. There are, however, a number of considerations that may prevent this policy shift from obtaining substantial poverty and equality gains. Despite their regressivity, implicit gas subsidies still represent a considerable proportion of total household consumption among poor households. Also, solidarity bonds siphon off a substantial share of their total benefits to middle income groups. This paper estimates the redistributive consequences of policy reforms on gas subsidies and solidarity bonds in Ecuador. A simulation methodology estimates both direct and indirect (labour-driven) distributive effects of four alternative scenarios: (1) total elimination of gas subsidies; (2) selective elimination of gas subsidies among non-poor households; (3) total elimination of gas subsidies and shift of resources to solidarity bonds targeted to the poor; (4) selective elimination of gas subsidies and shift of resources to solidarity bonds targeted to the poor. Estimates confirm that the redistributive gains from these reforms are rather small both for poverty and inequality. Incentives to work following the elimination of subsidies compensate, or even outdo, immediate poverty rises. Also, the elimination of gas subsidies without further expansion of subsidy bonds will unambiguously increase poverty in Ecuador between one and one and a half percent points

  18. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, David; Gakii Gatua, Josephine; Ikiara, Moses; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Mwaura, Mbutu; Whittington, Dale

    2016-06-01

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that high-income residential and nonresidential customers receive a disproportionate share of subsidies and that subsidy targeting is poor even among households with a private metered connection. We also find that stated expenditure on water, a commonly used means of estimating water use, is a poor proxy for metered use and that previous studies on subsidy incidence underestimate the magnitude of the subsidy delivered through water tariffs. These findings have implications for both the design and evaluation of water tariffs in developing countries.

  20. Subsidies for renewable energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Morthorst, P.E.; Olsen, O.J.

    2004-01-01

    Ambitious Danish and European energy and environment objectives make a point of using renewable energy sources in the electricity supply. Denmark has been leading country in successful development and commercialization of wind turbines and is as yet one of the leading manufacturers of the world. Danish governments have successfully invested a lot in this development. Other countries have spent more money without achieving a similar success. The questions are why things have gone so well in Denmark and if the Danish success can be repeated for other renewable energy technologies. The starting point of this book is that a political decision on subsidizing the developmental process of a specific technology not in itself guarantees that the technology will turn out reliable and efficient enough to compete successfully in a liberalized electricity market. An understanding of this development is necessary in order to affect a technological development. This book goes through the development of different renewable energy technologies and two theories used for discussing the technological development: experience curves and innovation theory. Based on the discussions and a description of causal relations, an analytical model for different phases of renewable energy technologies' developmental progress and technological life cycle is made. The model is used for evaluating the subsidies for chosen renewable technologies in Denmark. With wind energy as example an analysis of what went well or badly, what might be done and which actions might be efficient is made. (BA)

  1. Is rooftop solar PV at socket parity without subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Shelly; Jaramillo, Paulina; Morgan, M. Granger

    2016-01-01

    Installations of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, in large part because of state and federal subsidies. In the future, such subsidies may be reduced or eliminated. From the homeowner's perspective, solar PV is competitive when it can produce electricity at a cost equivalent to the retail electricity rate, a condition sometimes referred to as “socket parity”. In assessing the economic viability of residential solar PV, most existing literature considers only a few locations and fails to consider the differences in PV system cost and electricity prices that exist across the U.S. We combined insolation data from more than 1000 locations, installation costs by region, and county-level utility rates to provide a more complete economic assessment of rooftop solar PV across the U.S. We calculated the break-even electricity prices and evaluated the reductions in installed costs needed to reach socket parity. Among the scenarios considered, we estimate that only Hawaii has achieved socket parity without the use of subsidies. With subsidies, six states reach socket parity, yet widespread parity is still not achieved. We find that high installation costs and financing rates are two of the largest barriers to socket parity. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic viability of residential rooftop solar PV across the U.S. • Widespread socket parity has not been achieved in the U.S. without subsidies. • Net metering may be critical for the economic viability of rooftop solar PV.

  2. The “Cadillac Tax” on Health Benefits in the United States Will Hit the Middle Class Hardest: Refuting the Myth That Health Benefit Tax Subsidies Are Regressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2016-01-01

    U.S. employment-based health benefits are exempt from income and payroll taxes, an exemption that provided tax subsidies of $326.2 billion in 2015. Both liberal and conservative economists have denounced these subsidies as “regressive” and lauded a provision of the Affordable Care Act—the Cadillac Tax—that would curtail them. The claim that the subsidies are regressive rests on estimates showing that the affluent receive the largest subsidies in absolute dollars. But this claim ignores the standard definition of regressivity, which is based on the share of income paid by the wealthy versus the poor, rather than on dollar amounts. In this study, we calculate the value of tax subsidies in 2009 as a share of income for each income quintile and for the wealthiest Americans. In absolute dollars, tax subsidies were highest for families between the 80th and 95th percentiles of family income and lowest for the poorest 20%. However, as shares of income, subsidies were largest for the middle and fourth income quintiles and smallest for the wealthiest 0.5% of Americans. We conclude that the tax subsidy to employment-based insurance is neither markedly regressive, nor progressive. The Cadillac Tax will disproportionately harm families with (2009) incomes between $38,550 and $100,000, while sparing the wealthy.

  3. Distributional effects of subsidy removal and implementation of carbon taxes in Mexican households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Bakhat, Mohcine; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio; Fernández Zayas, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a microsimulation using data from the National Households Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) from 1994 to 2010 to determine the distributional effects of the price changes arising from energy and environmental policies and their impact on Mexican households. We reported simulations of several changes in energy prices as a result of partial or total energy subsidy removal, including carbon tax. In order to examine whether the subsidy mechanism and carbon tax tend to be progressive or regressive, we evaluated the households' burden in different income levels. These simulations respond to the need for an assessment of economic and environmental impacts of energy subsidies in Mexico. This is of great importance for Mexico because of effort that has been taken in the development of energy policies, and the rising interest of the Mexican government in mitigating carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions and their concomitant environmental damage. - Highlights: • The results indicate that subsidies in electricity are progressive (indeed less progressive for LPG). • Some regression evidence is shown in gasoline subsidies, that is, low-income households benefit less from the subsidies than do high-income households. • The analysis demonstrates that a hypothetical CO_2 tax is regressive in LPG and progressive in the case of gasoline.

  4. Environmental taxes and subsidies 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1970 - 2002 and statements of environmentally related subsidies for the years 1996 - 2002. Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation, and resource related taxes. The State's revenue from environmental taxes have increased from 4,0 billions DKK in 1970 to 65,7 billions DKK in 2002. The environmental taxes' part of the GNP has increased from 3,2 % in 1970 to 4,8 % in 2002. The part of the environmental taxes of the total taxes and tariffs has increased from 8,2 % in 1970 to 9,8 % in 2002. >From 2001 to 2002 the environmental taxes increased with 5,6 %, primarily because the taxes in the transportation sector increased with 13,5 % due to more new cars. The pollution taxes increased with 6 % while the environmental taxes for energy increased with only 0,8 %. In 2002 the energy related taxes amounted to 54 %, the transport related taxes to 39 %, and pollution and resource related taxes amounted to 7 % of the total environmental taxes. The public environmentally related subsidies to companies and households has been on a stable level of a little more than 10 billions DKK through the latest years. The energy related subsidies have, however, been transferred to transport related subsidies, i.e. primarily subsidies to the public transport. (ln)

  5. Lows income residential tariff - An analysis of the application under the cross subsidies viewpoint; A tarifa residencial de baixa renda: uma analise de sua aplicacao perante a questao de subsidios cruzados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral de Almeida [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The paper evaluates the impacts of a new policy in electricity pricing applied to residential customers with low income, specially in the view point of crossed subsides. This paper shows some inconsistencies in the new policy and relate the experience of CESP - Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - in it`s propose of adapting the low income to its franchise area. Also made an analysis of the policy`s homogeneity among different utilities. (author) 6 refs., 7 figs.; e-mail: fprado at sp.gov.br

  6. Impact of Alaskan gas subsidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) with an assessment of the impact of the Alaska natural gas tax credit proposed and passed in the United States Senate energy bill. In particular, Purvin and Gertz evaluated the impact of the Alaskan gas subsidy on potential Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea production as well as existing and future production from other areas including Western Canada, the Rocky Mountains in the United States, and the Gulf Coast. The mechanisms through which other producing areas are affected were described and the typical volumetric impact is presented using gas models developed by Purvin and Gertz. The GNWT wants to maximize the benefits of Arctic gas development for its constituents but believes that its interests will be negatively impacted by subsidized Alaskan gas which will be applied for the period beginning in 2010. The tax credit sets a floor price of $3.25 (US)/MMBtu. Purvin and Gertz concludes that the Alaskan gas subsidy would produce a misallocation of resources and distort the continental North American natural gas market. It would encourage over investment in Alaskan gas production because the credit works as a false signal to the privileged few that divert resources from higher value activities to lower value activities. The winners of the Alaskan gas subsidy would be Alaskan producers and the Alaskan economy. The losers would be other resource owners, producers, and American taxpayers because they would finance the subsidy through a tax credit mechanism. There would be an overall loss to the economy because of sub-optimal allocation of resources. In addition, producers in existing producing areas such as the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea region would face lower market prices as a result of the subsidy, thereby reducing their investments. It was concluded that the Alaskan gas subsidy is counterproductive from the perspective of a secure continental supply of natural gas. 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Relationship of in-coming radiation with photosynthetically active, infra-red and net radiations in Brassica species and rocket salad (Eruca sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwal, A.S.; Kuhad, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Marked variation was observed among genotypes when the data for in-coming solar radiation were monitored horizontally. The regression equation for in-coming solar radiation versus photosynthetically active radiation and incoming solar radiation versus in-coming infra red radiation indicated linear relationship

  8. Impact of energy subsidies on energy consumption and supply in Zimbabwe. Do the urban poor really benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, Ikhupuleng

    2003-01-01

    Twenty percent of Zimbabwe's urban poor households are still to be connected to the grid. The majority of these households are poor. There are several reasons why the Zimbabwe urban poor are still not connected to the grid, the most important one being the household incomes and the cost of different sources of energy. In order to facilitate wider usage of electricity by the poor, the policy makers have introduced a subsidy policy. The objective of this paper is to ascertain the extent to which the poor urban households could afford the cost of electricity with or without subsidies. This gives an indication on whether contrary to the current thinking, subsidies are decisive for the affordability of electricity by the urban households. The paper also examines the distribution of the subsidies, amongst the different urban household income categories and other economic sectors. Furthermore the impact of such subsidies on the utility's finances is assessed

  9. The economics of agricultural subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    PART ONE

    1. Agricultural subsidies have been defined as a government induced change of relative prices of goods, services and factors of production in the agricultural sector. These agricultural price changes may result from a large number of different government measures varying

  10. Analyzing Subsidies in Microsoft Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Applying the budget line/indifference curve apparatus to policy issues reveals important and sometimes counterintuitive policy implications. Also, it provides practice in using the apparatus. The author applies these tools to subsidies. The analysis follows textbook treatments but is extended at some points. In particular, the present analysis…

  11. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103.2 euro

  12. Getting a grip on tariffs and subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.

    1993-01-01

    The tariff and subsidy support available for windpower producers in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and the U.K. is compared. Tariffs and subsidies, along with the availability of finance, are important supportive factors in the development of wind energy in Europe. The available tariffs, subsidies and financing mechanisms available in a country determines how the wind energy programme develops. (author)

  13. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  14. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E. H. J.; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-01

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders’ Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today’s low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  15. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E H J; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-07

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today's low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO 2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  16. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: An empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea's energy subsidy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Hyun

    reforms, first of all, humans need a new energy paradigm to replace the hitherto dominant commodification paradigm. On an international level, creation of an international renewable energy agency and creation of renewable funds will spur on energy subsidy reforms of all nations, especially developing countries. On a national level, government's role should change from growth-oriented economic policy to sustainable development that includes environmentally friendly energy systems. In terms of social welfare, energy subsidies should be transformed to direct income policy, which is more effective for the welfare of the poor. The South Korean government should exchange its current supply-oriented fishery policy, which relies heavily on energy subsidies, to a Marine Reserves policy and direct income policy. For successful energy subsidy reforms, the government, NGOs, and private market should cooperate. Specifically, NGOs' role in monitoring and pushing government's energy subsidy reform is invaluable, considering the limits of modern bureaucracy and the profit-oriented market character. Most environmental problems, including global warming, have a close relation with fossil fuel and nuclear energy use. Historically, these energy systems have become entrenched deeply in society through energy subsidy policy. Energy subsidy reforms are a key to the environmental problem and accelerated transition to renewable energy.

  18. Global energy subsidies: An analytical taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKitrick, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Governments around the world have pledged to eliminate or sharply reduce subsidies to energy firms in order to increase economic efficiency and reduce environmental externalities. Yet definitions of subsidies vary widely and, as a result, estimates of their global magnitude vary by orders of magnitude. I review why energy subsidies are so difficult to define and measure. I show why some non-standard measures are very poor proxies for subsidy costs and in fact may vary inversely with them. In particular, recent attempts to treat unpriced externalities as subsidies yield especially misleading results. In general, energy subsidies as conventionally understood do exist but only comprise a small portion of some very large recently-reported estimates, the bulk of which are indirect measures that may have little connection with actual costs to governments or allocational inefficiencies. - Highlights: • Estimates of national and global energy subsidies vary widely. • Microeconomic tools help clarify the various definitions in use. • Some indirect measures are invalid as proxies for normal subsidy costs. • Distorting subsidies do exist but are likely on the low end of some recent reports.

  19. Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

  20. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of the first French

  1. 77 FR 2446 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Eligibility for a Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Patients and Providers Act of 2008 (MIPPA) which affect the way we account for income and resources when... any life insurance policy as a resource for Extra Help effective on and after January 1, 2010. As of... and resources when determining eligibility for the subsidy provided by the Extra Help program, and...

  2. Capital Controls and Foreign Investor Subsidies Implicit in South Africa's Dual Exchange Rate System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Schaling, E.; van der Windt, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Both in theory and practice, capital controls and dual exchange rate systems can be part of a country's optimal tax policy. We first show how a dual exchange rate system can be interpreted as a tax (or subsidy) on international capital income. We show that a dual exchange rate system, with separate

  3. Fertilizer procurement, distribution and subsidy policies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... subsidy at source, and subsidy at source including transportation subsidy to delivery points. It was recommended that the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria (NAFCON) Onne, Port Harcourt should ...

  4. A welfare perspective on Nordic media subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2016-01-01

    Subsidies constitute a prominent media-policy instrument, serving to correct media-market failures. However, because they interfere in the market, and because the commercial media market is under structural pressure in the digital age, there is much debate about the role of media subsidies. Within...

  5. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  6. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost-Sharing Subsidies for Low... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Premium subsidy. 423.780 Section 423.780 Public...-service plans or 1876 cost plans) in a PDP region in the reference month. (ii) Premium amounts. The...

  7. Long-term climate policy implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Piontek, Franziska; Bertram, Christoph; Luderer, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    It is often argued that fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption. We assess implications of a subsidy phase-out for the mitigation of climate change and the low-carbon transformation of the energy system, using the global energy–economy model REMIND. We compare our results with those obtained by the International Energy Agency (based on the World Energy Model) and by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD-Model ENV-Linkages), providing the long-term perspective of an intertemporal optimization model. The results are analyzed in the two dimensions of subsidy phase-out and climate policy scenarios. We confirm short-term benefits of phasing-out fossil fuel subsidies as found in prior studies. However, these benefits are only sustained to a small extent in the long term, if dedicated climate policies are weak or nonexistent. Most remarkably we find that a removal of fossil fuel subsidies, if not complemented by other policies, can slow down a global transition towards a renewable based energy system. The reason is that world market prices for fossil fuels may drop due to a removal of subsidies. Thus, low carbon alternatives would encounter comparative disadvantages. - Highlights: • We assess implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change. • The removal of subsidies leads to a net-reduction in the use of energy. • Emission reductions contribute little to stabilize greenhouse gases at 450 ppm if not combined with climate policies. • Low carbon alternatives may encounter comparative disadvantages due to relative price changes at world markets

  8. Sistema de informação geográfica para mapeamento da renda líquida aplicado no planejamento da agricultura irrigada Algorithm to mapping net income applied in irrigated agriculture planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um algoritmo na linguagem computacional MATLAB para aplicações em sistemas de informações geográficas, visando ao mapeamento da renda líquida maximizada de cultivos irrigados. O estudo foi desenvolvido para as culturas do maracujá, da cana-de-açúcar, do abacaxi e do mamão, em área de aproximadamente 2.500 ha, localizada no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados de entrada do algoritmo foram informações edafoclimáticas, funções de resposta das culturas à água, dados de localização geográfica da área e índices econômicos referentes ao custo do processo produtivo. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o algoritmo desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente para o mapeamento da renda líquida de cultivos irrigados, sendo capaz de localizar áreas que apresentam maiores retornos econômicos.The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm in MATLAB computational language to be applied in geographical information systems to map net income irrigated crops to plan irrigated agriculture. The study was developed for the crops of passion fruit plant, sugarcane, pineapple and papaya, in an area of approximately 2,500 ha, at Campos dos Goytacazes, located at north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The algorithm input data were: information about soil, climate, crop water response functions, geographical location and economical cost indexes of the productive process. The results allowed concluding that developed algorithm was efficient to map net income of irrigated crops, been able to locate areas that present larger economical net income.

  9. Technology adoption subsidies. An experiment with managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalbers, Rob; Van der Heijden, Eline; Potters, Jan; Van Soest, Daan; Vollebergh, Herman

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of technology adoption subsidies on investment behavior in an individual choice experiment. In a laboratory setting professional managers are confronted with an intertemporal decision problem in which they have to decide whether or not to search for, and possibly adopt, a new technology. Technologies differ in the per-period benefits they yield, and their purchase price increases with the per-period benefits provided. We introduce a subsidy on the more expensive technologies (that also yield larger per-period benefits), and find that the subsidy scheme induces agents to search for and adopt these more expensive technologies even though the subsidy itself is too small to render these technologies profitable. We speculate that the result is driven by the positive connotation (affect) that the concept 'subsidy' invokes. (author)

  10. Technology adoption subsidies. An experiment with managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalbers, Rob [Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, P.O. Box 80510, 2508 GM The Hague (Netherlands); Van der Heijden, Eline; Potters, Jan [CentER and Department of Economics, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg (Netherlands); Van Soest, Daan [Department of Spatial Economics/IVM, VU University, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vollebergh, Herman [Tinbergen Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    We evaluate the impact of technology adoption subsidies on investment behavior in an individual choice experiment. In a laboratory setting professional managers are confronted with an intertemporal decision problem in which they have to decide whether or not to search for, and possibly adopt, a new technology. Technologies differ in the per-period benefits they yield, and their purchase price increases with the per-period benefits provided. We introduce a subsidy on the more expensive technologies (that also yield larger per-period benefits), and find that the subsidy scheme induces agents to search for and adopt these more expensive technologies even though the subsidy itself is too small to render these technologies profitable. We speculate that the result is driven by the positive connotation (affect) that the concept 'subsidy' invokes. (author)

  11. Subsidy policy and the enlargement of choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sunderasan

    2009-01-01

    Development is the enlargement of people's choices. Optimal subsidy policy is intended to create the right incentives for each of the value chain participants. This paper contends that the interest subsidy offered by the Indian federal Ministry of New and Renewable Energy for solar thermal systems, through mainstream banking channels is superior in intent and outcome compared to the capital subsidy as currently offered for solar PV systems, routed through government controlled delivery channels. The interest subsidy enhances innovation, improves service delivery and expands the range of product available to consumers enjoying a wide range of endowments, thus leading to more inclusive development. The simple monopoly model developed by Atkinson [Atkinson AB. Capabilities, exclusion and the supply of goods. In: Basu K, Pattanaik P, Suzumura K, editor, Choice, Welfare and Development. Oxford University Press; 1995] is applied to the context of solar home systems to demonstrate price reduction and choice expansion in a liberalized market, facilitated by an interest subsidy scheme. (author)

  12. Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Mineau, Madeleine M; Hall, Robert O

    2011-06-01

    Although the study of resource subsidies has emerged as a key topic in both ecosystem and food web ecology, the dialogue over their role has been limited by separate approaches that emphasize either subsidy quantity or quality. Considering quantity and quality together may provide a simple, but previously unexplored, framework for identifying the mechanisms that govern the importance of subsidies for recipient food webs and ecosystems. Using a literature review of > 90 studies of open-water metabolism in lakes and streams, we show that high-flux, low-quality subsidies can drive freshwater ecosystem dynamics. Because most of these ecosystems are net heterotrophic, allochthonous inputs must subsidize respiration. Second, using a literature review of subsidy quality and use, we demonstrate that animals select for high-quality food resources in proportions greater than would be predicted based on food quantity, and regardless of allochthonous or autochthonous origin. This finding suggests that low-flux, high-quality subsidies may be selected for by animals, and in turn may disproportionately affect food web and ecosystem processes (e.g., animal production, trophic energy or organic matter flow, trophic cascades). We then synthesize and review approaches that evaluate the role of subsidies and explicitly merge ecosystem and food web perspectives by placing food web measurements in the context of ecosystem budgets, by comparing trophic and ecosystem production and fluxes, and by constructing flow food webs. These tools can and should be used to address future questions about subsidies, such as the relative importance of subsidies to different trophic levels and how subsidies may maintain or disrupt ecosystem stability and food web interactions.

  13. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for equipment and operation of a radiation monitoring facility around a nuclear power generating facility. Subsidies are provided to the prefectures concerned for equipment, etc. required in radiation monitoring, pre-service radiation monitoring and in-service radiation monitoring conducted by a prefecture. The contents are as follows: terms of subsidy allocations, the sum of subsidy allocations, applications for subsidies, decisions on the allocation of subsidies, withdrawal of applications, conditions of the allocations, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, limitations for disposal of the properties, payment of the subsidy, accounting of the subsidy operations, and a record on the subsidy. (Kubozono, M.)

  15. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for equipment and operation of a radiation monitoring facility around a nuclear power generating facility. Subsidies are provided to the prefectures concerned for equipment, etc. required in radiation monitoring, pre-service radiation monitoring and in-service radiation monitoring conducted by a prefecture. The contents are as follows: terms of subsidy allocations, the sum of subsidy allocations, applications for subsidies, decisions on the allocation of subsidies, withdrawal of applications, conditions of the allocations, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, limitations for disposal of the properties, payment of the subsidy, accounting of the subsidy operations, and a record on the subsidy. (Mori, K.)

  16. 20 CFR 404.1085 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1085 Net operating loss deduction. When determining your net earnings from self-employment...

  17. Rationality of the subsidy regime for wind power in Sweden and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, P [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    1996-12-31

    This study comprise analysis and discussion of incentives inherent in the Swedish and Danish subsidy regimes for household owned wind power. New results include an evaluation of the subsidy value of income and VAT tax breaks available to investors, and a demonstration of the importance of the choice of ownership arrangements for the profitability of wind power projects. The study outlines the complex restrictions associated with different forms of wind power ownership. These cause the investment market to be highly segmented. The discussion includes several irrational system effects of the subsidy regimes. Among these are collision with energy saving goals, excessive capital costs, dubious siting decisions, and distorted competition among technologies. In conclusion, come policy recommendations are suggested. (author)

  18. Rationality of the subsidy regime for wind power in Sweden and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    1995-12-31

    This study comprise analysis and discussion of incentives inherent in the Swedish and Danish subsidy regimes for household owned wind power. New results include an evaluation of the subsidy value of income and VAT tax breaks available to investors, and a demonstration of the importance of the choice of ownership arrangements for the profitability of wind power projects. The study outlines the complex restrictions associated with different forms of wind power ownership. These cause the investment market to be highly segmented. The discussion includes several irrational system effects of the subsidy regimes. Among these are collision with energy saving goals, excessive capital costs, dubious siting decisions, and distorted competition among technologies. In conclusion, come policy recommendations are suggested. (author)

  19. Rationality of the subsidy regime for wind power in Sweden and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helby, P.

    1995-01-01

    This study comprise analysis and discussion of incentives inherent in the Swedish and Danish subsidy regimes for household owned wind power. New results include an evaluation of the subsidy value of income and VAT tax breaks available to investors, and a demonstration of the importance of the choice of ownership arrangements for the profitability of wind power projects. The study outlines the complex restrictions associated with different forms of wind power ownership. These cause the investment market to be highly segmented. The discussion includes several irrational system effects of the subsidy regimes. Among these are collision with energy saving goals, excessive capital costs, dubious siting decisions, and distorted competition among technologies. In conclusion, come policy recommendations are suggested. (author)

  20. Federal Subsidies and the Housing GSEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Congressman Baker also asked that CBO extend the estimate to include the Federal Home Loan Banks and to update its estimate of the portion of the subsidy that the government-sponsored enterprises (OSEs) retain. Congressman John M...

  1. Subsidies to Increase Remote Pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestikova, Jana; Krizanova, Anna; Corejova, Tatiana; Kral, Pavol; Spuchlakova, Erika

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade, Central Europe became a cynosure for the world for its unparalleled public support for renewable energy. For instance, the production of electricity from purpose-grown biomass received approximately twice the amount in subsidies as that produced from biowaste. Moreover, the guaranteed purchase price of electricity from solar panels was set approximately five times higher than that from conventional sources. This controversial environmental donation policy led to the devastation of large areas of arable land, a worsening of food availability, unprecedented market distortions, and serious threats to national budgets, among other things. Now, the first proposals to donate the purchase price of electric vehicles (and related infrastructure) from national budgets have appeared for public debate. Advocates of these ideas argue that they can solve the issue of electricity overproduction, and that electric vehicles will reduce emissions in cities. However, our analysis reveals that, as a result of previous scandals, environmental issues have become less significant to local citizens. Given that electric cars are not yet affordable for most people, in terms of local purchasing power, this action would further undermine national budgets. Furthermore, while today's electromobiles produce zero pollution when operated, their sum of emissions (i.e. global warming potential) remains much higher than that of conventional combustion engines. Therefore, we conclude that the mass usage of electromobiles could result in the unethical improvement of a city environment at the expense of marginal regions.

  2. Technology diffusion, product differentiation and environmental subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinty, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Vries, F.P. de [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Law and Economics

    2007-07-01

    Technological change is often seen as the promising device that will mitigate or solve environmental problems. Policy intervention that spurs the development, adoption and diffusion of new, environmentally benign technologies therefore holds great appear for environmental authorities. Policymakers have various instruments at their disposal to affect technological diffusion, ranging from direct regulation (command-and-control strategies) to market-based instruments, such as taxes, subsidies and tradable pollution permits. This paper examines environmental subsidies as a technology diffusion policy. The authors apply evolutionary game theory to explore the relationship between subsidies for clean technology, the diffusion of that technology and the degree of product differentiation in an imperfectly competitive market. They show that the subsidy succeeds in reducing environmental damage only when the substitution effect (the reduction in pollution associated with the clean technology) exceeds the output effect (the extent that the subsidy increases output). When the substitution effect does dominate, environmental damage decreases monotonically during the diffusion process. The extent of diffusion (the degree to which clean technolgy replaces dirty) and the likelihood that the substitution effect will dominate both decrease with the extent of product differentiation. Finally, the subsidy for clean technology will spill over to the remaining dirty producers increasing their profit as well.

