WorldWideScience

Sample records for net income loss

  1. 26 CFR 1.857-5 - Net income and loss from prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income and loss from prohibited transactions... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-5 Net income and loss... equal to 100 percent of the net income derived from prohibited transactions. A prohibited transaction is...

  2. 26 CFR 1.860C-2 - Determination of REMIC taxable income or net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of REMIC taxable income or net... REMIC taxable income or net loss. (a) Treatment of gain or loss. For purposes of determining the taxable income or net loss of a REMIC under section 860C(b), any gain or loss from the disposition of any asset...

  3. 26 CFR 1.172-5 - Taxable income which is subtracted from net operating loss to determine carryback or carryover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1955 net operating loss 3,000 Adjusted gross income 6,000 Less: Deduction for medical expense ($410... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxable income which is subtracted from net... taxable income is to be deducted. Thus, for such purposes, the net operating loss for the loss year or any...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of net... claim for credit or refund relates to an overpayment of income tax attributable to a net operating loss... net operating loss deduction or capital loss carryback (or the effect of such deduction or carryback...

  5. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  6. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  7. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  8. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  9. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  10. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-7 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.1402(a)-7...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-7 Net operating loss deduction. The deduction provided by section 172, relating to net operating losses sustained in years other...

  12. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  13. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  14. 47 CFR 32.7990 - Nonregulated net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be recorded on separate books of account for such operations. Only the net of the total revenues... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated net income. 32.7990 Section 32... Nonregulated net income. (a) This account shall be used by those companies who offer nonregulated activities...

  15. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... total of $30,000. The undistributed net income of the trust at the close of taxable year 1963 is $28,500...,500 Total 31,500 Undistributed net income 28,500 Example 2. The facts are the same as in example 1...

  16. 26 CFR 1.642(d)-1 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.642(d)-1 Section 1.642(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(d)-1 Net operating loss...

  17. 26 CFR 1.702-2 - Net operating loss deduction of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction of partner. 1.702-2 Section 1.702-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-2 Net operating loss deduction of...

  18. 78 FR 6781 - Net Investment Income Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of public... paragraph heading Sec. 1.1411-4 Definition of net investment income., Sec. 1.1411-4(c)(2), line 3, the...

  19. 47 CFR 36.506 - Net current deferred operating income taxes-Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred operating income taxes-Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes-Account 4340. 36.506 Section 36.506... operating income taxes—Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes—Account 4340. (a...

  20. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers in the study area, evaluate the costs and returns of maize production in the study area, and evaluate factors affecting ...

  1. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-0 - Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributable net income; deduction for... § 1.643(a)-0 Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general. The term distributable net income has no application except in the taxation of estates and trusts and their beneficiaries. It...

  3. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement. OMB Control Number... to obtain current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a...

  4. 47 CFR 32.4100 - Net current deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred operating income taxes. 32... Accounts § 32.4100 Net current deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance... appropriate deferred income tax shall be reclassified from Account 4340, Net Noncurrent Deferred Operating...

  5. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1A - Undistributed net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1A Section 1... income (see § 1.665(d)-1A) 2,190 Total 22,190 Undistributed net income 7,910 (b) Foreign trusts. The... income from Country X sources for a total of $30,000. The undistributed net income of the trust at the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.857-3 - Net income from foreclosure property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income from foreclosure property. 1.857-3 Section 1.857-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-3 Net income from foreclosure...

  7. 26 CFR 1.408-11 - Net income calculation for returned or recharacterized IRA contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income calculation for returned or... Internal Revenue Code section that the return of a contribution be accompanied by the amount of net income... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus...

  8. 24 CFR 203.421 - Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund income or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.421 Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund... of the entire Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, such net income or such loss to the General Surplus... into consideration all income received from fees, premiums and earnings on investments of the fund...

  9. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-2 - Distributions in excess of distributable net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions in excess of distributable net income. 1.652(a)-2 Section 1.652(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....652(a)-2 Distributions in excess of distributable net income. If the amount of income required to be...

  10. 47 CFR 32.4350 - Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... included in the determination of book income or for the tax effect of nonoperating expenses and... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income... Sheet Accounts § 32.4350 Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income taxes. (a) This account shall...

  11. 47 CFR 32.4340 - Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... book income or for the tax effect of revenues and expenses from regulated operations which have been... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes... Sheet Accounts § 32.4340 Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include...

  12. 47 CFR 32.4110 - Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes... Sheet Accounts § 32.4110 Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance of income tax expense resulting from comprehensive interpreted tax allocation which has...

  13. The transition from No Net Loss to a Net Gain of biodiversity is far from trivial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Brownlie, S.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of No Net Loss and Net Gain have emerged as key principles in conservation policy. Both give rise to mechanisms by which certain unavoidable biodiversity losses associated with development are quantified, and compensated with comparable gains (e.g. habitat restoration). The former...... seeks a neutral outcome for biodiversity after losses and gains are accounted for, and the latter seeks an improved outcome. Policy-makers often assume that the transition from one to the other is straightforward and essentially a question of the amount of compensation provided. Consequently, companies...... increasingly favour Net Gain type commitments, and financial institutions make lending conditional on either objective, depending on the habitat involved. We contend, however, that achieving Net Gain is fundamentally different to achieving No Net Loss, and moving from one to the other is less trivial than...

  14. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment trust taxable...

  15. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  16. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement. OMB Control Number...

  17. Multiple regression analysis of the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Wa; Xiao, Hong; Zhuo, Ma

    2009-01-01

    We use the regression analysis method of multivariate statistical analysis to establish a multiple linear regression model about the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during the year 2007. This paper analyzes the internal relation between the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households according to the regression result. Some reasonable suggestions are put forward for raising the income of rural households and stimulating consumption.

  18. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are includible in gross investment income. Therefore, for example, interest received on a student loan... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on net investment income. 53.4940-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940...

  19. 47 CFR 32.7250 - Provision for deferred operating income taxes-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Accounts § 32.7250 Provision for deferred operating income taxes—net. (a) This account shall be charged or credited, as appropriate, with contra entries recorded to the following accounts for income tax expense... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for deferred operating income taxes...

  20. 47 CFR 32.7910 - Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Income Accounts § 32.7910 Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences—net. This account shall include the impact on revenues and expenses of the jurisdictional ratemaking practices which vary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking...

  1. 26 CFR 1.172-10 - Net operating losses of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating losses of real estate investment... (continued) § 1.172-10 Net operating losses of real estate investment trusts. (a) Taxable years to which a loss may be carried. (1) A net operating loss sustained by a qualified real estate investment trust (as...

  2. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  3. The Value of a Purposeful Life: Sense of Purpose Predicts Greater Income and Net Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Burrow, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    Having a sense of purpose in life appears valuable across life domains, though it remains unclear whether purpose also provides financial value to individuals. The current study examined sense of purpose as a predictor of concurrent and longitudinal income and net worth levels, using two waves of the MIDUS sample of adults (N = 4660 across both assessments). Participants who reported a higher sense of purpose had higher levels of household income and net worth initially, and were more likely to increase on these financial outcomes over the nine years between assessments. Interaction tests suggested some evidence of age moderation, but gender did not appear to moderate the influence of purpose on economic outcomes.

  4. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  5. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue Code of 1939. War loss recoveries are considered as made first on account of war losses allowable... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  6. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement, VA Form 21-527. OMB Control Number: 2900-0002...

  7. Depressive symptoms, unemployment, and loss of income: The CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooley, Mary A; Kiefe, Catarina I; Chesney, Margaret A; Markovitz, Jerome H; Matthews, Karen; Hulley, Stephen B

    Previous studies have suggested an association between depression and low socioeconomic status, but few have empirically examined the effect of depressive symptoms on income and employment over time. To determine whether depressive symptoms are associated with subsequent unemployment or loss of family income. We performed a prospective cohort study of 5115 adults aged 18 to 30 years. These participants included approximately equal numbers of African Americans and whites and men and women from 4 cities in the United States who completed the 1990-1991 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. For this analysis, we included 2334 participants who were employed full or part time and who reported an annual family income of $25 000 or more. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and were considered to have depressive symptoms if they scored 16 or higher on the 60-point scale. We evaluated self-reported unemployment and annual family income during 5 years of follow-up. Thirty-three percent (118/354) of participants with depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score >/=16) in 1990-1991 and 21% (335/1581) of participants without substantial depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score education, history of unemployment, current part-time (vs full-time) employment, and cigarette smoking (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.0; P =.001). Seventeen percent (62/371) of participants with depressive symptoms and 7% (113/1631) of participants without substantial depressive symptoms in 1990-1991 reported that their family income had decreased below $25 000 by 1995-1996 (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.8; P<.001). This association also remained strong after adjusting for potential confounding variables (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.7; P<.001). Depressive symptoms are associated with subsequent

  8. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ....Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources ] and Housing Branch, New Executive Office... current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a claimant's...

  9. 26 CFR 1.172-2 - Net operating loss in case of a corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... real estate investment trusts. For taxable years ending after October 4, 1976, the net operating loss of a qualified real estate investment trust (as defined in § 1.172-10(b)) is computed by taking into... allowed in computing the net operating loss of a qualified real estate investment trust. ...

  10. 26 CFR 1.172-6 - Illustration of net operating loss carrybacks and carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of net operating loss carrybacks and carryovers. 1.172-6 Section 1.172-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Corporations (continued) § 1.172-6 Illustration of net operating loss carrybacks and carryovers. The...

  11. Buffering income loss due to unemployment: Family and welfare state influences on income after job loss in the United States and western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Martin

    2012-07-01

    This article analyzes how the family and the welfare state influence household income trajectories after job loss in the United States and in western Germany. Drawing on panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), I study the income buffering effects of the family and the welfare state in the short an in the long run after job loss. I demonstrate that household income trajectories after job loss in the two countries are similar for couple households. However, men in the United States rely relatively more on family resources to overcome income loss, whereas German men's incomes are secured mostly by the welfare state. Women's unemployment in both countries is mainly buffered by their partners' higher earnings. Because single households have no access to family support, they face much higher losses in the United States than in Germany. I also show that the more generous German welfare state triggers less private self-help in the form of increased labor force participation on the part of women when their partners lose their jobs. Over time, the family has become more important in buffering incomes after job loss in the United States which smoothed men's and roughened women's income trajectories in couple households. In Germany, worsening re-employment chances increased income losses in the long run after job loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Money, well-being, and loss aversion: does an income loss have a greater effect on well-being than an equivalent income gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Banks, James; Clark, Andrew E; Brown, Gordon D A

    2013-12-01

    Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses affect well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined in relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective-well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the United Kingdom (N = 20,570), we found that losses in income have a larger effect on well-being than equivalent income gains and that this effect is not explained by diminishing marginal benefits of income to well-being. Our findings show that loss aversion applies to experienced losses, challenging suggestions that loss aversion is only an affective-forecasting error. By failing to account for loss aversion, longitudinal studies of the relationship between income and well-being may have overestimated the positive effect of income on well-being. Moreover, societal well-being might best be served by small and stable income increases, even if such stability impairs long-term income growth.

  13. Who buffers income losses after job displacement? The role of alternative income sources, the family, and the state

    OpenAIRE

    Fackler, Daniel; Hank, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Using survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), this paper analyses to what extent alternative income sources, reactions within the household context, and redistribution by the state attenuate earnings losses after job displacement. Applying propensity score matching and fixed effects estimations, we find high individual earnings losses after job displacement and only limited convergence. Income from selfemployment slightly reduces the earnings gap and severance payments buffer...

  14. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  15. Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, A.; Walker, W.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Houghton, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The carbon balance of tropical ecosystems remains uncertain, with top-down atmospheric studies suggesting an overall sink and bottom-up ecological approaches indicating a modest net source. Here we use 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world’s tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year–1). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year–1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year–1. Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses.

  16. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  17. Government net income in the fuel alcohol marketing; Estimativa do saldo do governo na comercializacao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnaro, Caetano

    1992-12-31

    This study aims to analyse the fuel price formation structures in order to estimate the governmental net income in fuel alcohol marketing and to develop a mathematical model to forecast these estimates under alternative economic scenarios. Three scenarios - an optimistic, an intermediary and a pessimistic were set up through intuitive projections and the mathematical model developed was applied to them. 33 refs., 9 tabs.

  18. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Neutrophil NETs in reproduction: from infertility to preeclampsia and the possibility of fetal loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinuhe eHahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this review is to provide an overview of the potential role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in mammalian reproduction. Neutrophil NETs appear to be involved in various stages of the reproductive cycle, starting with fertility and possibly ending with fetal loss. The first suggestion that NETs may play a role in pregnancy-related disorders was in preeclampsia, where vast numbers were detected in the intervillous space of affected placentae. The induction of NETosis involved an auto-inflammatory component, mediated by the increased release of placental micro-debris in preeclampsia. This report was the first indicating that NETs may be associated with a human pathology not involving infection.Subsequently, NETs have since then been implicated in bovine or equine infertility, in that semen may become entrapped in the female reproductive during their passage to the oocyte. In this instance interesting species-specific differences are apparent, in that equine sperm evade entrapment via expression of a DNAse-like molecule, whereas highly motile bovine sperm, once free from seminal plasma that promotes interaction with neutrophils, appear impervious to NETs entrapment.Although still in the realm of speculation it is plausible that NETs may be involved in recurrent fetal loss mediated by anti-phospholipid antibodies, or perhaps even in fetal abortion triggered by infections with microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes or B. abortus.

  20. Seeking convergence on the key concepts in "no net loss" policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Gordon, Ascelin; Watson, James E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation policies incorporating a no net loss (NNL) principle are being implemented in many countries. However, there are linguistic and conceptual inconsistencies in the use of terms underlying these NNL policies. We identify inconsistencies that emerge in the usage of eight key...... terms and phrases associated with NNL policies: biodiversity, frames of reference (i.e. baselines, counterfactuals), no net loss, mitigation hierarchy, biodiversity offset, in-kind/out-of-kind, direct/indirect and multipliers. For each term, we make recommendations to support conceptual convergence....... The recommendations made in this article, on improving clarity and supporting convergence on key no net loss (NNL) concepts, should help eliminate ambiguity in policy documentation. This is crucial if policymakers are to design robust policies that are (i) transparent, (ii) translatable into practice in a consistent...

  1. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  2. Job loss and unmet health care needs in the economic recession: different associations by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Birkenmaier, Julie; Kim, Youngmi

    2014-11-01

    We examined heterogeneous associations between job loss and unmet health care needs by family income level in the recent economic recession. We conducted logistic regression analyses with the sample from the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (n = 12,658). Dependent variables were 2 dichotomous measures of unmet health care needs in medical and dental services. The primary independent variables were a dummy indicator of job loss during a 2-year period and the family income-to-needs ratio. We used an interaction term between job loss and the family income-to-needs ratio to test the proposed research question. Job loss was significantly associated with the increased risk of unmet health care needs. The proportion with unmet needs was highest for the lowest-income unemployed, but the association between job loss and health hardship was stronger for the middle- and higher-income unemployed. The unemployed experience health hardship differently by income level. A comprehensive coordination of applications for unemployment and health insurance should be considered to protect the unemployed from health hardship.

  3. Estimating local biodiversity change: a critique of papers claiming no net loss of local diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrew; Cardinale, Bradley J; Allington, Ginger R H; Byrnes, Jarrett; Arthur Endsley, K; Brown, Daniel G; Hooper, David U; Isbell, Forest; O'Connor, Mary I; Loreau, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Global species extinction rates are orders of magnitude above the background rate documented in the fossil record. However, recent data syntheses have found mixed evidence for patterns of net species loss at local spatial scales. For example, two recent data meta-analyses have found that species richness is decreasing in some locations and is increasing in others. When these trends are combined, these papers argued there has been no net change in species richness, and suggested this pattern is globally representative of biodiversity change at local scales. Here we reanalyze results of these data syntheses and outline why this conclusion is unfounded. First, we show the datasets collated for these syntheses are spatially biased and not representative of the spatial distribution of species richness or the distribution of many primary drivers of biodiversity change. This casts doubt that their results are representative of global patterns. Second, we argue that detecting the trend in local species richness is very difficult with short time series and can lead to biased estimates of change. Reanalyses of the data detected a signal of study duration on biodiversity change, indicating net biodiversity loss is most apparent in studies of longer duration. Third, estimates of species richness change can be biased if species gains during post-disturbance recovery are included without also including species losses that occurred during the disturbance. Net species gains or losses should be assessed with respect to common baselines or reference communities. Ultimately, we need a globally coordinated effort to monitor biodiversity so that we can estimate and attribute human impacts as causes of biodiversity change. A combination of technologies will be needed to produce regularly updated global datasets of local biodiversity change to guide future policy. At this time the conclusion that there is no net change in local species richness is not the consensus state of knowledge.

  4. A quantitative assessment of policy options for no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; van Teeffelen, A.J.A.; Tucker, G.; Verburg, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union includes a target to "ensure no-net-loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2020". Many policy options can be envisioned to achieve such a no-net-loss target, mainly acting on land use and land management. To assess the effectiveness of such

  5. Physical activity and nutritional weight loss interventions in obese, low-income women: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moredich, Cheryl A; Kessler, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the United States and is considered a public health issue that disproportionally affects low-income women. Combating obesity among low-income women presents unique challenges that must be addressed if weight loss interventions are to be successful. The aim of this integrative review was to explore and synthesize the literature that addresses physical activity and nutrition interventions used to combat obesity in obese, low-income women. A search for original research published between 2006 and 2011 was conducted in online databases. In addition, a hand search of references was performed, and one author was contacted to clarify outcome data. Articles that met inclusion criteria targeted obese, low-income adult women; focused on physical activity or nutrition behavior as an intervention; and measured change in weight as a primary outcome. Studies that focused on women who were postpartum or breastfeeding and those that used pharmacologic or surgical interventions to augment weight loss were excluded. A total of 7 articles were chosen for critical appraisal. According to a synthesis of the current studies, specific weight loss interventions for physical activity and nutrition behavior change for obese, low-income women produced the desired outcome of weight loss. Participants among these studies voiced a preference for group interventions led by peers or medical professionals. Interventions led by peer educators were successful and had the advantage of lowering cost and increasing sustainability. Pragmatic nutrition education worked best, especially when cognizant of cost, food preferences, and culture. Even small increases in physical activity augmented weight loss; however, safety concerns prevented some low-income women from engaging in exercise. According to this synthesis of the best-available evidence, customized weight loss interventions are effective in obese, low-income women. By incorporating these evidence-based interventions

  6. 26 CFR 1.668(b)-3A - Computation of the beneficiary's income and tax for a prior taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of tax that should have been properly paid. (b) Effect of allocation of undistributed net income on items based on amount of income and with respect to a net operating loss, a charitable... income on a net operating loss carryback or carryover, a charitable contributions carryover, or a capital...

  7. ​Affordable natural product reduces fruit losses, increases incomes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poor handling of fruit results in post-harvest losses of nearly 40% in tropical countries. This project aims to extend the harvest and improve fruit quality and shelf life. It builds on an earlier Canadian International Food Security Research Fund project, which demonstrated that hexanal (a widely used biochemical compound) ...

