WorldWideScience

Sample records for net hydrogen abstraction

  1. Hydrogen-Abstraction/Acetylene-Addition Exposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Troy, Tyler P; Xu, Bo; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Mebel, Alexander M; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2016-11-21

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are omnipresent in the interstellar medium (ISM) and also in carbonaceous meteorites (CM) such as Murchison. However, the basic reaction routes leading to the formation of even the simplest PAH-naphthalene (C10 H8 )-via the hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism still remain ambiguous. Here, by revealing the uncharted fundamental chemistry of the styrenyl (C8 H7 ) and the ortho-vinylphenyl radicals (C8 H7 )-key transient species of the HACA mechanism-with acetylene (C2 H2 ), we provide the first solid experimental evidence on the facile formation of naphthalene in a simulated combustion environment validating the previously postulated HACA mechanism for these two radicals. This study highlights, at the molecular level spanning combustion and astrochemistry, the importance of the HACA mechanism to the formation of the prototype PAH naphthalene. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hydrogen Abstraction from Hydrocarbons by NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Kamal; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Gore, Jeff; Westmoreland, Phillip R; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2017-03-23

    This contribution investigates thermokinetic parameters of bimolecular gas-phase reactions involving the amine (NH2) radical and a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These reactions play an important role in combustion and pyrolysis of nitrogen-rich fuels, most notably biomass. Computations performed at the CBS-QB3 level and based on the conventional transition-state theory yield potential-energy surfaces and reaction rate constants, accounting for tunnelling effects and the presence of hindered rotors. In an analogy to other H abstraction systems, we demonstrate only a small influence of variational effects on the rate constants for selected reaction. The studied reactions cover the abstraction of hydrogen atoms by the NH2 radical from the C-H bonds in C1-C4 species, and four C5 hydrocarbons of 2-methylbutane, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-2-butene, and 3-methyl-1-butyne. For the abstraction of H from methane, in the temperature windows 300-500 and 1600-2000 K, the calculated reaction rate constants concur with the available experimental measurements, i.e., kcalculated/kexperimetal = 0.3-2.5 and 1.1-1.4, and the previous theoretical estimates. Abstraction of H atom from ethane attains the ratio of kcalculated/kexperimetal equal to 0.10-1.2 and 1.3-1.5 over the temperature windows of available experimental measurements, i.e., 300-900 K and 1500-2000 K, respectively. For the remaining alkanes (propane and n-butane), the average kexperimental/kcalculated ratio remains 2.6 and 1.3 over the temperature range of experimental data. Also, comparing the calculated standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔrH°298) with the available experimental measurements for alkanes, we found the mean unsigned error of computations as 3.7 kJ mol-1. This agreement provides an accuracy benchmark of our methodology, affording the estimation of the unreported kinetic parameters for H abstractions from alkenes and alkynes. On the basis of the Evans-Polanyi plots

  3. Theoretical studies of a hydrogen abstraction tool for nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Charles B.; Perry, Jason K.; Merkle, Ralph C.; Goddard, William A.

    1991-01-01

    In the design of a nanoscale, site-specific hydrogen abstraction tool, the authors suggest the use of an alkynyl radical tip. Using ab initio quantum-chemistry techniques including electron correlation they model the abstraction of hydrogen from dihydrogen, methane, acetylene, benzene and isobutane by the acetylene radical. By conservative estimates, the abstraction barrier is small (less than 7.7 kcal mol^-1) in all cases except for acetylene and zero in the case of isobutane. Thermal vibrat...

  4. Concerted hydrogen-atom abstraction in photosynthetic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, K L; Tommos, C; Cukier, R I; Babcock, G T

    2000-06-01

    Photosystem II evolves oxygen by using water in the unlikely role of a reductant. The absorption of sunlight by chlorophyll produces highly oxidizing equivalents that are filled with electrons stripped from water. This proton-coupled redox chemistry occurs at the oxygen-evolving complex, which contains a tetramanganese cluster, a redox-active tyrosine amino acid hydrogen-bonded to a histidine amino acid, a calcium ion and chloride. Hydrogen-atom abstraction by the tyrosyl radical from water bound to the manganese cluster is now widely held to occur in this process, at least for some of the steps in the catalytic cycle. We discuss kinetic and energetic constraints on the hydrogen-atom abstraction process.

  5. The Net Adsorption of Hydrogen on Palladium Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Debjyoti; Mishra, Prashant; Das, Nitun; Verma, Anil; Gumma, Sasidhar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of polymer coated palladium (Pd) nanoparticles through a single stage reduction of Pd2+ ions by ethylene glycol. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, MW 25,000) is used as a stabilizer. Self-assembled Pd nanoparticles (10-40 nm) were used in hydrogen adsorption studies. Gravimetric adsorption measurements were carried out in a pressure range of 0-26 bar at 293, 324, 364 and 392 K. Saturation for all isotherms was obtained within a few bars of pressure at all temperatures. Maximum hydrogen storage capacity observed was 0.58 wt.% at 324 K and 20 bar. Net adsorption calculations indicated that required tank volume (for storing a particular amount of hydrogen) can be significantly reduced by using a tank filled with Pd nanoparticle.