  3. Consequences of Food Safety Abolishing Energy Subsidies on Iranian Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fathi

    2016-10-01

    Methods: Equilibrium displacement models (EDMs have used in applied economics. EDM allows the researchers to focus on result of various supply and demand shifter. In this study,to decide the effects of elimination of energy subsidy policy on meat producers and consumers. The model comprises horizontally linked beef, sheep, and poultry demands at the retail level as well as vertical linkages between the farm and retail sectors. Results and Discussion: Scenarios for energy price rise are created following three steps. First, a 38 % increase created in prices of energy carriers. Then change in balance, an increase of 50 % considered as the second stage. Up to this point we have about 88 % rise in energy prices, which must raise by another 300 % to reach the global prices which created in the third scenario. Alongside policies for elimination of energy subsidies, there has been a policy of cash subsidies in the country. In this study, to calculate the effect of cash subsidy, it was necessary to calculate the increase in family expenditures in exchange for a certain percentage of increase in the meat price. Therefore, with increase of average meat price, the average family expenditures for meat were also calculated. This average is the value which will pay to families in cash. Like assumptions used in the demand model, if all income rise spent on food, the percentage of increase in expenditure can be calculated. Using this percentage and income elasticity elements, the effect of cash subsidies on increasing meat expenditure can be calculated. Though accepting the premise that all families spend their income rise to buy meat is difficult, it helps us take a general attitude about paying cash that increases demand and shocks the retail demand. Therefore, an increase of 2 and 5 % considered for the average family expenditure. A 2 percent increase in the family expenditure increased the demand for poultry, sheep, beef by about 0.63, 1.13 and 0.92 percent and a 5 percent increase

  4. Contracts, Vouchers, and Child Care Subsidy Stability: A Preliminary Look at Associations between Subsidy Payment Mechanism and Stability of Subsidy Receipt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holod, Aleksandra; Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation's largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children's care arrangements.…

  5. Are subsidies for biodiesel economically efficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassell, Charles S.; Dittmer, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel produces less pollution than petrodiesel; however, it is more expensive and will only be a viable alternative if market prices of the products are comparable. This paper examines whether the external benefits from biodiesel use justify subsidies required for adoption outside of niche alternative fuel markets. The authors establish a range of subsidies required to make biodiesel a viable substitute for petrodiesel. Published estimates of the emissions reductions from biodiesel and the dollar benefits of unit reductions in emissions are used to compute a per-gallon external benefit from use of biodiesel, versus petrodiesel. Under conservative estimates of the benefits from biodiesel use in non-road equipment, the external benefits outweigh the required subsidies.(JEL Q48, Q42, H2)

  6. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  7. Agricultural input subsidies in sub-Saharan Africa\\ud – the case of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Tamahi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the design, implementation and impacts of the market-smart input subsidy (NAIVS) in Tanzania’s Ruvuma Region.\\ud The research uses a mixed-methods approach, where quantitative data analysis is complemented by qualitative research. Using four waves of household panel data, I found that voucher receipt had no statistically significant impact on maize yields, income poverty or the household assets owned by recipient households. The qualitative research finds that this wa...

  8. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  9. Towards a grand deal on subsidies and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, Andre de

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have identified public subsidies as a principal cause of unsustainable development. Worldwide, governments are spending up to $US950 billion a year on subsidies. Many of these public subsidies fail to serve their purpose and in fact, often turn out as policy failures as they further distort trade and cause environmental harm. The energy sector is among the most subsidized sectors in the world, receiving over $US240 billion per annum of public subsidies. This article highlights current energy subsidies and their implications. The article examines: (i) the global size and distribution of energy subsidies in industrialized and developing countries; (ii) the impact of these subsidies on the economy, equity and the environment ana their role as barriers for sustainable development; (iii) the political economy behind public subsidies and the various political and institutional barriers and lock-in mechanisms that cause subsidies to become entrenched in economic and public structures; and (iv) proposals for effective subsidy reform in energy policies, suggesting a global strategy to eliminate energy subsidies. OECD governments are in a position to take the lead, and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change presents an excellent opportunity of striking a political grand deal and linking the reform of energy subsidies to a meaningful participation of developing countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Moreover, if sinks are to be included in the clean development mechanism (CDM), it is crucial to include the removal of forestry subsidies in the grand deal. (author)

  10. On the Incidence of Employment Subsidies to Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    The present paper analyses employment subsidies to vocational training under union wage bargaining. The analysis includes an investigation of the consequences of financing the subsidy by a levy on employment, which is the typical way of financing these types of subsidies in many countries. The pa....... The paper demonstrates high incidence rates of subsidies to vocational training under standard assumptions about the preference structure of the union. The financing scheme appears to counteract the purpose of the subsidy.......The present paper analyses employment subsidies to vocational training under union wage bargaining. The analysis includes an investigation of the consequences of financing the subsidy by a levy on employment, which is the typical way of financing these types of subsidies in many countries...

  11. The Incidence of Employment Subsidies for Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses employment subsidies for vocational training under union wage bargaining. The analysis includes an investigation of the consequences of financing the subsidy by a levy on employment, which is the typical way of financing these types of subsidies in many countries. The paper de...... demonstrates high incidence rates of subsidies for vocational training under standard assumptions about the preference structure of the union. The financing scheme appears to counteract the purpose of the subsidy.......This paper analyses employment subsidies for vocational training under union wage bargaining. The analysis includes an investigation of the consequences of financing the subsidy by a levy on employment, which is the typical way of financing these types of subsidies in many countries. The paper...

  12. Fertilizer Subsidy in India: Who are the Beneficiaries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vijay Paul; Thaker, Hrima

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural subsidies that encourage production and productivity have been widely criticized because of the cost of subsidies and they are perceived to be far from uniformly distributed. There is a general view in academic, policy and political circles that agricultural subsidies are concentrated geographically, they are concentrated on relatively few crops and few producers and in many cases do not reach the targeted group(s). One of the most contentious issues surrounding input subsidies i...

  13. Microsimulation of Corporate Response to Investment Subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, van F.W.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents an application of microsimulation to modeling of firm behavior in an economy-wide framework. The model is used to investigate the response of industrial corporations to investment subsidies in the Netherlands and traces the effects to the macro economic level. The

  14. Energy subsidies in California's electricity market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschel, Alexander; Smestad, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation and re-regulation of California's electricity market not only failed in terms of anticipated cost reductions, improved customer service and higher competition, it also led to the introduction of various additional energy subsidies. This paper analyzes California's electricity market deregulation process from a subsidy viewpoint. Under deregulation in California, investor-owned utilities were not allowed to pass their energy procurement costs fully on to their customers, and therefore subsequently, and inevitably, ran into severe financial problems. Such retail price regulation is an energy subsidy that is both economically and environmentally unfavorable, because it veils true price signals to electricity consumers and, in this way, discourages energy conservation. Other policies implemented in California that represent perverse energy subsidies are the purchase of power by the state of California, the suspension of retail competition, and the potential misuse of money from the recovery of stranded costs. Many interventions implemented by the state to smooth out the impacts of the energy crisis insulated electricity consumers from market realities, supported the existing structure of California's electricity market, which is predominantly based on fossil fuels, and suppressed market incentives to improve energy conservation

  15. Reducing rebound effect through fossil subsidies reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Yang, Yingkui; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    China has committed a sharp reduction in its carbon intensity by 2020 and proposed to take integrated policy package including energy subsidy reform to achieve this goal. While energy efficiency improvement is the key influencing factor for this goal, its effectiveness is significantly determined...

  16. Essays on the economics of housing subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, F.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    In a perfect market a government needs not to intervene. For several reasons the housing market is not a perfect market and, thus, governments generally tend to intervene. The Dutch government, however, intervenes mainly by subsidies to such an extent that the housing market has become strongly

  17. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES... government, a benefit does not exist if the Secretary determines that the activities consist of general...

  18. 46 CFR 282.30 - Payment of subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... include for payment in such voucher the amount of ODS accrued for the voyages terminated during the period. ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of subsidy. 282.30 Section 282.30 Shipping... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Subsidy Payment and Billing Procedures § 282.30 Payment of subsidy...

  19. 19 CFR 351.502 - Specificity of domestic subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 351.502 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND...) The subsidy programs have the same purpose; (2) The subsidy programs bestow the same type of benefit; (3) The subsidy programs confer similar levels of benefits on similarly situated firms; and (4) The...

  20. An optimal U.S. biodiesel fuel subsidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huiting; Colson, Gregory; Escalante, Cesar; Wetzstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced environmental quality, fuel security, and economic development, along with reduced prices of blended diesel, are often used as justifications for a U.S. federal excise tax exemption on biodiesel fuels. However, the possible effect of increased overall consumption of fuel in response to lower total prices, mitigating the environmental and fuel security benefits, are generally not considered. Taking this price response into account, the optimal U.S biodiesel subsidy is derived. Estimated values of the optimal subsidy are close to the recently expired subsidy, revealing the subsidy's environmental and security benefits. However, further positive environmental and security benefits from the biodiesel tax-exemption subsidy may be obtained if the subsidy is combined with a federal excise tax on petroleum diesel. - Highlights: ► Taking price response into account, the optimal theoretical U.S biodiesel subsidy is derived. ► Estimated values of the optimal subsidy are close to the recently expired subsidy, revealing the subsidy's environmental and security benefits. ► Further positive environmental and security benefits from the biodiesel tax-exemption subsidy may be obtained if the subsidy is combined with a federal excise tax on petroleum diesel.

  1. Impacts of subsidy policies on vaccination decisions in contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Lin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-07-01

    To motivate more people to participate in vaccination campaigns, various subsidy policies are often supplied by government and the health sectors. However, these external incentives may also alter the vaccination decisions of the broader public, and hence the choice of incentive needs to be carefully considered. Since human behavior and the networking-constrained interactions among individuals significantly impact the evolution of an epidemic, here we consider the voluntary vaccination on human contact networks. To this end, two categories of typical subsidy policies are considered: (1) under the free subsidy policy, the total amount of subsidy is distributed to a certain fraction of individual and who are vaccinated without personal cost, and (2) under the partial-offset subsidy policy, each vaccinated person is offset by a certain amount of subsidy. A vaccination decision model based on evolutionary game theory is established to study the effects of these different subsidy policies on disease control. Simulations suggest that, because the partial-offset subsidy policy encourages more people to take vaccination, its performance is significantly better than that of the free subsidy policy. However, an interesting phenomenon emerges in the partial-offset scenario: with limited amount of total subsidy, a moderate subsidy rate for each vaccinated individual can guarantee the group-optimal vaccination, leading to the maximal social benefits, while such an optimal phenomenon is not evident for the free subsidy scenario.

  2. Welfare implication of reforming energy consumption subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, Michèle; Mirzapour, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Reforming energy consumption subsidies, in particular for fossil fuels, has been frequently referred to as a quick-win policy to enhance environmental mitigation. In addition, the removal of such subsidies may release a sizeable portion of a country's national budget for use on more productive targets. One of the most recognized challenges of such reform is “selling” the new energy prices to citizens, particularly those with a more fragile purchasing power. Several empirical and technical studies have prescribed that the reform might be supported by a direct compensation mechanism in order to ensure feasibility. This is what was done during the recent energy subsidy reform in Iran. However, the compensation mechanism implemented in Iran's reform was successful at the beginning, but did not proceed as expected. This has raised questions about the feasibility and sustainability of the direct compensation mechanism, and even of the reform policy itself. In this paper, we consider a stylized model where direct compensation is the instrument proposed to restore consumers’ utility against increased energy prices. We find that, when prices of Other Goods are affected by the announced reform policy, the feasibility of a subsidy reform critically depends on the value of certain parameters: the initial subsidization rate, the share of energy in the consumers’ bundle, and the energy portion of price of Other Goods. - Highlights: • A model of energy subsidy reform with direct compensation is proposed. • Feasibility of the reform is related to three key parameters. • An illustrative example using data from the recent Iranian reform is discussed.

  3. Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (Pchildren, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians.

  4. Demand for pneumococcal vaccination under subsidy program for the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Yamamura, Mariko; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Okubo, Ichiro

    2012-09-12

    Vaccination programs often organize subsidies and public relations in order to obtain high uptake rates and coverage. However, effects of subsidies and public relations have not been studied well in the literature. In this study, the demand function of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly in Japan is estimated, incorporating effects of public relations and subsidy. Using a data from a questionnaire survey sent to municipalities, the varying and constant elasticity models were applied to estimate the demand function. The response variable is the uptake rate. Explanatory variables are: subsidy supported shot price, operating years of the program, target population size for vaccination, shot location intensity, income and various public relations tools. The best model is selected by c-AIC, and varying and constant price elasticities are calculated from estimation results. The vaccine uptake rate and the shot price have a negative relation. From the results of varying price elasticity, the demand for vaccination is elastic at municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD). Effects of public relations on the uptake rate are not found. It can be suggested that municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD) could subsidize more and reduce price to increase the demand for vaccination. Effects of public relations are not confirmed in this study, probably due to measurement errors of variables used for public relations, and studies at micro level exploring individual's response to public relations would be required.

  5. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  6. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  7. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Franić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.

  8. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for public relations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for the public relations activities and safety operations carried out by a local government for the local inhabitants in the vicinity of a nuclear power generation, etc. facility. This type of activity includes the dissemination of information on nuclear power, studies on securing the safety of the inhabitants and communication concerning the facility safety. The contents are as follows: limits of the subsidies, terms of subsidy allocations, the application for subsidies, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, the conditions to the allocations, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of subsidies, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, limitations for disposal of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  9. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for public relations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for the public relations activities and safety operations carried out by a local government for the local inhabitants in the vicinity of a nuclear power generation, etc. facility. This type of activity includes the dissemination of information on nuclear power, studies on securing the safety of the inhabitants and communication concerning the facility safety. The contents are as follows : limits of the subsidies, terms of subsidy allocations, the application for subsidies, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, the conditions to the allocations, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of subsidies, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, limitations for disposal of the properties, etc. (Kubozono, M.)

  10. Subsidy Competition for FDI: Fierce or Weak?

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Havránek

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories, using both cross-sectional and panel data. Three crucial scenarios (including coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition) are tested employing OLS, iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and Blundell-Bond estimator. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported—although there is some weak sup...

  11. Set-Asides and Subsidies in Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Athey; Dominic Coey; Jonathan Levin

    2011-01-01

    Set-asides and subsidies are used extensively in government procurement and natural resource sales. We analyze these policies in an empirical model of U.S. Forest Service timber auctions. The model fits the data well both within the sample of unrestricted sales where we estimate the model, and when we predict (out of sample) bidder entry and prices for small business set-asides. Our estimates suggest that restricting entry to small businesses substantially reduces efficiency and revenue, alth...

  12. US biofuels subsidies and CO2 emissions: An empirical test for a weak and a strong green paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Kompas, Tom; Long, Ngo Van; To, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Using energy data over the period 1981–2011 we find that US biofuels subsidies and production have provided a perverse incentive for US fossil fuel producers to increase their rate of extraction that has generated a weak green paradox. Further, in the short-run if the reduction in the CO 2 emissions from a one-to-one substitution between biofuels and fossil fuels is less than 26 percent, or less than 57 percent if long run effect is taken into account, then US biofuels production is likely to have resulted in a strong green paradox. These results indicate that subsidies for first generation biofuels, which yield a low level of per unit CO 2 emission reduction compared to fossil fuels, might have contributed to additional net CO 2 emissions over the study period. - Highlights: • US biofuels subsidies increased fossil fuel extraction from 1981 to 2011. • US biofuels subsidies likely increased carbon emissions from 1981 to 2011. • Governments must consider effects of biofuel subsidies on fossil fuel extraction

  13. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  14. Do individuals respond to cost-sharing subsidies in their selections of marketplace health insurance plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeire, Thomas; Chappel, Andre; Finegold, Kenneth; Gee, Emily

    2017-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides assistance to low-income consumers through both premium subsidies and cost-sharing reductions (CSRs). Low-income consumers' lack of health insurance literacy or information regarding CSRs may lead them to not take-up CSR benefits for which they are eligible. We use administrative data from 2014 to 2016 on roughly 22 million health insurance plan choices of low-income individuals enrolled in ACA Marketplace coverage to assess whether they behave in a manner consistent with being aware of the availability of CSRs. We take advantage of discontinuous changes in the schedule of CSR benefits to show that consumers are highly sensitive to the value of CSRs when selecting insurance plans and that a very low percentage select dominated plans. These findings suggest that CSR subsidies are salient to consumers and that the program is well designed to account for any lack of health insurance literacy among the low-income population it serves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  16. Yield and net income of unripe corn in function of the hilling dates / Produção e renda líquida de milho verde em função da época de amontoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovany Doffinger Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agromen 2029 unripe corn was studied without and with hilling on 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 and 14-28-42 days after sowing (DAS. Those eight treatments were arranged in a randomized experimental block design, with four replications. The highest heights of plant (176.9 cm and of first ear (83.9 cm were from those with no hilling (SA and the smallest ones (162.4 and 72.9 cm, respectively were from those with hilling on 28 DAS. The greatest yield of ears (56,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (47,000 ears ha-1. The greatest yield of non commercial ears (15,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (7,000 ears ha-1. Yield of commercial ears varied from 38,000 ears ha-1, on 28 DAS treatment to 41,000 ears ha-1, on 14, 42, 28-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments. Costs of yield varied from R$ 1,315.90 ha-1, in SA treatment, to R$ 1,774.17 ha-1, with hilling on 14-28-42 DAS. The greatest net income was R$ 2,684.10 ha-1 with no hilling and the smallest was R$ 2,166.81 ha-1 with hilling on 14-42 DAS. In the conditions that the experiment was carried out it was concluded that the cultivation with no hilling is recommended because it showed the smallest yield cost and the greatest net income.Foi estudado o milho-verde Agromen 2029, sem amontoa e com amontoa aos 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 e 14-28-42 dias após a semeadura-DAS. Os oito tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As maiores alturas da planta (176,9 cm e da primeira espiga (83,9 cm foram encontradas no tratamento sem amontoa e as menores (162,4 e 72,9 cm, respectivamente no tratamento com amontoa aos 28 DAS. A maior produção total de espigas (56.000 espigas ha-1 foi obtida no tratamento 14-28-42 DAS e a menor foi no sem amontoa (47.000 espigas ha-1. A maior produção de espigas não comerciais (15.000 espigas ha-1

  17. Child Care Subsidies and School Readiness in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769

  18. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Breisinger; Wilfried Engelke; Olivier Ecker

    2012-01-01

    Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for ...

  19. The environmental effect of subsidies for clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, F.P.; Nentjes, A.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental subsidies for clean technology result in a larger diffusion of such technology. However, as a result emissions can increase in imperfect markets for products. When several companies compete each other with clean and dirty technologies, production and emission will rise because of price competition.This effect will be even larger in case subsidies are applied. Therefore, subsidies are not advisable for every market. In this article an evolutionary game theory has been used with respect to the diffusion of environment-friendly innovation of products and the role of environmental policy instruments (in particular subsidies). 7 refs

  20. Environmental Harm of Hidden Subsidies: Global Warming and Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beers, Cees van (Dept. of Innovation Economics and Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)). E-mail: c.p.vanbeers@tudelft.nl; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den (Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, and Dept. of Economics and Economic History, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain))

    2009-10-15

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO{sub 2} emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy

  1. Subsidies which are harmful to the environment, a complex reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourquier, Francois-Xavier; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Demeulenaere, Laurence

    2017-12-01

    As the reduction of public supports which are harmful to the environment is a major stake in terms of struggle against pollutions and greenhouse gases, this publication proposes a discussion of these subsidies which are still important in France despite recent improvements, notably regarding wastes and fuels. The author first discusses how these harmful subsidies are defined by international or research bodies. He outlines that some subsidies have been suppressed since 2013, that important reforms have been initiated, and that, however, the level of harmful subsidies remains high. Then, he discusses the necessary reconciliation of different objectives, and briefly evokes the German and Italian assessment examples

  2. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  3. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  4. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  5. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  7. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Tam, King; Veerman, Lennert; Blakely, Tony

    2017-02-01

    An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood. Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs). The fruit and vegetable subsidy (-13,000 [95% UI: -44,000 to 18,000] DALYs) was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e.g., foods high in saturated fat and salt). The study suggests that taxes and subsidies on foods and beverages can potentially be combined to achieve substantial improvements in population health and cost-savings to the health sector. However, the magnitude of health benefits is sensitive to measures of price elasticity, and further work is needed to incorporate potential benefits or harms associated with changes in other foods and nutrients that are not currently modelled, such as red and processed meats and fibre. With potentially large health benefits for the Australian population and large benefits in reducing health sector spending on the treatment of non-communicable diseases, the formulation of a tax and subsidy package should be given a more prominent role in Australia's public health nutrition strategy.

  8. Housing Subsidies and Homelessness: A Simple Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan O’Flaherty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing homelessness is an indisputable social good, and housing subsidies offer one way to do so. However, subsidies come in many different varieties and are intricately bound up with economic and social policies. This paper, written by one of North America’s leading urban economists, cuts through the tangle and argues that the simplest approach is the best. The ideal way to deter people from harmful acts is to reward them for abstaining. Thus, to combat homelessness, governments should offer housing allowances to people for every night they are not homeless. This optimal homelessness-reducing home allowance (OHRHA is open to adjustment to suit individual circumstances and the effects of homelessness on different demographics. It is meant to reduce homelessness by aligning individual and societal incentives, forcing people to bear the consequences or realize the benefits that their actions impose on others. The author explores methods for financing OHRHA, examines means for tailoring it to meet the diverse needs of the homeless and discusses the policy’s effect on urban housing markets, all while comparing and contrasting the proposal to existing homelessness-reduction measures in Alberta, Canada and the US.

  9. Into the mire: A closer look at fossil fuel subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw (Radek Stefanski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Threatened by climate change, governments the world over are attempting to nudge markets in the direction of less carbon-intensive energy. Perversely, many of these governments continue to subsidize fossil fuels, distorting markets and raising emissions. Determining how much money is involved is difficult, as neither the providers nor the recipients of those subsidies want to own up to them. This paper builds on a unique method to extract fossil fuel subsidies from patterns in countries’ carbon emission-to-GDP ratios. This approach is useful since it: 1 overcomes the problem of scarce data; 2 derives a wider and more comparable measure of subsidies than existing measures and 3 allows for the performance of counterfactuals which help measure the impact of subsidies on emissions and growth. The resultant 170-country, 30-year database finds that the financial and the environmental costs of such subsidies are enormous, especially in China and the U.S. The overwhelming majority of the world’s fossil fuel subsidies stem from China, the U.S. and the ex-USSR; as of 2010, this figure was $712 billion or nearly 80 per cent of the total world value of subsidies. For its part, Canada has been subsidizing rather than taxing fossil fuels since 1998. By 2010, Canadian subsidies sat at $13 billion, or 1.4 per cent of GDP. In that same year, the total global direct and indirect financial costs of all such subsidies amounted to $1.82 trillion, or 3.8 per cent of global GDP. Aside from the money saved, in 2010 a world without subsidies would have had carbon emissions 36 per cent lower than they actually were. Any government looking to ease strained budgets and make a significant (and cheap contribution to the fight against climate change must consider slashing fossil fuel subsidies. As the data show, this is a sound decision – fiscally and environmentally.

  10. The Impact of Subsidies on the Prevalence of Climate-Sensitive Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Tan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on air-conditioning (AC for residential cooling and ventilation is a health and sustainability challenge. In hot temperatures, climate-sensitive buildings (CSB can complement and/or substitute for AC usage in achieving thermal comfort. Many countries facing such conditions—particularly in tropical climates—are developing quickly, with rising populations and income creating demand for new housing and AC. This presents a window for adoption of CSB but could also result in long term lock-in of AC-dependent buildings. Here, a simple system dynamics model is used to explore the potential and limitations of subsidies to affect futures of housing stock and night-time AC usage in Malaysia. The effectiveness of subsidies in achieving high uptake of CSB and resulting health benefits is highly dependent on homebuyer willingness to pay (WTP. A detailed understanding of WTP in the Malaysian context and factors that can shift WTP is necessary to determine if CSB subsidies can be a good policy mechanism for achieving CSB uptake.

  11. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  12. 42 CFR 423.782 - Cost-sharing subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing subsidy. 423.782 Section 423.782... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost-Sharing Subsidies... cents. (c) When the out-of-pocket cost for a covered Part D drug under a Part D sponsor's plan benefit...

  13. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  14. 77 FR 75641 - Public Housing Operating Subsidy-Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... substitute actual project cost data. To appeal the amount of subsidy on any one of the permitted bases of... conditions; and (e) appeal to substitute actual project cost data. To appeal the amount of subsidy on any one of the permitted bases of appeal, PHAs submit an appeal request to HUD. Number of Annual Hours per...

  15. Subsidy programs on diffusion of solar water heaters: Taiwan's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Financial incentives are essentially one of the key factors influencing diffusion of solar water heaters in many countries. Two subsidy programs were initiated by the government of Taiwan in 1986 (1986-1991) and 2000 (2000-present), respectively. Those long-term national programs are considered to be the driving force on local market expansion. In 2008, the regional subsidy programs for solar water heaters were announced by Kaohsiung city and Kiemen county, which resulted in the growth in sales. A revised subsidy was also initiated by the government of Taiwan in 2009. The subsidy is 50% more. However, the tremendous enlargement of market size with a high-level ratio of subsidy over total installation cost might result in a negative impact on a sustainable SWH industry and long-term development of the local market, which is associated with system design and post-installation service. This paper aims to address the relative efficiency and pitfalls of those national and regional programs. - Research Highlights: → The direct subsidy has been the driving force on market expansion in Taiwan. → Higher subsidy would certainly increase the total number of systems installed. → A high-level subsidy results in a negative impact on users or a sustainable industry.

  16. 14 CFR 271.3 - Carrier subsidy need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.3 Carrier subsidy need. In establishing the subsidy for an air carrier providing essential air service at an...

  17. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The rule is defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; related facilities of nuclear power generation; nuclear power generating facilities, etc.; and place of enterprise. Subsidies are granted by the head of the authorities concerned (the Director General of Science and Technology Agency or the Minister of International Trade and Industry) to popularize knowledge of nuclear power generation to inhabitants in surrounding areas of the facilities, or to support expenses of the preparation of arrangement programs, etc. Subsidies for public relations are delivered to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities, etc. are or are expected to be established, and subsidies for arrangement programs to those where the surrounding areas are included. Limits of the subsidies to a prefecture range from 6 million yen to 18 million yen for each fiscal year according to specified terms of the facilities concerned. Limits of subsidies for arrangement programs to place of enterprise extend from 500,000 yen to 1 million yen. Prefectures shall file an application for subsidies to the head of the authorities concerned with gists of business according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the head shall examine it and notify to the applicant the decision of delivery and its conditions without delay in writing, when such settlement is made. Terms and conditions of delivery, payment of subsidies and others are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  18. 20 CFR 404.1096 - Self-employment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-employment income. 404.1096 Section 404... INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1096 Self-employment income. (a) General. Self-employment income is the amount of your net...

  19. Effectiveness of subsidies in promoting healthy food purchases and consumption: a review of field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2013-07-01

    To systematically review evidence from field interventions on the effectiveness of monetary subsidies in promoting healthier food purchases and consumption. Keyword and reference searches were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane Library, EconLit, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies were included based on the following criteria: (i) intervention: field experiments; (ii) population: adolescents 12–17 years old or adults 18 years and older; (iii) design: randomized controlled trials, cohort studies or pre–post studies; (iv) subsidy: price discounts or vouchers for healthier foods; (v) outcome: food purchases or consumption; (vi) period: 1990–2012; and (vii) language: English. Twenty-four articles on twenty distinct experiments were included with study quality assessed using predefined methodological criteria. Interventions were conducted in seven countries: the USA (n 14), Canada (n 1), France (n 1), Germany (n 1), Netherlands (n 1), South Africa (n 1) and the UK (n 1). Subsidies applied to different types of foods such as fruits, vegetables and low-fat snacks sold in supermarkets, cafeterias, vending machines, farmers’ markets or restaurants. Interventions enrolled various population subgroups such as school/ university students, metropolitan transit workers and low-income women. All but one study found subsidies on healthier foods to significantly increase the purchase and consumption of promoted products. Study limitations include small and convenience samples, short intervention and follow-up duration, and lack of cost-effectiveness and overall diet assessment. Subsidizing healthier foods tends to be effective in modifying dietary behaviour. Future studies should examine its long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at the population level and its impact on overall diet intake.