  8. Proximity to safety-net clinics and HPV vaccine uptake among low-income, ethnic minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gee, Gilbert C; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-04-12

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake remains low. Although publicly funded programs provide free or low cost vaccines to low-income children, barriers aside from cost may prevent disadvantaged girls from getting vaccinated. Prior studies have shown distance to health care as a potential barrier to utilizing pediatric preventive services. This study examines whether HPV vaccines are geographically accessible for low-income girls in Los Angeles County and whether proximity to safety-net clinics is associated with vaccine initiation. Interviews were conducted in multiple languages with largely immigrant, low-income mothers of girls ages 9 to 18 via a county health hotline to assess uptake and correlates of uptake. Addresses of respondents and safety-net clinics that provide the HPV vaccine for free or low cost were geo-coded and linked to create measures of geographic proximity. Logistic regression models were estimated for each proximity measure on HPV vaccine initiation while controlling for other factors. On average, 83% of the 468 girls had at least one clinic within 3-miles of their residence. The average travel time on public transportation to the nearest clinic among all girls was 21min. Average proximity to clinics differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Latinas had both the shortest travel distances (2.2 miles) and public transportation times (16min) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The overall HPV vaccine initiation rate was 25%. Increased proximity to the nearest clinic was not significantly associated with initiation. By contrast, daughter's age and insurance status were significantly associated with increased uptake. This study is among the first to examine geographic access to HPV vaccines for underserved girls. Although the majority of girls live in close proximity to safety-net vaccination services, rates of initiation were low. Expanding clinic outreach in this urban area is likely more important than increasing geographic access to the

  9. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (b... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits expected to reduce future taxes... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits previously recorded in this account...

  10. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Net financial gain or loss from vaccination in pediatric medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Margaret S; Lindley, Megan C; Ekong, John; Rodewald, Lance

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to determine the net return (gain or loss after costs were subtracted from revenues) to private pediatric medical practices from investing time and resources in vaccines and vaccination of their patients. A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of private medical practices requested data on all financial and capacity aspects of the practices, including operating expenses; labor composition and wages/salaries; private- and public-purchase vaccine orders and inventories; Medicaid and private insurance reimbursements; patient population; numbers of providers; and numbers, types, and lengths of visits. Costs were assigned to vaccination visits and subtracted from reimbursements from public- and private-pay sources to determine net financial gains/losses from vaccination. Thirty-four practices responded to the survey. More than one half of the respondents broke even or suffered financial losses from vaccinating patients. With greater proportions of Medicaid-enrolled patients served, greater financial loss was noted. On average, private insurance vaccine administration reimbursements did not cover administration costs unless a child received > or = 3 doses of vaccine in 1 visit. Finally, wide ranges of per-dose prices paid and reimbursements received for vaccines indicated that some practices might be losing money in purchasing and delivering vaccines for private-pay patients if they pay high purchase prices but receive low reimbursements. We conclude that the vaccination portion of the business model for primary care pediatric practices that serve private-pay patients results in little or no profit from vaccine delivery. When losses from vaccinating publicly insured children are included, most practices lose money.

  12. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  13. Gestational weight gain and subsequent postpartum weight loss among young, low-income, ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould Rothberg, Bonnie E; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2011-01-01

    Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by the Institute of Medicine. Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (n = 427). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within Institute of Medicine guidelines. There were 62% that exceeded maximum recommendations-more common among those overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25.0; P weight gain and retention documented among smokers and women with pregnancy-induced hypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all P weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spending limited resources on de-extinction could lead to net biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joseph R; Maloney, Richard F; Steeves, Tammy E; Brazill-Boast, James; Possingham, Hugh P; Seddon, Philip J

    2017-03-01

    There is contentious debate surrounding the merits of de-extinction as a biodiversity conservation tool. Here, we use extant analogues to predict conservation actions for potential de-extinction candidate species from New Zealand and the Australian state of New South Wales, and use a prioritization protocol to predict the impacts of reintroducing and maintaining populations of these species on conservation of extant threatened species. Even using the optimistic assumptions that resurrection of species is externally sponsored, and that actions for resurrected species can share costs with extant analogue species, public funding for conservation of resurrected species would lead to fewer extant species that could be conserved, suggesting net biodiversity loss. If full costs of establishment and maintenance for resurrected species populations were publicly funded, there could be substantial sacrifices in extant species conservation. If conservation of resurrected species populations could be fully externally sponsored, there could be benefits to extant threatened species. However, such benefits would be outweighed by opportunity costs, assuming such discretionary money could directly fund conservation of extant species. Potential sacrifices in conservation of extant species should be a crucial consideration in deciding whether to invest in de-extinction or focus our efforts on extant species.

  15. Hypothyroidism is a predictor of disability pension and loss of labor market income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. AIM: Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group......, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. METHODS: This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed...... before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market...

  16. Hyperthyroidism is associated with work disability and loss of labour market income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    1:4) controls as well as 584 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. Singletons and twins were followed for a mean of 9 years (range 1-20). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the risk of disability pension and a difference-in-differences model was used to evaluate changes......, with respect to disability pension and labour market income, were seen within monozygotic twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. CONCLUSION: Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe work disability as reflected by an 88% increased risk of receiving disability pension and a significant loss of labour...

  17. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution

    OpenAIRE

    Komenaka, Ian K.; Nodora, Jesse N.; Madlensky, Lisa; Lisa M. Winton; Heberer, Meredith A.; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mut...

  18. Importance of baseline specification in evaluating conservation interventions and achieving no net loss of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J W; Gordon, A; Law, E A; Suttle, K B; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-06-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the effects of the choice of reference frame on whether interventions met stated objectives. We developed 2 models to investigate the implications of setting different frames of reference in regions subject to various biodiversity trends and anthropogenic impacts. First, a general analytic model evaluated offsets against a range of baseline and counterfactual specifications. Second, a simulation model then replicated these results with a complex real world case study: native grassland offsets in Melbourne, Australia. Both models showed that achieving NNL depended upon the interaction between reference frame and background biodiversity trends. With a baseline, offsets were less likely to achieve NNL where biodiversity was decreasing than where biodiversity was stable or increasing. With a no-development counterfactual, however, NNL was achievable only where biodiversity was declining. Otherwise, preventing development was better for biodiversity. Uncertainty about compliance was a stronger determinant of success than uncertainty in underlying biodiversity trends. When only development and offset locations were considered, offsets sometimes resulted in NNL, but not across an entire region. Choice of reference frame determined feasibility and effort required to attain objectives when designing and evaluating biodiversity offset schemes. We argue the choice is thus of fundamental importance for conservation policy. Our results shed light on situations in which biodiversity offsets may

  19. Mining and biodiversity offsets: a transparent and science-based approach to measure "no-net-loss".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virah-Sawmy, Malika; Ebeling, Johannes; Taplin, Roslyn

    2014-10-01

    Mining and associated infrastructure developments can present themselves as economic opportunities that are difficult to forego for developing and industrialised countries alike. Almost inevitably, however, they lead to biodiversity loss. This trade-off can be greatest in economically poor but highly biodiverse regions. Biodiversity offsets have, therefore, increasingly been promoted as a mechanism to help achieve both the aims of development and biodiversity conservation. Accordingly, this mechanism is emerging as a key tool for multinational mining companies to demonstrate good environmental stewardship. Relying on offsets to achieve "no-net-loss" of biodiversity, however, requires certainty in their ecological integrity where they are used to sanction habitat destruction. Here, we discuss real-world practices in biodiversity offsetting by assessing how well some leading initiatives internationally integrate critical aspects of biodiversity attributes, net loss accounting and project management. With the aim of improving, rather than merely critiquing the approach, we analyse different aspects of biodiversity offsetting. Further, we analyse the potential pitfalls of developing counterfactual scenarios of biodiversity loss or gains in a project's absence. In this, we draw on insights from experience with carbon offsetting. This informs our discussion of realistic projections of project effectiveness and permanence of benefits to ensure no net losses, and the risk of displacing, rather than avoiding biodiversity losses ("leakage"). We show that the most prominent existing biodiversity offset initiatives employ broad and somewhat arbitrary parameters to measure habitat value and do not sufficiently consider real-world challenges in compensating losses in an effective and lasting manner. We propose a more transparent and science-based approach, supported with a new formula, to help design biodiversity offsets to realise their potential in enabling more responsible

  20. Timing of the compensation of winter respiratory carbon losses provides explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity of forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc (e.g. climate, nutrients......DOY depended on the integration method for NEPc, forest type, and whether the site had a distinct winter net respiratory carbon loss or not. The integration methods starting in autumn led to better predictions of NEPc from cDOY then the classical calendar method starting at January 1. Limited explanatory power...... of cDOY for NEPc was found for warmer sites with no distinct winter respiratory loss period. Our findings highlight the importance of the influence of winter processes and the delayed responses of previous seasons’ climatic conditions on current year's NEPc. Such carry-over effects may contain...

  1. Importance of Baseline Specification in Evaluating Conservation Interventions and Achieving No Net Loss of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J W; Gordon, A; Law, E A; Suttle, K B; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the effects of the choice of reference frame on whether interventions met stated objectives. We developed 2 models to investigate the implications of setting different frames of reference in regions subject to various biodiversity trends and anthropogenic impacts. First, a general analytic model evaluated offsets against a range of baseline and counterfactual specifications. Second, a simulation model then replicated these results with a complex real world case study: native grassland offsets in Melbourne, Australia. Both models showed that achieving NNL depended upon the interaction between reference frame and background biodiversity trends. With a baseline, offsets were less likely to achieve NNL where biodiversity was decreasing than where biodiversity was stable or increasing. With a no-development counterfactual, however, NNL was achievable only where biodiversity was declining. Otherwise, preventing development was better for biodiversity. Uncertainty about compliance was a stronger determinant of success than uncertainty in underlying biodiversity trends. When only development and offset locations were considered, offsets sometimes resulted in NNL, but not across an entire region. Choice of reference frame determined feasibility and effort required to attain objectives when designing and evaluating biodiversity offset schemes. We argue the choice is thus of fundamental importance for conservation policy. Our results shed light on situations in which biodiversity offsets may

  2. Initial loss of productive days and income among women seeking induced abortion in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Rukmini; Fetters, Tamara; Phirun, Lam

    2008-01-01

    The study describes the loss of productive time and income related to abortion care and care-seeking among 110 women presenting at public and private sector abortion providers in Cambodia. Data were collected through women's exit interviews, and descriptive analysis was used to examine lost time and income against a number of explanatory variables, such as gestational age of pregnancy, type of abortion provider and facility, type of uterine evacuation procedure, number of health visits, and the woman's occupation. Results indicate that lost time and earnings increase with the number of visits to obtain the termination, gestational age, and selection of a private physician or non-governmental organization clinic. Lost time and earnings also vary by the woman's type of employment. The study underscores the need for safer, accessible, and more affordable abortion services in order to ensure that these services are available for all women. Even in the Cambodian context, where abortion is unrestricted during the first trimester of pregnancy, the study findings show that the process of searching for and obtaining high-quality abortion care was unnecessarily complicated and costly to women and their household members.

  3. Schooling and wage income losses due to early-childhood growth faltering in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Peet, Evan; Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-07-01

    The growth of >300 million children human capital and financial losses due to growth faltering in early childhood are not available. We quantified the economic cost of growth faltering in developing countries. We combined the most recent country-level estimates of linear growth delays from the Nutrition Impact Model Study with estimates of returns to education in developing countries to estimate the impact of early-life growth faltering on educational attainment and future incomes. Primary outcomes were total years of educational attainment lost as well as the net present value of future wage earnings lost per child and birth cohort due to growth faltering in 137 developing countries. Bootstrapped standard errors were computed to account for uncertainty in modeling inputs. Our estimates suggest that early-life growth faltering in developing countries caused a total loss of 69.4 million y of educational attainment (95% CI: 41.7 million, 92.6 million y) per birth cohort. Educational attainment losses were largest in South Asia (27.6 million y; 95% CI: 20.0 million, 35.8 million y) as well as in Eastern (10.3 million y; 95% CI: 7.2 million, 12.9 million y) and Western sub-Saharan Africa (8.8 million y; 95% CI: 6.4 million, 11.5 million y). Globally, growth faltering in developing countries caused a total economic cost of $176.8 billion (95% CI: $100.9 billion, $262.6 billion)/birth cohort at nominal exchange rates, and $616.5 billion (95% CI: $365.3 billion, $898.9 billion) at purchasing power parity-adjusted exchange rates. At the regional level, economic costs were largest in South Asia ($46.6 billion; 95% CI: $33.3 billion, $61.1 billion), followed by Latin America ($44.7 billion; 95% CI: $19.2 billion, $74.6 billion) and sub-Saharan Africa ($34.2 billion; 95% CI: $24.4 billion, $45.3 billion). Our results indicate that the annual cost of early-childhood growth faltering is substantial. Further investment in scaling up effective interventions in this area is

  4. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan; Poweo resultats du 1. semestre 2006. Resultat net positif, mise en oeuvre des 1. etapes du plan industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre.

  5. Winter respiratory C losses provide explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.; Gessler, A.; Zielis, S.; Bernhofer, C.; Carrara, A.; Grünwald, T.; Havránková, K.; Heinesch, B.; Marek, M.; Moors, E.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Buchmann, N.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc

  6. Net loss of CaCO3 from coral reef communities due to human induced seawater acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, A.J.; Kuffner, I.B.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Tan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3) incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC=CaCO3 production – dissolution) was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.04 mmol CaCO3 m−2h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century. Nevertheless, individual corals remained healthy, actively calcified (albeit slower than at present rates), and deposited significant amounts of CaCO3 under the prevailing experimental seawater conditions of elevated pCO2.

  7. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Madlensky, Lisa; Winton, Lisa M; Heberer, Meredith A; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mutation profile for affected women. All 125 patients who were offered GCRA accepted to undergo GCRA. Of these, 72 % had a breast cancer diagnosis, 70 % were Hispanic, 52.8 % were non-English speakers, and 66 % did not have health insurance. Eighty four (67 %) were offered genetic testing and 81 (96 %) agreed. Hispanic women, those with no medical insurance, and those with a family history of breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo testing (p > 0.01). Twelve of 81 (15 %) patients were found to have deleterious mutations, seven BRCA1, and five BRCA2. Our experience shows that it is possible to offer GCRA and genetic testing even in the setting of limited resources for these services. This is important given that a large majority of the low-income women in our study agreed to undergo counseling and testing. Our experience could serve as a model for similar low-resource safety-net health settings.

  8. 78 FR 54971 - Limitations on the Importation of Net Built-In Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... tax in the hands of the transferor, the first condition for classification as importation property is... condition for classification as importation property is satisfied. Property is importation property only if... property to corporations that are subject to Federal income tax. The proposed regulations affect the...

  9. Timing of the compensation of winter respiratory carbon losses provides explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity of forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.

    2017-01-01

    , and Australia, using different NEPc integration methods. We found cDOY to be a particularly powerful predictor for NEPc of temperate evergreen needle-leaf forests (R2 = 0.58) and deciduous broadleaf forests (R2 = 0.68). In general, the latest cDOY correlated with the lowest NEPc. The explanatory power of c......Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc (e.g. climate, nutrients......) are not entirely understood yet, particularly when considering the influence of past periods. Here we explored the explanatory power of the compensation day (cDOY) —defined as the day of year when winter net carbon losses are compensated by spring assimilation— for NEPc in 26 forests in Europe, North America...

  10. Remote sensing as a tool for watershed-wide estimation of net solar radiation and water loss to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.; Thomas, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study intended to develop a general remote sensing-aided cost-effective procedure to estimate watershed-wide water loss to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration and to estimate net solar radiation over the watershed. Evapotranspiration estimation employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Net solar radiation is taken as one of the variables at each level of evapotranspiration modeling. The input information for models requiring spatial information will be provided by Landsat digital data, environmental satellite data, ground meteorological data, ground sample unit information, and topographic data. The outputs of the sampling-estimation/data bank system will be in-place maps of evapotranspiration on a data resolution element basis, watershed-wide evapotranspiration isopleths, and estimates of watershed and subbasin total evapotranspiration with associated statistical confidence bounds. The methodology developed is being tested primarily on the Spanish Creek Watershed Plumas County, California.

  11. Examining the Likelihood of Experiencing Productivity Loss and Receiving Social Security Disability Income Following the Onset of Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besen, Elyssa; Jetha, Arif; Gaines, Brittany

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the likelihood of reporting productivity loss and receiving social security disability (SSD) income following a chronic health condition diagnosis using a longitudinal panel design. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the likelihood of reporting productivity loss or receiving SSD following the diagnosis of arthritis, cancer, psychological problems, or heart conditions. Respondents reporting a new diagnosis of a condition were matched with five similarly aged respondents not reporting a diagnosis. For all conditions except cancer, the odds of reporting productivity loss and receiving SSD increased at both the wave where the condition was first reported and 2 years after for respondents reporting a condition compared with those not reporting a condition. The onset of chronic disease increases the likelihood of experiencing productivity loss and receiving SSD.

  12. Self-Efficacy Scale for Weight Loss among Multi-Ethnic Women of Lower Income: A Psychometric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…

  13. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Results Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8% of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9% with healthy babies (p = Conclusions This study highlights the greatly increased vulnerability of women with perinatal death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  14. A pilot study comparing two weight loss maintenance interventions among low-income, mid-life women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Johnston, Larry F; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Lindsley, Sara C; Gold, Alison D; Braxton, Danielle F; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2013-07-15

    Despite high obesity prevalence rates, few low-income midlife women participate in weight loss maintenance trials. This pilot study aims to assess the effectiveness of two weight loss maintenance interventions in this under-represented population. Low-income midlife women who completed a 16-week weight loss intervention and lost  ≥ 8 lbs (3.6 kg) were eligible to enroll in one of two 12-month maintenance programs. The programs were similar in content and had the same number of total contacts, but were different in the contact modality (Phone + Face-to-Face vs. Face-to-Face Only). Two criteria were used to assess successful weight loss maintenance at 12 months: (1) retaining a loss of  ≥ 5% of body weight from the start of the weight loss phase and (2) a change in body weight of  weight loss maintenance. Overall, during the 12-month maintenance period, 41% (24/58) of participants maintained a loss of  ≥ 5% of initial weight and 43% (25/58) had a weight. None of the comparisons between the two maintenance programs were statistically significant. However, improvements in blood pressure and dietary behaviors remained significant at the end of the 12-month maintenance period for participants in both programs. Participant attendance and acceptability were high for both programs. The effectiveness of two pilot 12-month maintenance interventions provides support for further research in weight loss maintenance among high-risk, low-income women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00288301.

  15. Trying to lose weight: the association of income and age to weight-loss strategies in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Gauvin, Lise; Barnett, Tracie A; Paradis, Gilles

    2014-06-01

    Two thirds of the U.S. population is overweight or obese, but those living in poverty are disproportionately affected. Although 30%-50% of Americans report currently trying to lose weight, some strategies may be counterproductive. Little is known about how income may be associated with weight-loss strategies. This study aims to determine the association between income and weight-loss strategies in the general U.S. population. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were collected in 1999-2010 and analyzed in 2012. Annual household income was categorized as lose weight, respectively. Youth from households with income <$20,000/year were 2.5 times (95% CI=1.8, 3.5) more likely to use inconsistent strategies, but this association was not observed among adults. Stronger efforts to emphasize weight-loss strategies consistent with recommendations and the distinction between consistent and inconsistent strategies are needed, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  17. Mom-net: Evaluation of an internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral intervention for low-income depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Feil, Edward G; Seeley, John R; Leve, Craig; Gau, Jeff M; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Allan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Economically disadvantaged mothers (N = 266) of preschool aged children, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to Motivational Interviewing and Referral to Services (MIRS). Outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I Disorders (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS; Hamilton, 1960). Relative to participants in the MIRS condition, participants in Mom-Net demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression as indexed by self-report questionnaire (primary outcome), interviewer-rated symptoms, and diagnostic outcomes. Results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is effective as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Counterintuitive proposals for trans-boundary ecological compensation under "No Net Loss" biodiversity policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Abatayo, Anna Lou; Strange, Niels

    2017-01-01

    to stakeholders when they are not experts? We surveyed 691 students with limited or no knowledge of NNL policy across three countries, eliciting perceptions of what constitutes sufficient ecological compensation for forest habitat losses from infrastructure development. NNL policies assume that biodiversity...... compensation should be: close to development impacts; greater than losses; smaller, given a background trend of biodiversity decline; and, smaller when gains have co-benefits for biodiversity. However, survey participant proposals violated all four principles. Participants proposed substantial forest...... could deserve consideration. The findings also support proposals to incorporate social considerations into compensation ratios for NNL. Wherever the rationale underlying NNL is discovered to be counterintuitive insofar as relevant stakeholders are concerned, careful communication of policy intentions...