  6. Vibrationally Driven Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction by Bromine Radical in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Yoon; Shalowski, Michael A.; Crim, F. Fleming

    2013-06-01

    Previously, we have shown that preparing reactants in specific vibrational states can affect the product state distribution and branching ratios in gas phase reactions. In the solution phase, however, no vibrational mediation study has been reported to date. In this work, we present our first attempt of vibrationally mediated bimolecular reaction in solution. Hydrogen abstraction from a solvent by a bromine radical can be a good candidate to test the effect of vibrational excitation on reaction dynamics because this reaction is highly endothermic and thus we can suppress any thermally initiated reaction in our experiment. Br radical quickly forms CT (charge transfer) complex with solvent molecule once it is generated from photolysis of a bromine source. The CT complex strongly absorbs visible light, which allows us to use electronic transient absorption for tracking Br radical population. For this experiment, we photolyze bromoform solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent with 267 nm to generate Br radical and excite the C-H stretch overtone of DMSO with 1700 nm a few hundred femtoseconds after the photolysis. Then, we monitor the population of Br-DMSO complex with 400 nm as a function of delay time between two pump beams and probe beam. As a preliminary result, we observed the enhancement of loss of Br-DMSO complex population due to the vibrational excitation. We think that increased loss of Br-DMSO complex is attributed to more loss of Br radical that abstracts hydrogen from DMSO and it is the vibrational excitation that promotes the reaction. To make a clear conclusion, we will next utilize infrared probing to directly detect HBr product formation.

  7. THE DYNAMICS OF HYDROGEN ATOM ABSTRACTION FROM POLYATOMIC MOLECULES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIU,X.; SUITS,A.G.

    2002-11-21

    The hydrogen atom abstraction reaction is an important fundamental process that is extensively involved in atmospheric and combustion chemistry. The practical significance of this type of reaction with polyatomic hydrocarbons is manifest, which has led to many kinetics studies. The detailed understanding of these reactions requires corresponding dynamics studies. However, in comparison to the A + HX {radical} AH + X reactions, the study of the dynamics of A + HR {yields} AH + R reactions is much more difficult, both experimentally and theoretically (here and in the following, A stands for an atom, X stands for a halogen atom, and R stands for a polyatomic hydrocarbon radical). The complication stems from the structured R, in contrast to the structureless X. First of all, there are many internal degrees of freedom in R that can participate in the reaction. In addition, there are different carbon sites from which an H atom can be abstracted, and the dynamics are correspondingly different; there are also multiple identical carbon sites in HR and in the picture of a local reaction, there exist competitions between neighboring H atoms, and so on. Despite this complexity, there have been continuing efforts to obtain insight into the dynamics of these reactions. In this chapter, some examples are presented, including the reactions of ground state H, Cl, and O atoms, with particular focus on our recent work using imaging to obtain the differential cross sections for these reactions.

  8. Rate coefficients for hydrogen abstraction reaction of pinonaldehyde ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The H abstraction reaction from the –CHO group was found to be the most dominant reaction channelamong all the possible reaction pathways and its corresponding rate coefficient at 300 K is kEckart's unsymmetrical= 3.86 ×10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Whereas the channel with immediate lower activation energy is the ...

  9. Abstract of report on construction materials for hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkler, W.

    1942-10-16

    This report concerned itself with steels which had been developed to resist attack by hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide and to have high creep strength. One such type of steel was V/sub 2/A (18% chromium, 8% to 9% nickel, 0.12% carbon). This steel, however, was expensive, difficult to work in some ways, and subject to grain-breakdown in high-temperature acid conditions. The grain-breakdown could be prevented by addition of titanium, tantalum, or columbium, and several other advantages including greater hydrogen-resistance could be obtained by replacing some or all of the nickel by molybdenum. These facts led to development of a series of steels (the N series) which contained less chromium and some molybdenum and vanadium and tungsten. Some of the steels in this series were N6(0.15 to 0.2% C, 6% Cr, 0.5% Mo, 0.1 to 0.2% V), N8(0.18% C, 3% Cr, 0.5% W, 0.5% Mo 0.1% V), and N10(0.17 to 0.22% C, 2.5 to 3% Cr, 0.35 to 0.5% Mo, 0.35 to 0.5% W, 0.7 to 0.86% V). The creep strength of these steels varied from 15 kg/mm/sup 2/ for N6 to 18 kg/mm/sup 2/ for N8, to 90 to 100 kg/mm/sup 2/ for N10. The great strength of N10 was due to careful heat (1050/sup 0/C) and annealing (700/sup 0/C) treatment which produced a solution of vanadium carbide in positions to block slippage planes. The best protection against attack by hydrogen sulfide was achieved by coating the steel (which would tend to form iron sulfide deposits) with zinc in a galvanizing process. The steels mentioned so far were developed before wartime scarcities caused the necessity of varying the steels to try to save chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten by partially replacing them with vanadium, manganese, and silicon. The report included a table of earlier and later versions of the steels, with indications of compositions and uses. 1 table.

  10. Rate coefficients for hydrogen abstraction reaction of pinonaldehyde ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The kinetics of the reaction between pinonaldehyde (C10H16O2) and Cl atom were studied using high level ab initio G3(MP2) and DFT based MPWB1K/6-31+G(d) and MPW1K/6-31+G(d) levels of theo- ries coupled with Conventional Transition State Theory in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. The.

  11. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getachew

    Keywords: Overbooking, Monte Carlo Simulation, Nelder Mead algorithm, Revenue management, Ethiopian ..... direct search algorithms, namely, the Nelder Mead and Genetic Algorithms were used to solve the .... MatLab codes used to calculate the optimal number of overbooking, expected net revenue, and probability of ...

  12. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concluded that financing of these enterprises on gender basis would not significantly improve the contribution of ruminants to farm household net income and loan repayment capacity. It was recommended, among others, that the constraints imposed by factors such as poor marketing and research systems be addressed in ...

  13. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    The study hypothesized that the withdrawal of subsidy or increase in the price of Premium motor spirit (P.M.S) ... many substances mainly carbon and hydrogen usually referred to as hydrocarbon. Crude oil often called ... petrol in Nigeria, is used in sparking ignition engines, to dive pleasure cars and transport vehicles.