  20. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  1. Are Education Subsidies an Efficient Redistributive Device?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe argue that promoting education may be a means to re- duce income inequality. When workers of different skilllevels are imperfect substitutes in production, an increase in the level of human capital in the economy reduces the return to education and, hence, pre-tax income inequality.

  2. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints, and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2011-01-01

    to many earlier studies, the results suggest that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12–15) is a more important......I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with Programme for International Student Assessment test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary...... determinant of child achievement than earlier income....

  3. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-2 - Computation of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-2 Computation of net earnings from self-employment. (a) General rule. In general, the gross income and... ascertaining his net earnings from self-employment, are to be determined by reference to the provisions of law...

  4. Recommendation on the Dutch MEP subsidy 2006 for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, R.

    2005-11-01

    The results of an analysis of the impact of the Dutch subsidy scheme 'MEP' (environmental quality of electric power generation) on the cost-effectiveness of CHP (combined heat and power production) plants. The MEP scheme provides a reward for the CO2 reduction by CHP plants and offers therefore an incentive for energy efficient operation. In 2006 the MEP subsidy is available for CHP plants that started their operation after 1 January 1997. The subsidy will be differentiated based on CHP type and power capacity. Main outcome of the report is a subsidy advise, which complies with the European Community Guidelines on Aid for Environmental Protection. Based on the subsidy advise a budget for the CHP MEP scheme has been estimated [nl

  5. Can Production Subsidies Explain China's Export Performance? Evidence from Firm-level Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yundan; Yu, Zhihong; Girma, Sourafel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity at the inten......This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity...

  6. Health insurance subsidies and deductible choice: Evidence from regional variation in subsidy schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Cornel; Schmid, Christian; Boes, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    The extent to which premium subsidies can influence health insurance choices is an open question. In this paper, we explore the regional variation in subsidy schemes in Switzerland, designed as either in-kind or cash transfers, to study their impact on the choice of health insurance deductibles. Using health survey data and a difference-in-differences methodology, we find that in-kind transfers increase the likelihood of choosing a low deductible plan by approximately 4 percentage points (or 7%). Our results indicate that the response to in-kind transfers is strongest among women, middle-aged and unmarried individuals, which we explain by differences in risk-taking behavior, health status, financial constraints, health insurance and financial literacy. We discuss our results in the light of potential extra-marginal effects on the demand for health care services, which are however not supported by our data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Do Employment Subsidies Work? Evidence from Regionally Targeted Subsidies in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Betcherman, Gordon; Pages, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on registered employment and number of registered establishments of two employment subsidy schemes in Turkey. We implement a difference-in-differences methodology to construct appropriate counterfactuals for the covered provinces. Our findings suggest that both subs...... than boosting total employment and economic activity. This supports the theory that in countries with weak enforcement institutions, high labor taxes on low-wage workers may lead to substantial incentives for firms and workers to operate informally....

  8. Innovation subsidies versus consumer subsidies: A real options analysis of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torani, Kiran; Rausser, Gordon; Zilberman, David

    2016-01-01

    Given the interest in the commercialization of affordable, clean energy technologies, we examine the prospects of solar photovoltaics (PV). We consider the question of how to transition to a meaningful percentage of solar energy in a sustainable manner and which policies are most effective in accelerating adoption. This paper develops a stochastic dynamic model of the adoption of solar PV in the residential and commercial sector under two sources of uncertainty – the price of electricity and cost of solar. The analytic results suggest that a high rate of innovation may delay adoption of a new technology if the consumer has rational price expectations. We simulate the model across alternative rates technological change, electricity prices, subsidies and carbon taxes. It is shown that there will be a displacement of incumbent technologies and a widespread shift towards solar PV in under 30 years – and that this can occur without consumer incentives and carbon pricing. We show that these policies have a modest impact in accelerating adoption, and that they may not be an effective part of climate policy. Instead, results demonstrate that further technological change is the crucial determinant and main driver of adoption. Further, results indicate that subsidies and taxes become increasingly ineffective with higher rates of technological change. - Highlights: •Stochastic dynamic model of solar PV adoption under two sources of uncertainty. •Simulation across electricity prices, technical change, subsidies and CO_2 taxes. •Rate of technical change indicates shift to solar in 25–28 years without incentives. •Modest impact of consumer subsidies and CO_2 taxes (up to $150/ton CO_2) in adoption. •R&D support/further technological change is the main driver of adoption of solar.

  9. The Strategic Exercise of Options Using Government Subsidies: An Analysis of Production Subsidies for the Ground Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Hau; Li, Jia-Hsun; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Hsieh, Jing-Chzi; Liao, Pin-Chao

    2018-04-01

    This study utilizes consolidation investment theory to incorporate with business strategies and government subsidy to develop a strategic exercise of options model. This empirical investigation examines the ground source heat pump (GSHP) government subsidy program, which is part of China’s 12th Five Year Plan. The developed model is applied to explain the behaviours of business investment with regard to strategic investment timing, option values, and the influence of government subsidies in duopolistic real-world investment decisions. The results indicate that subsidy policy can reduce the differences of investment timing among GSHP investors and has clearly evidenced the positive benefit–cost ratio of government subsidy, which facilitates China’s GSHP industry development.

  10. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  11. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  12. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Saez, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the general nonlinear optimal income tax for couples, a multidimensional screening problem. Each couple consists of a primary earner who always participates in the labor market, but makes an hours-of-work choice, and a secondary earner who chooses whether or not to work....... If second-earner participation is a signal of the couple being better (worse) off, we prove that optimal tax schemes display a positive tax (subsidy) on secondary earnings and that the tax (subsidy) on secondary earnings decreases with primary earnings and converges to zero asymptotically. We present...... calibrated microsimulations for the United Kingdom showing that decreasing tax rates on secondary earnings is quantitatively significant and consistent with actual income tax and transfer programs....

  13. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for the proper execution of the budget concerning subsidies'' and the Enforcement Ordinance for the ''Law for the proper execution of the budget concerning subsidies''. The Regulation covers the subsidies for the expenses for spreading the knowledge concerning nuclear power generation to the inhabitants in the surrounding areas of such nuclear power generating facilities, for the expenses for establishing the facilities for such popularization, and the office expenses for preparing the improvement plans on the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Terms are explained, such as nuclear power generating facilities, the facilities related to nuclear power generation, nuclear power generating facilities, etc. and establishments. The subsidies for public relations are delivered to the prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities, etc. have been installed or are planned to be set up, and the subsidies for preparing the improvement plans are granted to the prefectures where the prescribed surrounding areas are involved. The subsidy for public relations delivered to one establishment is limited to 10 million yen in each fiscal year. Applications for the delivery of subsidies shall be filed to the directors of competent authorities-the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency or the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  14. Part D employer retiree drug subsidy: inception, implementation and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 provided a subsidy to employers that offered a retiree health prescription coverage benefit actuarially equivalent to Medicare Part D. This article reviews the development of the subsidy, the support by the federal government and the issues that have arisen. It also presents analysis of data from a set of companies that offered retiree health in 2006 and 2007. The data show widespread acceptance of the subsidy and continuance of prescription coverage; however, companies that did not take the subsidy were more likely to be smaller and in less robust financial health. Analysis of a subset of the companies shows the magnitude of the benefits paid yearly and the accounting liability caused by retiree health relative to the size of the subsidy. The author concludes that the potential success or failure of the federal subsidy in preserving retiree health benefits will not be known for years. Nevertheless, with the elimination of the deductibility of the subsidy in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), employers surely will reexamine their offer of prescription coverage to retirees.

  15. Energy efficiency subsidies with price-quality discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauleau, Marie-Laure; Giraudet, Louis-Gaëtan; Quirion, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We compare various designs of energy efficiency subsidies in a market subject to both energy-use externalities and price-quality discrimination by a monopolist. We find that differentiated subsidies can establish the social optimum. Unlike per-quality regimes, ad valorem regimes generate downstream interferences: Subsidising of the high-end good leads the monopolist to reduce the quality of the low-end good. For this reason, ad valorem differentiated rates should always decrease with energy efficiency, a result seemingly at odds with actual practice. In contrast, with per-quality differentiated subsidies, the rates can increase if the externality is large enough relative to the market share of “low” type consumers. Contrary to differentiated subsidies, what we shall call single-instrument subsidies only achieve second-best outcomes. A uniform ad valorem subsidy should have a rate higher than that needed to specifically internalise energy-use externalities. Lastly, if, as is often observed in practice, only the high-end good is to be incentivised, a per-quality regime should be preferred to an ad valorem one. An ad valorem tax on the high-end good may even be preferred to an ad valorem subsidy if the externality is small enough and low-end consumers dominate the market.

  16. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The rule is based on the prescriptions of the Law for Proper Budget Enforcement Concerning Subsidies and its Enforcement Order. These rules apply to the subsidies for the expenses to popularize the knowledge concerning nuclear power generation to the inhabitants in the surrounding areas of such generating facilities, the office expenses to prepare the arrangement plan for the surrounding areas of such facilities, and the office expenses necessary for the delivery of the subsidies. Meanings of terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities, the facilities related to nuclear power generation, establishment, etc. The chief of the competent ministry (the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry) gives the subsidies for public relations to the prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities and others have been or are to be set up, the preparation of the arrangement plan is made, or the delivery business is made. When two or more establishments of power generating facilities are closely located, they are regarded as one establishment. The limit of the subsidies for public relations to an establishment is 10 million yen in a fiscal year. The limit of the subsidies for the preparation of the arrangement plan concerning an establishment varies from 1 million yen to 0.2 million yen. The term of delivery, filing of applications, reports submitted by the receivers of the subsidies and other related matters are specified. (Okada, K.)

  17. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The regulation is set up under the provisions of the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law, to carry these provisions into effect. The subsidies for public relations under the ordinance for enforcing the law concerning the special account for the measures of promoting power source development are delivered according to the provisions of the regulation as well as the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law. Basic terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities; facilities related to nuclear power generation; place of business, etc. The ministers and directors of departments concerned deliver the subsidies for public relations to a prefecture where nuclear power generating facilities and related facilities are established or expected to be established, to cover all or a part of expenses necessary for the popularization of knowledges on nuclear power generation. The amounts of subsidies for public relations paid to a prefecture in each fiscal year are from 6 to 18 million yen. An application for such subsidies shall be filed by an applicant prefecture to the ministers or directors of departments concerned according to the form prescribed. The terms, conditions and decision of the delivery of subsidies are stipulated, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  18. 'Frozen' media subsidies during a time of media change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    documents and secondary sources, I show that media subsidies have largely remained frozen in their late-20th century form. The absence of major reform means that media subsidies are increasingly subject to policy drift, a process by which the operations and effectiveness of policies change not because......Media systems around the world have changed in significant ways in the early 21st century. In this article, I analyse how various forms of media subsidies have changed in response to these transformations in a sample of six different affluent democracies. On the basis of interviews, official......) a perceived shortage of desirable, cost-effective, and governable alternatives to existing policies....

  19. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  20. NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND OIL SUBSIDY REGIME: A HORN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    The crisis that the oil subsidy removal elicits has polarized the Nigerian society. ..... Malaysia among others, have become investors' destination due to the .... Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience, Asian Economic and Financial.

  1. Evaluation of public subsidy for medical travel: does it protect against household impoverishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzana, Mariyam; Walls, Helen; Smith, Richard; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2018-03-06

    In resource-constrained health systems medical travel is a common alternative to seeking unavailable health services. This paper was motivated by the need to understand better the impact of such travel on households and health systems. We used primary data from 344 subsidized and 471 non-subsidized inbound medical travellers during June to December 2013 drawn from the North, Centre and South regions of the Maldives where three international airports are located. Using a researcher-administered questionnaire to acquire data, we calculated annual out-of-pocket (OOP) spending on health, food and non-food items among households where at least one member had travelled to another country for medical care within the last year and estimated the poverty head count using household income as a living standard measure. Most of the socio demographic indicators, and costs of treatment abroad among Maldivian medical travellers were similar across different household income levels with no statistical difference between subsidized and non-subsidized travellers (p value: 0.499). The government subsidy across income quintiles was also similar indicating that the Maldivian health financing structure supports equality rather than being equity-sensitive. There was no statistical difference in OOP expenditure on medical care abroad and annual OOP expenditure on healthcare was similar across income quintiles. Diseases of the circulatory system, eye and musculoskeletal system had the most impoverishing effect - diseases for which half of the patients, or less, did not receive the public subsidy. Annually, 6 and 14% of the medical travellers in the Maldives fell into poverty ($2 per day) before and after making OOP payments to health care. Evidence of a strong association between predominant public financing of medical travel and equality was found. With universal eligibility to the government subsidy for medical travel, utilization of treatment abroad, medical expenditures abroad and OOP

  2. On Noncooperative Capital Income Taxation in Open Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Kletzer

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic use of capital income taxation and lump-sum fiscal policies for gaining national advantage in an integrated world capital market. Each fiscal authority seeks to maximize a social welfare function defined over the utilities of home country residents incorporating national redistributing objectives. A national optimum policy is to impose a non-discriminatory source-based capital income tax or subsidy along with an optimal lump-sum tax and transfer plan. Reside...

  3. Stateless Income

    OpenAIRE

    Edward D Kleinbard

    2012-01-01

    This paper and its companion, The Lessons of Stateless Income, together comprehensively analyze the tax consequences and policy implications of the phenomenon of “stateless income.” Stateless income comprises income derived for tax purposes by a multinational group from business activities in a country other than the domicile of the group’s ultimate parent company, but which is subject to tax only in a jurisdiction that is not the location of the customers or the factors of production through...

  4. Estimating Effective Subsidy Rates of Student Aid Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey H. CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Every year millions of high school students and their parents in the US are asked to fill out complicated financial aid application forms. However, few studies have estimated the responsiveness of government financial aid schemes to changes in financial needs of the students. This paper identifies the effective subsidy rate (ESR) of student aid, as defined by the coefficient of financial needs in the regression of financial aid. The ESR measures the proportion of subsidy of student aid under ...

  5. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  6. The International Effects of U.S. Farm Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric O'N. Fisher; Harry de Gorter

    1992-01-01

    Using dynamic programming, this paper examines effects of farm subsidies on U.S. exports of corn, cotton, rice, and wheat. The six policy simulations described here explore alternative proposals in the current round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The analysis leads to two conclusions. First, abolishing domestic subsidies lowers world prices of these crops. Second, imposing tighter supply controls may not actually decrease exports in the short run.

  7. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for urgent safety measures for atomic power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for the emergency measures taken by the prefecture concerned in preparation for a major accident in a nuclear power generating, etc. facility. These activities include an emergency communication network, emergency medical care, personnel education, and outfitting of emergency personnel. The contents are as follows: terms of subsidy allocations, the sum of a subsidy allocation, applications for subsidies, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications the conditions attached to the allocations, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, limitations for the disposal of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  8. Financial subsidies to the Australian fossil fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedy, Chris; Diesendorf, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A common claim during international greenhouse gas reduction negotiations has been that domestic emissions cuts will harm national economies. This argument fails to consider the distorting effect of existing financial subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption provided by governments in most developed countries. These subsidies support a fossil fuel energy sector that is the major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and conflict with attempts to expand the role of sustainable energy technologies. Reform of these types of subsidies has the potential to provide substantial gains in economic efficiency as well as reductions in carbon dioxide emissions--a 'no regrets' outcome for the economy and the environment. This paper examines financial subsidies to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia and estimates the magnitude of the subsidies. Subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia are similar to those in the United States and the other countries that have pushed for increased 'flexibility' during international negotiations

  9. Nigeria’s Petroleum Subsidy: In Whose Interest is it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subsidy has been defined as any government intervention, in cash or kind, to private sector producers or consumers for which the government receives no equivalent compensation in return. Fuel subsidy has been a growing liability to Nigeria’s budgets, in a systematic fashion for almost four decades, hence creating vested interest. The exponential growth of cost of fuel subsidy is due to the rising cost of crude oil in the international market, exchange rate volatility and the population growth of Nigeria which resulted in increased petroleum consumption; the combination of these three variables therefore made the cost of the fuel subsidy unsustainable. Understanding the current fuel subsidies magnitude is critical for advancing reform because it underscores the potential socio-economic benefits to be realized. In addition to the burden that fuel subsidy is placing on the national budget, keeping petroleum below the market value has discouraged additional investment in Nigeria’s oil sector, because the visibility of recovering the investment under the artificially low price structure is uncertain.

  10. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for public relations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper enforcement of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to practice these provisions. It is applied to subsidies for the expenses of popularizing the knowledge of atomic power generation to inhabitants in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities, investigation on the security of inhabitants in these areas, communication and coordination concerning the safety of such facilities during and after their installation and other expenses of establishing the facilities for public relations to inhabitants in the surrounding areas of these facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facility, facility related to atomic power generation, and place of business. Subsidies are delivered to prefectures, cities, towns and villages where atomic power generating facilities are or are expected to be set up, prefectures including cities, towns and villages adjacent to those where such facilities are or are expected to be established, and prefectures which include the surrounding areas of those facilities. The limits of subsidies are stipulated in the lists attached. The terms of delivery vary according to the kinds of atomic power generating facilities and related facilities. Prefectures or cities, towns and villages which intend to apply for the delivery of subsidies shall file specified applications attached with the explanation of subsidy business outlines to the director of the ministry or agency concerned. Decision and conditions of delivery, reports on the situations and results of business and other concerned matters are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  11. Efficient progressive taxes and education subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Tang, P.J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Progressive income taxes moderate wage demands by trade unions and thereby reduce unemployment, but alsothey reduce incentives to acquire skills and lower productivity of workers. The optimal response of the governmentto this dilemma is to choose a system of progressive taxes and to (partly)

  12. A quantile approach to assess the effectiveness of the subsidy policy for energy-efficient home appliances: Evidence from Rizhao, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xi-Long; Liu, Yang; Yan, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    A one-year subsidy program for energy-efficient home appliances has been implemented in China. We construct a dataset consisting of participant and non-participant households in both urban and rural areas of Rizhao city. By applying a quantile regression and counterfactual analysis, this study disentangles the impact of this subsidy program and inherent household attributes on per capita residential electricity consumption. First, contrary to the mean regression, the elasticity of electricity consumption to household's income, age, education and energy-saving awareness, varies markedly across the electricity consumption distribution and shows discrepancy between urban and rural areas. Second, while inherent household attributes are identified as a primary determinant to the changes in residential electricity consumption, the effect induced by the subsidy incentive is more significant at the middle of the electricity consumption distribution than at the tails. Third, there are significant rebound effects that lead to overall increase in household electricity consumption. Our results suggest that the disparity between urban and rural regions and targeted consumer behavior changes should be taken into account to ensure the effectiveness of a future energy-efficient subsidy program. - Highlights: • The effect of the subsidy policy on electricity consumption is assessed with a quantile regression. • Policy induced effect is more significant at the middle of the distribution than at the tails. • The rebound effects lead to overall increase in electricity consumption. • The impact of households attributes varies markedly across electricity consumption distribution

  13. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  14. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality; Bilan RTE 2002: un resultat net positif (+112 M d'euros), conforme aux previsions, au terme d'une annee placee sous le signe de la qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of

  15. 26 CFR 1.1301-1 - Averaging of farm income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... January 1, 2003, rental income based on a share of a tenant's production determined under an unwritten... the Collection of Income Tax at Source on Wages (Federal income tax withholding), or the amount of net... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Averaging of farm income. 1.1301-1 Section 1...

  16. Advancing research on animal-transported subsidies by integrating animal movement and ecosystem modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E; Zollner, Patrick A

    2017-09-01

    Connections between ecosystems via animals (active subsidies) support ecosystem services and contribute to numerous ecological effects. Thus, the ability to predict the spatial distribution of active subsidies would be useful for ecology and conservation. Previous work modelling active subsidies focused on implicit space or static distributions, which treat passive and active subsidies similarly. Active subsidies are fundamentally different from passive subsidies, because animals can respond to the process of subsidy deposition and ecosystem changes caused by subsidy deposition. We propose addressing this disparity by integrating animal movement and ecosystem ecology to advance active subsidy investigations, make more accurate predictions of subsidy spatial distributions, and enable a mechanistic understanding of subsidy spatial distributions. We review selected quantitative techniques that could be used to accomplish integration and lead to novel insights. The ultimate objective for these types of studies is predictions of subsidy spatial distributions from characteristics of the subsidy and the movement strategy employed by animals that transport subsidies. These advances will be critical in informing the management of ecosystem services, species conservation and ecosystem degradation related to active subsidies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  17. Does Renewable Energy Still Need Subsidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Eng. Mohamed Mostafa El Khayat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, it has been stated that renewable energy, RE, needs subsidy, otherwise it will not be able to compete or sustain. For a certain level, this statement was valid. In this period, the investment costs for both wind and photovoltaic, PV, were high. In other words, production costs of both of them reached around 7.0 and 13.0 Cent US$ per kWh. On the other hand, oil and natural gas, NG, prices were low; i.e. less than US$ 30.0 per oil barrel and around US$ 4.0 per million British thermal unit, MMBTU, of NG. Also, policies of promoting RE were limited; almost there are two main policies, Feed-in-Tariff, FiT, in limited developed countries and international tenders. As a result, investment in RE was usually led by developed countries and minor share from the developing countries. This was the scene of RE before around 10 years. Nowadays, the scene of RE totally differs. Starting from the policies side, through auctions in both solar and wind energies, new records of prices have been reached. In numbers, in the field of wind energy Morocco and Egypt already signed contracts with prices lower than 4.0 US$ Cents/kWh. For PV, there is a dramatic devaluation in the prices. Now we are speaking for less than 0.7 million US$ per MW for turnkey projects. As a result, during the last couple of years, the global RE market witnessed a bundle of an outstanding prices, El-Sewihan Project at Abu Dhabi, 2.42 US$ Cent/kWh. Mexico and Dubai projects, 3.6 and 3.0 US$ Cent/kWh. Few days ago, Dubai Electricity and Water Authority, DEWA, received $9.45 cents per kilowatt-hour for its 200MW concentrated solar power (CSP plant. All these figures, and others, gave us important messages; 1 Despite low prices of oil and NG, RE is able to compete and offer outstanding prices, 2 Wind and PV technologies do not need any kind of subsidy, rather than they need a real free market to compete, 3 CSP is a low hanging fruit and it will witness a frog-leap during the

  18. Analysis of Federal Subsidies: Implied Price of Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper; Thomas Foulke

    2010-10-01

    For informed climate change policy, it is important for decision makers to be able to assess how the costs and benefits of federal energy subsidies are distributed and to be able to have some measure to compare them. One way to do this is to evaluate the implied price of carbon (IPC) for a federal subsidy, or set of subsidies; where the IPC is the cost of the subsidy to the U.S. Treasury divided by the emissions reductions it generated. Subsidies with lower IPC are more cost effective at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while subsidies with a negative IPC act to increase emissions. While simple in concept, the IPC is difficult to calculate in practice. Calculation of the IPC requires knowledge of (i) the amount of energy associated with the subsidy, (ii) the amount and type of energy that would have been produced in the absence of the subsidy, and (iii) the greenhouse gas emissions associated with both the subsidized energy and the potential replacement energy. These pieces of information are not consistently available for federal subsidies, and there is considerable uncertainty in cases where the information is available. Thus, exact values for the IPC based upon fully consistent standards cannot be calculated with available data. However, it is possible to estimate a range of potential values sufficient for initial comparisons. This study has employed a range of methods to generate “first order” estimates for the IPC of a range of federal subsidies using static methods that do not account for the dynamics of supply and demand. The study demonstrates that, while the IPC value depends upon how the inquiry is framed and the IPC cannot be calculated in a “one size fits all” manner, IPC calculations can provide a valuable perspective for climate policy analysis. IPC values are most useful when calculated within the perspective of a case study, with the method and parameters of the calculation determined by the case. The IPC of different policy measures can

  19. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-wei; Liao, Yuan-mei; Liu, Hui; Nie, Ren-hua; Havumaki, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas. This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI). Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people), however only 169 (48.0%) households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2%) residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN) and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN) were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05), however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN) was significantly lower (34.5%, Pcash income per person (ACIP) was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (PHigh bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  1. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, James E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability – and hence their long-term ability to provide services – and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations, and for estimating the extent to which local benefits are dependent upon other locations. We also describe a method for estimating the net payment, or subsidy, owed by or to a location that balances benefits received and support provided by locations throughout the migratory range of multiple species. The ability to quantify these spatial subsidies could provide a foundation for the establishment of markets that incentivize cross-jurisdictional cooperative management of migratory species. It could also provide a mechanism for resolving conflicts over the sustainable and equitable allocation of exploited migratory species.

  2. Financial crisis, subsidies and climate change in the equation of sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bran, F.; Ioan, I. [Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (Romania). Faculty of Agro-Food and Environmental Economics; Popa, C.

    2011-07-01

    The challenges of sustainable development remains after more than two decades of converging efforts at high decision levels. Its environmental dimension is a great contributor in this respect with climate change at the top of the priority list. The paper examined two means to contribute in this area: changes in investment patterns due to the new growth model emerging in the aftermath of the financial crisis and the removal of subsidies for fossil fuel production and consumption. In the first case we found that the new growth model has a 'green' component stemming in green-tax reform, reforming and removing inefficient policy measures, and removing barriers of energy and transport efficiency. As long as the second component is regarded, the triple 'dividend' that could be obtained includes pushing the green agenda. However there are important barriers to overcome, such as social impact and income loss for oil exporting countries. Further research should consider the economic and social implications of this global picture in Romania and if there are measures to be applied in order to prevent revenue and GDP loss due to subsidies removal.

  3. Energy subsidies: lessons learned in assessing their impact and designing policy reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltke, A. von; McKee, C.; Morgan, T.

    2004-02-01

    This book, which is based on the work carried out by the International Energy Agency and UNEP, explores the potential impacts of energy subsidies and provides guidelines for policy makers on how to implement reform of energy subsides. The background on energy subsidies is traced and an analytical framework is presented covering defining and measuring energy subsidies, the size of the subsidies, and analysis of the impact of subsidies and their reform. Energy subsidies in OECD countries, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia, India, Indonesia, Korea, Iran and Senegal are examined along with the impact of removing energy subsidies in Chile, the findings of country case studies, and the design and implementation of energy subsidies reforms. Methodological approaches to analysing the economic, environmental and social effects of energy subsidy reform are considered in the Annex

  4. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; arrangement business of radiation monitoring facilities; pre-research business of radiation monitoring; radiation monitoring business; place of enterprise; and expected time of beginning of the use. The Director General of Science and Technology Agency delivers subsidies to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities are or are expected to be established, or their neighboring prefectures. Subsidies are paid for each place of enterprise to support all or a part of expenses necessary for arrangement, pre-research or radiation monitoring business. Limits of subsidies for a place of enterprise in a prefecture are 155.6 million yen for a term for arrangement business, 16 million yen for each fiscal year for pre-research and 16 million yen for each fiscal year for radiation monitoring. An application for subsidies shall be filed by a prefecture to the Director General with the business program and gists of nuclear power generating facilities according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the Director General shall examine it and notify without delay to the applicant the decision of delivery and its conditions in writing, when such settlement is made. Terms and conditions of delivery and reports, etc. are prescribed respectively. (Okada, K.)

  5. Effects of consumer subsidy on household fuel switching from coal to cleaner fuels: A case study for anthracites in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hojeong; Kwon, Hyucksoo

    2011-01-01

    The Korean coal industry is in a transition under low carbon policy through the steady reduction of coal production. Since consumer subsidy for the consumption of anthracites briquette in low-income households caused a distortion in domestic coal market, the so-called coupon program will be the first target in energy reform policy in order to induce fuel switching from anthracites to alternative clean energy. This paper tries to identify various factors that influence households' fuel switching decision. Disutility from briquette consumption is also considered as an important factor. Using the 2007 census data on briquette-consuming households, it is found that the coupon program provides an adverse effect to switching fuels to clean energy while the disutility of briquettes is positively associated with the probability of fuel switching. However, the empirical finding suggests that the policy alone attempting to remove coupon program may fail to switch fuels unless the cost of boiler changes is substantially reduced through the provision of accessible networks to alternative energy sources. It indicates that reform policy for consumer subsidy must be understood in line with more comprehensive regional energy plans to resolve energy poverty issue. - Research highlights: → Various factors are identified for low income households' fuel switching from coal to clean energy. → Coupon program and accessibility to alternative energy sources are considered; Result shows that accessible network to alternative clean energy sources is essential for low income group. → More comprehensive regional energy plans are required to resolve energy poverty issue.