  19. Race/Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Income Are Not Demographic Drivers of Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients at a Diverse Safety Net Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya A. Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code, and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p=0.006, age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p=0.014, and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p<0.0001. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes.

  20. 26 CFR 1.823-6 - Determination of statutory underwriting income or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and... small companies), subject to the limitations provided therein. (b) Definitions—(1) Statutory... satisfaction of the district director that the failure to mail such notice within the prescribed period was due...

  1. Turbulence induces metabolically costly behaviors and inhibits food capture in oyster larvae, causing net energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Specht, Jaclyn A; Adams, Diane K; Christman, Adam J

    2017-10-01

    Planktotrophic invertebrate larvae require energy to develop, disperse and settle successfully, and it is unknown how their energetics are impacted by turbulence. Ciliated larvae gain metabolic energy from their phytoplankton food to offset the energetic costs of growth, development and ciliary activity for swimming and feeding. Turbulence may affect the energetic balance by inducing behaviors that alter the metabolic costs and efficiency of swimming, by raising the encounter rate with food particles and by inhibiting food capture. We used experiments and an empirical model to quantify the net rate of energy gain, swimming efficiency and food capture efficiency for eyed oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) in turbulence. At dissipation rates representative of coastal waters, larvae lost energy even when food concentrations were very high. Both feeding activity and turbulence-induced behaviors incurred high metabolic costs. Swimming efficiency was concave up versus dissipation rate, suggesting that ciliary activity for food handling became more costly while swimming became more efficient with turbulence intensity. Though counter-intuitive, swimming may have become more efficient in turbulence because vorticity-induced rotation caused larvae to swim more horizontally, which requires less effort than swimming vertically against the pull of gravity. Overall, however, larvae failed to offset high activity costs with food energy gains because turbulence reduced food capture efficiency more than it enhanced food encounter rates. Younger, smaller larvae may have some energetic advantages, but competent larvae would lose energy at turbulence intensities they experience frequently, suggesting that turbulence-induced starvation may account for much of oysters' high larval mortality. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Self-care behavior change and depression among low-income predominantly Hispanic patients in safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunsung; Ell, Kathleen; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether changes in self-care behaviors during a 12-month period predicted the likelihood of screening positive for depression concurrently and prospectively among low-income Hispanic patients with diabetes. Secondary analyses were conducted with longitudinal data collected from a randomized controlled trial that had tested effectiveness of collaborative depression care. We examined whether changes in self-care behaviors observed during the 12 months after baseline predicted the likelihood of screening positive for depression at 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Self-care behaviors included healthy diet, exercise, self-blood glucose monitoring, and foot care, which were measured by a validated self-reported instrument. Logistic regression analyses indicated that patients with more frequent healthy diet during the 12 months after baseline had significantly lower likelihood of depression. Patients with more frequent exercise had a lower likelihood of screening for depression at 18- and 24-month follow-up. No significant association was found with self-blood glucose monitoring and foot care. These findings suggest the importance of integrated care that emphasizes healthy diet and exercise, together with traditional depression treatment, when helping low-income Hispanic patients with diabetes and comorbid depression.

  3. VALUASI EKONOMI KEHILANGAN MANFAAT BERSIH AKIBAT BIAYA KESEHATAN PENGGUNAAN PESTISIDA KIMIA (Economic Valuation of Net Benefit Loss Due to Health Cost of Chemical Pesticides Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mengingat pestisida merupakan bahan beracun, maka penggunaannya juga menimbulkan  risiko kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengestimasi bsarnya kehilangan manfaat bersih akibat adanya eksternalitas yang diakibatkan oleh penggunaan pestisda kimia. Manfaat yang hilang ditentukan menghitung selisih antara manfaat bersihmaksimum dihitung dengan menggunakan konsep yang mendalilkan bahwa manfaat bersih marjinal sama dengan biaya eksternal marjinal. Manfaat bersih marjinal diturunkan dari fungsi produksi, sedangkan biaya eksternal marjinal diperoleh dari fungsi biaya kesehatan yang telah diestimasi oleh peneliti sebelumnya. Studi ini menggunakan data nasional produksi padi mulai tahun 1974 sampai dengan 2000. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa kehilangan manfaat bersih akibat biaya kesehatan karena penggunaan pestisida sangat tinggi. Kehilangan manfaat bersih yang sangat tinggi ini terjadi karena elastisitas produksi dari pestisida terhadap padi sangat kecil.   ABSTRACT Since pesticide is a poisonous agent, its use also causes health risk. The objective of this study is to estimate the value of net benefit loss associated with chemical pestiside uses. The net benefit loss is determined by finding the difference between actual value of net benefit and maximum value of net benefit of pesticides use. The maximum value of net benefit can be obtained by employing the concept postulating that the net benefit is occurred when the marginal net benefit is aqual to marginal external cost. The marginal net benefit is derived from estimated production function of rice, whereas the marginal external cost is obtained by adopting health cost function of pesticides use that has been estimated by previous researchers. The study utilized the national data of rice production and agro-chemical input use during from 1974 to 2000. The results of the study show that there are extremely high net benefit losses associated with health costs of pesticides use. It is

  4. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  5. 47 CFR 32.7100 - Other operating income and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other operating income and expenses. 32.7100....7100 Other operating income and expenses. This account shall be used to record the results of... net gain or loss. This account shall include the following: (a) Profits realized from custom work...

  6. Economic consequences of incident disease: the effect on loss of annual income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe L; Christensen, Ulla; Hougaard, Charlotte Ø

    2008-01-01

    income is similar across three different diagnostic categories with different consequences in terms of functional limitations. METHODS: This was a register-based study with a longitudinal design using a register of the Danish population covering 412,450 person years. Data on hospitalization are linked...... to information on income and employment. The setting was a 10% random sample of all individuals living in Denmark and aged 43-60 years in 1996-99. RESULTS: Male cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), female cases of breast cancer and both male and female cases of intervertebral disease were associated...

  7. Hypothyroidism is a predictor of disability pension and loss of labor market income: a Danish register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-09-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market income progression over 5 years were evaluated using a difference in difference model. With a hazard ratio of 2.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.73-2.89), individuals diagnosed with hypothyroidism had a significantly increased risk of disability pension. This remained significant when adjusting for educational level and comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.51). In an analysis of labor market income, 2 years before compared with 2 years after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid individuals had on average a €1605 poorer increase than their euthyroid controls (P pension.

  8. 26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entitled to the net operating loss deduction provided in section 172, and a deduction shall not be.... Investment expenses do not include Federal income and excess profits taxes, if any. (iii) If any general.... (b) The deduction for net operating losses provided in section 172 shall not be allowed. (9...

  9. Gestational Weight Gain and Post-Partum Weight Loss Among Young, Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROTHBERG, Bonnie E. Gould; MAGRIPLES, Urania; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon Schindler; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (N=427). Medical record review and four structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Results Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within IOM guidelines. 62% exceeded maximum recommendations -- more common among those overweight/obese (BMI≥25.0; pweight gain and retention documented among smokers and women with pregnancy-induced hypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all pweight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. PMID:20974459

  10. Using technology to promote postpartum weight loss in urban, low-income mothers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Cruice, Jane F; Bennett, Gary G; Davey, Adam; Foster, Gary D

    2014-01-01

    To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a technology-based weight loss intervention for urban, low-income mothers. Eighteen obese, ethnic minority, socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers in the first year after childbirth were randomly assigned to either: 1) technology-based intervention, which included empirically supported behavior-change strategies, daily skills, and self-monitoring text messages with personalized feedback, biweekly counseling calls from a health coach, and access to a Facebook support group, or 2) usual-care control. After 14 weeks of treatment, the technology-based intervention participants had significantly greater weight loss (-2.9 ± 3.6 kg) than usual care (0.5 ± 2.3 kg; adjusted mean difference: -3.2 kg, 95% confidence interval -6.2 to -0.1 kg, P = .04). One-third of intervention participants (3 of 9) and no control participants lost > 5% of their initial body weight at follow up. Results suggest the potential for using technology to deliver a postpartum weight loss intervention among low-income racial/ethnic minorities. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  12. NOy production, ozone loss and changes in net radiative heating due to energetic particle precipitation in 2002–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinnhuber

    2018-01-01

    the models in nearly every polar winter, ranging from 10–50 % during solar maximum to 2–10 % during solar minimum. Ozone loss continues throughout polar summer after strong solar proton events in the Southern Hemisphere and after large sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere. During mid-winter, the ozone loss causes a reduction of the infrared radiative cooling, i.e., a positive change of the net radiative heating (effective warming, in agreement with analyses of geomagnetic forcing in stratospheric temperatures which show a warming in the late winter upper stratosphere. In late winter and spring, the sign of the net radiative heating change turns to negative (effective cooling. This spring-time cooling lasts well into summer and continues until the following autumn after large solar proton events in the Southern Hemisphere, and after sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Recruiting low-income postpartum women into two weight loss interventions: in-person versus Facebook delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfee, Valerie J; Lopez-Cepero, Andrea; Lemon, Stephenie C; Estabrook, Barbara; Nguyen, Oanh; Rosal, Milagros C

    2018-02-21

    Several studies, such as the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), have provided foundational evidence for the efficacy of lifestyle interventions on weight loss and cardiometabolic prevention. However, translating these interventions to real-world settings and engaging at-risk populations has proven difficult. Social media-delivered interventions have high potential for reaching high-risk populations, but there remains a need to understand the extent to which these groups are interested in social media as a delivery mode. One potential way to this is by examining recruitment rates as a proxy for interest in the intervention delivery format. The aim of this study was to describe the recruitment rates of overweight and obese low-income postpartum women into two asynchronous behavioral weight loss interventions: one delivered in-person and the other delivered via Facebook. Both interventions used the same recruitment methods: participants were overweight low-income postpartum women who were clients of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Worcester, MA, screened for the study by nutritionists during routine WIC visits. Similarly, eligibility criteria were the same for both interventions except for a requirement for the Facebook-delivered intervention to currently use Facebook at least once per week. Among women pre-eligible for the in-person intervention, 42.6% gave permission to be contacted to determine full eligibility and 24.1% of eligible women enrolled. Among women pre-eligible for the Facebook intervention, 31.8% gave permission to be contacted and 28.5% of eligible women enrolled. Recruitment rates for a Facebook-based weight loss intervention were similar to recruitment rates for an in-person intervention, suggesting similar interest in the two program delivery modes among low-income postpartum women.

  14. Association of frequent use of food labels with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether frequent use of food labels is associated with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. A self-administered survey of 1245 women aged 16 to 40 years assessed the frequency of food label use and weight loss behaviors during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between frequent use of food labels and weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Overall, 10.4% to 19.6% of women frequently used food labels to obtain information on different sections (ingredient list, nutrient claims, nutrition panel, serving size, or health claims), dietary components (calories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium/salt, fiber, sugar, vitamins, or minerals), and food products (desserts, snacks, frozen dinners, cereals, salad dressings, table spreads, or raw/processed meat). Women who used food labels frequently were more likely to engage in healthy weight loss behaviors compared to those who used them infrequently or did not use them at all. For example, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of "began to exercise/exercised more" for the 3 categories of food label use mentioned above were 2.24 and 1.65-3.04; 2.52 and 1.90-3.32; and 1.85 and 1.36-2.52, respectively. The odds of healthy weight loss behaviors were 2 to 4 times higher when food labels were used frequently to seek information on calories and nutrients such as total fat, saturated fat, or cholesterol. However, frequent food label users were also more likely to practice a few unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as taking diet pills, medicines, herbs, or supplements without a prescription. Frequent use of food labels was associated with increased healthy weight loss behaviors among reproductive-age women, which can be incorporated into obesity preventive strategies with distinct awareness regarding unhealthy weight loss behaviors.

  15. Effect of an Internet-Based Program on Weight Loss for Low-Income Postpartum Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd; Brannen, Anna; Hatley, Karen E; Schaffner, Andrew; Muñoz-Christian, Karen; Tate, Deborah F

    2017-06-20

    Postpartum weight retention increases lifetime risk of obesity and related morbidity. Few effective interventions exist for multicultural, low-income women. To test whether an internet-based weight loss program in addition to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) for low-income postpartum women could produce greater weight loss than the WIC program alone over 12 months. A 12-month, cluster randomized, assessor-blind, clinical trial enrolling 371 adult postpartum women at 12 clinics in WIC programs from the California central coast between July 2011 and May 2015 with data collection completed in May 2016. Clinics were randomized to the WIC program (standard care group) or the WIC program plus a 12-month primarily internet-based weight loss program (intervention group), including a website with weekly lessons, web diary, instructional videos, computerized feedback, text messages, and monthly face-to-face groups at the WIC clinics. The primary outcome was weight change over 12 months, based on measurements at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included proportion returning to preconception weight and changes in physical activity and diet. Participants included 371 women (mean age, 28.1 years; Hispanic, 81.6%; mean weight above prepregnancy weight, 7.8 kg; mean months post partum, 5.2 months) randomized to the intervention group (n = 174) or standard care group (n = 197); 89.2% of participants completed the study. The intervention group produced greater mean 12-month weight loss compared with the standard care group (3.2 kg in the intervention group vs 0.9 kg in standard care group, P internet-based weight loss program in addition to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) compared with the WIC program alone resulted in a statistically significant greater weight loss over 12 months. Further research is needed to determine program and cost

  16. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  17. Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Neijhoft, Anastasia Naomi; Cook, Sarah; Palermo, Tia M

    2017-09-01

    As many as one billion children experience violence every year, and household- and community-level poverty are among the risk factors for child protection violations. Social safety nets (SSNs) are a main policy tool to address poverty and vulnerability, and there is substantial evidence demonstrating positive effects on children's health and human capital. This paper reviews evidence and develops a framework to understand linkages between non-contributory SSNs and the experience of childhood emotional, physical and sexual violence in low- and middle-income countries. We catalogue 14 rigorous impact evaluations, 11 of which are completed, analysing 57 unique impacts on diverse violence indicators. Among these impacts, approximately one in five represent statistically significant protective effects on childhood violence. Promising evidence relates to sexual violence among female adolescents in Africa, while there is less clear evidence of significant impacts in other parts of the developing world, and on young child measures, including violent discipline. Further, few studies are set up to meaningfully unpack mechanisms between SSNs and childhood violence; however, those most commonly hypothesized operate at the household level (through increases in economic security and reductions in poverty-related stress), the interpersonal level (improved parental behaviours, caregiving practices, improved psychosocial well-being) and at the child-level (protective education and decreases in problem or risky behaviours). It is important to emphasize that traditional SSNs are never designed with violence prevention as primary objectives, and thus should not be considered as standalone interventions to reduce risks for childhood violence. However, SSNs, particularly within integrated protection systems, appear to have potential to reduce violence risk. Linkages between SSNs and childhood violence are understudied, and investments should be made to close this evidence gap. © The

  18. Trends in Income Insecurity Among U.S. Children, 1984-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, Bruce; Bloome, Deirdre; Sosnaud, Benjamin; Tach, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    Has income insecurity increased among U.S. children with the emergence of an employment-based safety net and the polarization of labor markets and family structure? We study the trend in insecurity from 1984-2010 by analyzing fluctuations in children's monthly family incomes in the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Going beyond earlier research on income volatility, we examine income insecurity more directly by analyzing income gains and losses separately and by relating them to changes in family composition and employment. The analysis provides new evidence of increased income insecurity by showing that large income losses increased more than large income gains for low-income children. Nearly one-half the increase in extreme income losses is related to trends in single parenthood and parental employment. Large income losses proliferated with the increased incidence of very low incomes (less than $150 per month). Extreme income losses and very low monthly incomes became more common particularly for U.S. children of nonworking single parents from the mid-1990s.

  19. 26 CFR 1.822-8 - Determination of taxable investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the net operating loss deduction provided in section 172. See, however, section 825 and paragraph (a.... Investment expenses do not include Federal income and excess profits taxes, if any. (iii) If any general... expenses of $25,000. It receives interest of $50,000, dividends of $5,000, royalties of $4,000, and net...

  20. Net Loss of CaCO3 from a subtropical calcifying community due to seawater acidification: Mesocosm-scale experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, A.J.; Kuffner, I.B.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Tan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO 2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (N=3) incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NECC=CaCO3 production - dissolution) was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m-2 h-1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at -0.04 mmol CaCO3 m-2 h-1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century. Nevertheless, individual corals remained healthy, actively calcified (albeit slower than at present rates), and deposited significant amounts of CaCO3 under the prevailing experimental seawater conditions of elevated pCO2.

  1. Net Loss of CaCO3 from a subtropical calcifying community due to seawater acidification: mesocosm-scale experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Rodgers

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3 incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC=CaCO3 production – dissolution was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.04 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century. Nevertheless, individual corals remained healthy, actively calcified (albeit slower than at present rates, and deposited significant amounts of CaCO3 under the prevailing experimental seawater conditions of elevated pCO2.

  2. 26 CFR 1.584-2 - Income of participants in common trust fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income of participants in common trust fund. 1... common trust fund. (a) Each participant in a common trust fund is required to include in computing its... ordinary taxable income or the ordinary net loss of the common trust fund, computed as provided in § 1.584...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1502-21A - Consolidated net operating loss deduction generally applicable for consolidated return years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... goods to outsiders; (b) T sold a machine to S deriving a deferred profit of $5,000, $1,000 of which was restored to consolidated taxable income as a result of S's depreciation deductions; (c) T distributed a $3...

  4. 14 CFR Section 7 - Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... II carriers Group III carriers operating revenues and expenses Transport revenues: 01Passenger: 01... expense-net: 80.0Interest income 81 81 81 86.0Income from nontransport ventures 81 81 81 87.0Equity in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Section 7...

  5. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  6. Sistema de informação geográfica para mapeamento da renda líquida aplicado no planejamento da agricultura irrigada Algorithm to mapping net income applied in irrigated agriculture planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um algoritmo na linguagem computacional MATLAB para aplicações em sistemas de informações geográficas, visando ao mapeamento da renda líquida maximizada de cultivos irrigados. O estudo foi desenvolvido para as culturas do maracujá, da cana-de-açúcar, do abacaxi e do mamão, em área de aproximadamente 2.500 ha, localizada no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados de entrada do algoritmo foram informações edafoclimáticas, funções de resposta das culturas à água, dados de localização geográfica da área e índices econômicos referentes ao custo do processo produtivo. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o algoritmo desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente para o mapeamento da renda líquida de cultivos irrigados, sendo capaz de localizar áreas que apresentam maiores retornos econômicos.The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm in MATLAB computational language to be applied in geographical information systems to map net income irrigated crops to plan irrigated agriculture. The study was developed for the crops of passion fruit plant, sugarcane, pineapple and papaya, in an area of approximately 2,500 ha, at Campos dos Goytacazes, located at north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The algorithm input data were: information about soil, climate, crop water response functions, geographical location and economical cost indexes of the productive process. The results allowed concluding that developed algorithm was efficient to map net income of irrigated crops, been able to locate areas that present larger economical net income.