  14. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peters

    ABSTRACT. Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted ...

  15. Abstract ~. ,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract ~. ,. A study was conducted to evaluate the extent of water adulteration of milk produced and marketed in. Morogoro municipality in Tanzania. 'A total of 90 milk samples were collec,ted from institutional, private and smallholder fdrms alid milk vendors, The-samples were analysed for lactometer reading.

  16. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    46. An Empirical Survey of Technology Application in Teaching Geography in Nigerian. Secondary Schools. 1Sofowora O. A. and 2Egbedokun A. Abstract. The main ... through stratified sampling techniques based on school types, location, Local Education Area and gender. .... children learn in two-ways, orally and visually.

  17. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Abstract. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts from the leaves of Ficus religiosa, Thespesia populnea and Hibiscus tiliaceus were completely screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The chloroform extract of F. religiosa possessed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity with a zone of inhibition of 10 to 21 ...

  18. Learning about Regiochemistry from a Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction Reaction in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears-Dundes, Christopher; Huon, Yoeup; Hotz, Richard P.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment has been developed in which the hydrogen-atom abstraction and the coupling of propionitrile, using Fenton's reagent, are investigated. Students learn about the regiochemistry of radical formation, the stereochemistry of product formation, and the interpretation of GC-MS data, in a safe reaction that can be easily completed in one…

  19. Prediction of activation energies for hydrogen abstraction by cytochrome p450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars; Rydberg, Patrik; Rod, Thomas Holm

    2006-01-01

    We have estimated the activation energy for hydrogen abstraction by compound I in cytochrome P450 for a diverse set of 24 small organic substrates using state-of-the-art density functional theory (B3LYP). We then show that these results can be reproduced by computationally less demanding methods...

  20. Ab Initio Kinetics of Hydrogen Abstraction from Methyl Acetate by Hydrogen, Methyl, Oxygen, Hydroxyl, and Hydroperoxy Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ting; Yang, Xueliang; Krauter, Caroline M; Ju, Yiguang; Carter, Emily A

    2015-06-18

    The kinetics of hydrogen abstraction by five radicals (H, O((3)P), OH, CH3, and HO2) from methyl acetate (MA) is investigated theoretically in order to gain further understanding of certain aspects of the combustion chemistry of biodiesels, such as the effect of the ester moiety. We employ ab initio quantum chemistry methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction (CCSD(T)) and multireference averaged coupled pair functional theory (MRACPF2), to predict chemically accurate reaction energetics. Overall, MRACPF2 predicts slightly higher barrier heights than CCSD(T) for MA + H/CH3/O/OH, but slightly lower barrier heights for hydrogen abstraction by HO2. Based on the obtained reaction energies, we also report high-pressure-limit rate constants using transition state theory (TST) in conjunction with the separable-hindered-rotor approximation, the variable reaction coordinate TST, and the multi-structure all-structure approach. The fitted modified Arrhenius expressions are provided over a temperature range of 250 to 2000 K. The predictions are in good agreement with available experimental results. Abstractions from both of the methyl groups in MA are expected to contribute to consumption of the fuel as they exhibit similar rate coefficients. The reactions involving the OH radical are predicted to have the highest rates among the five abstracting radicals, while those initiated by HO2 are expected to be the lowest.

  1. Interval Abstraction Refinement for Model Checking of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viesmose, Sine Lyhne; Jacobsen, Thomas Stig; Jensen, Jacob Jon

    2014-01-01

    -space exploration techniques. We suggest an approximation method for reducing the size of constants present in the model. The proposed method is developed for Timed-Arc Petri Nets and creates an under-approximation or an over-approximation of the model behaviour. The verification of approximated Petri net models...... can be considerably faster but it does not in general guarantee conclusive answers. We implement the algorithms within the open-source model checker TAPAAL and demonstrate on a number of experiments that our approximation techniques often result in a significant speed-up of the verification....

  2. Reactions of the cumyloxyl and benzyloxyl radicals with strong hydrogen bond acceptors. Large enhancements in hydrogen abstraction reactivity determined by substrate/radical hydrogen bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Michela; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2012-12-07

    A kinetic study on hydrogen abstraction from strong hydrogen bond acceptors such as DMSO, HMPA, and tributylphosphine oxide (TBPO) by the cumyloxyl (CumO(•)) and benzyloxyl (BnO(•)) radicals was carried out in acetonitrile. The reactions with CumO(•) were described in terms of a direct hydrogen abstraction mechanism, in line with the kinetic deuterium isotope effects, k(H)/k(D), of 2.0 and 3.1 measured for reaction of this radical with DMSO/DMSO-d(6) and HMPA/HMPA-d(18). Very large increases in reactivity were observed on going from CumO(•) to BnO(•), as evidenced by k(H)(BnO(•))/k(H)(CumO(•)) ratios of 86, 4.8 × 10(3), and 1.6 × 10(4) for the reactions with HMPA, TBPO, and DMSO, respectively. The k(H)/k(D) of 0.91 and 1.0 measured for the reactions of BnO(•) with DMSO/DMSO-d(6) and HMPA/HMPA-d(18), together with the k(H)(BnO(•))/k(H)(CumO(•)) ratios, were explained on the basis of the formation of a hydrogen-bonded prereaction complex between the benzyloxyl α-C-H and the oxygen atom of the substrates followed by hydrogen abstraction. This is supported by theoretical calculations that show the formation of relatively strong prereaction complexes. These observations confirm that in alkoxyl radical reactions specific hydrogen bond interactions can dramatically influence the hydrogen abstraction reactivity, pointing toward the important role played by structural and electronic effects.