  6. Subsidies and sustainable development. Concepts, methodology and state of the art in literature; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Concepten, methodologie en stand van zaken van de literatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 1st research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. It gives a conceptual and methodological framework on the relation between subsidies and sustainable development. In the 2nd paper attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 1e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Het geeft een conceptueel en methodologisch kader over het verband tussen subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  7. Phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Consequences of the 2003 CAP reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Erwin; Hofreither, Markus F. [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Feistmantelstrasse 4, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Sinabell, Franz [Austrian Institute of Economic Research Vienna (WIFO), PO Box 91, 1103 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-01-15

    Subsidies linked to production have been classified as environmentally harmful by the OECD. A core element of the EU 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform is to decouple income support from production. This paper estimates the environmental consequences of this policy reform. An agricultural sector model using a modified version of the positive mathematical programming method depicts the complex natural, structural, and political relationships of Austrian farming. Changes in management measures can be analyzed with respect to their environmental effects by using appropriate indicators. Simulation results show that the 2003 CAP reform will reduce the average cost of production, and may improve environmental conditions regarding soil, water, and greenhouse gases when compared to a scenario without reform. Thus, the new CAP is likely to bring about outcomes which the previous reform (Agenda 2000) promised but did not deliver. (author)

  8. Maintenance Policy in Public-Transport Involving Government Subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, U. S.; Bayuzetra, Y.; Gunawan, L. E.; Husniah, H.

    2018-02-01

    A public transport with government subsidy is considered to encourage the sustainability of the transportation. The transportations revenue is determined by the maximum of the uptimes of the vehicle. In this paper, we study a one-dimensional maintenance policy for new vehicle which is characterized by age parameter. We consider that the degradation of the vehicle is affected by the age of the vehicle, and modelled by using a one-dimensional approach. The owner performs both preventive and corrective maintenance actions, and the preventive maintenance action will reduce the vehicle failure rate and hence it will decrease the corrective maintenance cost during the life time of the vehicle. The decision problem for the owner is to find the optimal preventive maintenance time of the vehicle of each subsidy option offered by maximizing the expected profit for each subsidy.

  9. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper execution of budgets of subsidies and the enforcement ordinance for this law, and to carry out these provisions. This rule is applied to the grant of subsidies for the expenses of installing and operating radiation monitoring equipment in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facilities, redevelopment works for radiation monitoring facilities, preliminary survey works for radiation monitoring, radiation monitoring works, place of business and expected date of beginning operation, etc. The Director General of the Science and Technology Agency delivers subsidies to appropriate for all or a part of expenses required for the redevelopment works for radiation monitoring facilities, preliminary survey works for radiation monitoring and radiation monitoring works. Subsidies are given to those prefectures, where atomic power generating facilities are established or expected to be established, or the prefectures in their neighborhood, and to each place of business as a unit. The term of grant is stipulated for each of these places of business. The amount of subsidies for one place of business ranges from 224.4 million yen for the whole period to 20 million yen for each fiscal year according to the kinds of business. Prefectures which intend to request the grant of subsidies shall file to the Director General specified application attaching operation plans and the general explanation of atomic power generating facilities. The decision and the conditions of delivery, the reports on operation and business results, etc. are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  10. Fossil fuel subsidy reform: lessons from the Indonesian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savatic, Filip

    2016-10-01

    Global assessments of consumption and the Indonesian case show the relevance of non-household consumers of subsidized energy products. As shown in this study, understanding in more nuance how reforms affect them has the potential to improve the reforms that will be developed by policy-makers worldwide. Further study can reinforce the many benefits of successful reform for the countries and societies slowly turning away from these policies of the past. Estimates regarding the amount of public funds utilized to subsidize the production or consumption of fossil fuels are staggering. For 2011, they range from $83 billion in OECD member states, to nearly $4.1 trillion worldwide if environmental externalities are considered. Numerous studies have demonstrated that subsidies repress economic growth, undermine energy sector investment, increase public debt, benefit wealthy citizens over the poor, instigate a rise in illicit activities, and engender greater global and local pollution. The negative effects of fossil fuel subsidies have led numerous governments to reform their energy policies. There has also been a growing international consensus in favor of reform. While the components of successful reform programs have been identified through past case studies, the nature of reforms adopted by several governments that target non-households have not been systematically examined. Since the late 1990s, the Indonesian government has implemented numerous reforms of its fossil fuel subsidies, including measures targeting household as well as non-household energy consumption. In doing so, it has incurred significant fiscal savings. However, an innovative budgetary analysis reveals that households receive a minority, and a declining share, of fossil fuel subsidy funds. This is the case despite the fact that subsidies were implemented to ensure poor households have access to cheap energy. These findings demonstrate the need to consider non-household sectors in the design of fossil

  11. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood.Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (<1% change. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the interventions individually, then determined the optimal combination based on maximising net monetary benefit at a threshold of AU$50,000 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY. The simulations suggested that the combination of taxes and subsidy might avert as many as 470,000 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 420,000 to 510,000 in the Australian population of 22 million, with a net cost-saving of AU$3.4 billion (95% UI: AU$2.4 billion to AU$4.6 billion; US$2.3 billion to the health sector. Of the taxes evaluated, the sugar tax produced the biggest estimates of health gain (270,000 [95% UI: 250,000 to 290,000] DALYs averted, followed by the salt tax (130,000 [95% UI: 120,000 to 140,000] DALYs, the saturated fat tax (97,000 [95% UI: 77,000 to 120,000] DALYs, and the sugar-sweetened beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs. The fruit and vegetable subsidy (-13,000 [95% UI: -44,000 to 18,000] DALYs was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e.g., foods high in

  12. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procuremen...

  13. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profiling techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service and random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  14. Cross-subsidy in electricity tariffs: evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.

    2004-01-01

    The recent reforms in India have been equated to the reduction of cross-subsidization in electricity tariffs. Examining the usefulness of cross subsidies in electricity tariffs in India, I have argued that they are prone to considerable inefficiencies and should be discontinued. I have also formally examined the viability of above-cost tariffs in the industrial sector to allow subsidized domestic and agricultural consumption. Finally, I have used data from a distribution company in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India to estimate industrial demand for electricity and have found that the policy of cross-subsidy may have indeed gone overboard in India. (author)

  15. The Effect of Subsidies on the Offer of Sea Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Pupavac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this academic discussion is to study the effect of subsidies on the offer of sea transport. Research results are based on the method of microeconomic analysis. The knowledge obtained through this academic discussion may prove to be of assistance to managers in the area of sea transport in deliberating on more efficient and market-oriented business models. The results of this work reveal that subsidies in sea transport make sense if they contribute to the improvement of the quality of transport or are of help to those for whom they are intended.

  16. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  17. In-Kind Export Subsidies for Processed and Bulk Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Philip L. Paarlberg

    1996-01-01

    This research analyzes the interaction between a bulk commodity and a processed good under in-kind export subsidies. An in-kind export subsidy lowers the export price of the good on which it is paid. The other price changes are ambiguous. A numerical model for U.S. wheat and flour illustrates these conditions. Given the parameters of the model, an in-kind payment using wheat lowers flour prices and the export price of wheat. The U.S. domestic wheat price rises. When flour is used for the paym...

  18. Effects of Health-Related Food Taxes and Subsidies on Mortality from Diet-Related Disease in New Zealand: An Econometric-Epidemiologic Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Genc, Murat; Scarborough, Peter; Rayner, Mike; Mizdrak, Anja; Nnoaham, Kelechi; Blakely, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Health-related food taxes and subsidies may promote healthier diets and reduce mortality. Our aim was to estimate the effects of health-related food taxes and subsidies on deaths prevented or postponed (DPP) in New Zealand. A macrosimulation model based on household expenditure data, demand elasticities and population impact fractions for 18 diet-related diseases was used to estimate effects of five tax and subsidy regimens. We used price elasticity values for 24 major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, and food expenditure data from national Household Economic Surveys. Changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diet-related diseases were estimated. A 20% subsidy on fruit and vegetables would result in 560 (95% uncertainty interval, 400 to 700) DPP each year (1.9% annual all-cause mortality). A 20% tax on major dietary sources of saturated fat would result in 1,500 (950 to 2,100) DPP (5.0%), and a 20% tax on major dietary sources of sodium would result in 2,000 (1300 to 2,700) DPP (6.8%). Combining taxes on saturated fat and sodium with a fruit and vegetable subsidy would result in 2,400 (1,800 to 3,000) DPP (8.1% mortality annually). A tax on major dietary sources of greenhouse gas emissions would generate 1,200 (750 to 1,700) DPP annually (4.0%). Effects were similar or greater for Maori and low-income households in relative terms. Health-related food taxes and subsidies could improve diets and reduce mortality from diet-related disease in New Zealand. Our study adds to the growing evidence base suggesting food pricing policies should improve population health and reduce inequalities, but there is still much work to be done to improve estimation of health impacts.

  19. The impact of power market reforms on electricity price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels: A cross country panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    One of the main expectations from power market reform has been a reduction in both price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels between industrial and residential consumers. This paper focuses on this issue by looking at the impact of the electricity industry reforms on residential and industrial electricity price-cost margins and their effect on cross-subsidy levels between consumer groups. Using panel data for 63 developed and developing countries covering the period 1982-2009, empirical models are developed and analyzed. The research findings suggest that there is no uniform pattern for the impact of reform process as a whole on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. Each individual reform step has different impact on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels for each consumer and country group. Our findings imply that reform steps have different impacts in different countries, which supports the idea reform prescription for a specific country cannot easily and successfully be transferred to another one. So, transferring the formal and economic structure of a successful power market in a developed country to developing countries is not a sufficient condition for good economic performance of the electricity industries in developing countries. Furthermore, the study suggests that power consumption, income level and country-specific features constitute other important determinants of electricity price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. - Research highlights: → The paper focuses on the impact of power market reforms on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. → Using panel data for 63 countries for the period 1982-2009, empirical models are developed and analyzed. → We found that each individual reform step has different impact for each consumer and country group. → We conclude that reform prescription for a specific country cannot easily be transferred to another one.

  20. Effects of Health-Related Food Taxes and Subsidies on Mortality from Diet-Related Disease in New Zealand: An Econometric-Epidemiologic Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available Health-related food taxes and subsidies may promote healthier diets and reduce mortality. Our aim was to estimate the effects of health-related food taxes and subsidies on deaths prevented or postponed (DPP in New Zealand.A macrosimulation model based on household expenditure data, demand elasticities and population impact fractions for 18 diet-related diseases was used to estimate effects of five tax and subsidy regimens. We used price elasticity values for 24 major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, and food expenditure data from national Household Economic Surveys. Changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diet-related diseases were estimated.A 20% subsidy on fruit and vegetables would result in 560 (95% uncertainty interval, 400 to 700 DPP each year (1.9% annual all-cause mortality. A 20% tax on major dietary sources of saturated fat would result in 1,500 (950 to 2,100 DPP (5.0%, and a 20% tax on major dietary sources of sodium would result in 2,000 (1300 to 2,700 DPP (6.8%. Combining taxes on saturated fat and sodium with a fruit and vegetable subsidy would result in 2,400 (1,800 to 3,000 DPP (8.1% mortality annually. A tax on major dietary sources of greenhouse gas emissions would generate 1,200 (750 to 1,700 DPP annually (4.0%. Effects were similar or greater for Maori and low-income households in relative terms.Health-related food taxes and subsidies could improve diets and reduce mortality from diet-related disease in New Zealand. Our study adds to the growing evidence base suggesting food pricing policies should improve population health and reduce inequalities, but there is still much work to be done to improve estimation of health impacts.

  1. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  3. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  4. Interregional income differentials and migration: their interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, T

    1988-02-01

    "The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate that interregional income differential is exogenous to interregional net migration, but not conversely. Utilizing Japanese prefectural-based data for 1954-82, we conduct the following three kinds of analyses to confirm this statement. Firstly, a simple comparison of the crests of interregional time-series plots was made to see which occurred first. Secondly, Sims', 1972, test of causality was done to investigate causation between urban/rural income differential and net migration. Finally, per capita income and population share were examined by two-dimensional phase diagram for nine regions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER) excerpt

  5. The effectiveness of selected housing subsidies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr; Boelhouwer, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2009), s. 249-269 ISSN 1566-4910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Housing policy * Welfare economics * Subsidy effectiveness Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.springerlink.com/content/y8km555k622v8vu0/

  6. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in the annexes report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  7. 42 CFR 423.800 - Administration of subsidy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of subsidy program. 423.800 Section 423.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost...

  8. The run for solar water heater subsidies in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerards, J.

    1998-01-01

    Subsidies for the use of solar boilers in the Netherlands are very popular, both from local funds and national funds. A third tender for large-scale solar boiler projects in existing houses has been issued. A brief overview is given of local activities in some Dutch municipalities to stimulate the use of solar boilers

  9. 46 CFR 252.40 - Payment of subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment and Billing Procedures § 252.40 Payment of subsidy. (a) Submission of voucher. At the close of each calendar month, the subsidized operator may submit a voucher, and include for payment in such... submit an initial voucher and include for payment in such voucher a percentage of the ODS payable for the...

  10. Evolving An Effective Trade Policy Against Agricultural Subsidies Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of developing countries to this trend has been a weak and uncoordinated trade policy. They have been unable to effectively curtail the onslaught of dumping. This paper is an analysis of Nigeria's trade policy in tackling the issue of agricultural subsidies. This took the form of an in-depth assessment of the ...

  11. Planktonic Subsidies to Surf-Zone and Intertidal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G.; Shanks, Alan L.; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.; Feddersen, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Plankton are transported onshore, providing subsidies of food and new recruits to surf-zone and intertidal communities. The transport of plankton to the surf zone is influenced by wind, wave, and tidal forcing, and whether they enter the surf zone depends on alongshore variation in surf-zone hydrodynamics caused by the interaction of breaking waves with coastal morphology. Areas with gently sloping shores and wide surf zones typically have orders-of-magnitude-higher concentrations of plankton in the surf zone and dense larval settlement in intertidal communities because of the presence of bathymetric rip currents, which are absent in areas with steep shores and narrow surf zones. These striking differences in subsidies have profound consequences; areas with greater subsidies support more productive surf-zone communities and possibly more productive rocky intertidal communities. Recognition of the importance of spatial subsidies for rocky community dynamics has recently advanced ecological theory, and incorporating surf-zone hydrodynamics would be an especially fruitful line of investigation.

  12. Food Access, Food Subsidy, and Residue-Based Bioenergy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Food Access, Food Subsidy, and Residue-Based Bioenergy Production in ... The goal is to show how the Indian government can improve access to food ... IDRC has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Government of ...

  13. Labour subsidies for the cultural sector: extent and impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1997-01-01

    The job training schemes have been and still are important for the supply of labour to cultural institutions in Denmark. Particularly the young and experimental cultural manifestations are depending on labour market subsidies for their development and survival. The article discusses the clashes...

  14. Cotton Production in Mali: Subsidies or Sustainable Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Current trade rules concerning cotton subsidies are intricately linked with poverty and hunger in Mali. Over half of Mali's economy and over 30 million people depend directly on cotton. It is the main cash crop and the most important source of export revenue. Cotton also plays a key role in development policies and in the fight against poverty by…

  15. Child care subsidies with endogenous education and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Laurie S.M.

    2014-01-01

    What are the effects of child care subsidies on education, fertility and the sectoral allocation of the labour force? In a general equilibrium setting the availability of affordable professional child care will have an impact on the relative supplies of educated and uneducated workers and the

  16. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  17. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  18. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  19. EFFECTS OF AN EXPORT SUBSIDY ON THE U.S. COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Patricia A.; Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an export subsidy for cotton are analyzed using a linear elasticity model. The study explicitly addresses the interaction of current domestic policies with the proposed export subsidy. An export subsidy may be a successful method of reducing the government costs of the cotton program.

  20. 20 CFR 418.3230 - When will we use your subsidy inquiry as your filing date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we use your subsidy inquiry as your filing date? 418.3230 Section 418.3230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE... oral or written inquiry about the subsidy, or partially complete an Internet subsidy application on our...

  1. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies: Integrated Method and Application to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, C.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; de Moor, A.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    The term 'environmentally damaging subsidies' covers all sorts of direct and indirect subsidies with negative consequences for the environment. This article presents a method to determine the environmental impact of these subsidies. It combines a microeconomic framework with an environmental impact

  2. Income Migration and Home Price Trajectories in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel M. Otterstrom

    2015-01-01

    This paper models one facet of the relationship between housing market price shifts and income migration among U.S. regions: how income migration relates to regional housing price clusters. The tremendous negative slide in national housing prices from 2006 to 2012 had an uneven spatial distribution. These differences are explored within the context of net income and net population migration (movement of money with people). Median housing prices for urban areas from 2005 to 2010 and IRS county...

  3. Subsidies and sustainable development. Case studies in the Flemish agricultural and housing policies; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Casestudies in het Vlaamse landbouw- en woonbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 2nd research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. Attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies. In the 1st paper the concept and method are discussed. The method was used for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 2e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Aandacht wordt besteed aan een toepassing van de methodologie om subsidies in kaart te brengen. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  4. 19 CFR 351.525 - Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by dividing the amount of the benefit allocated to the period of investigation or review by the sales... under paragraph (b) of this section. Normally, the Secretary will determine the sales value of a product... product. (i) In general. If a subsidy is tied to the production or sale of a particular product, the...

  5. The regulation for delivery of subsidies for measures of promoting power source location for nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    According to the law for the arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities, the regulations concern the allocation of subsidies to promote the most efficient way of siting nuclear power facilities. The contents consist of the following: limits on the subsidies, terms of subsidy allocations, the sum of subsidies for each respective year, applications for subsidies, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, the conditions attached to the allocations, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, limitations for disposal of the properties, payment of subsidies, accounting of the subsidy operations, a record of the subsidies, and the chief in the governmental office concerned. (Mori, K.)

  6. Role of Subsidies Allocated by the Second Pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy and Diversification in Romanian Farms through Agritourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the role and the economic impact of subsidies allocated by the Common Agricultural Policy between 2007 and 2012, predominantly through the second pillar, in order to stimulate farmers to stay in the countryside and diversify their activities by agritourism. The analysis has used a quantitative approach aimed at assessing the main correlations between the growth of agritourisms and the financial supports paid by the European Union in eight Romanian administrative regions using the Farm Accountancy Data Network. Findings have pointed out that in regions where the higher has been the development of agritourism, the more significant has been the positive socio-economic impact of the funds allocated by the European Union in favour of rural development. Rural areas characterized by a low level of farmer’s income and by a high incidence of subsidies paid by the European Union in supporting rural development have brought about a considerable growth of farm diversification through agritourism. This has also corroborated the hypothesis according to which the diversification in the countryside is sensitive both to the funds allocated by the EU and to a low level of income in farms.

  7. A revisit of fossil-fuel subsidies in China: Challenges and opportunities for energy price reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We measure fossil-fuel subsidies and effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010. • Fossil-fuel subsidies scale of China was CNY 881.94 billion in 2010, equivalent to 2.59% of GDP. • Impacts of removing subsidies on macroeconomic variables are examined by the CGE model. • Future policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies. - Abstract: Fossil-fuel subsidies contribute to the extensive growth of energy demand and the related carbon dioxide emissions in China. However, the process of energy price reform is slow, even though China faces increasing problems of energy scarcity and environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on analyzing fossil fuel subsidies in China by estimating subsidies scale and the implications for future reform. We begin by measuring fossil-fuel subsidies and the effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010 using a price-gap approach. Results indicate that the oil price reform in 2009 significantly reduced China’s fossil-fuel subsidies and modified the subsidy structure. Fossil-fuel subsidies scale in China was 881.94 billion CNY in 2010, which was lower than the amount in 2006, equivalent to 2.59% of the GDP. The macro-economic impacts of removing fossil-fuel subsidies are then evaluated by the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Results demonstrate that the economic growth and employment will be negatively affected as well as energy demand, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. Finally, policy implications are suggested: first, risks of government pricing of energy are far from negligible; second, an acceptable macroeconomic impact is a criterion for energy price reform in China; third, the future energy policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies

  8. Migration and Social Replacement Incomes: How to Protect Low-IncomeWorkers in the Industrialized Countries against the Forces of Globalizationand Market Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses how an industrialized country could defend the wages and social benefits of its unskilled workers against wage competition from immigrants. It shows that fixing social standards harms the workers and that fixing social replacement incomes implies migration into unemployment. Defending wages with replacement incomes brings about first-order efficiency losses that outweigh the budget cost to the government. By contrast, wage subsidies involve much smaller welfare losses. Wh...

  9. Technical and economic analysis of biomethane: A focus on the role of subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The presence of subsidies is a condition necessary for the profitability of the biomethane plants. • Biomethane produced by ofmsw substrate is basically positive for all sizes analysed. • Biomethane produced by mixed substrate presents positive NPV only in few scenarios. • Medium-large plants (500–1000 m 3 /h) achieve greater financial results. • Italian legislators tend to favour the biomethane used as vehicle fuel. - Abstract: Biomethane is a renewable energy useful to encourage the transition to a sustainable energy future. Incentive policies favour its development and consequently this paper evaluates the economic performance for use of biomethane fed into the grid, destined for cogeneration or sold as vehicle fuel. A mathematical model is proposed and the indicators used are Net Present Value and Discounted Payback Time. This paper aims to evaluate the financial feasibility of biomethane plants in function of the plant size (100 m 3 /h, 250 m 3 /h, 500 m 3 /h, 1000 m 3 /h) and the feedstock used (organic fraction of municipal solid waste and a mixture of 30% maize and 70% manure residues on a weight basis) for each final destination of biomethane. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on the critical variables is conducted and 356 case studies are overall assessed. The results of the paper demonstrate that the profitability of biomethane plants is verified in several scenarios and it is strongly linked to the subsidies. Biomethane used as vehicle fuel presents greater financial results favouring the increase of share of renewable energy in transport sector and environmental improvements are obtained.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1502-21 - Net operating losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., gain, deduction, and loss, including the member's losses and deductions actually absorbed by the group... income, gain, deduction, and loss. For this purpose— (A) Consolidated taxable income is computed without... the group has no Year 2 capital gain, it cannot absorb any capital losses in Year 2. T's Year 1 net...

  11. Estimating the Impact of Low-Income Universal Service Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Ackerberg; David R. DeRemer; Michael H. Riordan; Gregory L. Rosston; Bradley S. Wimmer

    2013-01-01

    This policy study uses U.S. Census microdata to evaluate how subsidies for universal telephone service vary in their impact across low-income racial groups, gender, age, and home ownership. Our demand specification includes both the subsidized monthly price (Lifeline program) and the subsidized initial connection price (Linkup program) for local telephone service. Our quasi-maximum likelihood estimation controls for location differences and instruments for price endogeneity. The microdata all...

  12. Subsidies to energy in the world: their extent, their efficiency and their necessary reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2010-10-01

    This report aims at analyzing the extent of subsidies to energy in the world, at assessing theoretical and practical arguments against different forms of subsidy, and at synthesizing reflections on reforms of subsidies to energy, mainly in developing countries. In the first part, the author recalls the theoretical and practical backgrounds of subsidies to energy, indicates the different forms of support to energy production and consumption, and discusses the existing assessments in the world and in some regions while specifying subsidies to fuels in the transport sector. In a second part, he addresses theoretical and practical critics of subsidies (notably in terms of environmental and economical inefficiency), assessments of economical and environmental benefits of their withdrawal, and ways of reorienting subsidies for fossil fuels in developing countries

  13. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  14. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  15. Apprenticeship training in Denmark : the impacts of subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Rasmussen, Anders Rue

    1997-01-01

    For years, Denmark has maintained and developed its apprenticeship system which is comparable to the German system. Today, about 40% of the youth cohorts get apprenticeship training. The paper describes the basic functioning of the labour market of apprentices. It is initially shown how the wage...... and unemployment rates of skilled workers who have served an apprenticeship differ from those of non-skilled workers. In recent years there have been periods with serious mismatches between the demand for and the supply of apprenticeships. Through the 80's subsidies were introduced to overcome this shortage....... The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible impact of these subsidies. A unique longitudinal data set that enables us to follow 1000 work places from 1980 to 1991 is applied. This makes it possible to control for observed and unobserved work place effects. The estimates show...

  16. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  17. China’s electric vehicle subsidy scheme: Rationale and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Ou, Xunmin; Du, Jiuyu; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    To promote the market penetration of electric vehicles (EV), China launched the Electric Vehicle Subsidy Scheme (EVSS) in Jan 2009, followed by an update in Sep 2013, which we named phase I and phase II EVSS, respectively. In this paper, we presented the rationale of China’s two-phase EVSS and estimated their impacts on EV market penetration, with a focus on the ownership cost analysis of battery electric passenger vehicles (BEPV). Based on the ownership cost comparison of five defining BEPV models and their counterpart conventional passenger vehicle (CPV) models, we concluded that in the short term, especially before 2015, China’s EVSS is very necessary for BEPVs to be cost competitive compared with CPVs. The transition from phase I to phase II EVSS will generally reduce subsidy intensity, thus resulting in temporary rise of BEPV ownership cost. However, with the decrease of BEPV manufacturing cost, the ownership cost of BEPV is projected to decrease despite of the phase-out mechanism under phase II EVSS. In the mid term of around 2015–2020, BEPV could become less or not reliant on subsidy to maintain cost competitiveness. However, given the performance disadvantages of BEPV, especially the limited electric range, China’s current EVSS is not sufficient for the BEPV market to take off. Technology improvement associated with battery cost reduction has to play an essential role in starting up China’s BEPV market. - Highlights: • China’s phase I and phase II electric vehicle subsidy schemes were reviewed. • Major electric vehicle models in China’s vehicle market were reviewed. • The ownership costs of five defining electric passenger vehicle models were compared. • Policies to promote electric vehicle deployment in China were discussed

  18. NAFTA and Farm Subsidies: A Recipe for Poor Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    Hemisphere.12 Mexico’s agricultural economy, consisting of a large number of small farms with major harvests in corn, wheat, beans , rice, coffee and...agriculture.1 More than any other sector in Mexico, agriculture with its integral heritage and cultural values has been left behind for a more...farm subsidies provides for a chain that begins with votes for U.S. politicians and results in decreased theater stability. Partisan politics between

  19. Agricultural subsidies in the budget of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors analyse the dynamics of agricultural subsidies, compared to the developments in public revenue and public expenditure and the total subsidies of the republic budget, in the years of 2006-2013. We performed desk research using official statistical data and processing them with standard statistical methods, and studying and quoting a number of scientific papers and documents of national and EU institutions. We also considered the government's projection of the scope and structure of agricultural subsidies by 2024, having in mind the fiscal consolidations and the obligations of adjusting legislation, support policy and institutional framework in agriculture with those of the EU. A three-year fiscal consolidation programme, which includes, among other things, reducing and re-examining agricultural support programmes, should create a healthy basis for stable and growing budget transfers to agriculture. Investment support will still be very important, and producers could expect a more significant growth in direct payments just before and just after joining the EU.

  20. Regulations on the allocating of subsidies to promote the development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for the research and development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities and evaluation of the results. The subsidies are for purchase of equipment, materials, etc. and other expendures approved. The contents are as follows: applications for subsidies, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, payment of subsidies, approval of alterations in the plans, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, patent rights, payment of the earnings, management of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  1. 14 CFR 399.44 - Treatment of deferred Federal income taxes for rate purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.44 Treatment of deferred Federal income taxes for rate purposes. For rate-making purposes other than the determination of subsidy under section 406(b), it is the policy of the Board that...