  7. Mutations in Cancer Cause Gain of Cysteine, Histidine, and Tryptophan at the Expense of a Net Loss of Arginine on the Proteome Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of somatic mutations is critical for the transition of a normal cell to become cancerous. Mutations cause amino acid substitutions that change properties of proteins. However, it has not been studied as to what extent the composition and accordingly chemical properties of the cell proteome is altered as a result of the increased mutation load in cancer. Here, we analyzed data on amino acid substitutions caused by mutations in about 2000 protein coding genes from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia that contains information on nucleotide and amino acid alterations in 782 cancer cell lines, and validated the analysis with information on amino acid substitutions for the same set of proteins in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC; v78 in circa 18,000 tumor samples. We found that nonsynonymous single nucleotide substitutions in the analyzed proteome subset ultimately result in a net gain of cysteine, histidine, and tryptophan at the expense of a net loss of arginine. The extraordinary loss of arginine may be attributed to some extent to composition of its codons as well as to the importance of arginine in the functioning of prominent tumor suppressor proteins like p53.

  8. The impacts of job loss and job recovery on self-rated health: testing the mediating role of financial strain and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijts, Tim; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-10-01

    Is regaining a job sufficient to reverse the harmful impacts on health of job loss during the Great Recession? We tested whether unemployed persons who found work within 1 year of job loss experienced a full recovery of their health. Additionally, we tested the mediating role of financial strain and household income. Linear regression models were used to assess the effects of job loss and recovery on self-rated health using the longitudinal EU-SILC, covering individuals from 27 European countries. We constructed a baseline of employed persons (n = 70 611) in year 2007. We evaluated income and financial strain as potential mediating factors. Job loss was associated with worse self-rated health in both men (β = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.09-0.15) and women (β = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.10-0.16). Financial strain explains about one-third of the association between job loss and health, but income did not mediate this relation. Women who regained employment within 1 year after job loss were found to be similarly healthy to those who did not lose jobs. In contrast, men whose employment recovered had an enduring health disadvantage compared with those who had not lost jobs (β = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.05-0.16). Unemployment cash benefits mitigated financial strain but were too low to substantially reduce perceived financial strain among men. Men and women's health appears to suffer equally from job loss but differs in recovery. For men, employment recovery was insufficient to alleviate financial strain and associated health consequences, whereas in women regaining employment leads to health recovery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Managing for No Net Loss of Ecological Services: An Approach for Quantifying Loss of Coastal Wetlands due to Sea Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassakian, Jennifer; Jones, Ann; Martinich, Jeremy; Hudgens, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Sea level rise has the potential to substantially alter the extent and nature of coastal wetlands and the critical ecological services they provide. In making choices about how to respond to rising sea level, planners are challenged with weighing easily quantified risks (e.g., loss of property value due to inundation) against those that are more difficult to quantify (e.g., loss of primary production or carbon sequestration services provided by wetlands due to inundation). Our goal was to develop a cost-effective, appropriately-scaled, model-based approach that allows planners to predict, under various sea level rise and response scenarios, the economic cost of wetland loss-with the estimates proxied by the costs of future restoration required to maintain the existing level of wetland habitat services. Our approach applies the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model to predict changes in wetland habitats over the next century, and then applies Habitat Equivalency Analysis to predict the cost of restoration projects required to maintain ecological services at their present, pre-sea level rise level. We demonstrate the application of this approach in the Delaware Bay estuary and in the Indian River Lagoon (Florida), and discuss how this approach can support future coastal decision-making.

  10. Hyperthyroidism is associated with work disability and loss of labour market income. A Danish register-based study in singletons and disease-discordant twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2015-11-01

    To examine the risk of disability pension and changes in labour market income in patients with hyperthyroidism. From a 5% random sample of the Danish population and twins from the Danish Twin Registry we identified 1942 hyperthyroid singletons and 7768 non-hyperthyroid (matched 1:4) controls as well as 584 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. Singletons and twins were followed for a mean of 9 years (range 1-20). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the risk of disability pension and a difference-in-differences model was used to evaluate changes in labour market income. Hyperthyroid individuals had an increased risk of receiving disability pension: hazard ratio (HR) was 1.88, (95% CI: 1.57-2.24). Subdividing as to the cause of hyperthyroidism did not change this finding: Graves' disease (GD) HR was 1.51 (95% CI: 0.87-2.63) and toxic nodular goitre (TNG) HR was 2.10 (95% CI: 1.02-4.36). With respect to labour market income, the income of hyperthyroid individuals increased on average 1189 € less than their controls (Phyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe work disability as reflected by an 88% increased risk of receiving disability pension and a significant loss of labour market income. Similar results in monozygotic twins discordant for hyperthyroidism suggest that genetic confounding is unlikely. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Managing for No Net Loss of Ecological Services: An Approach for Quantifying Loss of Coastal Wetlands due to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassakian, Jennifer; Jones, Ann; Martinich, Jeremy; Hudgens, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Sea level rise has the potential to substantially alter the extent and nature of coastal wetlands and the critical ecological services they provide. In making choices about how to respond to rising sea level, planners are challenged with weighing easily quantified risks (e.g., loss of property value due to inundation) against those that are more difficult to quantify (e.g., loss of primary production or carbon sequestration services provided by wetlands due to inundation). Our goal was to develop a cost-effective, appropriately-scaled, model-based approach that allows planners to predict, under various sea level rise and response scenarios, the economic cost of wetland loss—with the estimates proxied by the costs of future restoration required to maintain the existing level of wetland habitat services. Our approach applies the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model to predict changes in wetland habitats over the next century, and then applies Habitat Equivalency Analysis to predict the cost of restoration projects required to maintain ecological services at their present, pre-sea level rise level. We demonstrate the application of this approach in the Delaware Bay estuary and in the Indian River Lagoon (Florida), and discuss how this approach can support future coastal decision-making.

  12. The impact of losses in income due to ill health: does the EQ-5D reflect lost earnings?

    OpenAIRE

    Tilling, C.; Krol, M.; Tsuchiya, A; Brazier, J; Van Exel, J; Brouwer, W.

    2009-01-01

    Two key questions in the context of UK health policy are: do the published preference indices for EQ-5D reflect the impact of lost earnings? Are we currently implicitly including indirect costs in our analyses? It is crucial to investigate whether or not individuals take into account any possible impact of lost income in health state valuation exercises. If respondents do consider income effects, and these considerations change valuations, then these effects would need to be excluded both und...

  13. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME....823-4 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with the gross amount of income...

  14. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...

  15. Getting a Job is Only Half the Battle: Maternal Job Loss and Child Classroom Behavior in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D; Morris, Pamela A; Castells, Nina; Walker, Jessica Thornton

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from an experimental employment program and instrumental variables (IV) estimation to examine the effects of maternal job loss on child classroom behavior. Random assignment to the treatment at one of three program sites is an exogenous predictor of employment patterns. Cross-site variation in treatment-control differences is used to identify the effects of employment levels and transitions. Under certain assumptions, this method controls for unobserved correlates of job loss and child well-being, as well as measurement error and simultaneity. IV estimates suggest that maternal job loss sharply increases problem behavior but has neutral effects on positive social behavior. Current employment programs concentrate primarily on job entry, but these findings point to the importance of promoting job stability for workers and their children.

  16. Granulocyte maturation determines ability to release chromatin NETs and loss of DNA damage response; these properties are absent in immature AML granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Emilie; Kořistek, Zdeněk; Klabusay, Martin; Ondřej, Vladan; Grigoryev, Sergei; Bačíková, Alena; Řezáčová, Martina; Falk, Martin; Vávrová, Jiřina; Kohútová, Viera; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2013-03-01

    Terminally-differentiated cells cease to proliferate and acquire specific sets of expressed genes and functions distinguishing them from less differentiated and cancer cells. Mature granulocytes show lobular structure of cell nuclei with highly condensed chromatin in which HP1 proteins are replaced by MNEI. These structural features of chromatin correspond to low level of gene expression and the loss of some important functions as DNA damage repair, shown in this work and, on the other hand, acquisition of a new specific function consisting in the release of chromatin extracellular traps in response to infection by pathogenic microbes. Granulocytic differentiation is incomplete in myeloid leukemia and is manifested by persistence of lower levels of HP1γ and HP1β isoforms. This immaturity is accompanied by acquisition of DDR capacity allowing to these incompletely differentiated multi-lobed neutrophils of AML patients to respond to induction of DSB by γ-irradiation. Immature granulocytes persist frequently in blood of treated AML patients in remission. These granulocytes contrary to mature ones do not release chromatin for NETs after activation with phorbol myristate-12 acetate-13 and do not exert the neutrophil function in immune defence. We suggest therefore the detection of HP1 expression in granulocytes of AML patients as a very sensitive indicator of their maturation and functionality after the treatment. Our results show that the changes in chromatin structure underlie a major transition in functioning of the genome in immature granulocytes. They show further that leukemia stem cells can differentiate ex vivo to mature granulocytes despite carrying the translocation BCR/ABL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fresh Start, a postpartum weight loss intervention for diverse low-income women: design and methods for a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros C. Rosal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are prevalent among young women and are greater among minority and low-income women. The postpartum period is critical in women’s weight trajectories as many women do not lose their pregnancy weight, and others lose some and then plateau or experience weight gain. Excess weight puts women at greater risk of chronic disease and thus weight loss in the postpartum period may be key to the long-term health of young women. This paper describes the design and methods of a randomized clinical trial of Fresh Start, an innovative narrative-based group intervention aimed at promoting postpartum weight loss among low-income, diverse women. Methods/design Study participants were recruited from the five sites of the Women, Infants and Children (WIC program in central Massachusetts. Participants were English-speaking, age ≥ 18 years, 6 weeks to 6 months postpartum, with a body mass index (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2. The Fresh Start postpartum weight loss intervention, adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP in collaboration with WIC staff and clients, consisted of an 8-week group-based curriculum followed by nine monthly telephone calls. It included a narrative component (i.e., storytelling, group discussions, print materials and access to exercise facilities. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial. The control condition included print materials and access to exercise facilities. In-person assessments were conducted at baseline and at 6 and 12 months following the eight-week intervention phase. Discussion The Fresh Start intervention translated key elements of an evidence-based weight loss protocol into a format that is hypothesized to be relevant, acceptable and effective for the target audience of low-SES postpartum women. This novel intervention was developed in collaboration with WIC to be sustainable within the context of its clinics, which reach approximately 9 million individuals

  18. Fresh Start, a postpartum weight loss intervention for diverse low-income women: design and methods for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Milagros C; Haughton, Christina F; Estabrook, Barbara B; Wang, Monica L; Chiriboga, Germán; Nguyen, Oahn H T; Person, Sharina D; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2016-09-09

    Overweight and obesity are prevalent among young women and are greater among minority and low-income women. The postpartum period is critical in women's weight trajectories as many women do not lose their pregnancy weight, and others lose some and then plateau or experience weight gain. Excess weight puts women at greater risk of chronic disease and thus weight loss in the postpartum period may be key to the long-term health of young women. This paper describes the design and methods of a randomized clinical trial of Fresh Start, an innovative narrative-based group intervention aimed at promoting postpartum weight loss among low-income, diverse women. Study participants were recruited from the five sites of the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program in central Massachusetts. Participants were English-speaking, age ≥ 18 years, 6 weeks to 6 months postpartum, with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m(2). The Fresh Start postpartum weight loss intervention, adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in collaboration with WIC staff and clients, consisted of an 8-week group-based curriculum followed by nine monthly telephone calls. It included a narrative component (i.e., storytelling), group discussions, print materials and access to exercise facilities. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial. The control condition included print materials and access to exercise facilities. In-person assessments were conducted at baseline and at 6 and 12 months following the eight-week intervention phase. The Fresh Start intervention translated key elements of an evidence-based weight loss protocol into a format that is hypothesized to be relevant, acceptable and effective for the target audience of low-SES postpartum women. This novel intervention was developed in collaboration with WIC to be sustainable within the context of its clinics, which reach approximately 9 million individuals per year across the U.S. via 10,000 clinics. clinicaltrials

  19. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  20. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  1. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-2 - Currently distributable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Currently distributable income. 1.662(a)-2... distributable net income (as defined in section 643(a) but computed without taking into account the payment... amount which bears the same ratio to distributable net income (as so computed) as the amount of income...

  2. Yield and net income of unripe corn in function of the hilling dates / Produção e renda líquida de milho verde em função da época de amontoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovany Doffinger Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agromen 2029 unripe corn was studied without and with hilling on 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 and 14-28-42 days after sowing (DAS. Those eight treatments were arranged in a randomized experimental block design, with four replications. The highest heights of plant (176.9 cm and of first ear (83.9 cm were from those with no hilling (SA and the smallest ones (162.4 and 72.9 cm, respectively were from those with hilling on 28 DAS. The greatest yield of ears (56,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (47,000 ears ha-1. The greatest yield of non commercial ears (15,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (7,000 ears ha-1. Yield of commercial ears varied from 38,000 ears ha-1, on 28 DAS treatment to 41,000 ears ha-1, on 14, 42, 28-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments. Costs of yield varied from R$ 1,315.90 ha-1, in SA treatment, to R$ 1,774.17 ha-1, with hilling on 14-28-42 DAS. The greatest net income was R$ 2,684.10 ha-1 with no hilling and the smallest was R$ 2,166.81 ha-1 with hilling on 14-42 DAS. In the conditions that the experiment was carried out it was concluded that the cultivation with no hilling is recommended because it showed the smallest yield cost and the greatest net income.Foi estudado o milho-verde Agromen 2029, sem amontoa e com amontoa aos 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 e 14-28-42 dias após a semeadura-DAS. Os oito tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As maiores alturas da planta (176,9 cm e da primeira espiga (83,9 cm foram encontradas no tratamento sem amontoa e as menores (162,4 e 72,9 cm, respectivamente no tratamento com amontoa aos 28 DAS. A maior produção total de espigas (56.000 espigas ha-1 foi obtida no tratamento 14-28-42 DAS e a menor foi no sem amontoa (47.000 espigas ha-1. A maior produção de espigas não comerciais (15.000 espigas ha-1

  3. Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: a cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J

    2014-10-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study

  4. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(1)-2 - Net operating loss carryovers; two or more dates of distribution or transfer in the taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transferor corporation Z 1954 xxx xxx ($30,000) 1955 xxx xxx 1,000 1956 xxx xxx 1,000 1957 ($20,000) ($25,000) 1,000 Ending 6-30-58 xxx 1,000 xxx Ending 9-30-58 xxx xxx 1,000 1958 36,500 xxx xxx The sequence in..., computed as follows: Z's 1954 loss xxx Y's 1957 loss $14,800 X's 1957 loss 91,900 Total 16,700 ...

  5. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  6. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  7. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  8. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  9. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  10. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  11. Receitas bruta e líquida parcial e custo de dietas contendo polpa cítrica para suínos abatidos com 130kg de peso Gross and partial net incomes and feeding cost of diets containing citrus pulp for pigs slaughtered with 130kg of weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Watanabe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o custo de inclusão da polpa cítrica em programa de restrição alimentar qualitativa, utilizando dados de desempenho de 36 suínos da linhagem Topigs, dos 83,7±5,1kg aos 129,8±1,9kg de peso, alimentados com dietas contendo porcentagens crescentes (0, 10, 20 e 30% de polpa cítrica. Os animais foram abatidos aos 130kg e dos valores (R$ da carcaça foram descontados o valor de compra dos animais e o custo com alimentação, de acordo com cada tratamento. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 da inclusão da polpa cítrica sobre o custo com ração e receita bruta, porém houve efeito linear negativo (PThe cost of inclusion of citrus pulp was evaluated in a qualitative feed restriction program using performance data of 36 pigs of Topigs lineage (from 83.7±5.1kg to 129.8±1.9kg fed with crescent levels of citrus pulp (0, 10, 20, and 30%. The animals were slaughtered when they reached 130kg. The value paid for animal and its feeding cost were discounted from the carcass value (R$, according to each treatment. No effect (P>0.05 of the inclusion of citrus pulp on ration cost and gross income was observed. A negative linear effect (<0.05 on partial net income with the increasing participation of the citrus pulp in diets was found. The decreasing trend in the partial net income was caused by the reduction on carcass weight of animals fed on crescent levels of citrus pulp. Considering the increase on corn, soybean, and swine prices from June 2005 to May 2006, 12 different sceneries were determined for partial net income analysis. In all situations, linear reductions on partial net income were observed as a function of citrus pulp inclusion, evidencing that the ingredient was not efficient in promoting profits for producers.

  12. Aggregate Measures of Income and Output in Canada and the United States: Implications for Productivity and Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Ross; Alexander Murray

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to clarify definitions and to produce estimates of the eight aggregate measures of income and product (gross domestic product, gross domestic income, gross national product, gross national income, net domestic product, net domestic income, net national product and net national income) for Canada and the United States over the 1980-2008 period. The article also discusses the implications of the eight measures for productivity and living standards analysis. It...

  13. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  14. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by subsidiary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-3 - Capital gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exchange of capital assets are ordinarily excluded from distributable net income and are not ordinarily... distributable net income. Gains from the sale or exchange of capital assets are included in distributable net... Trust's distributable net income for the taxable year. Example 6. Trust's assets consist of Blackacre...

  16. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality; Bilan RTE 2002: un resultat net positif (+112 M d'euros), conforme aux previsions, au terme d'une annee placee sous le signe de la qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of

  17. Effects of inflation on the distribution of income in Italy, 1953-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Spaventa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years 1953-62, the average price level in Italy rose every year, with the exception of 1959. The present article examines the effects of this inflationary process on income distribution. To do so the author first determines the extent to which each productive sector contributed to the creation of the total surplus of money product over real product, and how such excess was distributed amongst the various income categories in each sector. Then, the losses in real purchasing power these categories suffered are examined. Finally, the net outcome between gains in money product and losses for each category is found. According to the author, the data suggests peculiarly Ricardian features: the increase in prices was largely due to a rise in rents and of sectoral incomes in which are hidden some forms of rent, in the twofold aspect of privileged positions and inefficiency.

  18. Time and money: a retrospective evaluation of the inputs, outputs, efficiency, and incomes of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Amy E

    2003-04-28

    Physicians' concerns with the health care system focus on having less time with their patients and needing to work harder to maintain incomes. We sought to determine whether physicians are working longer hours and whether their incomes are declining. Using survey data, we conducted a retrospective analysis of physician inputs, outputs, efficiency, and incomes for generalists, general internists, general surgeons, pediatricians, and obstetrician-gynecologists from 1987 to 1998. Physician inputs (as measured by the average hours worked in professional activities) showed little absolute change across specialties over time. Outputs (as measured by the total number of patient visits per week) decreased between 9% and 28%, depending on the specialty. Efficiency (the proportion of time spent in direct patient care and the amount of time spent during a typical office visit) remained stable over the time examined. Consumer price index inflation-adjusted annual incomes increased considerably over the time period examined (42% for general internists, 28% for pediatricians, 13% for generalists, and 8% for general surgeons); only obstetricians-gynecologists showed a net loss of annual income when adjusting for inflation (a 6% loss). Our findings do not confirm the prevailing concern that physicians are working harder or longer or that their incomes are declining, but they offer an explanation of how physicians are maintaining incomes without increasing work inputs. There is a great deal of dissatisfaction with the health care system among physicians; exploration of perceptual reasons for that dissatisfaction may outline a course of action needed to resolve it.