  3. Density functional theory study on the formation of reactive benzoquinone imines by hydrogen abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Rasmus; Rydberg, Patrik; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2015-01-01

    Many drug compounds are oxidized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to form reactive metabolites. This study presents density functional theory calculations of the CYP-mediated metabolism of acetaminophen and a series of related compounds that can form reactive metabolites by hydrogen abstraction. ...... as an in silico method in the design of new compounds with improved metabolic stability.......Many drug compounds are oxidized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to form reactive metabolites. This study presents density functional theory calculations of the CYP-mediated metabolism of acetaminophen and a series of related compounds that can form reactive metabolites by hydrogen abstraction...... the porphyrin model to determine the activation energies. We have used this correlation on monosubstituted phenols to rationalize the effect of the various substituents in the drug compounds. In addition to facilitating a chemical interpretation, the approach is sufficiently fast and reliable to be used...

  4. ALPHA-HYDROGEN, BETA-HYDROGEN AND DELTA-HYDROGEN ABSTRACTION IN THE THERMOLYSIS OF PARAMAGNETIC VANADIUM(III) DIALKYL COMPLEXES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HESSEN, B; BUIJINK, JKF; MEETSMA, A; TEUBEN, JH; HELGESSON, G; HAKANSSON, M; JAGNER, S; SPEK, AL

    Electron deficient paramagnetic vanadium(III) dialkyls CpV(CH2CMe2R)2(PMe3) (14 electron, R = Me (2), Ph (3)) and CpV[CH(SiMe3)2]2 (12 electron, 4) have been synthesized. At ambient temperature 2 decomposes through a-hydrogen abstraction to produce, in the presence of dmpe

  5. Hydrogen abstraction mechanisms and reaction rates of toluene+NO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongmei; Su, Kehe; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The hydrogen abstraction reaction mechanisms of toluene molecule by NO3 radical were investigated theoretically with quantum chemistry and reaction kinetics. All the molecular structures, vibrational properties, and the intrinsic reaction coordinates were determined with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). The non-dynamic electronic correlations were examined with the CASSCF dominant configurations. The energies and the potential energy profiles were refined with accurate model chemistry G3(MP2). Rate constants were determined using the CVT method over the temperature range 200-2000 K. It was found that in addition to the side chain H-abstraction, the ring H-abstraction reactions are also possible. The side chain H-abstraction rate constant is in very good agreement with the available experiments and has a non-Arrhenius characteristic. Nevertheless, all the ring H-abstractions follow the Arrhenius behavior well. The over-all reaction was found to have a complex reaction mechanism in which the side chain H-abstraction is dominant below 700 K while the ring H-abstractions are competitive above 800 K. The approximate apparent activation energies E app are 15.5 and 66.4 kJ mol(-1) at 300-700 K and 800-2000 K, respectively. Graphical Abstract The calculation of the reaction rate indicates that the over-all reaction has a complex mechanism. The reaction proceeds mainly by the side chain H-abstraction at temperatures lower than 700 K and is nearly irreversible, while the competition of the ring H-abstractions becomes observable at higher temperatures and is reversible.

  6. Hydrogen storage as a hydride. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature concern the storage of hydrogen in various metal hydrides. Binary and intermetallic hydrides are considered. Specific alloys discussed are iron titanium, lanthanium nickel, magnesium copper and magnesium nickel among others.

  7. International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen: Book of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.; Hayden, H.

    2005-05-01

    The International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen provides an opportunity to learn about current significant research on solar concentrators for generating electricity or hydrogen. The conference will emphasize in-depth technical discussions of recent achievements in technologies that convert concentrated solar radiation to electricity or hydrogen, with primary emphasis on photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Very high-efficiency solar cells--above 37%--were recently developed, and are now widely used for powering satellites. This development demands that we take a fresh look at the potential of solar concentrators for generating low-cost electricity or hydrogen. Solar electric concentrators could dramatically overtake other PV technologies in the electric utility marketplace because of the low capital cost of concentrator manufacturing facilities and the larger module size of concentrators. Concentrating solar energy also has advantages for th e solar generation of hydrogen. Around the world, researchers and engineers are developing solar concentrator technologies for entry into the electricity generation market and several have explored the use of concentrators for hydrogen production. The last conference on the subject of solar electric concentrators was held in November of 2003 and proved to be an important opportunity for researchers and developers to share new and crucial information that is helping to stimulate projects in their countries.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 2. Research on promotion of international cooperation (research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on the basic research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies, and ISO/TC197. As for the standardization, in relation to the hydrogen station in the WE-NET second phase research, the laws related to handling of gaseous hydrogen, and the basic issues on facility and safe handling were studied. As for ISO/TC197, the following draft standards were examined: Fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, fuel tank for liquid hydrogen vehicles, container for liquid hydrogen transport, specification of hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel supply facility for air ports, gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen mixture fuel system for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel connector for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel tank for vehicles, and basic items for hydrogen system safety. Final examination of the fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, and the specification of hydrogen fuel was finished, and these are scheduled to be registered for ISO. (NEDO)

  9. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrogen Atom Abstraction from Allylic Sites by3O2; Implications for Combustion Modeling and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Somers, Kieran P; Goldsmith, C Franklin; Curran, Henry J