  2. Household economic modelsof gill net fishermen at Madura strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primyastanto, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research was to analyze household economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait. 30 families of gillnet fishermenwere used for purposive sampling. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative (regression analysis). Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to analyze research and compare to factors that affecting household economic models of gill net fishermen family. Research results showed tha thousehold economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was production value level or fishermen revenue at sea was strongly influenced byp roduction asset production, education level, fuel, and work flow. Work flow rate of fishermen families affected by asset production, non fisheries workflow and number of male workforce. Non fishing income level was strongly influenced by non-fishery business assets, number of family members owned andnon-fishing work flow. Spending levels of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was affected by fishing income, non-fishing income, fishermen wife education and fishermen family members.

  3. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  4. 20 CFR 404.1094 - Options available for figuring net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income and net profit from operating the grocery store in 1978 through 1980 are as follows: 1978 1979...-employment of $400 or more in 1975 and in 1976. Her gross income and net profit from operating both a grocery... method of reporting after your tax return is filed, you may change it by filing an amended tax return...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1502-21T - Net operating losses (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating losses (temporary). 1.1502-21T...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Computation of Consolidated Items § 1.1502-21T Net operating losses...)(B). (C) Partial waiver of carryback period for 2001 and 2002 losses—(1) Application. The acquiring...

  6. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial condition, and business history. (6) The economic outlook for the person's industry and the market... do not produce income for the business being valued or are not used in the business. (c) Factors for... to sell, or offer to purchase or sell the business of the person made on or about the net worth...

  7. Joint determinants of fiscal policy, income inequality and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel Muinelo-Gallo; Oriol Roca-Sagalés

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between income inequality and economic growth through fiscal policy. To this end, we present and estimate two systems of structural equiation with error components through which gross income inequality determines different fiscal policy outcomes, which subsequently affects the evolution of economic growth and net income inequality. The empirical results, obtained using an unbalanced panel data of 21 high-income OCDE countries during the period 1972-2006, s...

  8. Improving energy consumption structure: A comprehensive assessment of fossil energy subsidies reform in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Li Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fossil energy subsidies reform would be an effective way to improve the energy consumption structure; however, the reform needs to be assessed comprehensively beforehand as it would exert uncertain impacts on economy, society and environment. In this paper, we use price-gap approach to estimate the fossil energy subsidies of China, then establish CGE model that contains pollutant emissions accounts and CO 2 emissions account to stimulate the fossil energy subsidies reform under different scenarios, and the environmental economic analysis concept is introduced to monetize the pollutant reduction benefits. Furthermore, we analyze the possibility and scope of improving the energy consumption structure from the perspective of technical and economic analysis. Analytical results show that the energy consumption structure could be improved by different extent by removing coal or oil subsidies, while the economic and social indexes will be influenced distinctively. Meanwhile, the effects of cutting coal subsidies are more feasible than that of cutting oil subsidies overall. It is recommended to implement fossil energy subsidies gradually, cut the coal first and then cut oil subsidies successively. - Research highlights: → This paper estimates the scale of fossil energy subsidies of China in 2007 with price-gap approach. → We establish a Social Accounting Matrix and a CGE model extended with pollutant accounts. → We simulate the impacts of removing or cutting subsidies under three different scenarios. → We discuss the possibility and potential of improving energy consumption structure.

  9. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Li, Lianshui; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Jianmin; Qiu, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  10. Carbon Emission Reduction with Regard to Retailer’s Fairness Concern and Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghong Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the impact of consumer environmental awareness (CEA, retailer’s fairness concern, and government subsidies on the two echelon supply chain with one manufacturer and one retailer. The manufacturer produces green products with carbon emission reduction. The government provides two types of alternative subsidies: a fixed subsidy (referred to as an F-type subsidy or a discount subsidy (referred to as a D-type subsidy to encourage the manufacturer to produce a product with a high carbon emission reduction rate. We aim to provide optimal solutions to the manufacturer and the retailer with regard to the retailer’s fairness concern and government subsidies; thus we discuss four decision scenarios: the benchmark model without the fairness concern and subsidy, the model with the retailer’s fairness concern, the model with fairness concern and the F-type subsidy, and the model with fairness concern and the D-type subsidy. We provide explicit solutions and numerical examples of the optimal carbon emission reduction rate, wholesale price, and retail price. Our study has four main findings: firstly, high consumer environmental awareness will benefit both the manufacturer and the retailer in the above four scenarios; secondly, the fairness concern and subsidy have a counter effect on the optimal strategies (the subsidy could alleviate the negative influence caused by retailer’s fairness concern; thirdly, the government could subsidize the retailer when there is unfairness in the supply chain so that the manufacturer could produce a product with lower carbon emission; finally, using the subsidy related to the environmental quality will be more helpful for improving environment quality, especially when the government has a budget constraint.

  11. The Economic Feasibility of Residential Energy Storage Combined with PV Panels: The Role of Subsidies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A solar photovoltaic system produces electricity by converting energy from the sun. By the end of 2016, the global installed solar photovoltaic capacity reached 305 GW. Its growth is impressive in the last years; in fact, it was only equal to 41 GW in 2010. However, Europe has installed only 6.9 GW in 2016 (−1.7 GW in comparison to previous year and this annual power installed is equal to 9% of global one in according to data released by Solar Power Europe. The profitability of PV systems in mature markets depends on the harmonization between demanded energy and produced one residential energy storage when combined with photovoltaic panels is able to increase the share of self-consumption. This work proposes a mathematical model, in which a Discounted Cash Flow analysis is conducted to evaluate the financial feasibility of photovoltaic-integrated lead acid battery systems in Italy. The indicator used is Net Present Value. Furthermore, a break-even point analysis, in terms of an increase of self-consumption, is conducted. The residential sector is investigated and energy storage system investment is incentivized by fiscal deduction and regional subsidies. The analysis provides several case studies, determined by combinations of the following variables: photovoltaic plant size, battery capacity, the increase of the share of self-consumption, and the useful lifetime of energy storage system. The same case studies are proposed also in four alternative scenarios, where is the modified the structure of subsidies. Results confirm that the profitability can be reached in presence of subsidies.

  12. Fiscal Policy, Economic Growth and Income Inequality: A Case of Indian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deven Bansod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Through this study, we try to evaluate the effects that the direct and indirect taxation and the subsidies provided by the Government have on income inequality. We use Gini coefficient as a measure of inequality and use annual data for Indian economy for years 1982-2015 and employ an ARDL-based bounds test approach for testing co-integration. We ascertain the stationarity properties for all the series, separately using the ADF test, the DF-GLS test and the KPSS test. We estimate the long-run and short-run coefficients and find that a long-run negative relationship exists between Gini coefficient and subsidy-related expenditure. The long-run coefficients of direct and indirect taxation terms are positive but are significant only at 10%. The short-run coefficients obtained from ECM show that a negative relationship exists between expenditure on subsidies and Gini coefficient. In short run, direct tax seems to have an insignificant positive coefficient while indirect tax seems to have a significant unbalancing effect. We employ the Granger causality tests to confirm direction of causality and find that there runs a unidirectional causality from direct tax, indirect tax and subsidy to Gini coefficient, while any causality from Gini to any series is largely insignificant. The results imply that the government should use the calculated hybrid of tools like direct and indirect taxation and subsidies to have an equalizing impact on the economy. Moreover, the significant causal relationship from subsidies to Gini opens up an opportunity for the government to improve the income distribution using targeted subsidies, for example the Aadhaar-linked Direct Transfer Benefits etc.

  13. Dampak Pemberian Subsidi Produksi Terhadap Keseimbangan Pasar pada Pasar Persaingan Sempurna dan Pasar Monopoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiani Hardiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to analyze: (1 the impact of subsidies on the market equilibriumin perfect competition and monopoly markets (2 the impact of subsidies on the efficiency of markets, surplus buyer-seller on the market perfect competition and monopoly market. Research using method of experimental economics. The simulated market in the form of a a perfectly competitive market with goods subsidized and non-subsidized goods; b a monopoly market with goods subsidized and non-subsidized goods. Data were analyzed at each simulation and the market structure of each type of goods. The result showed that: (1 Empirical equilibrium price higher than the market monopoly of perfect competition and the higher the subsidy conditions than non-subsidized either on transaction systems double action or decentralization; (2 market with subsidized monopoly has a level of market efficiency is better than a perfectly competitive market both with and without subsidies; (3 The allocation of the surplus on the market almost entirely monopoly enjoyed by the seller. In contrast to the perfectly competitive market, relatively more surplus enjoyed by the buyer, but the difference is not too great. Keywords: experimental economics, monopoly market, perfect competition market, subsidies   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis: (1 dampak subsidi terhadap keseimbangan pasar pada pasar persaingan sempurna dan pasar monopoli (2 dampak subsidi terhadap efisiensi pasar, surplus pembeli-penjual pada pasar persaingan sempurna dan pasar monopoli. Penelitian menggunakan metode percobaan ekonomi. Pasar disimulasi dalam bentuk a pasar persaingan sempurna dengan barang non subsidi dan barang subsidi desentralisasi; b pasar monopoli dengan barang non subsidi dan barang subsidi desentralisasi. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis pada masing-masing simulasi struktur pasar  dan pada masing-masing jenis barang. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa: (1 Harga keseimbangan

  14. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels are not h......We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels...... are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...

  15. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Tsuneishi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating to the net income. The results of the articles showed that distribution of net income has become positively skewed, with the mean dragged to the right by a few high scores. This means that the median is more appropriate than the mean as a measure of central tendency of net income. Factors relating to net income of private dental clinics have changed: private dental clinics that were opened after 1989 (new and had dental hygienists, who may conduct dental maintenance, had high net income, suggesting that they are well-managed or having a different type of patient mix in recent years. These analyses provide important and useful information for not only better management of private dental clinics but also policy-making in dental health care.

  16. Environmental impact of indirect subsidies. Development and application of a policy oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.; De Moor, A.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a method for determining the environmental impact of indirect subsidies. The point of departure is a typology of subsidies to cover the large number of different types. The large-scale subsidies will be considered first, on the assumption that these will often have extensive environmental effects. Then, the environmental effects in the Netherlands will be calculated. The restriction to the Netherlands means that no attention is given to the environmental consequences of abolishing subsidies. An earlier study showed that the most extensive indirect subsidies at world and OECD level are mainly in the energy, agriculture and transport sectors. The method is tested by calculating the environmental effects of large-scale subsidies in these three sectors and in the tourism sector.

  17. Impact of a simultaneous reduction in fishing subsidies and introduction of efficient management of rents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, Eugenia; Waldo, Staffan; Nielsen, Max

    2018-01-01

    of the largest fishing nations within the EU. A static bio-economic model is used to analyze the effect of simultaneous elimination of subsidies and introduction of an economically efficient management system for the Northwest Spanish fleet. It is concluded that improvements in management would bring substantial......Subsidies to the fishing sector have long been criticized for fueling over-fishing, and a reduction in subsidies is currently on the agenda in the negotiations within the World Trade Organization (WTO). This article analyzes the role of subsidies and other management measures for Spain, one...... rents to the industry, up to €164 million, irrespective of subsidy level, but also a reduction in fishing effort of almost 60%. Under a management scheme that maximizes economic rents, elimination of subsidies in the fishery would increase social welfare, induced by a decrease in the equilibrium fishing...

  18. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies. A Methodological Approach with an Application to the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beers, C. [Department of Economics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Moor, A. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    Up to now a clear theoretical and methodological framework for economic-environmental analysis of environmentally damaging subsidies is lacking. Environmentally damaging subsidies are all kinds of direct and indirect subsidies aimed at achieving a certain (often non-environmental) goal that produce negative external effects to the natural environment. This article develops a transparent method to determine the environmental impact of indirect government subsidies and derive policy lessons. This method has been applied to several major subsidies in the Netherlands, namely in agriculture, energy, and transport. The results reveal large environmental effects, which need to be taken seriously by policy makers. The method enables policy makers to evaluate the environmental impacts of indirect government subsidies.

  19. Analisis Penentuan Variabel dari Biaya Kapal Sebagai Acuan Penentuan Subsidi untuk Kapal Perintis :Studi Kasus Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Jagarin Silaban

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Subsidi diberikan untuk menjembatani ketidak-seimbangan antara harga atau tarip yang ditetapkan produsen dengan kekuatan daya beli konsumen dikarenakan konsumen tersebut tidak dapat membayar sesuai dengan tarip yang ditetapkan. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengkaji formula penentuan subsidi saat ini dan mengeloborasi dengan solusi alternatife. Studi dilakukan dengan  menentukan  variabel jarak, yang ada di biaya kapal perintis dan dapat dijadikan sebagai acuan penentuan  subsidi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penentuan subsidi saat ini  hanya ditentukan oleh variabel Jarak saja dan variabel penentu saat ini belum bisa menghitung besaran subsidi dengan lebih objektif karena ada beberapa variabel penentu lainnya yang bisa dijadikan sebagai acuan penentuan subsidi seperti GT, BHP, ABK dan Umur.

  20. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  1. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-1 - Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...

  2. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  3. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  4. STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI DIVISI PUBLIC RELATIONS PLN DISTRIBUSI JAWA BARAT DALAM SOSIALISASI SUBSIDI LISTRIK TEPAT SASARAN

    OpenAIRE

    Lyza Audina Pangesti

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis thesis discuss about the communication  strategy which have been implemented by public relationsof PLN due to socializing well-targeted electricity subsidy program in West Java. This Well-targetedelectricity subsidy program is a government program which cuts the electricity subsidy for middleincome homes 900—watt customer, where West Java province is ranked the highest in Indonesia. Thegoal of this research is to know the steps of communication strategy which have been implemente...

  5. ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES FOR NON-PRICE EXPORT PROMOTION: THE CASE OF COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2002-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement framework was developed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate linked subsidies for non-price export promotion for US cotton. Study results show that an increase in promotion expenditure increased the dollar value and producer welfare of cotton growers. The gross gain to the domestic cotton producers from the exchange-rate linked subsidy scheme was positive. These evidences support exchange rate linked subsidies for US cotton export promotion.

  6. Subsidies, Bounties, and Free Trade: Issues and Perspectives, 1880-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This book puts together several contributions that, from various time, system and disciplinary perspectives, address the same questions – what has shaped subsidy laws? Which actors mould subsidy and State aid law and what forces are at work? The book includes reports from former or current negotiators, officials, practitioners and scholars, that focus on various attempts to regulate subsidies at the national, European and international levels. Prominence is given to the actual practice, and t...

  7. Effects of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy on hospitals competition under non-price regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-Yan

    2016-11-15

    Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation. We establish a three-stage duopoly model with quantity and quality competition. In the model, qualitative difference and asymmetric medical insurance subsidy among hospitals are considered. The government decides subsidy (or reimbursement) ratios in the first stage. Hospitals choose the quality in the second stage and then support the quantity in the third stage. We obtain our conclusions by mathematical model analyses and all the results are achieved by backward induction. The importance of medical quality to patients has stronger influence on the small hospital, while subsidy has greater effect on the large hospital. Meanwhile, the importance of medical quality to patients strengthens competition, but subsidy effect weakens it. Besides, subsidy ratios difference affects the relationship between subsidy and hospital competition. Furthermore, we capture the optimal reimbursement ratio based on social welfare maximization. More importantly, this paper finds that the higher management efficiency of the medical insurance investment funds is, the higher the best subsidy ratio is. This paper states that subsidy is a two-edged sword. On one hand, subsidy stimulates medical demand. On the other hand, subsidy raises price and inhibits hospital competition. Therefore, government must set an appropriate subsidy ratio difference between large and small hospitals to maximize the total social welfare. For a developing country with limited medical resources

  8. Does the DHET research output subsidy model penalise high-citation publication? A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Yolande X. Harley; Esmari Huysamen; Carlette Hlungwani; Tania S. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    South African universities are awarded annual subsidy from the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) based on their research publication output. Journal article subsidy is based on the number of research publications in DHET-approved journals as well as the proportional contribution of authors from the university. Co-authorship with other institutions reduces the subsidy received by a university, which may be a disincentive to collaboration. Inter-institutional collaboration may ...

  9. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses distributional effects of revenue-neutral tax reforms aimed at improving dietary quality and encouraging healthier grain consumption. Using data on household grain purchases, we analyse both the impact on dietary quality and the tax incidence among income groups of VAT reforms...... of the VAT reforms is therefore difficult to evaluate. With the exception of the lowest income group, the excise duty reforms seem to have a positive health effect across all other income groups, with increases in the intake of fibre and reductions in the intake of saturated fat, sugar and added sugar...... and the excise duty reforms appear to be progressive. The lowest income group pays less food taxes and generally faces a lower overall post-reform price level. The income group that increases its tax payments most is the one with the highest income. This is also the income group that faces the largest increase...

  10. The cost-effectiveness of public postsecondary education subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, P; Fahs, M

    2001-02-01

    Although educational attainment is a well-recognized covariate of health status, it is rarely thought of as a tool to be used to improve health. Since fewer than 40% of U.S. citizens have a college degree, it may be possible for the government to improve the health status of the population by assuming a larger burden of the cost of postsecondary education. This paper examines the costs and health effects of a government subsidy for public postsecondary education institutions. All high school graduates in 1997 were included in a decision analysis model as a hypothetical cohort. Data from the U.S. Department of Education, the World Health Organization, and the National Center for Health Statistics were used as model inputs. Results. Relative to the present educational system, a federal subsidy for public and private colleges equal to the amount now paid by students for tuition and living expenses would save $6,176 and avert 0.0018 of a disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) per person annually if enrollment increased 5%. The overall savings among 1997 high school graduates would be $17.1 billion and 4,992 DALYs would be averted per year relative to the present educational system. If enrollment increased by just 3%, $3,743 would be saved and 0.0011 DALYs would be averted per person. An enrollment increase of 7% would lead to savings of $8,610 and 0.0025 DALYs would be averted per person relative to the present educational system. If the government were to offer a full subsidy for college tuition at public universities, both lives and money would be saved, so long as enrollment levels increased. Providing a free postsecondary education for students attending public schools may be more cost-effective than most health investments. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  11. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new......, which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration...

  12. How to Turn an Industry Green: Taxes versus Subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dröge, Susanne; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    welfare effects. For a strong green policy (a severe reduction of the dirty sector) a tax is the dominant instrument. For moderate policy targets, a subsidy will be superior (inferior) if the initial situation features a large (small) share of dirty output. These findings have implications for policies......Environmental policies frequently target the ratio of dirty to green output within the same industry. To achieve such targets the green sector may be subsidised or the dirty sector be taxed. This paper shows that in a monopolistic competition setting the two policy instruments have different...... such as the Californian Zero Emission Bill or the EU Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources....

  13. Impacts of the U.S. subsidy to soybeans on World prices, production and exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Salazar P. Brandão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the soybean market (grain, oil and meal to assess the effects of U.S. domestic support to soybeans on world soybean prices, production and exports. The model divides the world into five regions (modules: Argentina, Brazil, the European Union, the United States (US and the Rest of the World (ROW. There are interactions between the modules through the international prices and the net exports of each soybean product. The international prices of grain, oil and meal are endogenous and are determined equating net exports of the first four modules (Argentina, Brazil, European Union and the U.S. to net imports of the ROW. The analysis is conducted eliminating the U.S. domestic support to soybeans and simulating the impacts on the variables of interest. The simulations show a significant impact of the US subsidy to soybeans on world prices and net exports of the four selected regions.Este trabalho estima um modelo econométrico do mercado de soja e derivados com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos das políticas de apoio interno dos Estados Unidos sobre os preços internacionais, sobre a produção e sobre as exportações. O modelo divide o mundo em cinco regiões: Argentina, Brasil, Estados Unidos, União Européia e Demais países. A interação entre as regiões ocorre através dos preços internacionais e pelas exportações líquidas em cada um dos mercados. Os preços internacionais dos três produtos são determinados igualando-se a soma das exportações líquidas das cinco regiões. A análise é feita eliminando o apoio doméstico nos Estados Unidos e simulando o impacto nas variáveis de interesse. As simulações mostram impactos significativos do subsídio americano sobre os preços internacionais e sobre as exportações líquidas de Argentina, Brasil, Estados Unidos e União Européia.

  14. A profitability assessment of small-scale photovoltaic systems in an electricity market without subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Net Present Value varies from 437 to 624 € per kW installed. • Discounted Payback Time ranges from 4 years to 6 years. • Reduction of emissions of 21 tCO 2 eq for each kW installed during the 20 years. • Break-even point of increase of self-consumption varies from 6% to 13%. • The opportunity to keep a 50% of fiscal deduction for 5 years. - Abstract: The installation of photovoltaic power plants in 2015 compared to 2014 registered a growth of 25.6%, reaching a cumulative power equal to 229 GW. In developed solar markets, as many European countries, the sector is pushed by the alignment between the electric power demanded and the one offered. Consequently, self-consumption makes consumers active players of the energy transition. Italy is evaluated as a case study in this paper, in fact is the first country in the world where solar energy contributes largely to the national energetic demand. This paper aims to evaluate photovoltaic systems in residential sector without subsidies. Economic and environmental results are proposed and the indicators used are Net Present Value, Discounted Payback Time and Reduction in the Emissions of Carbon Dioxide. Three sizes (3 kW, 6 kW and 20 kW) are evaluated. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of critical variables (investment cost, annual electricity purchase price, annual electricity sales price, opportunity cost, tax deduction unitary, period of fiscal deduction, average annual insolation and percentage of energy self-consumption) demonstrates the robustness of the economic results. Also for environmental evaluation, alternative scenarios are proposed varying the value of emissions released by source energy analysed (photovoltaic, coal, oil and gas). Economic and environmental results suggest that small-scale photovoltaic systems can support the transition towards a sustainable energy mix.

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  16. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  17. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  18. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  19. Fortifying baladi bread in Egypt: reaching more than 50 million people through the subsidy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakim, Nadine; Laillou, Arnaud; El Nakeeb, Anwar; Yacoub, Rukia; Shehata, Magdy

    2012-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron-deficiency anemia, are a public health problem in Egypt, where anemia rates almost doubled in the years from 2000 to 2005. In 2008, the Government of Egypt began implementation of a 5-year national program to fortify with iron and folic acid the wheat flour used in baking subsidized baladi bread, the staple food consumed by a majority of low- income groups. To project the achievements of this national Wheat Flour Fortification Program. This paper describes the program, estimates the production of fortified flour and consumption of fortified bread, and identifies program challenges and sustainability issues. Through the national Wheat Flour Fortification Program, ferrous sulfate and folic acid are now added to all wheat flour produced under the national Food Subsidy Program. Up to 50 million Egyptians nationwide are now consuming quality-assured fortified baladi bread on a daily basis. In 2011, 6.5 million MT of fortified wheat flour was produced by 143 participating public- and private-sector mills. Political changes in Egypt in 2011 did not seem to affect the program; the new leadership in the Ministry of Supply and Internal Trade remains committed to fortification of wheat flour. The daily intake of approximately 12 mg of iron and 600 microg of folic acid through the consumption of baladi bread suggests that the impact of the program on the prevention and reduction of iron and folate deficiencies among the Egyptian population could be significant; the results of an end-line survey are pending.

  20. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, subsidies are the amounts of government payments in order to provide all society members with minimum well-being. In several countries such as Iran, the agriculture sector is supported by different methods to achieve goals such as increasing farmers' income, supporting domestic producers and eliminating dependence on imports, preserving employment and reducing poverty. A significant part of agriculture subsidies has been allocated to energy resources, chemical fertilizers, seeds, agriculture machines, vaccines, animal toxins, the interest on bank loans, insurance fees, certain airplane services, distributing young saplings, and government guaranteed purchase of products. However, examining the subsidies system in Iran reveals that most government payments are in the agriculture sector and more specifically on energy resources. Recently, the extra low cost of energy in the agriculture sector, which has had certain government supports, has resulted in low productivity and environmental damage, and has resulted in increased demand for agricultural products due to population growth, changes in life pattern, deviation in energy cost in agricultural sector, environment destruction and influences on sustainable agriculture indicators. Moreover, among different production units, agriculture has the closest relationship with the environment. This relationship is a mutual.On the one hand, erosion and destruction of the environment along with pollution growth and shortage of water resources negatively influences the production and efficiency of agricultural products, and on the other hand, agricultural pollutants and irregular use of chemical fertilizers in this sector impose indispensable damages to the environment.This study aims to apply a partial equilibrium model in order to examine direct and indirect effects of reduction of energy subsidies on economic and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Qorveh

  1. Energy taxes and subsidies downstream: transparency and dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissaour, A.

    2001-01-01

    The reasons why governments levy taxes are discussed with special reference to the energy sector. The article focuses on the quantitative aspect of policies and gives a guide to the relevant statistical sources. It summarises the basis of taxes and subsidies and discusses the incidence of energy taxation together with the structure of taxes and subsidies in energy downstream. It reviews the main sources of data and issues highlighted by published statistics and the impact of taxes levied on the consumption of energy products and other taxes (e.g. VAT) which directly affect end-user prices. Production-based levies such as royalties, petroleum revenue taxes, windfall taxes and import and export taxes on fuels are not discussed. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) theoretical foundations in a nutshell; (ii) the incidence of taxation; (iii) the structure and main features of energy taxation (iv) base rate and level of taxation (v) sources of data and methods and (vi) observability and comparability

  2. Temperate marine protected area provides recruitment subsidies to local fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, A; Montgomery, J C; Smith, A N H; Croucher, A E; McLeod, I M; Lavery, S D

    2017-10-25

    The utility of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a means of protecting exploited species and conserving biodiversity within MPA boundaries is supported by strong empirical evidence. However, the potential contribution of MPAs to fished populations beyond their boundaries is still highly controversial; empirical measures are scarce and modelling studies have produced a range of predictions, including both positive and negative effects. Using a combination of genetic parentage and relatedness analysis, we measured larval subsidies to local fisheries replenishment for Australasian snapper ( Chrysophrys auratus : Sparidae) from a small (5.2 km 2 ), well-established, temperate, coastal MPA in northern New Zealand. Adult snapper within the MPA contributed an estimated 10.6% (95% CI: 5.5-18.1%) of newly settled juveniles to surrounding areas (approx. 400 km 2 ), with no decreasing trend in contributions up to 40 km away. Biophysical modelling of larval dispersal matched experimental data, showing larvae produced inside the MPA dispersed over a comparable distance. These results demonstrate that temperate MPAs have the potential to provide recruitment subsidies at magnitudes and spatial scales relevant to fisheries management. The validated biophysical model provides a cost-efficient opportunity to generalize these findings to other locations and climate conditions, and potentially informs the design of MPA networks for enhancing fisheries management. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu, E-mail: f-akamt55@pwri.go.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Toda, Hideshige [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider {delta}{sup 15}N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: > {delta}{sup 15}N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. > {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. > The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  4. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Toda, Hideshige

    2011-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ 15 N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ 15 N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ 15 N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ 15 N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ 15 N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  5. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainability effects of environment damaging subsidies. A closer look at the sustainability effects of the adjustment or abolition of environment damaging subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ast, J.A.; Maas, K.E.H.; Bouma, J.J.; Baas, L.W.

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in many different sectors in the Netherlands [nl

  7. 17 CFR 210.5-03 - Income statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in a note thereto amounts of (a) losses on securities (net of profits) and (b) miscellaneous income... sales and gross revenues. State separately: (a) Net sales of tangible products (gross sales less... system of accounts or a form for annual report prescribed by federal or state authorities, or a similar...

  8. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  9. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  10. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  11. Econometric analysis of the effects of subsidies on farm production in case of endogenous input quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Lien, Gudbrand

    The effect of subsidies on farm production has been a major topic in agricultural economics for several decades. We present a new approach for analyzing the effects of different types of coupled and decoupled subsidies on farm production with econometric methods. In contrast to most previous...