  19. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  20. Demographic change and income tax revenue in Germany: a microsimulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beznoska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high net migration, both Germany’s overall population and its workforce potential are currently growing. However, within a few years this demographic trend will be reversed, leading to a decline in population as a whole and especially in the number of those gainfully employed. In this paper, we use a population projection to apply a static ageing approach to German micro data. Then, we simulate income tax revenue with a microsimulation model for the future population. In 20 years’ time the annual price-adjusted income tax loss is estimated to be equal to € 18 billion or almost 7 per cent. This fall in income tax revenue resulting from a shrinking and ageing society will place a huge strain on public finances in Germany, an effect further enhanced by the shift of the tax burden from pension contributions to pension benefits.

  1. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  2. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  3. Impact of cotrimoxazole and insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention on key outcomes among HIV-infected adults in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadani Hassani, Ahmed; Marston, Barbara J

    2015-04-15

    HIV-infected adults are at increased risk of severe malaria and death. Malaria prevention in people living with HIV (PLHIV) consists of several interventions, including cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence. MEDLINE, EmBase, Global Health, CINAHL, SOCA, and African Index Medicus were used to identify articles relevant to the CTX prophylaxis and ITNs interventions from 1995 to July 2014. For each individual study, we assessed the quality of evidence and the impact of the 2 interventions on the outcomes of mortality, morbidity, retention in care, quality of life, and/or prevention of ongoing HIV transmission. For each outcome, we summarized the quality of the overall body of evidence, the expected impact, and costing and cost-effectiveness (CE). The overall quality of evidence regarding malaria-related morbidity was rated as "good" for CTX prophylaxis and "fair" for ITN use; the expected "impact" of these interventions on morbidity was rated "high" and "uncertain," respectively. Three studies that addressed the costing and CE of ITN provision for malaria prevention in PLHIV consisted of 2 full "level 1" and 1 partial "level 2" economic evaluations. CTX prophylaxis is effective in reducing malaria-related morbidity among PLHIV. Limited evidence is available with respect to the impact and the CE of ITN use and/or provision in this population.

  4. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  5. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  6. Evolutionary model of the personal income distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a qualitative picture of the personal income distribution. Treating an economy as a self-organized system the key idea of the model is that the income distribution contains competitive and non-competitive contributions. The presented model distinguishes between three main income classes. 1. Capital income from private firms is shown to be the result of an evolutionary competition between products. A direct consequence of this competition is Gibrat’s law suggesting a lognormal income distribution for small private firms. Taking into account an additional preferential attachment mechanism for large private firms the income distribution is supplemented by a power law (Pareto) tail. 2. Due to the division of labor a diversified labor market is seen as a non-competitive market. In this case wage income exhibits an exponential distribution. 3. Also included is income from a social insurance system. It can be approximated by a Gaussian peak. A consequence of this theory is that for short time intervals a fixed ratio of total labor (total capital) to net income exists (Cobb-Douglas relation). A comparison with empirical high resolution income data confirms this pattern of the total income distribution. The theory suggests that competition is the ultimate origin of the uneven income distribution.

  7. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  8. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  9. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  10. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels are not h......We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels...... are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...

  11. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Tsuneishi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating to the net income. The results of the articles showed that distribution of net income has become positively skewed, with the mean dragged to the right by a few high scores. This means that the median is more appropriate than the mean as a measure of central tendency of net income. Factors relating to net income of private dental clinics have changed: private dental clinics that were opened after 1989 (new and had dental hygienists, who may conduct dental maintenance, had high net income, suggesting that they are well-managed or having a different type of patient mix in recent years. These analyses provide important and useful information for not only better management of private dental clinics but also policy-making in dental health care.

  12. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-6 - Income of foreign trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of foreign trust. 1.643(a)-6 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(a)-6 Income of foreign trust. (a) Distributable net income of a foreign trust. In the case of a foreign trust (see section 7701(a)(31)), the...

  13. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all net income derived from such a use, less Federal, State and local taxes paid on such income, shall... resulting in income. 9004.5 Section 9004.5 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or...

  14. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

  15. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

  16. 47 CFR 32.4370 - Other jurisdictional liabilities and deferred credits-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by appropriate subsidiary records... credits-net. 32.4370 Section 32.4370 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4370 Other jurisdictional liabilities and deferred credits—net. This account...

  17. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with an universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-1 - Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...

  19. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  20. Effetti distributivi del processo inflazionistico in Italia nel decennio 1953-1962 (Effects of inflation on the distribution of income in Italy, 1953-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SPAVENTA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years 1953-62, the average price level in Italy rose every year, with the exception of 1959. The present article examines the effects of this inflationary process on income distribution. To do so the author first determines the extent to which each productive sector contributed to the creation of the total surplus of money product over real product, and how such excess was distributed amongst the various income categories in each sector. Then, the losses in real purchasing power these categories suffered are examined. Finally, the net outcome between gains in money product and losses for each category is found. According to the author, the data suggests peculiarly Ricardian features: the increase in prices was largely due to a rise in rents and of sectoral incomes in which are hidden some forms of rent, in the twofold aspect of privileged positions and inefficiency.JEL: E24, E31, O15

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  2. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  3. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  4. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  5. PENGARUH TINDAKAN KONSERVASI TANAH TERHADAP ALIRAN PERMUKAAN, EROSI, KEHILANGAN HARA DAN PENGHASILAN PADA USAHA TANI KENTANG DAN KUBIS (Effect of Coil and Water Conservation Practices on Runoff, Erosion, Nutrient Loss and Farmer Income of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Baroroh Lili Utami

    2001-08-01

    ekonomi, adalah perlakuan Po, sedangkan pada tanaman kubis adalah perlakuan P3.   ABSTRACT Erosion rate at Dieng Plateau, Central Java, is high because vegetable is the dominant crop, and in general the farmer never applied adequate soil and water conservation practices (SWCP/ The research was carried to assess the suitable soil conservation practices in order to reduce runoff, erosion nutrient losses and to increase the income as potato (Solanum tuberosum L and cabbage crop (Brassica oleracea L farmers. The erosion and runoff data were obtained by measuring the actual runoff and erosion for each rainfall event during February-May 2000 period. Measurement of the actual erosion and runoff were conducted on erosion plot of 10x2. The expoiment was done in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with two factors. The first factor was the crop, that is the potato (C1 and cabbage (C2. The second factor was the technical soil conservation, that is, cross contour ridging (P1 as control treatment, contour ridging and terrace-ridging that was planted with citronella (P2, the contour ridging with the much of lemograss (P3, and the contour ridging covered with black silver plastic sheet (P4. The result of the research on the potato crop showed that the P2, P3 and P4 treatments could effectively decrease erosion. The P2 and P4 treatments were able to increase the farmers income, however P3 decreased the farmer income. On the cabbage crop, the effective treatment which decreased erosion was P3. The P2, P3 and P4 treatments increased the farmers income

  6. Adam Smith on Capital and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Ormazabal Sánchez, Kepa Mirena

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I critically analyze Smith's thesis in book I, chapter 6 of the "Wealth of Nations" that the replacement of the capital goods consumed in production becomes fully income. I argue that Smith’s argument is defective and does not imply this, and that, once it is properly corrected, it implies that the full value of commodities does not become income; in other words: that GNP is not equal to aggregate income. On this basis, I proceed to analyze Smith's definitions of gross and net i...

  7. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  8. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  9. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  10. 17 CFR 210.7-04 - Income statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF... face of the income statements and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this article pertains... premiums earned. 2. Net investment income. State in a note to the financial statements, in tabular form...

  11. Understanding Loss Deductions for Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Greene; Michael Jacobson

    1998-01-01

    Forestland owners whose timber has been destroyed may be eligible to take a deduction for the loss on their federal income tax. The loss must be physical in nature and caused by an identifiable event or combination of events that has run its course. There are two types of losses from natural events. Casualty losses are sudden, unexpected, and unusual - as from a fire...

  12. Dutch social housing sector reforms : Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income

  13. Biodiversity Loss and the Ecological Footprint of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Lazarus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human pressure on ecosystems is among the major drivers of biodiversity loss. As biodiversity plays a key role in supporting the human enterprise, its decline puts the well-being of human societies at risk. Halting biodiversity loss is therefore a key policy priority, as reflected in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets under strategic goal A. The Ecological Footprint has become a widely used metric for natural capital and ecosystem accounting, and is frequently cited in the sustainability debate, where it is often used for tracking human-induced pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity. Given its potential role as an indirect metric for biodiversity-related policies, this paper breaks down the Ecological Footprint into its components and analyzes resource and ecosystem service flows at an international level. We discuss its usefulness in tracking the underlying drivers of habitat impacts and biodiversity loss. We find that: China is a major net importer of all biomass biocapacity components; the largest net exporters of forest biocapacity are not low-income countries; a very high proportion of the Ecological Footprint of fishing grounds is traded internationally; Singapore and at least three Middle East countries are almost wholly reliant on net imports for the cropland biocapacity they consume.

  14. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  15. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  16. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  17. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  18. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  19. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  20. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  1. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  2. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  3. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  4. Life time income of men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Life-time income is estimated here including the money value of household work. A modified opportunity principle is used, which means that non-employed women's price of time is found by calculating reservation wage rates. The overall results demonstrate that Danish women's ‘loss' of labour income...... during the child caring period is difficult for them to regain, and just to reach the same level of income as childless Danish women seems impossible; furthermore Danish men get a higher life-time income than Danish women even when we add the money value of household work...

  5. Social Security income measurement in two surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    As a major source of income for retired persons in the United States, Social Security benefits directly influence economic well-being. That fact underscores the importance of measuring Social Security income accurately in household surveys. Using Social Security Administration (SSA) records, we examine Social Security income as reported in two Census Bureau surveys, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). Although SSA usually deducts Medicare premiums from benefit payments, both the CPS and the SIPP aim to collect and record gross Social Security benefit amounts (before Medicare premium deductions). We find that the Social Security benefit recorded in the CPS closely approximates the gross benefit recorded for CPS respondents in SSA's records, but the Social Security benefit recorded in the SIPP more closely approximates SSA's record of net benefit payments (after deducting Medicare premiums).

  6. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-2 - Allocation of income items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distributable net income of the trust (as defined in section 643(a)) as the total of each class bears to such... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of income items. 1.652(b)-2 Section 1.652(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX...

  7. 75 FR 61248 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... solicits comments on information needed to determine net income derived from farming. DATES: Written... claimant's countable annual income and available assets due to farm operations. Farm income is not necessarily received on a weekly or monthly basis, and farm operating expenses must be considered in...

  8. 26 CFR 509.111 - Real property income and natural resource royalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property income and natural resource... of income are subject to taxation under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 generally...: “Return of Swiss Corporation Electing to File on a Net Basis Pursuant to Article IX of Swiss Income Tax...

  9. 78 FR 34174 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... solicits comments on information needed to determine net income derived from farming. DATES: Written... claimant's countable annual ] income and available assets due to farm operations. Farm income is not necessarily received on a weekly or monthly basis, and farm operating expenses must be considered in...

  10. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  11. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  12. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  13. Crenças e influências sobre dietas de emagrecimento entre obesos de baixa renda Beliefs and influences on weight loss diets among low-income obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade tornou-se uma epidemia carente de controle imediato, principalmente entre pobres, mulheres e pessoas de baixa escolaridade. A OMS solicita e vários estudos corroboram que estudos esclarecedores sobre os comportamentos psicológicos e sociais interferentes na aderência terapêutica aos regimes devem ser encorajados. Este estudo usou a Teoria da Ação Racional - TAR, de M. Fishbein, em Psicologia Social, e comparou duas séries de entrevistas abertas (em 2001 e 2005 que eliciaram as crenças positivas (vantagens e negativas (desvantagens sobre fazer dieta entre obesos de baixa renda de João Pessoa, Paraíba, além dos referentes (pessoas de opinião influente destes pacientes quanto a segui-la. Os resultados de 2001 foram corroborados em 2005, revelando o medo das doenças relacionadas à obesidade e a vontade de sentir mais saúde e leveza de corpo. Mães, filhos e principalmente o cônjuge aparecem como apoiadores do regime. Ressaltou-se que não bastaria força de vontade, mas também reflexão e construção de habilidades de controle, apropriação e modificação das condições de vida. Preocupações estéticas não foram prioritárias. Estas informações podem fomentar melhores resultados na aderência terapêutica.Obesity has become an epidemic that requires immediate control, mainly among the poor, particularly women and the less educated. The WHO requests and several studies confirm that support is needed for research projects examining psychological and social behavior that hampers compliance with weight loss diets. This paper uses the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA of M. Fishbein (1975 in social psychology, comparing two series of open interviews (conducted in 2001 and 2005 that disclosed positive (advantageous and negative (harmful beliefs about weight loss diets among low-income obese patients in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, as well as their guides (people of influential opinion on following their diets. The 2001

  14. Microfinance safety net: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Shi, Qiuhu; Murthy, Padmini

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition among families living in poorer communities has increased in the past two decades. Initiatives advocated by the World Bank include microfinance programs. Research attributing the success of these programs however, has mixed results. In this article we investigate how additional income provided by microfinance is associated with increased consumption of nondurables for households in rural villages in Bangladesh. For our purposes we compare consumption or money expensed on food, medicine, doctor fees, and smoking. Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) procedure was used to address multiple comparison issues among households. Our findings reinforce the importance of microfinance credit as a safety net. Access to additional income for poor villagers improves the consumption of basic needs as expected, regardless of how many loans are taken; consumption of "bads" remains virtually the same.

  15. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  16. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  17. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  18. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  19. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  1. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  2. Responses of Nitrogen Utilization and Apparent Nitrogen Loss to Different Control Measures in the Wheat and Maize Rotation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengping; Liu, Yanan; Li, Yingchun; Abawi, Yahya; Wang, Yanqun; Men, Mingxin; An-Vo, Duc-Anh

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and excessive application rates can decrease crop yield and increase N loss into the environment. Field experiments were carried out to understand the effects of N fertilizers on N utilization, crop yield and net income in wheat and maize rotation system of the North China Plain (NCP). Compared to farmers’ N rate (FN), the yield of wheat and maize in reduction N rate by 21–24% based on FN (RN) was improved by 451 kg ha-1, N uptakes improved by 17 kg ha-1 and net income increased by 1671 CNY ha-1, while apparent N loss was reduced by 156 kg ha-1. The controlled-release fertilizer with a 20% reduction of RN (CRF80%), a 20% reduction of RN together with dicyandiamide (RN80%+DCD) and a 20% reduction of RN added with nano-carbon (RN80%+NC) all resulted in an improvement in crop yield and decreased the apparent N losses compared to RN. Contrasted with RN80%+NC, the total crop yield in RN80%+DCD improved by 1185 kg ha-1, N uptake enhanced by 9 kg ha-1 and net income increased by 3929 CNY ha-1, while apparent N loss was similar. Therefore, a 37–39% overall decrease in N rate compared to farmers plus the nitrification inhibitor, DCD, was effective N control measure that increased crop yields, enhanced N efficiencies, and improved economic benefits, while mitigating apparent N loss. There is considerable scope for improved N use effieincy in the intensive wheat -maize rotation of the NCP. PMID:28228772

  3. Netting down gross earnings data in the LIS database: an evaluation of two procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Rense; Munzi, Teresa; Gornick, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    LIS researchers who seek to perform country-comparative and / or trend analyses have to account for the fact that in some LIS datasets income variables were reported net of taxes and social security contributions, while in other datasets income variables were reported gross of taxes and social

  4. Male Income, Female Income, and Household Income Inequality in Israel: A Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2008-01-01

    Differentiating between the sensitivity of income inequality to male income and female income and decomposing inequality by income determinants, we find that total income inequality is less sensitive to female income variability or the level of female income, than to male income variability or the level of male income. Uniform increases in education reduce income inequality, with increases in female education having a larger effect than increases in male education. An increase in the populati...

  5. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  6. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  7. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  8. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  9. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  10. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  11. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  12. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  13. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure—for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  14. Income inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, Michail|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413292673; Baten, Joerg; Foldvari, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323382045; van Leeuwen, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330811924; van Zanden, Jan Luiten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071115374

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on income inequality as measured by gross (i.e. pre-tax) household income across individuals within a country. It builds upon a number of large-scale initiatives to chart income inequality trends over time, supplementing them with data on wages and heights for the earlier

  15. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  16. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  17. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  18. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  19. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  20. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Midori Tsuneishi; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Takuo Ishii

    2013-01-01

    Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating t...

  1. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  2. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  3. Digitalization of incoming mail and incoming bills

    OpenAIRE

    Huč, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the processes involved in the digitalization of materials and having consideration of legal regulations, restrictions and recommendations, make the digitalization process of incoming mail and incoming bills as a cloud-based service. Having an efficient document management system has a significantly positive effect on an organization. In order for documents to be managed more easily and efficiently, they must be converted into an electron...

  4. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  5. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  6. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  7. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  8. ANALYSIS OF INCOMES, EXPENSES AND PROFITABILITY IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is centered on presenting some aspects regarding incomes, expenses and results of commercial banks from Romanian banking system such as: income dynamics and structure, expenses dynamics and structure, a set of indicators which reflects the main banks performances. Discussion is focused on a comparative analysis between two commercial banks from Romanian banking system, taking into consideration date from a certain period of time. Profitability indicators are very usefully from banks management having an important informational value, the main discussion being focused on: return on assets, return on equity, net assets margin, rate of profit, equity multiplier, expenses to income ratio.

  9. Income Tax Buyouts and Income Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    A tax buyout is a contract between tax authorities and a tax payer which reduces the marginal income tax rate in exchange for a lump-sum payment. While previous contributions have focussed on labour supply, we consider the interaction with tax evasion and show that a buyout can increase expected tax revenues. This will be the case if (1) the audit probability is constant and the penalty for evasion is a function of undeclared income or (2) the penalty depends on the amount of taxes evaded, an...

  10. Net smart how to thrive online

    CERN Document Server

    Rheingold, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Like it or not, knowing how to make use of online tools without being overloaded with too much information is an essential ingredient to personal success in the twenty-first century. But how can we use digital media so that they make us empowered participants rather than passive receivers, grounded, well-rounded people rather than multitasking basket cases? In Net Smart, cyberculture expert Howard Rheingold shows us how to use social media intelligently, humanely, and, above all, mindfully. Mindful use of digital media means thinking about what we are doing, cultivating an ongoing inner inquiry into how we want to spend our time. Rheingold outlines five fundamental digital literacies, online skills that will help us do this: attention, participation, collaboration, critical consumption of information (or "crap detection"), and network smarts. He explains how attention works, and how we can use our attention to focus on the tiny relevant portion of the incoming tsunami of information. He describes the quality...

  11. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  12. Supplementing income from farms with income from rural craft: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on supplementation of income from farm enterprises with income from craft (mat-weaving) was conducted in Uturu in Abia state, Nigeria. Primary objective was to compare farm income with income from non-farm activities, especially from mat weaving; and determine factors that influenced decisions to use income ...

  13. Income and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Much empirical work in the social sciences relies on the accuracy of survey responses. Of all the questions answered by survey respondents, few are as common as those concerning income: Income is a crucial determinant of an individual’s attitudes and behaviors and a standard correlate in political...

  14. Factor Determining Income Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractSince the phrase income distribution covers a large number of different concepts, it is necessary to define these and to indicate the choice made in this article. Income for a given recipient may cover lists of items which are not always the same. Apart from popular misunderstandings

  15. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  16. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  17. Income distribution: Second thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractAs a follow-up of his book on income distribution the author reformulates his version on the scarcity theory of income from productive contributions. The need to introduce into an earnings theory several job characteristics, non-cognitive as well as cognitive, and the corresponding

  18. 26 CFR 1.56-1 - Adjustment for the book income of corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Computation of adjusted net book income when taxable year and financial accounting year differ—(i) In general. If a taxpayer's applicable financial statement is prepared on the basis of a financial accounting... book income for each financial accounting year that includes any part of the taxpayer's taxable year...