    2017-03-09

    Hydrogen atom abstraction from allylic C-H bonds by molecular oxygen plays a very important role in determining the reactivity of fuel molecules having allylic hydrogen atoms. Rate constants for hydrogen atom abstraction by molecular oxygen from molecules with allylic sites have been calculated. A series of molecules with primary, secondary, tertiary, and super secondary allylic hydrogen atoms of alkene, furan, and alkylbenzene families are taken into consideration. Those molecules include propene, 2-butene, isobutene, 2-methylfuran, and toluene containing the primary allylic hydrogen atom; 1-butene, 1-pentene, 2-ethylfuran, ethylbenzene, and n-propylbenzene containing the secondary allylic hydrogen atom; 3-methyl-1-butene, 2-isopropylfuran, and isopropylbenzene containing tertiary allylic hydrogen atom; and 1-4-pentadiene containing super allylic secondary hydrogen atoms. The M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory was used to optimize the geometries of all of the reactants, transition states, products and also the hinder rotation treatments for lower frequency modes. The G4 level of theory was used to calculate the electronic single point energies for those species to determine the 0 K barriers to reaction. Conventional transition state theory with Eckart tunnelling corrections was used to calculate the rate constants. The comparison between our calculated rate constants with the available experimental results from the literature shows good agreement for the reactions of propene and isobutene with molecular oxygen. The rate constant for toluene with O 2 is about an order magnitude slower than that experimentally derived from a comprehensive model proposed by Oehlschlaeger and coauthors. The results clearly indicate the need for a more detailed investigation of the combustion kinetics of toluene oxidation and its key pyrolysis and oxidation intermediates. Despite this, our computed barriers and rate constants retain an important internal consistency. Rate constants

  10. Ab initio study on the paths of oxygen abstraction of hydrogen trioxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This means that the importance of SO2 + HO3 → SO3 (D3h) + HOO• reaction increases with increasing temperature and, this reaction plays an important role in the SO3(D3h) production as the main molecule of the formation of acid rain at high temperatures. Keywords. Ab initio calculations; atmospheric chemistry; hydrogen ...

  11. Abstract of remarks about materials in hydrogenation and their supply by steelworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Class, I.

    1942-10-23

    Special conditions involved in hydrogenation such as high total pressure, partial hydrogen pressure, and high temperature demand that the materials used meet special requirements. However, cheap materials such as low alloy steel had to be used because of war conditions. Large pieces posed the problem of workability of the materials and methods of fabrication. Cooperation between steel works and tube mills on questions of billet preparation, rolling of tubes, heat treatments, and control methods was necessary in the preparation of the seamless tube of alloyed steel. The large jackets and parts belonging to them placed heavy demands on metallurgy, forging, pressing, rolling, and heat treating since veritable giants of the forging press and ingots of over one hundred tons of alloyed material were involved. Several other branches involving the working of these materials and progress made in these fields, such as welding, development of high pressure machines, and absolute control of the materials for their constituent parts are discussed. The distinguishment between chemical and mechanical requirements is also discussed. The report mentions various types of steels with sufficient strength and resistance to attack, including 18-8-Cr--Ni steels (with additions of W and Ti), austenitic Cr--Mn steels, and low-Cr steels containing Mo, W, and V. Places which were subject to special wear (due to chemical and mechanical corrosion by coal paste and hydrogen in violent flow patterns) were protected by special materials such as tungsten carbide.

  12. Development of vapor phase hydrogenation and of catalysts immune to poison (abstract)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-10-16

    The development of catalysts immune to poison and the development of vapor-phase hydrogenation were closely connected and they were considered together. Catalysts used at high thruputs and high partial pressures showed rapid deterioration of their activity caused by deposition and condensation of high-molecular-weight substances on the surface of the catalysts. This phenomenon made it necessary to divide hydrogenation into two phases: the liquid phase and the vapor phase. The first of the vapor-phase operating catalysts was catalyst 3510, which consisted of zinc--magnesium molybdate. Development of catalyst 5058, which consisted of pure tungsten disulfide and was produced by decomposing ammonium--sulfotungstate in H/sub 2/ atmosphere, largely terminated development of vapor-phase catalysts. Maximum activity had been obtained. Compared to 3510, two to three times as much gasoline was produced per hour with a fixed volume of catalyst, besides being able to work at a temperature about 100/sup 0/C lower, and gasification losses were considerably smaller. In order to use 5058 in mass production, the dry catalyst powder had to be compressed into cylindrical shapes 10 mm in diameter. The demands for higher antiknock gasolines in the processing of certain paraffinic raw material could not be met by 5058 because of its strong hydrogenation effect, and the dilute catalyst 6434, consisting of 90% Fullers earth treated with HF and 10% WS/sub 2/, was developed for this. 3 tables.

  13. Communication: Hot-atom abstraction dynamics of hydrogen from tungsten surfaces: The role of surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galparsoro, Oihana; Busnengo, Heriberto Fabio; Juaristi, Joseba Iñaki; Crespos, Cédric; Alducin, Maite; Larregaray, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Adiabatic and non-adiabatic quasiclassical molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the role of the crystal face on hot-atom abstraction of H adsorbates by H scattering from covered W(100) and W(110). On both cases, hyperthermal diffusion is strongly affected by the energy dissipated into electron-hole pair excitations. As a result, the hot-atom abstraction is highly reduced in favor of adsorption at low incidence energy and low coverages, i.e., when the mean free path of the hyperthermal H is typically larger. Qualitatively, this reduction is rather similar on both surfaces, despite at such initial conditions, the abstraction process involves more subsurface penetration on W(100) than on W(110).