  12. Diverting indirect subsidies from the nuclear industry to the photovoltaic industry: Energy and financial returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenika-Zovko, I.; Pearce, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power and solar photovoltaic energy conversion often compete for policy support that governs economic viability. This paper compares current subsidization of the nuclear industry with providing equivalent support to manufacturing photovoltaic modules. Current U.S. indirect nuclear insurance subsidies are reviewed and the power, energy and financial outcomes of this indirect subsidy are compared to equivalent amounts for indirect subsidies (loan guarantees) for photovoltaic manufacturing using a model that holds economic values constant for clarity. The preliminary analysis indicates that if only this one relatively ignored indirect subsidy for nuclear power was diverted to photovoltaic manufacturing, it would result in more installed power and more energy produced by mid-century. By 2110 cumulative electricity output of solar would provide an additional 48,600 TWh over nuclear worth $5.3 trillion. The results clearly show that not only does the indirect insurance liability subsidy play a significant factor for nuclear industry, but also how the transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in more energy over the life cycle of the technologies. - Highlights: → The indirect insurance liability subsidy has been quantified over the life cycle of the U.S. nuclear fleet. → It was found to play a significant factor in the economics of the nuclear industry. → A transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in significantly more energy over the life cycle of the technologies.

  13. Nuclear power plant construction and financial assistance - as regards subsidies for promotion of power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the institutional framework for the granting of subsidies in particular to promote nuclear power plant construction in Japan. It also analyses the technical criteria applied and lists the type of improvements to various facilities and equipment made with such subsidies. (NEA) [fr

  14. 20 CFR 418.3210 - What is a prescribed application for a subsidy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a prescribed application for a subsidy? 418.3210 Section 418.3210 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES..., or an application available online on our Internet Web site (www.socialsecurity.gov). See § 418.3220...

  15. Studying Child Care Subsidies with Secondary Data Sources. Methodological Brief OPRE 2012-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonsook; Johnson, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes four national surveys with data relevant to subsidy-related research and provides a useful set of considerations for subsidy researchers considering use of secondary data. Specifically, this brief describes each of the four datasets reviewed, highlighting unique features of each dataset and providing information on the survey…

  16. An Approach to Granting Subsidies to College Students in China Using Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    China has made great improvement on subsidizing poverty-stricken students, but the current approaches of granting subsidies is not scientific or humane. Poverty-stricken students who couldn't get sufficient subsidies in suitable ways need some new and more scientific granting approaches, which inspires me to go about this study. The approach, we…

  17. 42 CFR 57.1508 - Amount of interest subsidy payments; limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1508 Amount of interest subsidy payments; limitations. The length of time for which...

  18. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1514 Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements. For each application for a...

  19. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Subsidies in Telephone Pricing Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider the provision of telephone service to rural and/or low income customers. The first paper, "An Analysis of Telephone Penetration" (Alexander Belinfante), analyzes the relationship between telephone penetration (the proportion of households with phone service) and prices, household income, and other factors. This…

  20. Green net national product for the sustainability and social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of green national accounting and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting. Weitzman provides a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing path when there is a constant interest rate and no exogenous technological progress. An attempt has been taken here to make the relationship with different incomes and green net national product, under no exogenous technological progress and a constant utility disco...

  1. Non-cooperative and cooperative solutions of government subsidy on public transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Hennie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two models of government subsidy given to a public transport operator: (i the subsidy for buying bus from an appointed public transport manufacturer, and (ii the subsidy for reimbursing reduced ticket price for passengers. The models are developed to determine the maximum profit for both the public transport operator and the manufacturer. Since we consider two parties – the public transport operator and the manufacturer of the bus, then we use game theoretical approach by considering non-cooperative and cooperative solutions. Furthermore, since the bus is repairable we consider virtual age to model the preventive maintenance and we consider minimal repair to model the corrective maintenance. We analyse both type of subsidy models and give some numerical examples which show the effects of different subsidies to the profit of operator and manufacturer. The result of the numerical examples indicates that reducing ticket price would give a higher profit both to the operator and the manufacturer.

  2. Comparison of Operational Subsidies on Less Favoured Areas in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lososová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at an analysis of operational subsidies on the Less Favoured Areas (LFA in the European Union countries. With the help of cluster analysis, the EU countries were divided into groups and, using correlation and regression analyses, the relations between defined indicators were evaluate. The indicators of FADN EU related to the cultivated land area were completed with relative indicators. Some differences were proved in subsidy effectiveness between particular groups of the countries. The amount of operational subsidies only has a positive impact on subsidised costs in the mountain LFAs. Worse productive and climate conditions increase the dependence of the output on subsidies related to cost effectiveness. No dependence of the output share of subsidies and the subsidised costs was proven in all groups.

  3. The measurement and regulation of cross subsidy. The case of the Scottish water industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawkins, John W.; Reid, Scott

    2007-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that significant cross subsidies exist in the water, gas and electricity utility industries, particularly those under public ownership. In this paper we discuss the measurement of cross subsidy and its regulatory implications in the context of a publicly owned utility on the verge of being opened up to product market competition. Using the case of the publicly owned Scottish water industry the paper outlines the definition and measurement of cross subsidy in theoretical terms before reviewing the policy debate over the desirability of cross subsidy between different customer groups and services. It then explains the approach to measurement recently adopted by the Scottish Executive. Having established the size and direction of cross subsidy the regulatory implications are considered. (author)

  4. Effect of subsidies to fossil fuel companies on United States crude oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Down, Adrian; Lazarus, Michael; Koplow, Doug

    2017-11-01

    Countries in the G20 have committed to phase out `inefficient' fossil fuel subsidies. However, there remains a limited understanding of how subsidy removal would affect fossil fuel investment returns and production, particularly for subsidies to producers. Here, we assess the impact of major federal and state subsidies on US crude oil producers. We find that, at recent oil prices of US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new, yet-to-be-developed oil investments into profitability, potentially increasing US oil production by 17 billion barrels over the next few decades. This oil, equivalent to 6 billion tonnes of CO2, could make up as much as 20% of US oil production through 2050 under a carbon budget aimed at limiting warming to 2 °C. Our findings show that removal of tax incentives and other fossil fuel support policies could both fulfil G20 commitments and yield climate benefits.

  5. Emissions leakage and subsidies for pollution abatement. Pay the polluter or the supplier of the remedy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric regulation of a global pollutant between countries can alter the competitiveness of industries and lead to emissions leakage. For most types of pollution, abatement technologies are available for firms to produce with lower emissions. However, the suppliers of those technologies tend to be less than perfectly competitive, particularly when both emissions regulations and advanced technologies are new. In this context of twin market failures, we consider the relative effects and desirability of subsidies for abatement technology. We find a more robust recommendation for upstream subsidies than for downstream subsidies. Downstream subsidies tend to increase global abatement technology prices, reduce pollution abatement abroad and increase emission leakage. On the contrary, upstream subsidies reduce abatement technology prices, and hence also emissions leakage.(Author)

  6. 77 FR 17004 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Office of Management and Budget. This notice has been determined to be not significant and was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget in conformance with Executive Order 12866. The affected... persons not living in the household; (13) net royalties; and (14) other cash income. Other cash income...

  7. 78 FR 17628 - Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Office of Management and Budget. This notice has been determined to be not significant and was not reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget in conformance with Executive Order 12866. The affected... persons not living in the household; (13) net royalties; and (14) other cash income. Other cash income...

  8. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  9. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  10. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  11. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  12. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  13. Dutch social housing sector reforms : Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income

  14. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A Briggs

    Full Text Available While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies--the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries--can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp. that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ strongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  15. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines the imp...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered.......Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines...

  16. On the Intensity of International Subsidy Competition for FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš HAVRÁNEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories. Three crucial scenarios (coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition are tested employing iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and dynamic Blundell-Bond estimator on the data from the World Competitiveness Yearbook. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported – although there is some weak support for cooperation –, and thus that empirical evidence is not in accordance with the tested models. There is no evidence for a significant international competition for FDI. It seems that, however, by means of FDI incentives, governments try to compensate foreign investors for high wages and low productivity of their countries’ labor force.

  17. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints and linearization. Case studies were conducted with a one node system and the Bus 4 distribution network...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  18. Taxes, subsidies and unemployment - a unified optimization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bajalinov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like a linear programming (LP problem, linear-fractional programming (LFP problem can be usefully applied in a wide range of real-world applications. In the last few decades a lot of research papers and monographs were published throughout the world where authors (mainly mathematicians investigated different theoretical and algorithmic aspects of LFP problems in various forms. In this paper we consider these two approaches to optimization (based on linear and linear-fractional objective functions on the same feasible set, compare results they lead to and give interpretation in terms of taxes, subsidies and manpower requirement. We show that in certain cases both approaches are closely connected with one another and may be fruitfully utilized simultaneously.

  19. Financial Development, Government R&D Subsidies and Green Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the low carbon economic era, green innovation has become an important basis for an enterprise to obtain and maintain a sustained competitive advantage. In paper, explores the path of green innovation using the panel data of 30 regions in China from 2008 to 2014.It finds that financial development has heterogeneity and different dimensions of financial development have different effects on green innovation of enterprises. That is, financial development structure has a negative impact on enterprise green innovation, and financial development efficiency has a positive impact on green innovation. Howere, the impact between financial development scale and green innovation is not significant. In addition, the study also finds that government R&D subsidies has no significantly effect on green innovation. Finally, this paper aims to provide the government and enterprises some theoretical and practical guidance to carry out policy-making of green innovation.

  20. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Kramer, Karen; Msengwa, Amina; Mandike, Renata; Lengeler, Christian

    2014-05-27

    To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007-2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.

  1. Net-zero building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In its experimental work on research and development of innovative technologies for low income housing on the Innovation Site on the CSIR campus in Pretoria, the Building Science and Technology (BST) competence area identified a number...

  2. Probabilistic income-maximizing behavior in regional migration: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, R I; Evans, R D

    1980-01-01

    "This paper provides an empirical test of the hypothesis that migrants consider income risk in their evaluation of the returns to migration in that higher levels of income risk for a given region reduce the rate of net migration into that region." Theoretical approaches to the incorporation of income risk in migration models are first considered, and alternative approaches are then tested using data on white and nonwhite net migration in the United States between 1960 and 1970. The results indicate support for the hypothesis that the extent of net migration is inversely affected by income risk. excerpt

  3. The rule on granting subsidies for survey of hot drainage influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The regulation is established under the provisions of the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law, to execute these provisions. The subsidies under the ordinance for enforcing the law concerning the special account for the measures of promoting power source development are delivered according to the provisions of the regulation as well as the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law. Basic terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities; business for arranging the survey facilities for hot drainage influences; business for the prior-survey of hot drainage; business for the survey of hot drainage influences; place of business; expected date of beginning the operation. The Minister of International Trade Industry delivers subsidies to a prefecture where nuclear power generating facilities are set up or expected to be set up, or its neighboring prefectures to cover all or a part of expenses necessary for the businesses for arranging the survey facilities for hot drainage influences, the prior-survey of hot drainage and the survey of hot drainage influences. Subsidies are paid during the specified periods ranging from 2 to 7 years. The subsidy delivered to a prefecture in each fiscal year is limited to from 5 to 14 million yen. An application for the subsidies shall be filed by an applicant prefecture to the Minister of International Trade Industry, attached with the specified summary reports of a subsidized business and nuclear power generating facilities. (Okada, K.)

  4. Research on a Microgrid Subsidy Strategy Based on Operational Efficiency of the Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Long

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Government subsidy is a powerful tool to motivate the development of a new energy industry. At the early stage of microgrid development, for the sake of the cost and benefit issue, it is necessary for the government to subsidize so as to support and promote the development of microgrids. However, a big challenge in practice is how to optimize the operational efficiency of the microgrid industry chain with varying targets and methods of subsidy. In order to explore this problem, we construct a subsidy model based on the microgrid industry chain, involving government, investor, operator, equipment supplier, and user. Through calculation and solution of this model, we obtain price and return indicators of each microgrid industry chain participant when the subsidy target differs. Based on that, we contrast and compare the optimal subsidy strategy and influencing factors when operational efficiency indicators vary. Finally, we validate and analyze this model with numerical analysis and discuss the impact of development stage, technological level, and change in subsidy amount on the operational efficiency of the microgrid industry chain and on the returns of each participant. This result is of great significance to subsidy practice for microgrids and the development of microgrids.

  5. Welfare implications of the renewable fuel standard with an integrated tax-subsidy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolrud, Tristan D.; Galinato, Gregmar I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper derives the optimal integrated tax-subsidy policy where one input is taxed and revenues are used to subsidize the use of a substitute input to reduce greenhouse gas emissions given the existing policies under the Renewable Fuel Standard policies. We measure the welfare effects and impact on cellulosic ethanol production after implementing the tax-subsidy policy using a general equilibrium model. A revenue-neutral integrated tax-subsidy scheme leads to a small positive tax rate for crude oil and a large positive subsidy for cellulosic ethanol because the former has a larger emissions coefficient than the latter. The overall welfare effects of an integrated tax subsidy scheme are less than a 1% increase for the economy but the growth in the cellulosic ethanol industry could range from 28% to 238% because the revenues from taxing crude oil are directly used to subsidize cellulosic ethanol production. - Highlights: • We derive an integrated tax-subsidy interacting with the Renewable Fuel Standard. • The policy is revenue-neutral. • Policy results in a small crude oil tax and a large cellulosic ethanol subsidy. • Simulations indicate a welfare-increasing optimal policy. • Growth in the cellulosic ethanol industry ranges from 28% to 238%.

  6. An evaluation of the impact of reducing energy subsidies on living expenses of households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboohi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A policy of subsidizing energy has been pursued in the Islamic Republic of Iran to help the poor and to utilize the relative advantages of the country. But it has been realized that energy subsidy has led to market distortion and welfare loss. Hence, elimination of energy subsidy is considered as a crucial matter. Changes in energy policy are hindered by the uncertainty on the impact of reducing energy subsidy on the living expenses of population. In the present article the distribution of resources through energy subsidy is evaluated; and the direct and indirect effect of eliminating energy subsidies on the living expenses is estimated with the help of an analytical tool that has been developed. It is then concluded that additional financial resources obtained from reduction of energy subsidies could be allocated for compensating the decrease in purchasing power of households. The results of analysis reveal that more egalitarian distribution of resources and helping the poor could be achieved through implementation of a progressive policy of social security that is supported by financial resources available from elimination of energy subsidies. (author)

  7. The Tricky Art of Measuring Fossil Fuel Subsidies: A Critique of Existing Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel subsidies are of enormous import to policy-makers and public opinion, making it critical to properly define them. However, traditional methodologies tend to place subsidies in the realm of tax expenditure analysis, presenting a flawed picture. A recent report on government subsidies to the Canadian energy sector prepared for the International Institute for Sustainable Development exemplifies this flawed approach along several dimensions: it is not based on a robust underlying economic framework, it fails to account for complex interactions between tax and royalty systems in existing fiscal policy, and it uses a definition of subsidies that was created for a different purpose. The authors of this paper propose an alternative “economic view”, based on economic rents, which provides a neutral benchmark against which subsidies, royalties and other energy-focused fiscal measures can be measured. Using marginal effective tax rate (METR analysis, the authors show that it is possible to obtain a more accurate picture of energy subsidies and their impact on resource allocation and economic activity. This improved schema will ideally allow governments to better understand subsidies and devise sound policies, leading to less waste and distorted investment choices.

  8. State Transfers, Taxes and Income Inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Medeiros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using a factor decomposition of the Gini coefficient, we measure the contribution to inequality of direct monetary income flows to and from the Brazilian State. The income flows from the State include public sector workers' earnings, Social Security pensions, unemployment benefits, and Social Assistance transfers. The income flows to the State comprise direct taxes and employees' social security contributions. Data come from the Brazilian POF 2008–09. We do not measure indirect contributions to inequality of subsidies granted to and taxation of companies, nor the in-kind provision of goods and services. The results indicate that the State contributes to a large share of family per capita income inequality. Incomes associated with work in the public sector—wages and pensions—are concentrated and regressive. Components related to the private sector are also concentrated, but progressive. Contrary to what has been found in European countries, public spending associated with work and social policies is concentrated in an elite group of workers and, taken as a whole, tends to increase income inequality. Redistributive mechanisms that could reverse this inequality, such as taxes and social assistance, are very progressive but proportionally small. Consequently, their effect is completely offset by the regressive income flows from the State.

  9. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies, te...... with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12-15) is a more important determinant of child achievement than earlier income.......In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies......, tests for early borrowing constraints suggest that parents are not constrained in early investments in their children's achievement, and thus that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state...

  10. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy A.; Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies—the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries—can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp.) that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated) forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ trongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  11. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  12. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  13. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  14. Energy subsidies in Argentina lead to inequalities and low thermal efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas is the main energy resource for buildings in Argentina. Since 2002, subsidies have kept the prices of this fuel between 9 and 26 times lower than regular prices in other countries. The lowest prices are the result of climate-related subsidies. In cold areas, heating uses several times more energy than locations in Europe with a similar climate. A potential for consumption reductions of up to 70% suggests a very low building thermal performance. The main barriers to finding a solution are the heavy subsidies and public unawareness. Users, government officials, and construction professionals do not identify the very low thermal efficiency. Energy policies to encourage improvements are proposed. (author)

  15. Climate policies and learning by doing: Impacts and timing of technology subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2007-01-01

    We study the role of technology subsidies in climate policies, using a simple dynamic equilibrium model with learning by doing. The optimal subsidy rate of a carbon-free technology is high when the technology is first adopted, but falls significantly over the next decades. However, the efficiency costs of uniform instead of optimal subsidies, may be low if there are adjustment costs for a new technology. Finally, supporting existing energy technologies only, may lead to technology lock-in, and the impacts of lock-in increase with the learning potential of new technologies as well as the possibilities for early entry. (author)

  16. The Puzzle of Simultaneous Anti-Dumping and Anti-Subsidy Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    be a surprise, as the same total level of protection may be obtained by using the anti-dumping procedure exclusively. When calculating the two duties in the EU the outcome depends on whether the subsidies are export subsidies or domestic subsidies and this may also cause surprise. This paper addresses...... these puzzles in a theoretical analysis based on a duopoly model for a horizontally differentiated product. We argue that the procedures of two investigations leading to a two-component duty may be rational because it provides an incentive for the offending country and companies to terminate their ‘unfair...

  17. Is College Affordable? Are Loans Manageable? What Do Colleges' Net Price Calculators Show? Policy Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A review of net price calculators--a financial aid tool mandated by the "Higher Education Opportunity Act" of 2008--reveals that students from low-, moderate-, and middle-income families face record-level net prices at 4-year public colleges today. These net prices will translate into levels of average total loan burden far in excess of…

  18. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. 76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... acquisition must be measured under generally accepted accounting principles as referenced in the Act. 12 U.S.C... equity or member interest in the acquirer. Generally accepted accounting principles require this excess... generally accepted accounting principles. For low income-designated credit unions, net worth also includes...

  20. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (b... be recorded in Account 4361 as required by paragraph (a) of this section. (3) The tax effects of... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32...

  1. Size, structure and distribution of transport subsidies in Europe; Die Subventionierung des Verkehrs in Europa. Umfang, Struktur und Verteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckestein, Burkhard (comp.)

    2008-06-15

    Transport contributes to several environmental problems such as climate change, air emissions and noise and is at the same time favoured by significant subsidies. An EEA report identifies European transport subsidies worth at least EUR 270 to 290 billion a year. Road transport receives EUR 125 billion in annual subsidies, most of it as infrastructure subsidies, assuming that taxes on road transport are not regarded as contributions to finance infrastructure. Aviation, as the mode with the highest specific climate impact, gets significant subsidies in the form of preferential tax treatment, in particular exemptions from fuel tax and VAT, which add up to EUR 27 to 35 billion per year. Rail is subsidised with EUR 73 billion per year and benefits the most from other on-budget subsidies. For water-borne transport, EUR 14 to 30 billion in subsidies have been identified. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of the effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy and its effect on rice production in Karanganyar Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadiana, A. T.; Marwanti, S.; Rahayu, W.

    2018-03-01

    The research aims to know the factors which affecting rice production, and to know the effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy on rice production in Karanganyar Regency. The fertilizer subsidy policy was based on four indicators of fertilizer subsidy namely exact price, exact place, exact time, and exact quantity. Data was analyzed using descriptive quantitative and qualitative and multiple linear regression. The result of research showed that fertilizer subsidy policy in Karanganyar Regency evaluated from four indicators was not effective because the distribution of fertilizer subsidy to farmers still experience some mistakes. The result of regression analysis showed that production factors such as land area, use of urea fertilizer, use of NPK fertilizer, and effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy had positive correlation and significant influence on rice production, while labor utilization and use of seeds factors had no significant effect on rice production in Karanganyar Regency. This means that if the fertilizer subsidy policy is more effective, rice production is also increased.

  3. 14 CFR Section 14 - Objective Classification-Nonoperating Income and Expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Income and Expense 80Interest Income. Included under account 89 Other Nonoperating Income and Expense—Net.... 84.2Amortization of premium on debt. Record here for all classes of debt the amortizations of premium on short-term and long-term obligations. (b) [Reserved] [ER-1401, 50 FR 245, Jan. 3, 1985, as amended...

  4. 26 CFR 301.7654-1 - Coordination of U.S. and Guam individual income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determination of the source of income shall be based on the principles contained in sections 861 through 863... collections attributable to income from sources within the United States shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States. (ii) Net collections attributable to income from sources within Guam shall be...

  5. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  6. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  7. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  8. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  10. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  11. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  12. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  13. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-06-15

    A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  14. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  15. How the removal of energy subsidy affects general price in China: A study based on input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhujun; Tan, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    In China, most energy prices are controlled by the government and are under-priced, which means energy subsidies existing. Reforming energy subsidies have important implications for sustainable development through their effects on energy price, energy use and CO 2 emission. This paper applies a price-gap approach to estimate China's fossil-fuel related subsidies with the consideration of the external cost. Results indicate that the magnitude of subsidies amounted to CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008, equivalent to 4.04% of GDP of that year. Subsidies for oil products are the largest, followed by subsidies for the coal and electricity. Furthermore, an input–output model is used to analyze the impacts of energy subsidies reform on different industries and general price indexes. The findings show that removal of energy subsidies will have significant impact on energy-intensive industry, and consequently push up the general price level, yet with a small variation. Removing oil products subsidies will have the largest impact, followed by electricity, coal and natural gas. However, no matter which energy price increases, PPI is always the most affected, then GDP deflator, with CPI being the least. Corresponding compensation measures should be accordingly designed to offset the negative impact caused by energy subsidies reform. - Highlights: • China's fossil-fuel subsidies were CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008 including external cost. • Removing energy subsidies will have the largest impact on energy-intensity industry. • Removal of oil products subsidies will have the largest impact. • The effect of removing energy subsidies on general price is: PPI>GDP deflator>CPI

  16. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-3 - Special rules for computing net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... self-employment. 1.1402(a)-3 Section 1.1402(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-3 Special rules for computing net earnings from self-employment. For the purpose of computing...

  18. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversityverification in Danish greening subsidy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers......’ declarations to war-rant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers’ subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing...... compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014–2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach(proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring...

  19. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies. The development and use of a policy-oriented methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism [nl

  20. Market-based carbon abatement policies: the case of coal subsidy phase-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okogu, B.E.; Birol, F.

    1993-01-01

    The issue of coal subsidies in industrialized countries is explored and basic econometric techniques are used to quantify the impact on carbon emissions of phasing out such subsidies. Components with other measures for reducing global carbon emissions, such as a carbon or energy tax, deregulation of the coal market has at least equal merit in terms of cost, and it is certainly cheaper than engineering-based approaches, moreover, a policy of coal-subsidy phase-out will have a positive impact on the drive for a cleaner global environment and regional problems, such as acid rain. Coal mining is also an important source of the second major greenhouse gas, methane. Yet coal is the least taxed of all fossil fuels and enjoys significant subsidies in a number of industrialized countries. This raised serious doubts about the real intentions of the proposed new energy and environmental taxes in Europe and North America. (3 figures, 3 tables) (UK)

  1. Internal Controls over the Department of Defense Transit Subsidy Program within the National Capital Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Pfeil, Lorin T; Gaich, Walter J; Lawrence, Demetria; Hart, Marcia T; Dickison, Ralph W; Varner, Pamela; Foth, Suellen

    2007-01-01

    DoD personnel with oversight responsibility and personnel working within the DoD transit subsidy program for the National Capital Region should read this report to obtain information about internal...

  2. Mathematical models and methods of assisting state subsidy distribution at the regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Yu V.; Azarnova, T. V.; Kashirina, I. L.; Goroshko, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    One of the most common forms of state support in the world is subsidization. By providing direct financial support to businesses, local authorities get an opportunity to set certain performance targets. Successful achievement of such targets depends not only on the amount of the budgetary allocations, but also on the distribution mechanisms adopted by the regional authorities. Analysis of the existing mechanisms of subsidies distribution in Russian regions shows that in most cases the choice of subsidy calculation formula and its parameters depends on the experts’ subjective opinion. The authors offer a new approach to assisting subsidy distribution at the regional level, which is based on mathematical models and methods, allowing to evaluate the influence of subsidy distribution on the region’s social and economic development. The results of calculations were discussed with the regional administration representatives who confirmed their significance for decision-making in the sphere of state control.

  3. Government inaction on ratings and government subsidies to the US film industry help promote youth smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Millett; Jonathan R Polansky; Stanton A Glantz

    2011-01-01

    Christopher Millett and colleagues examine government inaction on the WHO recommendation for adult content ratings in films with smoking, and highlight the generous film industry subsidies these countries provide.

  4. A note on duplication of R&D and R&D subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Dakhlia; Akram Temimi; Flavio Menezes

    2004-01-01

    We show that the presumed incompatibility of uncoordinated R&D and competition is not fundamental, but hinges on the nature of R&D spillovers. As a consequence, R&D subsidies may be more effective than previously thought.

  5. Government subsidies and demand for petroleum products in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi-Isfahani, D.

    1996-08-01

    Like most other petroleum-exporting countries Iran subsidizes domestic consumption of refined products. Real product prices have declined for the past 25 years while the rest of the world has adjusted to higher energy prices. In this paper I describe the market for petroleum products in Iran and estimate demand functions for the four main refined petroleum products. My results indicate that price elasticities of demand are larger than previously thought. Particular attention is paid to the kerosene market where price subsidy is the largest, and where rationing in the 1980s requires taking into account the working of the black market. The results indicate that price increases can stem the rise in consumption. Forecasts show that, allowing for modest economic growth, increases that bring domestic prices to the level of world prices in fifteen years, will stabilize consumption at its current level. But increases that merely keep real prices constant will double consumption in the same period. This is significant in light of the fact that Iran's production capacity has stayed constant in the last five years and exports are under increasing pressure from domestic consumers of refined products. (UK)

  6. Economising subsidies for green housing features: A stated preference approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Yau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the enormous amounts of energy and resources consumed by housing development and operations, many governments have started recognising the urgent need to promote green or eco-friendly housing with the aim of achieving sustainable development. Apart from regulations, governments can offer incentives to developers to provide green features in their developments by offering subsidies in various forms. However, such subsidisation is often uneconomical. In theory, market forces can lead to green housing provision without any government intervention if the market players are willing to pay extra for the green features of housing. Against this background, this article presents the findings of a study that compared potential homebuyers’ willingness to pay (WTP for various green housing features based on findings from a structured questionnaire survey in Macau. The housing attributes under investigation included uses of green materials (e.g., sustainable forest products and construction methods (e.g., prefabrication, energy-efficient technologies (e.g., LED lighting and water-saving devices (e.g., grey-water recycling systems. Results indicate that the respondents’ WTP was mainly motivated by economic incentives. Green housing attributes that can offer direct financial benefits corresponded to greater WTP. The policy implications of the research findings then follow.