  19. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...... of resources reflects individual preferences, the distribution of power, and pre-marital experiences. The analyses show that most Danish households use some type of income pooling and that the likelihood of income pooling varies considerably according to individual characteristics (age, education, occupation......, past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  20. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  1. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  2. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  3. How Income Changes During Unemployment: Evidence from Tax Return Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sara LaLumia; Laura Kawano

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses tax return data from 1999 to 2009 to provide new estimates of wage losses during unemployment, and to examine how other types of income change dur- ing an unemployment spell. Periods of unemployment are associated with significant reductions in wage income, equivalent to approximately 16% of pre-unemployment household-level earnings and 30% of individual-level earnings. Households partially compensate for these wage losses in ways that vary across groups: Spousal earnings incr...

  4. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  5. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  6. Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Mikkelson

    Full Text Available Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.

  7. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  8. Calculation Tool for Determining the Net Energy Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    for windows are presented. Based on these methods a program has been developed that determines the heat loss coefficient, U, and the total solar energy transmittance, g, for windows compounded of specific window components selected from a database. The program calculates the net energy gain for specific....... A proper and direct way to describe the energy performance of windows is by the net energy gain, E, which expresses the energy balance for the window. It is defined as the solar heat gain transmitted in minus the heat loss transmitted out through the window during the heating season. The net energy gain...... is dependent on both the U-values and the g-values. Beyond this it is dependent on the orientation of the windows and the climate and the actual period. This makes it difficult to choose the glazings and windows that are optimal with regard to energy performance in a given case. These facts have aroused a need...

  9. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  10. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE DETERMINANTS OF SAFETY-NET HOSPITAL FAILURES

    OpenAIRE

    Devin Alan Daugherty; Ernesto Escobedo

    2013-01-01

    Several safety-net hospitals have closed in the United States, but the scholarly literature does not adequately explain why. This study examines the relationship between the operational status (open or closed) of safety-net hospitals and unemployment, median household income, gross profit margin, efficiency ratio, operating margin, excess margin, and salary and benefit expenses per full-time equivalent. Study data were collected and analyzed by means of a logistic regression analysis. A signi...

  11. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  12. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  13. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  14. Income and Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect...... effects of cognitive abilities and education often offset the direct effects of these variables on ideological preferences. That is, increases in cognitive abilities and education significantly increase income, which reduces the tendency of individuals to express leftist preferences. These indirect...... effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also...

  15. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  16. Multiple Sclerosis impact on employment and income in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J F; Alla, S; Clarke, G; Mason, D F; Anderson, T; Richardson, A; Miller, D H; Sabel, C E; Abernethy, D A; Willoughby, E W; Taylor, B V

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the demographic, social and clinical characteristics associated with employment status and income for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in New Zealand (NZ). The NZ National MS Prevalence study included all persons resident in NZ on census day 2006 diagnosed with MS (96.7% coverage). Factors associated with employment and income status among the working age population (25-64 years) were identified by linear regression. Over 90% of working age people with MS (n=1727) had a work history, but 54% were not working. Work loss occurred early in the disease course, and at low disability (P<.001). Advancing age, progressive disease, longer disease duration, higher disability levels, partner loss and lower education were associated with work loss (P<.001). Working age people with MS had lower income than the NZ population (P<.0001). Higher qualifications yielded no additional income for MS females and about half the additional income for MS males (P<.0001). MS profoundly reduces employment and income early in the disease course, and at low levels of disability, however, unemployment is not entirely accounted for by clinical, social and demographic factors. These findings suggest social supports should be explored early in the disease course to reduce loss of income and unemployment for people with MS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  18. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  19. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  20. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  1. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  2. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  3. Boosting Low-Income Children's Opportunities to Succeed Through Direct Income Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Arloc; DeBot, Brandon; Huang, Chye-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Direct income supports have long been known to substantially reduce the extent and depth of poverty. Evidence suggests that they can also bolster children's opportunities to succeed and enhance long-term mobility. A growing body of research, for example, links income from 2 related tax credits for working families-the Earned Income Tax Credit and the Child Tax Credit-to benefits for children in those families, such as improved birth weight, better school outcomes, and increased rates of employment in adulthood. Similarly, the introduction of food stamps has been found to improve not only the birth weight of infants given access to the program but also their educational achievement, as well as indicators of health, well-being, and self-sufficiency decades later. These are striking research results for income support that is not typically thought of as improving children's health or education. The mechanisms through which these income supports lead to such benefits are likely varied and complex, but emerging research suggests that helping families with children afford basic necessities can reduce the added stress of financial difficulties, preventing downstream neuroendocrine and biochemical changes that affect children's longer-term outcomes. These findings have important implications for policy makers. Research suggests that potential weakening of the safety net would not only substantially increase poverty, but also have damaging long-term effects on children. Policy makers should reject funding cuts and instead strengthen the safety net, which this analysis suggests could reduce poverty further and also enhance children's opportunities to succeed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  5. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  6. The decomposition of income inequality by sources of income: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines income inequality by sources of income in Nigeria. A standard Gini decomposition method was applied on a nationally representative data to examine the differential impact of various types of income sources - including non-farm income - on inequality in rural Nigeria. The results revealed that ...

  7. An analysis of dentists' incomes, 1996-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Lazar, Vickie; Wall, Thomas P; Munson, Bradley

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. economy is beginning to recover from the most significant contraction since the Great Depression. Several sectors, including dentistry, have experienced reduced consumer demand and reduced earnings. Focusing on general practitioners, the authors analyzed trends in various factors that drive dentists' income to identify which of these factors are most important in explaining the recent decline. They then offer their views on future trends in dentists' net income levels. The authors used data from a nationally representative survey of dentists maintained by the American Dental Association (ADA) and data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to analyze trends in real gross billings per visit, rates of collection of gross billings, number of visits to a dentist, percentage of the population who visited a dentist, population to dentist ratio and average real practice expenses. The authors found that the recent decrease in dentists' net income levels was driven primarily by a decrease in utilization of dental care on the part of the population. Moreover, this decline in dental care use, although most pronounced during the economic downturn, appeared to have started before the downturn began. This suggests that more factors than solely the economic recession are affecting changes in dental care utilization patterns. The authors' findings suggest that average real net income for dentists may not necessarily recover to prerecession levels once economic conditions in the United States improve. This finding, combined with the potential implications of health care reform for dentistry, causes the authors to believe the future prospects related to dentists' net income levels remain uncertain.

  8. Chapter 27: Mortality of Marbled Murrelets in Gill Nets in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry R. Carter; Michael L.C. McAllister; M.E. Pete Isleib

    1995-01-01

    Mortality of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) due to accidental capture in gill nets is one of the major threats to murrelet populations. Gill-net mortality of murrelets throughout their range has been occurring for several decades and probably has contributed to declines in populations, in conjunction with loss of nesting habitat and...

  9. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-03-20

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximately 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximately 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximately 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

  10. Are Dental Schools Part of the Safety Net?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Howard L

    2017-08-01

    This article examines the current safety net activities of dental schools and reviews strategies by which schools could care for more poor and low-income patients. The primary data come from the annual Survey of Dental Education, a joint American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and American Dental Association (ADA) activity. The analyses use descriptive statistics and are intended to give ballpark estimates of patients treated under varying clinical scenarios. Some 107.4 million people are underserved in comparison to utilization rates for middle-income Americans. In 2013-14, pre- and postdoctoral students treated about 1,176,000 disadvantaged patients. This is an estimate; the actual value may be 25% above or below this number. The impact of potential strategies for schools to provide more care to poor and low-income patients are discussed; these are larger class size, more community-based education, a required one-year residency program, and schools' becoming part of publicly funded safety net clinics. While dental schools cannot solve the access problem, they could have a major impact if the payment and delivery strategies discussed were implemented. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  11. The Effect of Recent Tax Changes on Taxable Income: Evidence from a New Panel of Tax Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bradley T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the elasticity of taxable income to the net-of-tax share using a panel of tax returns that follows a random sample of taxpayers from 1999 to 2005, spanning the EGTRRA 2001 and JGTRRA 2003 tax changes. Results suggest that the elasticity of taxable income to the current year's net-of-tax share lies between 0.3 and 0.4 overall,…

  12. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on healthcare spending and national income: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Chaker, Layal; van der Lee, Sven J; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Falla, Abby; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-04-01

    The impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in populations extends beyond ill-health and mortality with large financial consequences. To systematically review and meta-analyze studies evaluating the impact of NCDs (including coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease) at the macro-economic level: healthcare spending and national income. Medical databases (Medline, Embase and Google Scholar) up to November 6th 2014. For further identification of suitable studies, we searched reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, modeling and ecological studies carried out in adults assessing the economic consequences of NCDs on healthcare spending and national income without language restrictions. All abstracts and full text selection was done by two independent reviewers. Any disagreements were resolved through consensus or consultation of a third reviewer. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Studies evaluating the impact of at least one of the selected NCDs on at least one of the following outcome measures: healthcare expenditure, national income, hospital spending, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product, net national income, adjusted national income, total costs, direct costs, indirect costs, inpatient costs, outpatient costs, per capita healthcare spending, aggregate economic outcome, capital loss in production levels in a country, economic growth, GDP per capita (per capita income), percentage change in GDP, intensive growth, extensive growth, employment, direct governmental expenditure and non-governmental expenditure. From 4,364 references, 153 studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the studies were focused on healthcare related costs of NCDs

  13. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    Since the last few decades, there is an increasing recognition of the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty. Using data from two rural villages in Mozambique, this study aimed to assess the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty incidence......, depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...

  14. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....

  15. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo

    2017-09-28

    : The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  16. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Castro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  17. Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth and income mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Van Kerm, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    We provide an analytical framework within which changes in income inequality over time are related to the pattern of income growth across the income range, and the reshuffling of individuals in the income pecking order. We use it to explain how it was possible both for ‘the poor’ to have fared badly relatively to ‘the rich’ in the USA during the 1980s (when income inequality grew substantially), and also for income growth to have been pro-poor. Income growth was also pro-poor in Western Germa...

  18. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  19. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  20. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  1. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  2. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  3. An Estimated Income Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Everard

    The decision to develop an estimated income scale arose from a wish to prove or disprove the statement that colleges like Brown University may be headed toward a situation where the student body will consist of the rich and the poor, the traditional group of middle class having been eliminated. As the research proceeded, it became evident that an…

  4. Surgeons in the United States. Activities, output and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, W W; Bloom, B S; McPherson, C K; Nickerson, R J; Colton, T; Peterson, O L

    1976-10-18

    In a national surgical manpower questionnaire survey, 76% of those MD and DO surgeons who were contactable returned questionnaires that included a log diary reporting details of their daily activities. Comparisons were made of allocation of professional time, number of operations performed, and net income of respondents by physician classification (including certification), specialty, practice arrangement, age, and census division. The mean professional workweek was estimated at 46 hours for all respondents. More than two thirds of the total professional time was spent in direct patient care; about half the surgeon's time was spent in the hospital, with nearly 20% in the operating room. The median annual work load of respondents was 170 operations. Their median annual net income was $45,700.

  5. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of unclear cause Transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke Hydrocephalus (fluid collection in the brain) Sometimes, memory loss occurs with mental health problems, such as: After a major, traumatic or stressful ...

  6. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as ... in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread ...

  7. Attribution of Net Carbon Change by Disturbance Type across Forest Lands of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.; Domke, G. M.; Woodall, C. W.; Pearson, T.

    2016-12-01

    We generated spatially comprehensive maps of carbon stocks and net carbon changes from US forestlands between 2005 and 2010 and attributed the changes to natural and anthropogenic processes. The prototype system created to produce these maps is designed to assist with national GHG inventories and support decisions associated with land management. Here, we present the results and methodological framework of our analysis. In summary, combining estimates of net C losses and gains results in net carbon change of 269±49 Tg C yr-1 (sink) in the coterminous US forest land, with carbon loss from harvest acting as the predominent source process.

  8. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    , who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  9. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  10. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  11. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  12. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  13. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  14. Environmental income and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which...... comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but differences across income quintiles are less pronounced than previously thought. The poor rely more heavily on subsistence products such as wood fuels and wild foods, and on products harvested from natural...... areas other than forests. In absolute terms environmental income is approximately five times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles....

  15. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  16. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  17. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches.

  18. Job match and income distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honggang; Wang, Dahui; Chen, Xianggui

    2004-10-01

    This paper studies the income distributions from the view of job match. By numerical simulation, we present different income distributions cases with different degrees of job match. In particular, we analyze the probability distribution of individual income, and we also discuss the economic efficiency and economic equality in different job match cases. Our basic results are that different job matchs can change income distributions, and good job matchs can not only improve economic efficiency but also aggravate economic inequality.

  19. Income Inequality and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Lordan; Prasada Rao; Lucy Bechtel

    2012-01-01

    The causal association between absolute income and health is well established, however the relationship between income inequality and health is not. The conclusions from the received studies vary across the region or country studied and/or the methodology employed. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia panel survey, this paper investigates the relationship between mental health and inequality in Australia. A variety of income inequality indices are calculated to test bo...

  20. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  1. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-14 - Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting in making his income tax returns. F's books... on the farm, $200 from the sale of livestock raised on the farm and not held for breeding or dairy... accounting in making his income tax returns. C had actual net earnings from self-employment, computed in...

  3. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  4. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  5. Income Analysis in South American Domestic Camelid Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ansaloni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining economic budget income. Statistics and data from 2003 were analysed to determine farm resources and farm production costs, per animal head and net farm income per labour unit and livestock head. This paper is relevant as regards economic data for production systems which are more often analysed for sociological and cultural aspects and less often for economic data and identification of real productive economic data which are not generally market driven.

  6. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...... in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...

  7. ​Affordable natural product reduces fruit losses, increases incomes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing science, enhancing fruit life The project uses cutting-edge science to extend and optimize the use of hexanal for pre- and post-harvest applications to ... Après avoir réalisé des travaux en laboratoire et dans le cadre de projets pilotes pendant une décennie au Canada et en Inde, on a mis à l'essai avec succès ...

  8. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  9. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: the role of income inequality and of social origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Louis; Leist, Anja K

    2015-11-14

    Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such

  10. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period; primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  11. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  12. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  13. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  14. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  15. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  16. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  17. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  18. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  19. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  20. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income (as...

  1. 24 CFR 570.504 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 570.504 Section 570... income. (a) Recording program income. The receipt and expenditure of program income as defined in § 570... of program income received by recipients. (1) Program income received before grant closeout may be...

  2. 7 CFR 277.10 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 277.10 Section 277.10 Agriculture... § 277.10 Program income. (a) Program income is gross income resulting from activities financed with program funds. Such earnings exclude interest income but include income from service fees, usage or rental...

  3. Child Poverty, the Great Recession, and the Social Safety Net in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne; Hoynes, Hiliary; Kuku, Elira

    In this paper, we comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recession on child poverty, with particular attention to the role of the social safety net in mitigating the adverse effects of shocks to earnings and income. Using a state panel data model and data for 2000 to 2014, we estimate the relationship between the business cycle and child poverty, and we examine how and to what extent the safety net is providing protection to at-risk children. We find compelling evidence that the safety net provides protection; that is, the cyclicality of after-tax-and-transfer child poverty is significantly attenuated relative to the cyclicality of private income poverty. We also find that the protective effect of the safety net is not similar across demographic groups, and that children from more disadvantaged backgrounds, such as those living with Hispanic or single heads, or particularly those living with immigrant household heads—or immigrant spouses—experience larger poverty cyclicality than those living with non- Hispanic white or married heads, or those living with native household heads with native spouses. Our findings hold across a host of choices for how to define poverty. These include measures based on absolute thresholds or more relative thresholds. They also hold for measures of resources that include not only cash and near-cash transfers net of taxes but also several measures of the value of public medical benefits.

  4. The distribution of net benefits under the National Health Insurance programme in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nicole; Yip, Winnie; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Wang, Pen-Jen

    2007-01-01

    The redistributive effects of a social insurance programme are determined by how the programme is paid for-who pays and how much do they pay?-and how the benefits are distributed. As a result, the redistributive effects of a social health insurance programme should be evaluated on the basis of its net benefit-the difference between benefits and payment. Among the rich body of empirical analysis on equity in health care financing, however, most studies have relied on partial analysis, assessing equity by source of financing while ignoring the benefit side, or looking at equity in benefits but ignoring the funding side. Either approach risks misleading findings. In this study, therefore, the primary objective was to assess the distribution of net benefits across income groups under Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) programme. This study observed a nationally representative sample of 74 012 NHI enrolees from 1996 to 2000. The unique NHI databases in Taiwan provide comprehensive enrolment and utilization information, and allowed linkage to each enrolee's income tax files. In addition to crude estimates, two-part models and ordinary least-square models were used to adjust inpatient and outpatient benefits for health care needs (age, sex, major disease status and physical disability). After adjusting for health care needs, the distribution of net benefits showed an apparent pro-poor pattern, with the lowest income group receiving the highest net benefits (NT$3353) and the top income group receiving the lowest net benefits (-NT$3072) in 1996. Although a clear pro-poor pattern was observed among those enrolees who paid wage-based premiums, this vertically equitable pattern was less evident among the enrolees who paid fixed premiums. Overall, a trend of increasing net benefits was observed in all income groups between 1996 and 2000, and all the NHI enrolees can be considered better off over time. In addition to contributing to the limited literature on equity in net

  5. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  6. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  7. The Role of Family Income Dynamics in Predicting Trajectories of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Economic disparities in children's behavioral functioning have been observed in prior research. Yet, studies have ignored important perspectives from developmental psychopathology and have not delineated how aspects of income dynamics (i.e., cumulative family income versus income volatility) differentially relate to behavior problems. To address these limitations, the current study examined how both cumulative income and income volatility predict trajectories of children's internalizing and externalizing problems from kindergarten through fifth grade in a nationally representative sample of 10,900 children (51.4 % male). Results showed four distinct trajectories of internalizing problems and five distinct externalizing trajectories. Family income dynamics were related to trajectory group membership. Specifically, increased cumulative income decreased risk of membership in mid-increasing and mid-stable internalizing groups, and children whose families experienced multiple waves of income loss were 2.4 times as likely to be in the mid-increasing group instead of the low-stable group. With respect to externalizing, higher cumulative income increased the likelihood of belonging in the group exhibiting stably low externalizing problems. Experiencing income loss increased the risk of belonging in the trajectory group exhibiting chronically high externalizing behaviors. These results enhance our knowledge of the role of family income in the development of behavior problems.

  8. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat acne, bipolar disorder, and ADHD. Diet pills that contain amphetamines also can cause hair loss. Alopecia areata (pronounced: al-uh-PEE-shuh air-ee-AH-tuh) . This skin disease causes hair ...

  9. Why Income Comparison is Rational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2010-01-01

    A major factor affecting a person s happiness is the gap between their income and their neighbors , independent of their own income. This effect is strongest when the neighbor has moderately higher income. In addition a person s lifetime happiness often follows a "U" shape. Previous models have explained subsets of these phenomena, typically assuming the person has limited ability to assess their own (hedonic) utility. Here I present a model that explains all the phenomena, without such assumptions. In this model greater income of your neighbor is statistical data that, if carefully analyzed, would recommend that you explore for a new income-generating strategy. This explains unhappiness that your neighbor has greater income, as an emotional "prod" that induces you to explore, in accord with careful statistical analysis. It explains the "U" shape of happiness similarly. Another benefit of this model is that it makes many falsifiable predictions.