  14. Effect of metal ions on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with hydrogen atom donors. Fine control on hydrogen abstraction reactivity determined by Lewis acid-base interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Michela; Mangiacapra, Livia; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2013-01-09

    A time-resolved kinetic study on the effect of metal ions (M(n+)) on hydrogen abstraction reactions from C-H donor substrates by the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) was carried out in acetonitrile. Metal salt addition was observed to increase the CumO(•) β-scission rate constant in the order Li(+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+). These effects were explained in terms of the stabilization of the β-scission transition state determined by Lewis acid-base interactions between M(n+) and the radical. When hydrogen abstraction from 1,4-cyclohexadiene was studied in the presence of LiClO(4) and Mg(ClO(4))(2), a slight increase in rate constant (k(H)) was observed indicating that interaction between M(n+) and CumO(•) can also influence, although to a limited extent, the hydrogen abstraction reactivity of alkoxyl radicals. With Lewis basic C-H donors such as THF and tertiary amines, a decrease in k(H) with increasing Lewis acidity of M(n+) was observed (k(H)(MeCN) > k(H)(Li(+)) > k(H)(Mg(2+))). This behavior was explained in terms of the stronger Lewis acid-base interaction of M(n+) with the substrate as compared to the radical. This interaction reduces the degree of overlap between the α-C-H σ* orbital and a heteroatom lone-pair, increasing the C-H BDE and destabilizing the carbon centered radical formed after abstraction. With tertiary amines, a >2-order of magnitude decrease in k(H) was measured after Mg(ClO(4))(2) addition up to a 1.5:1 amine/Mg(ClO(4))(2) ratio. At higher amine concentrations, very similar k(H) values were measured with and without Mg(ClO(4))(2). These results clearly show that with strong Lewis basic substrates variations in the nature and concentration of M(n+) can dramatically influence k(H), allowing for a fine control of the substrate hydrogen atom donor ability, thus providing a convenient method for C-H deactivation. The implications and generality of these findings are discussed.

  15. Theoretical and kinetic study of the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions of unsaturated C6 methyl esters with hydroxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan-De; Ni, Zhong-Hai

    2016-04-01

    This work reports a systematic ab initio and chemical kinetic study of the rate constants for hydrogen atom abstraction reactions by hydroxyl radical (OH) on typical isomers of unsaturated C6 methyl esters at the CBS/QB3 level of theory. The high-pressure limit rate constants at different reaction sites for all the methyl esters in the temperature range from 500 to 2000 K are calculated via transition-state theory with the Wigner method for quantum tunneling effect and fitted to the modified three parameters Arrhenius expression using least-squares regression. Further, a branching ratio analysis for each reaction site has been performed.

  16. Kinetic modeling of α-hydrogen abstractions from unsaturated and saturated oxygenate compounds by carbon-centered radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos; Marin, Guy B

    2014-06-23

    Hydrogen abstractions are important elementary reactions in a variety of reacting media at high temperatures in which oxygenates and hydrocarbon radicals are present. Accurate kinetic data are obtained from CBS-QB3 ab initio (AI) calculations by using conventional transition-state theory within the high-pressure limit, including corrections for hindered rotation and tunneling. From the obtained results, a group-additive (GA) model is developed that allows the Arrhenius parameters and rate coefficients for abstraction of the α-hydrogen from a wide range of oxygenate compounds to be predicted at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1500 K. From a training set of 60 hydrogen abstractions from oxygenates by carbon-centered radicals, 15 GA values (ΔGAV°s) are obtained for both the forward and reverse reactions. Among them, four ΔGAV°s refer to primary contributions, and the remaining 11 ΔGAV°s refer to secondary ones. The accuracy of the model is further improved by introducing seven corrections for cross-resonance stabilization of the transition state from an additional set of 43 reactions. The determined ΔGAV°s are validated upon a test set of AI data for 17 reactions. The mean absolute deviation of the pre-exponential factors (log A) and activation energies (E(a)) for the forward reaction at 300 K are 0.238 log(m(3)  mol(-1)  s(-1)) and 1.5 kJ mol(-1), respectively, whereas the mean factor of deviation between the GA-predicted and the AI-calculated rate coefficients is 1.6. In comparison with a compilation of 33 experimental rate coefficients, the between the GA-predicted values and these experimental values is only 2.2. Hence, the constructed GA model can be reliably used in the prediction of the kinetics of α-hydrogen-abstraction reactions between a broad range of oxygenates and oxygenate radicals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Theoretical and Shock Tube Study of the Rate Constants for Hydrogen Abstraction Reactions of Ethyl Formate

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junjun

    2017-08-03

    We report a systematic chemical kinetics study of the H-atom abstractions from ethyl formate (EF) by H, O(3P), CH3, OH, and HO2 radicals. The geometry optimization and frequency calculation of all the species were conducted using the M06 method and the cc-pVTZ basis set. The one-dimensional hindered rotor treatment of the reactants and transition states and the intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis were also performed at the M06/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The relative electronic energies were calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVXZ (where X = D, T) level of theory and further extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Rate constants for the tittle reactions were calculated over the temperature range of 500‒2500 K by the transition state theory (TST) in conjunction with asymmetric Eckart tunneling effect. In addition, the rate constants of H-abstraction by hydroxyl radical were measured in shock tube experiments at 900‒1321 K and 1.4‒2.0 atm. Our theoretical rate constants of OH + EF → Products agree well with the experimental results within 15% over the experimental temperature range of 900‒1321 K. Branching ratios for the five types of H-abstraction reactions were also determined from their individual site-specific rate constants.