  7. Fossil fuel subsidies and the new EU Climate and Energy Governance Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    There is currently no dedicated process to track the extent of fossil fuel subsidies, nor to ensure that Member States phase them out. This situation is inconsistent with the European Union's stated decarbonization and energy efficiency dimensions under the Energy Union. The EU is therefore in need of an alternative process for tracking and ensuring the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies by the Member States. The new Energy Union governance mechanism presents an opportunity for creating this alternative. Providing the right price signals is essential part of the policy mix that is needed to achieve Europe's climate policy goals. Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies in the EU is an important part of aligning energy prices with the EU's climate and energy goals. Depending on how they are measured, combined fossil fuel subsidies in the EU range from 39 to over euro 200 billion per annum (European Commission, 2014). They therefore constitute a significant source of incoherence between the EU's climate mitigation and fiscal policies for energy. However, there has recently been mixed progress in addressing fossil fuel subsidies in Europe. For instance, under the Europe 2020 Strategy, Member States had committed to begin developing plans for phasing out fossil fuel subsidies by 2020. Progress on implementing these plans was supposed to be monitored under the European Semester. However, the decision was taken to remove the focus on energy and fossil fuel subsidies from the European Semester in 2015. As yet, no new system for governing the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies has been advanced, leaving the question of fossil fuel subsidy reform in limbo. The advent of the EU's Energy Union project creates an opportunity for putting the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies back on track in Europe. This could be done by including requirements for national goal setting on specific kinds of fossil fuel subsidies in a dedicated sub-section of the National Climate and Energy Plans

  8. Nonnative trout impact an alpine-nesting bird by altering aquatic-insect subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanchin, Peter N; Knapp, Roland A; Lawler, Sharon P

    2010-08-01

    Adjacent food webs may be linked by cross-boundary subsidies: more-productive donor systems can subsidize consumers in less-productive neighboring recipient systems. Introduced species are known to have direct effects on organisms within invaded communities. However, few studies have addressed the indirect effects of nonnative species in donor systems on organisms in recipient systems. We studied the direct role of introduced trout in altering a lake-derived resource subsidy and their indirect effects in altering a passerine bird's response to that subsidy. We compared the abundance of aquatic insects and foraging Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches (Leucosticte tephrocotis dawsoni, "Rosy-Finch") at fish-containing vs. fishless lakes in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California (USA). Introduced trout outcompeted Rosy-Finches for emerging aquatic insects (i.e., mayflies). Fish-containing lakes had 98% fewer mayflies than did fishless lakes. In lakes without fish, Rosy-Finches showed an aggregative response to emerging aquatic insects with 5.9 times more Rosy-Finches at fishless lakes than at fish-containing lakes. Therefore, the introduction of nonnative fish into the donor system reduced both the magnitude of the resource subsidy and the strength of cross-boundary trophic interactions. Importantly, the timing of the subsidy occurs when Rosy-Finches feed their young. If Rosy-Finches rely on aquatic-insect subsidies to fledge their young, reductions in the subsidy by introduced trout may have decreased Rosy-Finch abundances from historic levels. We recommend that terrestrial recipients of aquatic subsidies be included in conservation and restoration plans for ecosystems with alpine lakes.

  9. Input subsidies and demand for improved maize : relative prices and household heterogeneity matter!

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein Terje

    2013-01-01

    This study uses simple non-separable farm household models calibrated to household, market, farming and policy context conditions in Central and Southern Malawi. The models are used to simulate how household characteristics, design and access to input subsidies affect the demand for improved maize seeds; how increasing land scarcity affects the cropping system and demand for improved maize; and how access to improved maize seeds affects household welfare with varying access to input subsidies...

  10. NON-PRICE PROMOTION IMPACTS ON COTTON AND SOYBEANS EXPORTS UNDER EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2003-01-01

    Issue of exchange rate-linked subsidies for non-price export promotion has recently emerged as an area of interest among marketing researchers because of fluctuating strength of US dollars and position of US agricultural goods in export markets. One solution to mitigate these impacts was to link the federal export promotion subsidies with the changing value of US dollars. In the study, an equilibrium displacement framework was developed to analyze the effectiveness of exchange rate-linked sub...

  11. The Impacts of Subsidy Policies on Vaccination Decisions in Contact Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Often, vaccination programs are carried out based on self-interest rather than being mandatory. Owing to the perceptions about risks associated with vaccines and the `herd immunity' effect, it may provide suboptimal vaccination coverage for the population as a whole. In this case, some subsidy policies may be offered by the government to promote vaccination coverage. But, not all subsidy policies are effective in controlling the transmission of infectious diseases. We address the question of ...

  12. Do wage subsidies for disabled workers reduce their non-employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Larsen, Mona; Thomsen, Lars Stage

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the potential of wage subsidy programs for reducing non-employment of the disabled by exploiting a reform of the Danish Flexjob scheme targeted towards employing the long-term (partially) disabled. Firms received a salary reimbursement for all employees granted a Flexjob. We examine....... A reduction in subsidies thus leads to a decrease in the hiring of the non-employed disabled....

  13. Aquatic pollution increases use of terrestrial prey subsidies by stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pomeranz, Justin F.; Todd, Andrew S.; Walters, David M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Stream food webs are connected with their riparian zones through cross-ecosystem movements of energy and nutrients. The use and impact of terrestrial subsidies on aquatic consumers is determined in part by in situ biomass of aquatic prey. Thus, stressors such as aquatic pollutants that greatly reduce aquatic secondary production could increase the need for and reliance of stream consumers on terrestrial resource subsidies.

  14. Subsidies to target specialist outreach services into more remote locations: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; McGrail, Matthew R; Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2017-07-01

    Objective Targeting rural outreach services to areas of highest relative need is challenging because of the higher costs it imposes on health workers to travel longer distances. This paper studied whether subsidies have the potential to support the provision of specialist outreach services into more remote locations. Methods National data about subsidies for medical specialist outreach providers as part of the Wave 7 Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) Survey in 2014. Results Nearly half received subsidies: 19% (n=110) from a formal policy, namely the Australian Government Rural Health Outreach Fund (RHOF), and 27% (n=154) from other sources. Subsidised specialists travelled for longer and visited more remote locations relative to the non-subsidised group. In addition, compared with non-subsidised specialists, RHOF-subsidised specialists worked in priority areas and provided equally regular services they intended to continue, despite visiting more remote locations. Conclusion This suggests the RHOF, although limited to one in five specialist outreach providers, is important to increase targeted and stable outreach services in areas of highest relative need. Other subsidies also play a role in facilitating remote service distribution, but may need to be more structured to promote regular, sustained outreach practice. What is known about this topic? There are no studies describing subsidies for specialist doctors to undertake rural outreach work and whether subsidies, including formal and structured subsidies via the Australian Government RHOF, support targeted outreach services compared with no financial support. What does this paper add? Using national data from Australia, we describe subsidisation among specialist outreach providers and show that specialists subsidised via the RHOF or another source are more likely to provide remote outreach services. What are the implications for practitioners? Subsidised specialist outreach providers are

  15. R and D Subsidies and Climate Policy. Is There a 'Free Lunch'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, D.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the long-term nature of the climate problem, technological advances are often seen as an important component of any solution. However, when considering the potential for technology to help solve the climate problem, two market failures exist which lead to underinvestment in climate-friendly R and D: environmental externalities and the public goods nature of new knowledge. As a result, government subsidies to climate-friendly R and D projects are often proposed as part of a policy solution. Using the ENTICE model, I analyze the effectiveness of such subsidies, both with and without other climate policies, such as a carbon tax. While R and D subsidies do lead to significant increases in climate-friendly R and D, this R and D has little impact on the climate itself. Subsidies address the problem of knowledge as a public good, but they do not address the environmental externality, and thus offer no additional incentive to adopt new technologies. Moreover, high opportunity costs to R and D limit the potential role that subsidies can play. While R and D subsidies can improve efficiency, policies that directly affect the environmental externality have a much larger impact on both atmospheric temperature and economic welfare

  16. STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI DIVISI PUBLIC RELATIONS PLN DISTRIBUSI JAWA BARAT DALAM SOSIALISASI SUBSIDI LISTRIK TEPAT SASARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyza Audina Pangesti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis thesis discuss about the communication  strategy which have been implemented by public relationsof PLN due to socializing well-targeted electricity subsidy program in West Java. This Well-targetedelectricity subsidy program is a government program which cuts the electricity subsidy for middleincome homes 900—watt customer, where West Java province is ranked the highest in Indonesia. Thegoal of this research is to know the steps of communication strategy which have been implementedby public relations PLN West Java Distribution due to socializing well-targeted electricity subsidy program. This research uses constructivist paradigm, qualitative approach and case-study research strategy. The data were collected by in depth interview and documentation study. The result revealed thatthe public relations of PLN becomes one of the communicator who planned and give the instructions topublic relations of PLN West Java Distribution in socializing well-targeted electricity subsidy program.The communication strategy steps which have been implemented by public relations of PLN due tosocializing well-targeted electricity subsidy program are determined the communicator, recognizes theaudiences, set the method and last selection and media uses. Key words: Communication Strategy, Public Relations, PT PLN

  17. The rule on granting subsidies for survey of hot drainage influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The rule is based on the prescriptions of the Law Concerning Proper Budget Enforcement on Subsidies and its Enforcement Order. These rules apply to the granting subsidies provided for by the Enforcement Order for the Special Account Law for Measures Promoting Power Source Development. Terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities; arrangement work for equipments for surveying hot drainage influences; work of preliminary survey of hot drainage; work of surveying hot drainage influences; establishments, etc. The Minister of International Trade and Industry delivers the subsidies for all or a part of the expenses necessary for arrangement work of equipments for surveying hot drainage influences, work of preliminary survey of hot drainage and work of surveying hot drainage influences to the prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities have been or are to be set up, or their neighboring prefectures. Terms of delivery concerning an establishment vary from two years to four years according to the kinds of such subsidies. Limits of the subsidies concerning an establishment range from 10 million yen to 2.5 million yen. The applicant prefecture files the application to the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The Minister examines such applications, and notifies his decision to the applicants. Conditions on delivery, reports submitted by receivers of the subsidies and other matters related are specified. (Okada, K.)

  18. Incidence and impact: The regional variation of poverty effects due to fossil fuel subsidy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentschler, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Since fossil fuel subsidy reforms can induce significant distributional shifts and price shocks, effective compensation and social protection programs are crucial. Based on the statistical simulation model by Araar and Verme (2012), this study estimates the regional variability of direct welfare effects of removing fuel subsidies in Nigeria. Uncompensated subsidy removal is estimated to increase the national poverty rate by 3–4% on average. However, uniform cash compensation that appears effective at the national average, is found to fail to mitigate price shocks in 16 of 37 states – thus putting livelihoods (and public support for reforms) at risk. States that are estimated to incur the largest welfare shocks, coincide with hotspots of civil unrest following Nigeria's 2012 subsidy reform attempt. The study illustrates how regionally disaggregated compensation can be revenue neutral, and maintain or reduce pre-reform poverty rates in all states. Overall, it highlights the importance of understanding differences in vulnerability, and designing tailored social protection schemes which ensure public support for subsidy reforms. - Highlights: •Fossil fuel subsidy reforms can induce significant distributional shifts and price shocks. •There is significant regional variation of a reform's effects on poverty rates. •Compensation is key to protect livelihoods and win public support for reform. •Compensation schemes must be carefully tailored to account for regional variation.

  19. Energy savings from housing: Ineffective renovation subsidies vs efficient demolition and reconstruction incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Maarten; Allacker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Energy savings in the housing sector are key to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to incentivize energy savings are however disparate between countries. Taking into account environmental aspects and consumer surplus, the paper uses a stylized economic model to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of three economic instruments: subsidies for renovation, subsidies for demolition and reconstruction projects and subsidies for building new houses on virgin land. The assessment also relates to differentiated value added taxes and other financial incentives such as green loans. In a counter-intuitive way, the model highlights that subsidies for renovations with minor energy gains worsen the overall energy consumption of housing due to the inducement of lock-ins with energy inefficient houses. Structural changes are needed in the use of policy instruments. First, commonly applied support schemes for renovations with minor energy savings should be abolished. Second, scarce public resources should incentivize deep renovation and demolition and reconstruction. Finally, taxes should apply on the use of virgin land to persuade households with a high willingness to pay for a new house, to invest in demolition and reconstruction. - Highlights: • Renovation subsidies worsen overall energy consumption of housing. • Renovation induces a lock-in with energy inefficient houses. • Renovation subsidies should be abolished or structurally reformed. • Policy should incentivize demolition and reconstruction projects. • Building on virgin land should be taxed.

  20. Transportation Costs and Subsidy Distribution Model for Urban and Suburban Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ševrović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport (PT subsidy provides the means to impose the optimal combination of fare and Level of Service (LoS offered to passengers. In regions where one PT operator services multiple local communities on multiple lines it becomes hard to uniformly link the actual cost of a line and thus the LoS offered, to a particular local community. This leads to possible disproportions in the overall subsidy distribution that can result in being unfair to some local communities, mainly the ones that are sparsely populated or geographically isolated. In order to extricate this problem the appropriate level of PT subsidisation according to the average values in the European cities was investigated and the current subsidy policies in Croatia were investigated. Based on this research and the hypothesis that the offered LoS must be reflected in the subsidy amount a new subsidy distribution model was established that involves a series of analytical procedures and processes. This model introduces several factors used for the calculation of the actual share in costs. Thus, the amount of subsidies for individual lines in a region can be determined based on the actual service offered to the local community, The proposed model has been tested and successfully implemented in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in the Republic of Croatia.

  1. Money for nothing? The net costs of medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro P; Machado, Sara R

    2010-09-01

    One of the stages of medical training is the residency programme. Hosting institutions often claim compensation for the training provided. How much should this compensation be? According to our results, given the benefits arising from having residents among the house staff, no transfer (either tuition fee or subsidy) should be set to compensate the hosting institution for providing medical training. This paper quantifies the net costs of medical training, defined as the training costs over and above the wage paid. We jointly consider two effects. On the one hand, residents take extra time and resources from both the hosting institution and the supervisor. On the other hand, residents can be regarded as a less expensive substitute to nurses and/or graduate physicians, in the production of health care, both in primary care centres and hospitals. The net effect can be either positive or negative. We use the fact that residents, in Portugal, are centrally allocated to National Health Service hospitals to treat them as a fixed exogenous production factor. The data used comes from Portuguese hospitals and primary care centres. Cost function estimates point to a small negative marginal impact of residents on hospitals' (-0.02%) and primary care centres' (-0.9%) costs. Nonetheless, there is a positive relation between size and cost to the very large hospitals and primary care centres. Our approach to estimation of residents' costs controls for other teaching activities hospitals might have (namely undergraduate Medical Schools). Overall, the net costs of medical training appear to be quite small.

  2. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  3. The impact of government subsidies and enterprises’ R&D investment: A panel data study from renewable energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Feifei; Guo, Yue; Le-Nguyen, Khuong; Barnes, Stuart J.; Zhang, Weiting

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we aim to understand the influence of government subsidies on enterprises’ research and development (R&D) investment behavior, particularly in China’s renewable energy sector. We are also interested in examining how the attributes of enterprise ownership act as a moderating variable for the relationship between government subsidies and R&D investment behavior. Three classical panel data analysis models including the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) model, the fixed effect model and the random effect model are employed. We find that government subsidies have a significant crowding out influence on enterprises’ R&D investment behavior and that the influence is further moderated by the attributes of enterprise ownership. Moreover, a panel threshold regression model is used to demonstrate how the influence of government subsidies on enterprises’ R&D investment behavior will change when government subsidies increase. Two thresholds, 0.6% and 10.1%, are identified. We recommend that relevant government departments should motivate enterprise R&D investment behavioral intention by increasing subsidies within a certain range. Different attributes of enterprise ownership should also be considered as part of policy reform and re-structuring relating to government subsidies. - Highlights: • Government subsidies have a significant crowding-out effect on enterprises’ R&D. • The moderating role of the attributes of company ownership is examined. • A panel threshold regression model is used to explore the influence of subsidy. • First examining the effect of subsidy in the renewable industry in China.

  4. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  5. A case study: The economic cost of net metering in Maryland: Who bears the economic burden?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.; Cross, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Maryland legislature approved net-metering legislation for residential consumer generators with photovoltaic systems during 1997. Before the legislation passed, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) examined its potential economic impact on both the affected utilities and consumer ratepayers--with and without net-metered PV systems. The MEA discovered that the impact on the affected utility is minimal when the net-metered PV capacity is limited to a small percentage of utility peak load. The analysis also determined that the cost burden on other customers under a net-metered scenario is likewise limited. For Maryland's largest investor-owned utility, the maximum amount of any cross-subsidy (or cost) on a per customer basis is 46 cents annually. Furthermore, their analysis showed that when distribution system savings and environmental externalities are incorporated, net-metered customers may actually subsidize other utility customers. The MEA analysis also determined that about 50% of the value of the energy produced is lost if net metering is not available to those customers with grid tied PV systems. Over the long term, most if not all of any potential cost is borne by other residential customers, not utility shareholders. Finally, the additional cost burden to the utility under net metering--compensating the consumer at the retail rate versus the avoided cost rate--is less than expected when one considers the administrative costs associated with a dual-metered billing approach

  6. 20 CFR 404.1081 - General rules for figuring net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... self-employment. 404.1081 Section 404.1081 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1081 General rules for figuring net earnings from self...

  7. 26 CFR 1.9002-4 - Election to pay net increase in tax in installments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-4 Election to pay net... installments shall be paid upon notice and demand from the district director if any installment under such... unpaid installments shall be paid upon notice and demand from the district director if: (i) In the case...

  8. Netting down gross earnings data in the LIS database: an evaluation of two procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Rense; Munzi, Teresa; Gornick, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    LIS researchers who seek to perform country-comparative and / or trend analyses have to account for the fact that in some LIS datasets income variables were reported net of taxes and social security contributions, while in other datasets income variables were reported gross of taxes and social

  9. 26 CFR 1.1402(b)-1 - Self-employment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-employment income. 1.1402(b)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(b)-1 Self-employment income. (a) In general... this section, the term “self-employment income” means the net earnings from self-employment derived by...

  10. Is comprehensive income required by IAS 1 relevant for users? A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manh-Béna , Anne

    2009-01-01

    Professional accountants have accepted for decades net income a the key performance measure of a business. The IASB decision in 2007 to require the publication of comprehensive income as it has been the case since 1997 in the United States, has fed the long time debate regarding the concept of income. In this paper, we will go through some background about both approaches of income and their consequences in terms of financial reporting. We will then review the related literature, classified a...

  11. Income inequality and population health: a panel data analysis on 21 developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Torre; Mikko Myrskylä

    2011-01-01

    The relative income-health hypothesis postulates that income distribution is one of the key determinants of population health. The discussion on the age and gender patterns of this association is still open. We test the relative income-health hypothesis using a panel data covering 21 developed countries for over 30 years. We find that net of trends in GDP per head and unobserved period and country factors, income inequality, measured by the Gini index, is strongly and positively associated wi...

  12. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  13. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  14. Disability Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  15. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  16. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  17. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  18. Considering environmental aspects of subsidies - sector study housing; Beruecksichtigung von Umweltgesichtspunkten bei Subventionen - Sektorstudie Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, R.U.; Triebswetter, U.; Behring, K.; Rave, T. [Ifo-Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    This study is linked to another study which took stock of German subsidy policy from an environmental point of view (Sprenger and Rave, 2003). However, subsidies are discussed with respect to sector-specific peculiarities of housing in this report. Due to the fact that the housing sector receives a considerable amount of subsidies on the one hand and influences the state of the environment on the other hand (especially due to land use, high energy and resource consumption, waste) this study aims to develop reform option for a subsidy policy which is committed to sustainable development. First of all the ecological impacts of housing and the subsidy intensity of the housing sector are examined more closely. Then we look at some goals of housing policy and contrast them with goals of environmental policy. Some of the subsidies are singled out to determine their potential environmental impact. For example, it can be shown that the home-owner support scheme (Eigenheimzulage) promotes new construction activites in the country side and contributes to urban sprawl. (Other negative environmental side effects occur in social housing schemes and due to tax subsidies). With respect to the home-owner support scheme we propose to lower the basic support (Grundzulage) in a multi-tier system and to introduce an ecological component. This component is based on criteria which can be administered easily (like kind of land used, amount of land designed for construction or housing, number of persons in household). Overall a policy package is proposed which contributes to a considerable reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and land use. (orig.)

  19. Impacts of energy subsidy reform on the Malaysian economy and transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaymani, Saeed; Kari, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is paying a high level of subsidies on the consumption of energy (about 5% of its GDP). Therefore, reforming the energy subsidies, as planned by the government, will have a significant impact on household welfare and energy-intensive sectors, such as the transport sector. This study employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to highlight the transmission channels through which the removal of energy subsidies affects the domestic economy. The findings show that the shock increases real GDP and real investment, while decreasing Malaysian total exports and imports. The removal of energy subsidies also decreases the aggregate energy demand, and, consequently, decreases the level of carbon emissions in the Malaysian economy. In addition, households experience significant falls in their consumption and welfare. The transport sector is significantly influenced through an increase in production costs due to an increase in the prices of intermediate inputs. The total output and total exports of the whole transport sector decrease while its imports increase. In addition, the use of all kinds of transport by households decreases significantly. The Malaysian energy subsidy reform, leads to an initial decrease in CO 2 emissions and demand for electricity, gas, and petroleum products in the entire transport sector. - Highlights: • Malaysia pays a high level of subsidy on consumption of energy. • The transportation sector in this country is the highest energy consumer among others. • A general equilibrium model used to analyse the effects of energy subsidy reform. • The shock increases real GDP and decreases energy and carbon emission in this sector. • It is not beneficial for the transport sector as decreases the output of this sector

  20. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  1. Fossil fuel subsidies in Latin America: the challenge of a perverse incentives structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlino, Hernan; Carlino, Micaela

    2015-11-01

    Fossil fuel subsidies have considerable negative, environmental, economic, and social effects. The reform of the fossil fuel subsidy regime in Latin America and the Caribbean allows us to benefit from the favourable economic, fiscal, social and environmental impacts resulting from the removal of the existing subsidies. The change in the incentives structure for the energy system also facilitates the development of renewable energy, contributing to removing the investment barriers put in place by the current incentives and freeing up fiscal resources that can be re-routed into social policies and help fulfil sustainable development objectives. Despite the benefits of removing the subsidies, experiences in LAC demonstrate that there are substantial barriers standing in the way of subsidy reform, from a wide-reaching social base, that limit the room for the reforms, often causing delays or neutralising them completely. Although the drive for reform has gained impetus both in the region and on a global scale, it is necessary to define a careful reform strategy that protects the most vulnerable groups from potential negative impacts, and which clearly communicates the favourable effects of the various stages of the reforms, eliminating the price distortions that result from wasteful consumption and the inefficient allocation of resources. The reduction in greenhouse gas emissions due to the removal of fossil fuel subsidies is considerable, according to global and regional estimates. The 2015 agreement should promote and facilitate the reforms by recognising their importance, providing technical support for quantifying the impacts, and supplying funding for the transformation processes implied by these reforms. Implementing a work program on the reform of the subsidy regime within the framework of the Convention, with technical and methodological components, should facilitate reforms on a global scale

  2. The Impact of the Subsidy Policy on Total Factor Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of China's Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops one model to explore the relationship between the subsidy policy and the agricultural total factor productivity (TFP. It indicates that the agricultural TFP will be lower after the subsidy policy is implemented and there exists a negative relation between the subsidy and TFP, if subsidies are associated with the acreage. Using Malmquist index, this paper measures the changes of TFP in China's cotton production before and after the subsidy policy is implemented. The results verify that the subsidy policy could not increase but decrease the TFP of China's cotton production, not only in the whole country but also in major provinces of China. Based on the positive study, some policy implications are provided in the end of this paper.

  3. Government Subsidy for Remanufacturing or Carbon Tax Rebate: Which Is Better for Firms and a Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government as a policy maker wishing to promote remanufacturing and proper disposal of hazardous old products which are harmful to environment has taken many actions, ranging from carbon regulation and financial incentives such as trade-in subsidy. However, carbon tax can result in loss of profit for firms to some degree, so the government has to give other subsidy to balance the profits and carbon emission. Thus, this article investigates two subsidy mechanisms: remanufacturing subsidy or tax rebate. The optimal pricing and production decision under these policies are examined. Our results show that carbon tax has a great impact on pricing strategies. Trade-in subsidy can encourage customers to replace their existing products with new and remanufactured products. Both remanufacture subsidy and tax rebate are beneficial to manufacturer and can further promote remanufacturing development.

  4. Estimating the Impact of Means-tested Subsidies under Treatment Externalities with Application to Anti-Malarial Bednets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Debopam; Dupas, Pascaline; Kanaya, Shin

    and its neighbors. Using experimental data from Kenya where subsidies were randomized, coupled with GPS-based location information, we show how to estimate aggregate ITN use resulting from means-tested subsidies in the presence of such spatial spillovers. Accounting for spillovers introduces infinite......-dimensional estimated regressors corresponding to continuously distributed location coordinates and makes the inference problem novel. We show that even if individual ITN use unambiguously increases with increasing incidence of subsidy in the neighborhood, ignoring spillovers may over- or under-predict overall ITN use...... resulting from a specific targeting rule, depending on the resulting aggregate incidence of subsidy. Applying our method to the Kenyan data, we find that (i) individual ITN use rises with neighborhood subsidy-rates, (ii) under means-testing, predicted ITN use is a convex increasing function of the subsidy...

  5. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  6. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  7. GOLD NETTING TO STRENGTHEN FINANCIAL SYSTEM STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed Kameel Mydin Meera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and financial crises seem to occur with increased frequency. Indeed now most countries, including several advanced economies like the US, Europe and Japan, are in serious economic recession. Employment and business opportunities have been much dampened. Inflation seems to be soaring globally and nations are witnessing widening gaps in income and wealth distribution. Many of these advanced economies are also facing shrinking population sizes that translate into aging problems and labor shortages. On top of those, there are environmental issues, including global warming. All these, in turn, have caused regional and global political conflicts and turmoil. The Arab Spring and the sovereign debt problems faced by some European countries like Greece are examples of this. Sustainability of economics and environment is thus of paramount concern of today. This paper considers those problems and suggests Interest-free Gold-based Electronic Netting System (IGENS as an effective way of injecting liquidity into the economy, practically free, that can spur business and employment while bringing about structural stability, inflation checked with both economic and environmental sustainability. Netting or muqassah is a transaction allowed in shari’ah and is practiced worldwide in different forms. Examples include the highly successful WIR Bank of Switzerland, various Local Exchange Trading Schemes (LETS and Bilateral and Multilateral Payment Arrangements between central banks.   Keywords:  Global crisis, Payment system, Gold, Netting, Muqassah, Liquidity, Sustainability, Financial system stability JEL Classification: E40, E42, E51

  8. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  9. The Great Recession and the Social Safety Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The social safety net responded in significant and favorable ways during the Great Recession. Aggregate per capita expenditures grew significantly, with particularly strong growth in the SNAP, EITC, UI, and Medicaid programs. Distributionally, the increase in transfers was widely shared across demographic groups, including families with and without children, single-parent and two-parent families. Transfers grew as well among families with more employed members and with fewer employed members. However, the increase in transfer amounts was not strongly progressive across income classes within the low-income population, increasingly slightly more for those just below the poverty line and those just above it, compared to those at the bottom of the income distribution. This is mainly the result of the EITC program, which provides greater benefits to those with higher family earnings. The expansions of SNAP and UI benefitted those at the bottom of the income distribution to a greater extent. PMID:27065356

  10. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L M; Chriqui, J F; Khan, T; Wada, R; Chaloupka, F J

    2013-02-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be −1.21, −0.52, −0.49 and −0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  13. An AHP decision making model for optimal allocation of energy subsidy among socio-economic subsectors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Ameli, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) decision model for sectoral allocation of energy subsidy based on several criteria. With determination of priorities for these criteria through questionnaire and AHP method, the overall rank of these criteria that have the most influence on distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic sub-sectors, are as the following: inflation, economic growth, labor intensity, distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic levels, energy intensity and social cost of air pollution. According to the model, the first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector and the last priority is related to transportation sector. Investigating the impact of changing priority of the criteria on overall results indicates that the socio-economic sub sectors’ ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria. - Highlights: ► Commerce subsector is the best sub sector with an overall priority score of 0.331. ► The first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector. ► When we increase the priority of each criterion first time, then overall rank of the outcome has little changing. ► The socio-economic sub sectors' ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria.