  10. Heat losses in the single family houses area of Praestmarken, Vaexjoe, Sweden; Vaermefoerluster i smaahusomraadet Praestmarken, Vaexjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinko, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik, Nykoeping (Sweden); Boehm, Benny [Technical Univ. of Danmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    placed in a measurement container together with a data logger. The measurements of the substations in the houses were done by the recently installed remote metering system also connected to VEAB. The difference between the main meter reading and the sum of all substation readings gives the energy loss due to the net. In order to receive reliable results, the measurements were performed in summer time. The comparison of the theoretical and measured data gives a consistent result, if the ageing of the district heating pipes, especially of the pipes with CO{sub 2} blown insulation foam, installed between 1995 and 1997, are accounted for. The annual heat loss of all pipes, between the time they were new and July 2004, has increased by 8 %. In spite of that, the total annual heat loss of the local net is only 19 % of the total energy delivered to the area (or 24 % of the energy delivered to the houses). In absolute figures, the annual heat loss is 363 MWh or 14.9 W/m. In July, the heat loss is but 40 % of totally delivered energy. An important finding is also the relatively large decrease of temperature in the net in summer time. This is mostly due to the low summer load. The mean temperature of the network is about 6-7 deg C lower than the mean temperature of the network at the entrance to the area (at measurement container). In some substations, at the end of the branches, the temperature can well be below 50 deg C in spite of incoming 75 deg C to the area. An installation of temperature-controlled bypasses should therefore be further investigated.

  11. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn’t be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different fr...

  12. Counterfeit Goods and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Scandizzo

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of counterfeit goods in a world where consumers are differentiated by level of income and innovation is quality enhancing. Counterfeit goods are defined as products with the same characteristics as “originals”, but of lower quality. The effect of imitation on firms’ profits and consumer welfare depends on the distribution of income within the country. In particular, the greater the level of income inequality the larger the increase in consumer welfare due to the...

  13. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  14. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  15. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  16. Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutuku Francis M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the extensive ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs over the last decade, the effective lifespan of these nets, especially their physical integrity, under true operational conditions is not well-understood. Usefulness of nets declines primarily due to physical damage or loss of insecticidal activity. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was used to determine the physical condition and to identify predictors of poor physical condition for bed nets owned by individuals from communities in Kwale County, coastal Kenya. A proportionate hole index (pHI was used as a standard measure, and the cut-offs for an ‘effective net’ (offer substantial protection against mosquito bites and ‘ineffective nets’ (offer little or no protection against mosquito bites were determined (pHI ≤88 (about ≤500 cm2 of holes surface area and pHI of >88 (≥500 cm2 of holes surface area, respectively. Results The vast majority (78% of the surveyed nets had some holes. The median pHI was 92 (range: 1–2,980. Overall, half of the nets were categorized as ‘effective nets’ or ‘serviceable nets’. Physical deterioration of nets was associated with higher use and washing frequency. Young children and older children were found to use ineffective bed nets significantly more often than infants, while the physical integrity of nets owned by pregnant women was similar to those owned by infants. Estuarine environment inhabitants owned nets with the worst physical condition, while nets owned by the coastal slope inhabitants were in fairly good physical condition. The results suggest that bed nets are optimally utilized when they are new and physically intact. Thereafter, bed net utilization decreases gradually with increasing physical deterioration, with most net owners withdrawing physically damaged nets from routine use. This withdrawal commonly happens following 1.5 years of use, making bed net use the most

  17. Pengaruh Financial Leverage dan Profitabilitas Terhadap Income Smoothing Dengan Kualitas Audit Sebagai Pemoderas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasinih Rasinih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of Financial Leverage and Profitability against income smoothing with Quality Audit as a moderating. Profitability measured by return on assets formula net income divided by total assets. Financial Leverage is measured by finding the ratio between total liabilities and total assets of a company. Meanwhile, with the smoothing Income Gain Flattening Index and Quality audits with dummy. The population in this study 134 company, with the period of 2011 until 2013, the Company analyzed 20 companies. The method of analysis used data from this study multiple regression analysis. But earlier, descriptive statistical analysis and classical assumption. Results of this study show variable financial leverage and profitability and significant influence on income smoothing. Keywords: Financial Leverage, profitability, income smoothing, quality audit

  18. More than Money: Social Class, Income, and the Intergenerational Persistence of Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mood

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available I provide a uniquely comprehensive empirical integration of the sociological and economic approaches to the intergenerational transmission of advantage. I analyze the independent and interactive associations that parental income and social class share with children’s later earnings, using large-scale Swedish register data with matched parent–child records that allow exact and reliable measurement of occupations and incomes. I show that parental class matters at a given income and income matters within a given social class, and the net associations are substantial. Because measurement error is minimal, this result strongly suggests that income and class capture partly different underlying advantages and transmission mechanisms. If including only one of these measures, rather than both, we underestimate intergenerational persistence by around a quarter. The nonlinearity of the income–earnings association is found to be largely a compositional effect capturing the main effect of class.

  19. 26 CFR 1.901-2 - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on individuals to finance retirement, old-age, death, survivor, unemployment, illness, or disability... on the realized net income of corporations that do business in country X (the “country X corporate... shareholder's pro rata share of the corporation's country X corporate tax for that year, less (C) actual...

  20. 75 FR 81457 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ85 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: This... persons not otherwise subject to U.S. net-basis taxation and the withholding of such tax under sections...

  1. The effect of migration on income growth and convergence: Meta-analytic evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozgen, C.; Nijkamp, P.; Poot, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compare a set of econometric studies that measure the effect of net internal migration in neoclassical models of long-run real income convergence and derive 67 comparable effect sizes. The precision-weighted estimate of beta convergence is about 2.7 per cent. An increase of one percentage point

  2. Income disparities and convergence across regions of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Chocholatá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of regional income disparities of the net disposable income of households (in Euro per inhabitant across the regions of Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary and Germany during the period 2000-2013. The analysis deals with the 82 NUTS 2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics regions and is based on the concept of sigma-convergence, beta-convergence and growth-volatility relationship. Preliminary analysis concentrating on mapping of the analysed indicators is followed by consideration of the region’s location supported by the results of spatial autocorrelation testing. The sigma-convergence analysis reveals the persistence of disparities in the net disposable income of households in the period 2000-2013 both at the national and subnational level. Although the results of spatial analysis have proved the existence of spatial dependence, following the classical approach, the beta-convergence concept is tested with the use of both non-spatial and spatial models. The potentially different convergence characteristics of Visegrad 4 countries’ (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary regions and regions of Austria and Germany as well as the examination of the possible relationship between the regional growth and volatility are also taken into account in the econometric convergence modelling.

  3. Biological and nutritional properties of blackcurrant berries (Ribes nigrum L.) under conditions of shading nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Boban; Šavikin, Katarina; Djurovic, Dejan; Veberic, Robert; Mikulič Petkovšek, Maja; Zdunić, Gordana; Vulic, Todor

    2015-09-01

    Changes of environmental factors, created under the influence of various shading nets, could significantly affect the biological characteristics of plants grown in such conditions as well as biosynthesis of primary metabolites and ascorbic acid. Five blackcurrant cultivars - 'Ben Sarek', 'Ben Nevis', 'Ben Lomond', 'Ometa' and 'Čačanska Crna' - were cultivated in the shade of two green polyethylene nets and exposed to direct sunlight during two experimental seasons. In the control treatment, all cultivars contained the highest amounts of soluble solid content and number of flower buds per shoot in both years of cultivation. The bushes exposed to direct sunlight had the highest sunburn damage to the berries and leaves, and loss of yield. The greatest yield loss caused by berry damage in the present study during the experimental period was in cultivar 'Ben Sarek': 9.0% in 2010 and 15.4% in 2011. Growing in the shade of light-green net contributed the highest content of ascorbic acid. Control bushes and those shaded by light-green net had significantly higher radical scavenging activity, with values between 1.15 and 1.22 mg mL(-1). Plants shaded by nets in both years of cultivation had lower damage to leaves and berries and percentage of loss of yield, and usage of the net would be economically advantageous to growers. Fruit of blackcurrant cultivars grown in shading conditions still represent a good source of valuable nutritive and biologically active compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Postharvest Losses in Africa: Analytical Review and Synthesis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across Africa, postharvest losses along the food chain from farm to fork jeopardize the food security of resource-poor farmers. Reducing postharvest losses can help increase food availability and improve access to food, nutritional quality, food safety, and farmers' incomes. Data on postharvest losses is in short supply.

  5. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  6. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  7. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  8. Experimental results on air permeability of agricultural nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castellano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of the texture characteristics of agricultural nets on the air flow passing through them, a micro wind tunnel was designed and built in the testing and engineering laboratory of Sachim s.r.l., an Italian high-density polyethylene (HDPE technical textiles manufacturer. The micro wind tunnel (0.1345 m diameter allowed the simultaneous measurement of the air flowrate and the pressure drop through a net sample. The equipment was designed to set up the inclination of the net samples with respect of the airflow at fixed angles (90°, 60°, 45°, 30°. The variation of the pressure drop with the air velocity on four different flat woven round monofilament HDPE nets perpendicular to the air flow are here reported. In all cases the air velocity measured into the micro wind tunnel was above 4 m s–1 hence reported results do not consider low wind speed. Preliminarily, the loss coefficient was assumed as a function of porosity and Reynolds number, calculated with reference to the equivalent diameter of the pores, FS(Rel,ε and showed percent deviations form experimental results in the range 14.6%÷25.3%. Hence a simplified expression of the loss coefficient, depending only on the porosity was proposed, FS(ε which highlighted differences with experimental results in the range 3.5%÷20.3%. Finally, results were compared with those based on the Bernoulli’s principle found in the literature.

  9. Durability monitoring of long-lasting insecticidal (mosquito nets (LLINs in Madagascar: physical integrity and insecticidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiarizaha Randriamaherijaona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLINs are highly effective for malaria prevention. However, it is also clear that durability monitoring is essential to predict when, post-distribution, a net population, no longer meets minimum WHO standards and needs to be replaced. Following a national distribution campaign in 2013, we tracked two durability indicators, physical integrity and bio-efficacy at six and 12 months post-distribution. While the loss of net integrity during this period was in line with expectations for a one-year net life, bio-efficacy results suggested that nets were losing insecticidal effect faster than expected. The rate of bio-efficacy loss varied significantly between different net brands. Methods We tested 600 randomly selected LLINs, 200 from each of three net brands. Each brand came from different eco-epidemiological zones reflecting the original distribution scheme. Fabric integrity (size and number of holes was quantified using the proportional hole index (pHI. A subsample of the nets, 134 new nets, 150 at six months and 124 at 12 months, were then tested for bio-efficacy using the World Health Organization (WHO recommended method. Results Three net types, Netprotect®, Royalsentry® and Yorkool®, were followed. After six months, 54%, 39% and 45%, respectively, showed visible loss of integrity. The median pHI by type was estimated to be one, zero and one respectively. The percentage of damaged nets increased after 12 months such that 83.5%, 74% and 68.5%, had holes. The median pHI for each brand of nets was 47.5, 47 and 23. No significant difference in the estimated pHI at either six or 12 months was observed. There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of hole size category between the three brands (χ 2 = 15.761, df = 4, P = 0.003. In cone bio-assays, mortality of new Yorkool® nets was surprisingly low (48.6%, mortality was 90.2% and 91.3% for Netprotect® and

  10. Influence Analysis of Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE), Net Profit Margin (NPM), Debt To Equity Ratio (DER), and current ratio (CR), Against Corporate Profit Growth In Automotive In Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Heikal; Muammar Khaddafi; Ainatul Ummah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research to analyze the effect of Return On Asset, Return On Equity, Net Profit Margin, Debt To Equity Ratio and Current Ratio toward growth income either simultaneously or partially on automotive companies that were listed in Indonesia stock exchange. Independent variables used in this research were Return On Asset, Return On Equity, Net Profit Margin, Debt To Equity Ratio and Current Ratio and dependent variable in this research was growth incom. The data used in this re...

  11. Reducing Poverty and Investing in People : The New Role of Safety Nets in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Monchuk, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    For two decades, Africa’s strong economic growth has paved the way for poverty reduction. Nevertheless, high chronic poverty levels persist, and the gap between income groups in terms of human capital and access to basic services is growing. Also, poor households are vulnerable to frequent shocks. By providing regular, reliable support to poor households and helping them invest in productive activities, targeted interventions such as safety nets help reduce persistent poverty, reverse the tre...

  12. Income Tax in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...

  13. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair if you have certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends ...

  14. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects and other medical conditions run in families, and how they can affect your health and your baby's health. There are ... Too Soon Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives ... Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ...

  15. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  16. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  17. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  18. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  19. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  20. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  1. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  2. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  3. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  4. 38 CFR 43.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 43.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  5. 40 CFR 31.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 31.25 Section 31.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  6. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8... REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income from... shall be given to whether, and to what extent, (1) such income can be related to services performed on...

  7. 36 CFR 1207.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 1207.25... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...

  8. 28 CFR 66.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 66.25 Section 66.25... Administration § 66.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  9. 21 CFR 1403.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1403.25 Section 1403.25 Food and....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use of rental of real or...

  10. 45 CFR 1157.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1157.25 Section 1157.25 Public... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  11. 24 CFR 1003.503 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1003.503 Section....503 Program income. (a) Program income requirements for ICDBG grantees are set forth in 24 CFR 85.25, as modified by this section. (b) Program income means gross income received by the grantee or a...

  12. 34 CFR 80.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 80.25 Section 80.25 Education Office of... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  13. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 12.65 Section 12.65 Public... to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.65 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...

  14. 29 CFR 1470.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 1470.25 Section 1470.25 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or...

  15. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 2541.250 Section 2541.250 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.250 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  16. 20 CFR 437.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 437.25 Section 437.25....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  17. 45 CFR 92.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 92.25 Section 92.25 Public Welfare... Administration § 92.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  18. 7 CFR 248.13 - FMNP income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FMNP income. 248.13 Section 248.13 Agriculture... FMNP income. Program income means gross income the State agency earns from grant supported activities... property. The State agency shall retain Program income earned during the agreement period and use it for...

  19. 14 CFR 1273.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 1273.25 Section 1273.25... Administration § 1273.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  20. 45 CFR 602.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 602.25 Section 602.25 Public... Requirements § 602.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  1. 32 CFR 33.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 33.25 Section 33.25 National... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services...

  2. 22 CFR 135.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 135.25 Section 135.25 Foreign... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  3. 10 CFR 600.225 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.225 Section 600.225 Energy DEPARTMENT....225 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  4. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 85.25 Section 85.25... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  5. 45 CFR 1183.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1183.25 Section 1183.25 Public....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  6. 7 CFR 3016.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 3016.25 Section 3016.25 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...

  7. 20 CFR 627.450 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 627.450 Section 627.450... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Administrative Standards § 627.450 Program income. (a) Definition of program income. (1) Program income means income received by the recipient or subrecipient that...

  8. 29 CFR 97.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program income. 97.25 Section 97.25 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  9. 45 CFR 1174.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1174.25 Section 1174.25 Public....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  10. 15 CFR 24.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 24.25 Section 24.25... Administration § 24.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  11. 49 CFR 18.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 18.25 Section 18.25 Transportation... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  12. 44 CFR 13.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 13.25 Section... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1086 - Community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or business...

  14. 26 CFR 1.469-2 - Passive activity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...); (vi) Gross income attributable to the reimbursement of a loss from fire, storm, shipwreck, or other..., storm, shipwreck, or other casualty, or from theft (as such terms are used in section 165(c)(3)) if...

  15. Possible consequences of regionally based bundled payments for diabetic amputations for safety net hospitals in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhall, Karina; Stone, David; Svoboda, Ryan; Goodney, Philip

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing health reform in the United States encourages quality-based reimbursement methods such as bundled payments for surgery. The effect of such changes on high-risk procedures is unknown, especially at safety net hospitals. This study quantified the burden of diabetes-related amputation and the potential financial effect of bundled payments at safety net hospitals in Texas. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of diabetic amputation burden and charges using publically available data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid and the Texas Department of Health from 2008 to 2012. Using hospital referral region (HRR)-level analysis, we categorized the proportion of safety net hospitals within each region as very low (0%-9%), low (10%-20%), average (20%-33%), and high (>33%) and compared amputation rates across regions using nonparametric tests of trend. We then used charge data to create reimbursement rates based on HRR to estimate financial losses. We identified 51 adult hospitals as safety nets in Texas. Regions varied in the proportion of safety net hospitals from 0% in Victoria to 65% in Harlingen. Among beneficiaries aged >65, amputation rates correlated to the proportion of safety net hospitals in each region; for example, patients in the lowest quartile of safety net had a yearly rate of 300 amputations per 100,000 beneficiaries, whereas those in the highest quartile had a yearly rate of 472 per 100,000 (P = .007). Charges for diabetic amputation-related admissions varied almost 200-fold, from $5000 to $1.4 million. Using reimbursement based on HRR to estimate a bundled payment, we noted net losses would be higher at safety net vs nonsafety net hospitals ($180 million vs $163 million), representing a per-hospital loss of $1.6 million at safety nets vs $700,000 at nonsafety nets (P amputations in Texas. Changes to traditional payment models should account for the disproportionate burden of high-risk procedures performed by these hospitals. Copyright © 2016

  16. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  17. Net farm income and land use under a U.S. greenhouse gas cap and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin S. Baker; Bruce A. McCarl; Brian C. Murray; Steven K. Rose; Ralph J. Alig; Darius Adams; Greg Latta; Robert Beach; Adam. Daigneault

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, the U.S. agricultural sector has experienced high prices for energy related inputs and commodities, and a rapidly developing bioenergy market. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation would further alter agricultural markets and increase land competition in forestry and agriculture by shifting input costs, creating an agricultural GHG abatement...

  18. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy......The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...

  19. Demographic change and income distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Weizsacker, R K

    1989-03-01

    This paper examines the interactions between demographic change and income distribution, especially in the context of government. Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, this paper established an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, 2 income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. The superimposition of different age structures on populations of otherwise identical characteristics is non-neutral with respect to income distribution: disregarding state interventions, population aging increases income inequality. This result may no longer generally hold if redistribution policies are taken into account. The paper provides an example of how indirect demographic effects may lead to a reversal of sign. In the absence of any government program, a higher ratio of pensioners to active workers raises income inequality. In the presence of a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and pay-as-you-go financed state pension system, a higher dependency ratio decreases income dispersion. The restoration of government budget equilibrium induces unintended distributional effects which put the incidence of demographic shifts in a different light. Varying important aging indicator with realistic forecast bounds leads to inequality fluctuations up to 35%. This illustrates the quantitative scale and hence the political importance of demographically caused inequality distortions.

  20. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  1. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D; Leblanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C

    2012-08-01

    Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection and treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys in 11 high-income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents aged 18 to 64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16% to 33% of median within-country household income, and population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0% to 1.4% of gross household income. Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy makers should take these associations into consideration in making health care research and treatment resource allocation decisions. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Loss Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes work on the stochastic modelling of loss networks. Such systems have long been of interest to telephone engineers and are becoming increasingly important as models of computer and information systems. Throughout the century problems from this field have provided an impetus to the development of probability theory, pure and applied. This paper provides an introduction to the area and a review of recent work.

  3. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  4. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees......’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards...