  18. Theoretical Prediction of Rate Constants for Hydrogen Abstraction by OH, H, O, CH3, and HO2 Radicals from Toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Hao; Guo, Jun-Jiang; Li, Rui; Wang, Fan; Li, Xiang-Yuan

    2016-05-26

    Hydrogen abstraction from toluene by OH, H, O, CH3, and HO2 radicals are important reactions in oxidation process of toluene. Geometries and corresponding harmonic frequencies of the reactants, transition states as well as products involved in these reactions are determined at the B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) level. To achieve highly accurate thermochemical data for these stationary points on the potential energy surfaces, the Gaussian-4(G4) composite method was employed. Torsional motions are treated either as free rotors or hindered rotors in calculating partion functions to determine thermodynamic properties. The obtained standard enthalpies of formation for reactants and some prodcuts are shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental data with the largest error of 0.5 kcal mol(-1). The conventional transition state theory (TST) with tunneling effects was adopted to determine rate constants of these hydrogen abstraction reactions based on results from quantum chemistry calculations. To faciliate its application in kinetic modeling, the obtained rate constants are given in Arrhenius expression: k(T) = AT(n) exp(-EaR/T). The obtained reaction rate constants also agree reasonably well with available expermiental data and previous theoretical values. Branching ratios of these reactions have been determined. The present reaction rates for these reactions have been used in a toluene combustion mechanism, and their effects on some combustion properties are demonstrated.

  19. Hydrogen Atom Abstraction Thermodynamics of a μ-1,2-Superoxo Dicopper(II) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Nicole; Günes, Can-Jerome; Dechert, Sebastian; Meyer, Franc

    2017-07-26

    Pyrazolate-based μ-1,2-peroxo dicopper(II) complex 1 undergoes clean 1e- oxidation at low potential (-0.59 V vs Fc/Fc+) to yield the rather stable μ-1,2-superoxo dicopper(II) complex 3, which was characterized by spectroscopic methods (ν̃(O-O) = 1070 cm-1, Δ(18O-16O) = -59 cm-1) and analyzed by DFT calculations. 3 is also formed via H-atom abstraction from the corresponding μ-1,1-hydroperoxo dicopper(II) complex 2, while 3 itself is able to abstract H-atoms from weaker X-H bonds such as TEMPO-H to re-form 2. Kinetic and thermodynamic analyses evidence a concerted proton-electron transfer pathway for these processes. The thermodynamic square scheme reveals a bond dissociation free energy of 71.7 ± 1.1 kcal mol-1 for the hydroperoxo OO-H bond of 2.

  20. Kinetics investigation of the hydrogen abstraction reaction between CH3SS and CN radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Wenliang, Wang; Zhongwen, Liu; Hongjiang, Ren

    2016-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms and rates for the H abstraction reactions between CH3SS and CN radicals in the gas phase were investigated with density functional theory (DFT) methods. The geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and energies of all stationary points were obtained at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Relationships between the reactants, intermediates, transition states and products were confirmed, with the frequency and the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) analysis at the same theoretical level. High accurate energy information was provided by the G3(MP2) method combined with the standard statistical thermodynamics. Gibbs free energies at 298.15 K for all of the reaction steps were reported, and were used to describe the profile diagrams of the potential energy surface. The rate constants were evaluated with both the classical transition state theory and the canonical variational transition state theory, in which the small-curvature tunneling correction was included. A total number of 9 intermediates (IMs) and 17 transition states (TSs) were obtained. It is shown that IM1 is the most stable intermediate by the largest energy release, and the channel of CH3SS + CN → IM3 → TS10  → P1(CH2SS + HCN) is the dominant reaction with the lowest energy barrier of 144.7 kJ mol(-1). The fitted Arrhenius expressions of the calculated CVT/SCT rate constants for the rate-determining step of the favorable channel is k =7.73 × 10(6)  T (1.40)exp(-14,423.8/T) s(-1) in the temperature range of 200-2000 K. The apparent activation energy E a(app.) for the main channel is -102.5 kJ mol(-1), which is comparable with the G3(MP2) energy barrier of -91.8 kJ mol(-1) of TS10 (relative to the reactants).

  1. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (research and development of technologies for hydrogen transport and storage by hydrogen absorbing alloys); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a guiding principle of new hydrogen absorbing alloy design, case studies on the stationary hydrogen storage systems for multiple dwelling houses using hydrogen absorbing alloys and on the hydrogen fuel tank systems for a motor vehicle, and survey on development status in the world. As a result of the investigation of alloys, it was concluded that realization of hydrogen absorbing alloys with new target properties of the WE-NET Project is not easy through the current technology. It was found that two kinds of Mg-based and V-based high capacity materials must be selected as target alloys among current alloys, and that three techniques, i.e., ultra-fine microstructure, composite, and amorphousness, are effective for improving the hydrogen discharge property which has been a problem of these alloys. It was desired that the latest techniques are established by integrating these materials and techniques. It is necessary to promote the development of brake-through new materials by new concepts and technologies through the cooperation of national institutes, universities, and companies. 124 refs., 56 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. An assessment of theoretical procedures for predicting the thermochemistry and kinetics of hydrogen abstraction by methyl radical from benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelsoet, Karen; Moran, Damian; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel; Radom, Leo

    2006-07-20

    The reaction enthalpy (298 K), barrier (0 K), and activation energy and preexponential factor (600-800 K) have been examined computationally for the abstraction of hydrogen from benzene by the methyl radical, to assess their sensitivity to the applied level of theory. The computational methods considered include high-level composite procedures, including W1, G3-RAD, G3(MP2)-RAD, and CBS-QB3, as well as conventional ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods, with the latter two classes employing the 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d,p) and/or 6-311+G(3df,2p) basis sets, and including ZPVE/thermal corrections obtained from 6-31G(d) or 6-31+G(d,p) calculations. Virtually all the theoretical procedures except UMP2 are found to give geometries that are suitable for subsequent calculation of the reaction enthalpy and barrier. For the reaction enthalpy, W1, G3-RAD, and URCCSD(T) give best agreement with experiment, while the large-basis-set DFT procedures slightly underestimate the endothermicity. The reaction barrier is slightly more sensitive to the choice of basis set and/or correlation level, with URCCSD(T) and the low-cost BMK method providing values in close agreement with the benchmark G3-RAD value. Inspection of the theoretically calculated rate parameters reveals a minor dependence on the level of theory for the preexponential factor. There is more sensitivity for the activation energy, with a reasonable agreement with experiment being obtained for the G3 methods and the hybrid functionals BMK, BB1K, and MPW1K, especially in combination with the 6-311+G(3df,2p) basis set. Overall, the high-level G3-RAD composite procedure, URCCSD(T), and the cost-effective DFT methods BMK, BB1K, and MPW1K give the best results among the methods assessed for calculating the thermochemistry and kinetics of hydrogen abstraction by the methyl radical from benzene.