  14. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Stress and subsidy effects of seagrass wrack duration, frequency, and magnitude on salt marsh community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Torrance C; Kimbro, David L; Hughes, Anne Randall

    2017-07-01

    Environmental perturbations can strongly affect community processes and ecosystem functions by acting primarily as a subsidy that increases productivity, a stress that decreases productivity, or both, with the predominant effect potentially shifting from subsidy to stress as the overall intensity of the perturbation increases. While perturbations are often considered along a single axis of intensity, they consist of multiple components (e.g., magnitude, frequency, and duration) that may not have equivalent stress and/or subsidy effects. Thus, different combinations of perturbation components may elicit community and ecosystem responses that differ in strength and/or direction (i.e., stress or subsidy) even if they reflect a similar overall perturbation intensity. To assess the independent and interactive effects of perturbation components, we experimentally manipulated the magnitude, frequency, and duration of wrack deposition, a common stress-subsidy in a variety of coastal systems. The effects of wrack perturbation on salt marsh community and ecosystem properties were assessed both in the short-term (at the end of a 12-week experimental manipulation) and long-term (6 months after the end of the experiment). In the short-term, plants and associated benthic invertebrates exhibited primarily stress-based responses to wrack perturbation. The extent of these stress effects on density of the dominant plant Spartina alterniflora, total plant percent cover, invertebrate abundance, and sediment oxygen availability were largely determined by perturbation duration. Yet, higher nitrogen content of Spartina, which indicates a subsidy effect of wrack, was influenced primarily by perturbation magnitude in the short-term. In the longer term, perturbation magnitude determined the extent of both stress and subsidy effects of wrack perturbation, with lower subordinate plant percent cover and snail density, and higher Spartina nitrogen content in high wrack biomass treatments

  16. Which Subsidy Mode Improves the Financial Performance of Renewable Energy Firms? A Panel Data Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Companies between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of subsidies in improving the performance of renewable energy firms has aroused significant research attention in recent years. As subsidy modes may affect corporate financial performance,we have chosen companies specializing in wind and solar energy in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as samples.The relationships between the subsidy modes and financial performance of these two types of companies are investigated with a panel data model. Results of the total sample indicate that both indirect and non-innovative subsidy have significant effects on the financial performance of renewable energy companies. The regressive coefficient of the former,however, is a negative value, which illustrates that taxation, bonus, and other market-based mechanisms impair corporate profitability. Moreover, the influence of innovative subsidy is weak, which means that the subsidy used for research and development, technical demonstration, and other innovations of renewable energy enterprises have failed to effectively enhance corporate financial performance. In terms of sub-industries, the direct subsidy for wind energy companies has achieved a significant effect. Incomparison, the indirect subsidy and innovative subsidy acquired by solar energy companies have notably reduced corporate profitability. Thissuggests an urgent reform of subsidy policy for this industry is needed. The government should consider differences in the effects subsidies have for wind and solar energy companies when improving subsidy policy. In addition, market-based subsidy mechanisms should be perfected, and the structure of innovative subsidies should be ameliorated.

  17. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  18. Net private benefits of purchasing eco-labeled air conditioners and subsidization policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Junxiu; Yin, Haitao; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Built on a data set of 527 air conditioner models collected from an online retailer, this study investigates whether the savings that consumers realize on their private electricity bills from purchasing energy-efficient appliances compensate for the additional cost of the appliances on the market, and if not, the size of the gap between the savings and the cost. Our findings show that, except for the most energy-efficient category, the cost savings from using energy-efficient air conditioners does compensate for their higher price. Therefore, any government subsidy should be reserved for the most efficient products. For less energy-efficient appliances, the best policy may be to provide more effective information instead of a subsidy because the subsidy might attract consumers away from more energy-efficient air conditioners and result in an unwanted effect. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the net private benefits of purchasing eco-labeled air conditioners in China. • There is no need to subsidize less energy-efficient air conditioners. • The most recently proposed policy development in China is a reform headed in the right direction

  19. The rule on granting subsidies for survey of hot drainage influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The rule is defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; arrangement business of research equipment for hot drainage influences; pre-research business of hot drainage; research business of hot drainage influences; place of enterprise; and expected time of beginning of the use. The Minister of International Trade and Industry grants subsidies to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities are or are expected to be established, or their neighboring prefectures to support all or a part of expenses of arrangement of research equipment, pre-research and research of hot drainage influences. Limits of subsidies are for a place of enterprise in a prefecture 14 million yen for a fiscal year for arrangement of research equipment, 5 million yen for pre-research and research respectively. Prefectures shall file an application for subsidies to the Minister of International Trade and Industry with gists of business and outlines of nuclear power generating facilities according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the minister shall examine it and notify without delay the decision of delivery and its conditions to the applicant in writing, when such settlement is made. Receivers of subsidies shall present to the minister for each quarter reports of subsidized business. Terms and conditions of delivery and others are prescribed particularly. (Okada, K.)

  20. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for urgent safety measures for atomic power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper enforcement of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to practice these provisions. It is applied to the delivery of subsidies for the expenses of the measures taken beforehand for the security of inhabitants in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities in the emergency time of hazard or the danger of the occurrence of hazard by such facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facilities and others, prefecture concerned, cities, towns and villages concerned, emergency communication network arrangement business, emergency medical facility arrangement business, business of holding hazard prevention course and expected date of beginning operation. Directors of ministries and agencies concerned deliver, if necessary, to prefectures concerned subsidies for all or a part of the expenses needed for the businesses of emergency communication network arrangement, emergency medical facility arrangement and holding hazard prevention course. The terms of delivery and the amounts of subsidies vary according to the kinds of businesses. Prefectures which intend to apply for the delivery of subsidies shall file to the director of the ministry or agency concerned the specified application attaching the operation plans of businesses and the general explanation of atomic power generating facilities, etc. The decision and conditions of delivery, reports on the situations and results of businesses and other related matters are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  1. The potential role of taxes and subsidies on food in the prevention of obesity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zapata, Laura Inés; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Millstone, Erik; Clemente-Gómez, Vicente; Holdsworth, Michelle; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio; Lobstein, Tim; Sarri, Katerina; De Marchi, Bruna; Horvath, Katalin Z

    2010-08-01

    Obesity implies costs not only for the individual but also for society. The authors explore the opinions of stakeholders on the potential of taxes or subsidies, as measures for tackling obesity in Europe. Structured interviews were conducted using Multicriteria Mapping, a computer-based, decision-support tool, with 189 interviewees drawn from 21 different stakeholder categories across nine members of the EU interviews, to appraise 20 predefined policy options aimed at reducing obesity, including 'taxing obesity-promoting foods' and 'subsidising healthy foods.' A four-step approach involved selecting options, defining criteria, scoring options quantitatively and weighting criteria to provide overall rankings of options. Interviews were recorded and transcribed to yield qualitative data. Compared with other policy options appraised, taxation and subsidies were not favourably received, mainly because they were considered difficult to implement. Overall, trade unions rated both options more favourably than all other stakeholder groups. As anticipated, both options received their lowest scores from representatives of the farming, food processing and advertising industries. Nutritional/obesity advisory experts and public sector caterers gave the most positive ratings to subsidies overall. Along with public health professionals, large commercial retailers were most in favour of taxation. Taxation and subsidies were poorly appraised compared with other policy measures, with stakeholders expressing reservations mainly focussed on the practicalities and cost of introducing such measures. Although applying taxes/subsidies could be useful to combat obesity, the study suggests that most stakeholders still need to be convinced of their viability and acceptability when compared with other measures.

  2. Environmental impacts of coal subsidies in Turkey: A general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, Sevil; Yeldan, A. Erinc

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim at providing an analytical framework for Turkey to study the macroeconomics and environmental impacts of the existing coal subsidization scheme. To this end we develop a regionally differentiated applied general equilibrium model spanning over 2015–2030. Our analytical apparatus focuses exclusively on the fiscal implications as well as the environmental repercussions of the removal of the subsidies on greenhouse gas emissions. With the aid of a set of alternative policy scenarios against a “business as usual” path, we study the regional and sectorial performances of growth, employment, investment and capital accumulation, consumption/welfare and trade balance. Our results indicate that by simple elimination of the coal subsidization scheme, Turkey can reduce its aggregate gaseous emissions by as much as 5% without a significant loss in its GDP. - Highlights: • Turkey supports the coal sector providing both production and investment subsidies. • Eliminating production subsidies leads to a 2.5% decline in total CO2(eq) by 2030. • Additionally, removal of regional investment subsidies reduces CO2(eq) by 5.4%. • The macro-effects of both scenarios are found to be quite small. • Coal subsidies could be transferred to the financing of green policy alternatives.

  3. Does subsidy work? Price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccination among the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-ling; Okubo, Ichiro

    2009-08-01

    Subsidy for influenza vaccination is often provided to the elderly in order to encourage them to receive a flu shot in developed countries. However, its effect on uptake rate, i.e., price elasticity of demand, has not been well studied. Japan's decentralised vaccination programme allows observation of various pairs in price and uptake rate of flu shots among the elderly by the municipality from 2001/2002 to 2004/2005 season. We combine our sample survey data (n=281), which monitor price, subsidy and uptake rate, with published data on local characteristics in order to estimate price elasticity of demand with panel model. We find price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccine: nearly zero in nationwide, nearly zero in urban area, and -1.07 in rural area. The results question the rationale for subsidy, especially in urban area. There are cases where maintaining or increasing the level of subsidy is not an efficient allocation of finite health care resources. When organising a vaccination programme, health manager should be careful about the balance between subsidy and other efforts in order to encourage the elderly to receive shots with price elasticity in mind.

  4. Tariffs and subsidy policy for wind energy in the Netherlands and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zuylen, E.J.; Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    1993-04-01

    In the European countries different methods are used to stimulate renewable energy, in particular wind energy. In the Netherlands use is made of investment subsidies to install wind turbines on a large scale. In other countries (in this report Denmark, Germany, Great Britain and a few other countries) mainly use is made of the sellback method: electricity, generated by the wind turbines, is supplied to the grid. Also a combination of investment subsidies and sellback is applied. An overview is given of the financial incentive regulations in the above-mentioned countries. Also attention is paid to the underlying motivation and argumentation for the subsidies, the relation between wind energy subsidies and subsidies for other decentralized power generating options, and the impact of the European Union regulations in this matter. Finally an indication is given of how the regulations are financed: out of the general fund, out of environmental levies or directly from the electric companies. Most of the data presented in this report are the results of interviews with representatives of the different countries. 8 tabs

  5. Fossil fuel subsidy removal and inadequate public power supply: Implications for businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazilian, Morgan; Onyeji, Ijeoma

    2012-01-01

    We briefly consider the impact of fossil fuel subsidy removal policies in the context of inadequate power supply, with a focus on the implications for businesses. In doing so, we utilize the case of the early 2012 fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. The rationale for such subsidy-removal policies is typically informed by analysis showing that they lead to an economically inefficient allocation of resources and market distortions, while often failing to meet intended objectives. However, often the realities of infrastructural and institutional deficiencies are not appropriately factored into the decision-making process. Businesses in many developing countries, already impaired by the high cost of power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive on an unsubsidized basis. We find that justifications for removal often do not adequately reflect the specific environments of developing country economies, resulting in poor recommendations – or ineffective policy. - Highlights: ► We consider the impact of fuel subsidy removal in the context of energy poverty. ► Calls for subsidy removal often do not reflect the developing country realities. ► Businesses impaired by power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive.

  6. Political Connections, Government Subsidies and Technical Innovation of Wind Energy Companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaan Qu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing wind energy is one of the win win measures in response to climate changes and energy security. In order to promote technical innovation in the wind-energy industry, the government grants various fiscal subsidies to wind-energy companies every year. To acquire these subsidies, enterprises often employ those with political backgrounds as members of the board of directors and board of supervisors. On the one hand, the acquisition of subsidies may indeed promote the technical innovation capacity of enterprises, but, on the other hand, due to the existence of “the grabbing hand”, the technical innovation capacity of enterprises may be weakened. We selected 35 Chinese wind-energy listed companies to analyze the relationship between political connections, subsidies and the technical innovation capacity. Results indicate that, political connections to an enterprise weaken its innovative potential and achievement. Moreover, the higher the strength of political connections is, the stronger the negative impact it will bring to the innovative capacity of the enterprise. Modulation of government subsidies, however, can alleviate the negative effects of political connections.

  7. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  8. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  9. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  10. Net returns, fiscal risks, and the optimal patient mix for a profit-maximizing hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozatalay, S; Broyles, R

    1987-10-01

    As is well recognized, the provisions of PL98-21 not only transfer financial risks from the Medicare program to the hospital but also induce institutions to adjust the diagnostic mix of Medicare beneficiaries so as to maximize net income or minimize the net loss. This paper employs variation in the set of net returns as the sole measure of financial risk and develops a model that identifies the mix of beneficiaries that maximizes net income, subject to a given level of risk. The results indicate that the provisions of PL98-21 induce the institution to deny admission to elderly patients presenting conditions for which the net return is relatively low and the variance in the cost per case is large. Further, the paper suggests that the treatment of beneficiaries at a level commensurate with previous periods or the preferences of physicians may jeopardize the viability and solvency of Medicare-dependent hospitals.

  11. Income and Self-Rated Mental Health: Diminished Returns for High Income Black Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The minorities’ diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP generates smaller health gains for racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites. The current study was a Black–White comparison of the association between household income and self-rated mental health (SRMH. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 State of the State Survey (SOSS. With representative sampling, the SOSS generates results that are generalizable to the state of Michigan. This study included 881 adults, (n = 92 Black and (n = 782 White. The independent variable was household income. The dependent variable was SRMH, measured using a single item. Age, gender, and participation in the labor force were covariates. Race/ethnicity was the focal moderator. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results: Overall, higher household income was associated with better SRMH, net of covariates. An interaction was found between race/ethnicity and household income on SRMH, suggesting a smaller, or nonexistent, protective effect for Blacks compared to Whites. In race/ethnicity-stratified models, higher household income was associated with better SRMH for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion: Supporting the minorities’ diminished return theory, our study documents differential effects for income on SRHM for Blacks and Whites, where Whites but not Blacks appear to benefit from their income. Given this, researchers and policy makers are cautioned against making assumptions that racial groups benefit equally from similar economic resources.

  12. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  13. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  14. A PRACTICAL STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF THE INCENTIVE SUBSIDY TO BUS NETWORK IN KUMAMOTO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Shoshi; Fujimi, Toshio; Hirano, Toshihiko

    Recently, the number of passenger of public bus services in Japan tends to decrease due to the motorization. This condition leads to a severe management situation, including in Kumamoto City. Since 1984, the deficit of bus companies operation in provision of bus services in Kumamoto has been covered by Kumamoto City Government on the basis of lines subsidy, and the city allocated a number of subsidy of about 200 million yen in 2007. Currently, The Kumamoto city government plans to reduce the amount of subsidy to bus companies by introducing the giving of incentive to bus companies in order to trim bus company deficit. This study aims to construct the mathematical model of the incentive reward and apply the model to realignment of buses lines networks in Kumamoto Metropolitan Area.

  15. Economic and Environmental Effects of Public Transport Subsidy Policies: a Spatial CGE Model of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays an important role in the environment. This study established a Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (SCGE model to examine the economic and environmental effects of public transport subsidy policies. The model includes firms, consumers, and traffic modules in one framework. Statistical data from Beijing were used in calibration to obtain benchmark equilibrium. Based on the equilibrium, simulations compared citywide social welfare, jobs-housing spatial population distribution, and environmental outputs under four subsidy policies: fare subsidy, cash grants, road expansion, and public transport speedup. Based on the results regarding the effects of public transport policies, conclusions can be drawn about which policies will have greater overall social influence and should therefore be used.

  16. Effectiveness of Subsidies in Technology Adoption: A Case Study Involving Reverse Osmosis (RO Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Laili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of new technologies is a process that involves technological learning and penetration of new products into the market. Within the process of new technologies adoption, government usually intervened by providing incentives, in order to support the technology adoption to be succeed. This paper examines the effectiveness of incentives for the sustainability of reverse osmosis (RO membrane technology adoption. The study conducted through single case study on SWRO installation in Mandangin Island, East Java, Indonesia. Results of case study indentify the existence of government incentive in the form of direct subsidies to decrease the price of clean water. Although successful in reducing the price of water, but effectiveness of the subsidy on the sustainability of SWRO is still low, which is operates only 30% in a year. Further analysis shows that these subsidies actually be counter-productive to the sustainability of SWRO installation.

  17. Cross-Subsidies and Government Transfers: Impacts on Electricity Service Quality in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An affordable and reliable supply of electricity service is essential to encourage sustainable social development in developing countries. Colombia uses cross-subsidies to prompt electricity usage for poor households. This raises the issue of whether charging lower prices to poor households, while boosting their consumption, induces utilities to lower the quality of service received by them. This paper uses unique databases and examines how underfunded cross-subsidies affect perceived electricity service quality across consumer groups. Results indicate that when facing financial deficits, utilities provide lower perceived service quality to subsidized consumers than to residents paying surcharges. The difference in perceived quality across consumer groups is reduced by an increase in the amount of (external government transfers. To prompt electricity consumption by the poor, the Colombian government should fund subsidies, strengthen quality regulation, and increase the transparency and reliability of government transfers.

  18. Nuclear Electric: the misuse of the subsidy and the case for the immediate closure of Magnox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The nature and purpose of fossil fuel levy which creates a subsidy for the nuclear industry is discussed. It is claimed that without the subsidy the operation of Magnox and AGR stations generates electricity at a loss. This means that most of the fossil fuel levy is being used to make up Nuclear Electric's losses. The rest is mostly being used to build the Sizewell-B power plant. This is in contrast to the popular belief and understanding that the subsidy is for decommissioning old plants, and cleaning up accumulated spent fuels and other wastes. The economics of the Magnox stations are discussed and Nuclear Electric's claim that closing them would not stop the losses is challenged. (U.K.)

  19. The conflicting economic and environmental logics of North American governance : NAFTA, energy subsidies, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roff, R.J.; Krajnc, A.; Clarkson, S.

    2003-01-01

    One of the incentives behind the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was to promote a green economy. It offered the hope that environmentally sustainable trade was possible through provisions against downward harmonization, the respect for state autonomy in environmental regulation, and the creation of the Commission for Environmental Co-operation. However, cleaner energy trade has actually been inhibited by subsidies for fossil fuel development, government's inability to regulate the rate of resource depletion, and by favoring the priorities of transnational corporations. The authors reviewed perverse subsidies and recommended a combination of environmentally sensitive policy changes, such as the elimination of perverse subsidies, the subsidization of environmentally friendly energy sources, and the imposition of carbon taxes and demand-side management initiatives. 67 refs., 1 fig

  20. Are tax subsidies for private medical insurance self-financing? Evidence from a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Nicolás, Angel; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2008-09-01

    This paper develops an empirical strategy to estimate whether subsidies to private medical insurance are self-financing in countries where public and private insurance coexist and the latter covers the same treatments as the former. We construct a simulation routine based on a micro-econometric discrete choice model that allows us to evaluate the impact of premium changes on the utilization of outpatient and inpatient health care services. As an application, we estimate the budgetary effects of scrapping a subsidy from the purchase of individual private policies, using micro-data from Catalonia. Our results suggest that the subsidy is not self-financing. This result is driven by the fact that private medical insurance holders make concurrent use of public and private services, and by the price inelasticity of the demand for private policies.

  1. Functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland and other European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marks-Bielska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland. Given the profitable nature of this instrument the particular attention has been paid to the disposal of funds received by agricultural producers in the region of Warmia and Mazury in the form of subsidies. There is no doubt that the direct payments represent an important aid instrument supporting agriculture within the frameworks of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy. The survey revealed that subsidies have significantly contributed to the improvement of financial condition of farms. Funds received in the form of direct payments have been mainly spent on financing current expenditures and to purchase means of production used in the farms (72.88%.

  2. The economics of gasoline subsidy cost reduction policy: Case study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaya, Muhammad I.

    A gasoline subsidy distorts the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies and takes substantial revenues that arguably could be spent elsewhere with a better impact on economic growth. Governments with such subsidies are aware of their cost yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This thesis discusses in three essays the problem faced by the government in removing the gasoline subsidy and provides an alternative policy in reducing the subsidy cost applied to the case of Indonesia. In the first essay, we examine the decision-making process from the government's perspective that has an objective of generating savings to fund other programs while maintaining political power, and the influence that the general population has over the decision. Despite the immense literature on political power, there has yet to be any research that mathematically models the decision-making process of a government with influences from the general population. Under the benchmark scenario, the equilibrium strategy is to keep the subsidy intact. However, the results are found to be very sensitive to the magnitude of the shift in political power as well as the preferences of both the government and the people. In the second essay, we estimate the cross-price elasticity of regular gasoline with respect to premium gasoline price. The importance of such knowledge is to accurately determine the impact of fuel pricing policy that tends to have different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the grade of gasoline. Using data on the Mexican gasoline market, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline is found to be -0.895, which confirms high substitutability among gasoline with different grades. In the third essay, we look at the unique case of Indonesia that

  3. 75 FR 53368 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... of the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation's Default or Insolvency August 26, 2010. Pursuant to Section... netting of the Government Securities Division (``GSD'') in the event of FICC's default or insolvency. II...

  4. Does the DHET research output subsidy model penalise high-citation publication? A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande X. Harley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available South African universities are awarded annual subsidy from the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET based on their research publication output. Journal article subsidy is based on the number of research publications in DHET-approved journals as well as the proportional contribution of authors from the university. Co-authorship with other institutions reduces the subsidy received by a university, which may be a disincentive to collaboration. Inter-institutional collaboration may affect the scientific impact of resulting publications, as indicated by the number of citations received. We analysed 812 journal articles published in 2011 by authors from the University of Cape Town’s Faculty of Health Sciences to determine if there was a significant relationship between subsidy units received and (1 citation count and (2 field-weighted citation impact. We found that subsidy units had a significant inverse relationship with both citation count (r= -0.247; CI = -0.311 – -0.182; p"less than"0.0001 and field-weighted citation impact (r= -0.192; CI= -0.258 – -0.125; p"less than"0.0001. These findings suggest that the annual subsidy awarded to universities for research output may inadvertently penalise high-citation publication. Revision of the funding model to address this possibility would better align DHET funding allocation with the strategic plans of the South African Department of Science and Technology, the National Research Foundation and the South African Medical Research Council, and may better support publication of greater impact research.

  5. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  6. Energy auditing in connection with subsidy schemes for energy saving investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broend, Evald

    1979-07-01

    A review of the energy situation in Denmark is presented. Government subsidies for investments aiding projects aimed at reducing process energy consumption are discussed. The law serves as an incentive for the implementation of energy saving measures which would not otherwise be carried out because they would not be sufficiently economic. Subsidies of up to 40% of the amount invested are available. The special form of energy auditing carried out on the part of society concerning industrial energy consumption and some idea of how energy auditing is practiced in the individual enterprise are discussed.

  7. European Commission study on energy costs and subsidies in the EU. Report for EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien; Perekhodtsev, Dmitri; Verhaeghe, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) has launched a study in order to provide a complete and consistent view on the subsidies and external costs associated with different power generation technologies. Such study is expected to provide input for policy making in years to come. FTI CL Energy has been mandated by EDF to provide a critical review of the methodology developed in the EC study, and to identify potential gaps in coverage and/or contestable assumptions. The study provides a description of best practice to improve the methodology and surveys the literature to provide a range of estimates for critical assumptions on costs and subsidies

  8. Federal income taxation of the U. S. petroleum industry and the depletion of domestic reserves. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, S. J.; Mount, T. D.

    1978-10-01

    This paper models in a dynamic framework the production activities of the United States petroleum industry in an attempt to measure the effects of the federal income tax on reserve depletion. This model incorporates general corporate taxes, including the capital subsidies, excess depreciation and the investment tax credit, and taxes unique to the industry: drilling subsidies and percentage depletion. Because corporate response to tax incentives depends on market power and behavior, three behavioral assumptions are tested for consistency with the 1960 to 1974 data period before the tax policies are simulated. These assumptions are perfect competition, profit monopoly, and sales monopoly. The tax policies simulated at the end of this paper present six possible alternatives for future petroleum industry taxation. Sales monopoly is selected as the behavioral assumption that best describes petroleum industry behavior. Tax simulations under sales monopoly reveal that historical income tax policies have kept oil prices artificially low, stimulating (subsidizing) reserve depletion.

  9. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  10. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  11. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  12. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  13. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  14. Determinants of income inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Afandi, Akhsyim; Rantung, Vebryna Permatasari; Marashdeh, Hazem

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether changing economic structure, social conditions, and financialization are responsible for increased income inequality in Indonesia. By employing panel data of 32 provinces in Indonesia that spans from 2007 to 2013, it finds that structural change affects income inequality, increased share of finance reduces inequality, which is against the financialization hypothesis, and social conditions have expected effects on income inequality. While an increased share of both ...

  15. Volunteering, income and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara; Baert, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.

  16. 5 CFR 792.217 - Are part-time Federal employees eligible for the child care subsidy program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are part-time Federal employees eligible... the Child Care Subsidy Program Legislation and to Whom Does It Apply? § 792.217 Are part-time Federal employees eligible for the child care subsidy program? Federal employees who work part-time are eligible for...

  17. Determinants of farmers’ willingness to participate in subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zones - a choice experiment study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Oersted

    2011-01-01

    Danish farmers have been far less interested in agri-environmental subsidy schemes (AES) than anticipated. In order to examine how to improve the appeal of such schemes, a choice experiment was conducted concerning 444 Danish farmers’ preferences for subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zone...

  18. Corporate income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Popová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    1 RESUMÉ Corporate Income Tax The aim of this diploma thesis on "Corporate Income Tax" is to outline the current legal background of the corporate income tax and asses and evaluate the most substantial changes regarding the Act no. 586/1992 Coll., Income Tax Act, as amended that have become effective as of January 1, 2014. The changes discussed in this thesis include especially, but are not limited to, the changes adopted in connection with the recodification of Czech Civil Law. This thesis c...

  19. Net smart how to thrive online

    CERN Document Server

    Rheingold, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Like it or not, knowing how to make use of online tools without being overloaded with too much information is an essential ingredient to personal success in the twenty-first century. But how can we use digital media so that they make us empowered participants rather than passive receivers, grounded, well-rounded people rather than multitasking basket cases? In Net Smart, cyberculture expert Howard Rheingold shows us how to use social media intelligently, humanely, and, above all, mindfully. Mindful use of digital media means thinking about what we are doing, cultivating an ongoing inner inquiry into how we want to spend our time. Rheingold outlines five fundamental digital literacies, online skills that will help us do this: attention, participation, collaboration, critical consumption of information (or "crap detection"), and network smarts. He explains how attention works, and how we can use our attention to focus on the tiny relevant portion of the incoming tsunami of information. He describes the quality...

  20. Solar energy and Grenelle: to build a national sector and not to waste 62 billions Euros in uncontrolled subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourde, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the various financial supports and subsidies associated with renewable energies in France in 2007. He briefly discusses the benefit of solar energy in terms of carbon emission and in terms of housing architecture, and outlines the strong unbalance between these subsidies and R and D funding: this funding is only the tenth of the awarded subsidies. He shows that the various financial supports and subsidies have been misappropriated by importers, fitters and financiers, and also outlines that these supports are socially unfair. Then, the author proposes how to better distribute these supports and subsidies, and outlines the need for a stronger support awarded to R and D for a better development of this industrial sector