  5. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  6. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  7. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  8. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  9. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  10. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  11. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  12. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  13. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  14. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  15. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  16. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  17. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  18. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  19. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  20. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  1. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  2. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  3. The effects of audit quality on the value relevance of other comprehensive incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levinska Primavera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stockholders claim deals with handling crucial role to investors while another ac-counting measurement has not yet been paid attention by the investors and analysts. Beside, another comprehensive income despite of its equal role to net income also re-quires a deep concern. This research uses financial industry data in Indonesia Capital Market for 2011-2012 under panel method and also cross-section method as the addi-tional analysis. This research assesses the effect of audit quality on value relevance of other comprehensive income regarding subjectivity embedded in other comprehensive income components. These components are determined through fair value aspects, which eventually lead to management discretion in measuring other comprehensive income components. Subjective components of other comprehensive incomes consist of foreign exchange translation (forex, revaluation in fixed assets (rev, minimum pension liability adjustment (pen, and available-for-sale securities adjustment (sec. The audit quality is believed as a mechanism which can increase the value relevance of subjective of other comprehensive income components. On the other hand, when as-sessing the value relevance of other comprehensive income components both indivi-dually and in aggregate, it is encouraged by inconsistency of previous research results.

  4. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  5. Efficacy and residues of permethrin-incorporated nets used to protect maize grains post-harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaclerio, Matteo; Pellizzoni, Marco; Todeschini, Valeria; Kane, David; Hanafi, Ahmad; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Pest control in post-harvest food storage represents a great challenge in the sustainable prevention of food losses, and insecticide-treated netting may represent a valid alternative to traditional practices such as the direct application of insecticides. In our work, the efficacy of a permethrin-incorporated net, in combination with polypropylene or jute sacking, was tested for the control of Sitophilus oryzae. Contamination of maize grain by permethrin from the treated netting was also evaluated. A 98% control of S. oryzae was achieved using permethrin-treated netting. Both jute and polypropylene acted as additional barriers, increasing efficacy to 100%. The results also showed the contamination of maize kernel by permethrin released from the treated netting. The concentration of residues in maize kernels increased with increasing temperature; however, use of jute or polypropylene significantly reduced (by 87% to 97%) the concentration of residues transferred to maize kernels. Permethrin-treated netting provided a high level of efficacy in the post-harvest protection of maize. Several factors influenced permethrin residue concentrations in grains when treated nets are used. Therefore, solutions should be found to prevent contamination of food stored in the bags that are treated with insecticides. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. 26 CFR 1.382-7T - Built-in gains and losses (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Built-in gains and losses (temporary). 1.382-7T Section 1.382-7T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-7T Built-in gains and losses...

  7. 26 CFR 1.382-7 - Built-in gains and losses. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Built-in gains and losses. 1.382-7 Section 1.382-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-7 Built-in gains and losses. ...

  8. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(3)-1 - Capital loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital loss carryovers. 1.381(c)(3)-1 Section 1.381(c)(3)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(3)-1 Capital loss carryovers. (a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.812-8 - Illustration of operations loss carrybacks and carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of operations loss carrybacks and carryovers. 1.812-8 Section 1.812-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.812-8 Illustration of...

  10. Credit Risk Management and Interest Income of Banks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapetu, Oladapo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of credit risk on the interest income of banks in Nigeria between the period of 2000 and 2014. Unbalanced panel data analysis was used to estimate the model with unit root test, Breusch Pagan test, trend analysis, descriptive statistics, Perasan CD Test, heteroskedasticity test, heterogeneity test, serial correlation test, Jarquebera, F-statistics, random effect, fixed effect, time effect, Prob value, Hausman test and rho as the estimation parameters. The study discovered that NPL, LLP and LA are statistically significant in explaining the variation in interest income across banks in Nigeria, while LA/TD is not statistically significant in explaining the variation in interest income across banks in Nigeria. Based on this, the study recommends that regular update of credit policy and adequate measures to monitor loans should be put in place by banks in Nigeria, as these measures will reduce bad loans and ultimately cause a reduction in loan loss provisions.

  11. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  12. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  13. Aquaponics Cultivation of Ipome Aquatica and the Peasant Financial Income of Cirata Cistern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Gandhy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research paper analyzes the financial income of a poor community living around the Cirata cistern, in West Java, Indonesia, before and after the community employed the aquaponics strategy of planting ipomoea aquatica. Data are gathered from observation, interviews and statistical analysis of the incomes of community members. In addition, analysis of the data applies Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Payback Period (PP. The findings clearly demonstrate an increased annual income of more than 1.117.296 rupiah among those community members using the aquaponics strategy. Once the community has adjusted to professionally implementing this aquaponics strategy, it would be practically useful to invite investors to invest their capital to develop this area.   Keywords: aquaponics, financial income, West Java, internal rate of return, payback period

  14. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Loss from GRACE Monthly Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is currently experiencing a net mass loss. There are however large discrepancies between the published qualitative mass loss estimates, based on different data sets and methods. There are even large differences between the results based on the same data sources, as is the ...

  15. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  16. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  17. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net photosynthesis, sap flow density (SFD) and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured in a Quercus suber forest in north Tunisia in an attempt to explain the forest decline. In general, sap flow was positively related to light intensity and water loss, indicating that high light intensities can increase the SFD up to the ...

  18. Supplement: Community-based safety-nets and strategies to reduce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplement: Community-based safety-nets and strategies to reduce vulnerability to drought, crop losses and market crises. NA Ngongi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences Vol. 7 (3) 2008: pp. 229-236. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  19. Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindler, R.; Siemens, J.; Kaiser, K.; Moors, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands, and

  20. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G......This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically...

  1. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    an explicit separation between modelling the behaviour of a system and monitoring the behaviour of the model. As a result, cleaner and more understandable models can be created. The third paper presents a novel method for adding auxiliary information to coloured Petri net models. Coloured Petri nets models...... in a very limited and predictable manner, and it is easy to enable and disable the auxiliary information. The fourth paper is a case study in which the performance of a web server was analysed using coloured Petri nets. This case study has shown that it is relatively easy to analyse the performance...

  2. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  3. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  4. Linking national wood consumption with global biodiversity and ecosystem service losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Carrasco, L Roman; Kastner, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    Identifying the global hotspots of forestry driven species, ecosystem services losses and informing the consuming nations of their environmental footprint domestically and abroad is essential to design demand side interventions and induce sustainable production methods. Here we first use countryside species area relationship model to project species extinctions of four vertebrate taxa (mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles) due to forest land use in 174 countries. We combine the projected extinctions with a global database on the monetary value of ecosystem services provided by different biomes and with bilateral trade data of wood products to calculate species extinctions and ecosystem services losses inflicted by national wood consumption and international wood trade. Results show that globally a total of 485 species are projected to go extinct due to current forest land use. About 32% of this projected loss can be attributed to land use devoted for export production. However, under the counterfactual scenario with the same consumption levels but no international trade of wood products, an additional 334 species are projected to go extinct. Globally, we find that losses of ecosystem services worth $1.5trillion/year are embodied in the timber trade. Compared to high-income nations, tropical countries such as Philippines, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka, Gambia and Bolivia presented the highest net ecosystem services losses (>3000US$/ha/year) that could not be compensated through current land rents, indicating underpriced exports. Small tropical countries also gained much lower rents per species extinction suffered. These results can help internalize these costs into the global trade through financial compensation mechanisms such as REDD+ or through price premiums on wood sourced from these countries. Overall the results can provide valuable insights for devising national strategies to meet several of the global Aichi 2020 biodiversity targets and can also be useful for

  5. 10 CFR 600.314 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.314 Section 600.314 Energy DEPARTMENT... Program income. (a) DOE must apply the standards in this section to the disposition of program income from... program income earned: (1) From license fees and royalties for copyrighted material, patents, patent...

  6. 23 CFR 1200.24 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1200.24 Section 1200.24 Highways... Implementation and Management of the Highway Safety Program § 1200.24 Program income. (a) Inclusions. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal...

  7. 10 CFR 603.1305 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 603.1305 Section 603.1305 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1305 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as a direct result of a TIA. Program income includes...

  8. 34 CFR 361.63 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 361.63 Section 361.63 Education... State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.63 Program income. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, program income means gross income received by the State that is directly generated by an activity...

  9. 7 CFR 1944.670 - Project income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Project income. 1944.670 Section 1944.670 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.670 Project income. (a) Project income... governed by 7 CFR parts 3015 and 3016. All income during the grant period, including amounts recovered by...

  10. Income Changes Following Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Randal D.; Bahr, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Determined how gender and divorce affect per-capita family income. Female per-capita income decreased substantially after divorce, while male per-capita income increased substantially. Differences between male and female income levels could not be attributed solely to number of dependents. Even among those with no dependents, females had much…

  11. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State median...-35 (42 U.S.C. 8624(b)(2)), grantees using the Federal government's official poverty income guidelines...

  12. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households' existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Rudy K; Lynch, Matt; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Kate

    2013-06-14

    Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. Where pre-campaign coverage

  13. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  14. Weight-loss medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescription weight loss drugs; Diabetes - weight loss drugs; Obesity - weight loss drugs; Overweight - weight loss drugs ... are not approved by the FDA to treat weight-loss. So you should not take them if you do not have diabetes.

  15. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  16. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  17. Homology Groups of a Pipeline Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Husainov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri net is said to be elementary if every place can contain no more than one token. In this paper, it is studied topological properties of the elementary Petri net for a pipeline consisting of n functional devices. If the work of the functional devices is considered continuous, we can come to some topological space of “intermediate” states. In the paper, it is calculated the homology groups of this topological space. By induction on n, using the Addition Sequence for homology groups of semicubical sets, it is proved that in dimension 0 and 1 the integer homology groups of these nets are equal to the group of integers, and in the remaining dimensions are zero. Directed homology groups are studied. A connection of these groups with deadlocks and newsletters is found. This helps to prove that all directed homology groups of the pipeline elementary Petri nets are zeroth.

  18. Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Øderud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality rates from injuries are higher for people from poorer economic backgrounds than those with higher incomes (according to the World Health Organization [WHO], and health care professionals and organisations dealing with people with disabilities experience that individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI in low income countries face serious challenges in their daily lives.Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore life expectancy (life expectancy is the average remaining years of life of an individual and the situation of persons living with SCI in low income settings.Method: Literature studies and qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 informants from four study sites in Zimbabwe representing persons with SCI, their relatives and rehabilitation professionals.Results: There are few publications available about life expectancy and the daily life of persons with SCI in low income countries. Those few publications identified and the study findings confirm that individuals with SCI are experiencing a high occurrence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections leading to unnecessary suffering, often causing premature death. Pain and depression are frequently reported and stigma and negative attitudes are experienced in society. Lack of appropriate wheelchairs and services, limited knowledge about SCI amongst health care staff, limited access to health care and rehabilitation services, loss of employment and lack of financial resources worsen the daily challenges.Conclusion: The study indicates that life expectancy for individuals with SCI in low income settings is shorter than for the average population and also with respect to individuals with SCI in high income countries. Poverty worsened the situation for individuals with SCI, creating barriers that increase the risk of contracting harmful pressure sores and infections leading to premature death. Further

  19. Childhood income volatility and adult outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bradley L

    2014-10-01

    Using data linked across generations in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the relationship between exposure to volatile income during childhood and a set of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The empirical framework is an augmented intergenerational income mobility model that includes controls for income volatility. I measure income volatility at the family level in two ways: (1) instability as measured by squared deviations around a family-specific mean; and (2) instability as percentage changes of 25 % or more. Volatility enters the model both separately and interacted with income level. I find that family income volatility during childhood has a modest negative association with educational attainment. Volatility has a smaller descriptive role in explaining intergenerational outcomes relative to permanent income. Across the income distribution, the negative association between volatility exposure and educational attainment is largest for young adults from moderate-income families.

  20. Disability and marginal utility of income: evidence from hypothetical choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengstam, Sven

    2014-03-01

    It is often assumed that disability reduces the marginal utility of income. In this article, individuals' marginal utility of income in two states-(i) paralyzed in both legs from birth and (ii) not mobility impaired at all-is measured through hypothetical choices between imagined lotteries behind a so-called veil of ignorance. The outcomes of the lotteries include both income and disability status. It is found that most people have higher marginal utility when paralyzed than when not mobility impaired at all. The two marginal utilities are evaluated at the same levels of income. Having personal experience of mobility impairment and supporting the Left Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Green Party, or the Liberal Party are associated with having a higher marginal utility when paralyzed. The results suggest that more than full insurance of income losses connected to being disabled is optimal. The results further suggest that, given a utilitarian social welfare function, resources should be transferred to rather than from disabled people. Finally, if the transfers are not large enough to smooth out the marginal utilities of the disabled and the nondisabled, distributional weights based on disability status should be used in cost-benefit analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found....... In both scenarios, the estimated melt rates are larger in HIRHAM than in the driving model....

  2. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J C

    2001-06-01

    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  3. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  4. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  5. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well...of Sonopia and will have a comprehensive review of the service in the coming weeks [12]. Twango, which was acquired by Nokia in July 2007, is an...EXPERIMENTATION As already mentioned the main purpose of this thesis is the development of a TwiddleNet portal running on a smartphone or a PDA, which can allow

  6. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  7. Evasion and Time Consistency in the Taxation of Capital Income

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Boadway; Michael Keen

    1993-01-01

    Evasion and time inconsistency have been prominent concerns in recent discussions capital income taxation, both theoretical and applied. This paper establishes a link between them, suggesting a potentially useful role for evasion additional to those previously identified: by committing to relatively tax enforcement, the government may be able to alleviate the welfare loss implied by its inability to commit to the tax rate. The scope for this role proves strikingly wide: it is optimal for the ...

  8. INEQUALITY IN TURKEY BY INCOME CATEGORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sümer, Beyza

    2016-01-01

    Income inequality has been observed across both advanced and emerging market economiesfor the last thirty years. The neoliberal policies has resulted in a significant change in the distributionof income and wealth around the world in favour of the top income receivers.Uneven distribution of income has recently been one of the main issues for researchers andpolicy makers. The reason why income inequality has been so high on the agenda is that because ithas important consequences that erode soc...

  9. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  10. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  11. Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Laitner, S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

  12. Determinants and Consequences of Non-Interest Income Diversification of Commercial Banks in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Hahm

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies determinants and consequences of theThis paper studies determinants and consequences of the changing income structure of commercial banks in the era of financial conglomeration. Utilizing a dataset of 662 relatively large commercial banks in 29 OECD countries from 1992 to 2006, we find that banks with relatively large asset sizes, low net interest margins, high impaired loan ratios, and high cost-income ratios tend to exhibit higher non-interest income shares. As for macroeconomic factors, banks in countries with slow economic growth, a stable inflation environment, and well- developed stock markets tend to show higher non-interest income shares. Second, we investigate the consequences of non-interest income expansion on bank profitability and risks. While the positive effects on profit and capital adequacy seem to become weaker under the consideration of macroeconomic factors and endogeneity problems, the adverse impact on profit variability remains robust. Overall, these findings suggest that expanding toward non-interest income may not produce desired income diversification effects, and it does not necessarily imply a shift toward superior return-risk frontiers.

  13. Recurrent perinatal loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, K; Robertson, P A

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent's history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to examine the impact of recurrent perinatal loss on a low-income African-American parent. The research design for this study was case report, using interview data collected from a mother who had recently experienced her fourth perinatal loss, which occurred at twenty-five weeks of gestation. Transcripts from two open-ended interviews were analyzed. The theoretical framework used to guide analysis of this case study was Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. Results demonstrated that the prior perinatal losses did not appear as critical components of the way the mother responded to her most recent loss. Instead, perception of the care she received from healthcare providers and how that care related to her experiences with her one living child who was born at the same gestational age was an important determinant in how she responded to her loss. The results of this case study demonstrate the importance assessing a person's perception of their experience and those factors which contribute to the way they respond.

  14. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  15. Historic simulation of net ecosystem carbon balance for the Great Dismal Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon (C) balance relative to natural disturbances and land management strengthens our understanding of the benefits and tradeoffs of carbon sequestration. We conducted a historic model simulation of net ecosystem C balance in the Great Dismal Swamp, VA. for the 30-year time period of 1985-2015. The historic simulation of annual carbon flux was calculated with the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model. The LUCAS model utilizes a state-and-transition simulation model coupled with a carbon stock-flow accounting model to estimate net ecosystem C balance, and long term sequestration rates under various ecological conditions and management strategies. The historic model simulation uses age-structured forest growth curves for four forest species, C stock and flow rates for 8 pools and 14 fluxes, and known data for disturbance and management. The annualized results of C biomass are provided in this data release in the following categories: Growth, Heterotrophic Respiration (Rh), Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), Net Biome Production (NBP), Below-ground Biomass (BGB) Stock, Above-ground Biomass (AGB) Stock, AGB Carbon Loss from Fire, BGB Carbon Loss from Fire, Deadwood Carbon Loss from Management, and Total Carbon Loss. The table also includes the area (annually) of each forest type in hectares: Atlantic white cedar Area (hectares); Cypress-gum Area (hectares); Maple-gum Area (hectares); Pond pine Area (hectares). Net ecosystem production for the Great Dismal Swamp (~ 54,000 ha), from 1985 to 2015 was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When the hurricane and six historic fire events were modeled, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and belowground C loss estimated from the South One in 2008 and Lateral West fire in 2011 totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The C loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C

  16. Freeze-out conditions from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Paolo; Alberico, Wanda [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bellwied, Rene [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Bluhm, Marcus [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Mantovani Sarti, Valentina [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Nahrgang, Marlene [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ratti, Claudia [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-11-10

    We calculate ratios of higher-order susceptibilities quantifying fluctuations in the number of net-protons and in the net-electric charge using the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. We take into account the effect of resonance decays, the kinematic acceptance cuts in rapidity, pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum used in the experimental analysis, as well as a randomization of the isospin of nucleons in the hadronic phase. By comparing these results to the latest experimental data from the STAR Collaboration, we determine the freeze-out conditions from net-electric charge and net-proton distributions and discuss their consistency.

  17. Misunderstandings concerning income distribution policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIn this essay in honour of Professor P. Hennipman the latter's clarity and precision of expression are chosen as an example of how to avoid misunderstanding of his publications. As counterexamples some twenty-odd misunderstandings are set out by the essay's author in the field of income

  18. Income smoothing by Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterenbrood, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that hospitals manage their earnings. However, these findings might be influenced by methodological issues. In this study, I exploit specific features of Dutch hospitals to study income smoothing while limiting these methodological issues. The managers of Dutch hospitals have the

  19. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  20. Modest net autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical ocean has long been debated. Net community production (NCP) represents the balance of autotrophic carbon fixation with heterotrophic respiration. Many in vitro NCP estimates based on oxygen incubation methods and the corresponding scaling relationships used to predict the ecosystem metabolic balance have suggested the ocean gyres to be net heterotrophic; however, all in situ NCP methods find net autotrophy. Reconciling net heterotrophy requires significant allochthonous inputs of organic carbon to the oligotrophic gyres to sustain a preponderance of respiration over in situ production. Here we use the first global ecosystem-ocean circulation model that contains representation of the three allochthonous carbon sources to the open ocean, to show that the five oligotrophic gyres exhibit modest net autotrophy throughout the seasonal cycle. Annually integrated rates of NCP vary in the range 1.5-2.2 mol O2 m-2 yr-1 across the five gyre systems; however, seasonal NCP rates are as low as 1 ± 0.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 for the North Atlantic. Volumetric NCP rates are heterotrophic below the 10% light level; however, they become net autotrophic when integrated over the euphotic zone. Observational uncertainties when measuring these modest autotrophic NCP rates as well as the metabolic diversity encountered across space and time complicate the scaling up of in vitro measurements to the ecosystem scale and may partially explain the previous reports of net heterotrophy. The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic at present; however, it could shift toward seasonal heterotrophy in the future as rising temperatures stimulate respiration.