  3. Hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions by manganese(V)- and manganese(IV)-oxo porphyrin complexes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Chellaiah; Lee, Yong-Min; Lee, Jung Yoon; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Nam, Wonwoo

    2009-11-02

    High-valent manganese(IV or V)-oxo porphyrins are considered as reactive intermediates in the oxidation of organic substrates by manganese porphyrin catalysts. We have generated Mn(V)- and Mn(IV)-oxo porphyrins in basic aqueous solution and investigated their reactivities in C-H bond activation of hydrocarbons. We now report that Mn(V)- and Mn(IV)-oxo porphyrins are capable of activating C-H bonds of alkylaromatics, with the reactivity order of Mn(V)-oxo>Mn(IV)-oxo; the reactivity of a Mn(V)-oxo complex is 150 times greater than that of a Mn(IV)-oxo complex in the oxidation of xanthene. The C-H bond activation of alkylaromatics by the Mn(V)- and Mn(IV)-oxo porphyrins is proposed to occur through a hydrogen-atom abstraction, based on the observations of a good linear correlation between the reaction rates and the C-H bond dissociation energy (BDE) of substrates and high kinetic isotope effect (KIE) values in the oxidation of xanthene and dihydroanthracene (DHA). We have demonstrated that the disproportionation of Mn(IV)-oxo porphyrins to Mn(V)-oxo and Mn(III) porphyrins is not a feasible pathway in basic aqueous solution and that Mn(IV)-oxo porphyrins are able to abstract hydrogen atoms from alkylaromatics. The C-H bond activation of alkylaromatics by Mn(V)- and Mn(IV)-oxo species proceeds through a one-electron process, in which a Mn(IV)-oxo porphyrin is formed as a product in the C-H bond activation by a Mn(V)-oxo porphyrin, followed by a further reaction of the Mn(IV)-oxo porphyrin with substrates that results in the formation of a Mn(III) porphyrin complex. This result is in contrast to the oxidation of sulfides by the Mn(V)-oxo porphyrin, in which the oxidation of thioanisole by the Mn(V)-oxo complex produces the starting Mn(III) porphyrin and thioanisole oxide. This result indicates that the oxidation of sulfides by the Mn(V)-oxo species occurs by means of a two-electron oxidation process. In contrast, a Mn(IV)-oxo porphyrin complex is not capable of oxidizing

  4. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on promotion of international cooperation in the WE-NET project in fiscal 1996. The WE-NET project aims at development of the total system for hydrogen production, transport, storage and utilization, and construction of the earth-friendly innovative global clean energy network integrating elemental technologies. Since the standpoint is different between latent resource supplying countries and technology supplying countries, the WE-NET project should be constantly promoted under international understanding and cooperation. The committee distributed the annual summary report prepared by NEDO to overseas organizations, and made positive PR activities in the 11th World Conference and others. The committee made the evaluation on the improvement effect of air pollution by introducing a hydrogen vehicle in combination with Stanford University, and preparation of PR video tapes for hydrogen energy. Preliminary arrangement of Internet home pages, establishment of a long-term vision for international cooperation, and proposal toward the practical WE-NET are also made. 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 9. Investigation of innovative and leading technologies; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 9. Kakushinteki sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The WE-NET Project is a long-term project designed to ensure that an energy network technology using hydrogen becomes a reality not later than 2020. So the project cannot remain effective unless constant efforts are made to foresee future trends of technology and optimize it as the making of entire system for the project. In this project, new technologies which are not up for development are also investigated. Their feasibility should be studied, if necessary. From the foregoing point of view, new technologies are studied, collected and evaluated. Thus, useful suggestions and proposals may be made as to the course for the project to follow, as well as its research and development. Proposals highly evaluated up to FY 1995 are the hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling`s engine, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration technology for liquefaction of hydrogen, solar thermal hydrogen production with iron sponge technology, and hydrogen producing technology with photocatalyst. Conceptual investigation themes in FY 1996 are the hydrogen internal-combustion Stirling engine, solar thermal hydrogen production, phototransformation process, and high-temperature steam electrolysis. 9 figs., 54 tabs.

  6. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Study on the global network; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Global network kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the introduction condition of hydrogen as substituting energy and CO2 reduction effect were analyzed using a global energy model. The WE-NET project aims at global-wide introduction of clean energy by converting abundant renewable clean energy into hydrogen transportable to distant consumers all over the world. The study result in fiscal 1996 is as follows. Undeveloped hydroelectric resources in the world are estimated to be 12 trillion kWh/y equivalent to the existing developed one in the world. Since the cost of the hydroelectric power generation projects over 1000MW in the planning stage is estimated to be 0.02-0.05$/kWh lower than that of other renewable energies, such projects are expected as energy source in the initial stage of the practical WE-NET project. The GREEN model was modified by adding a hydrogen analysis function, and extending an analysis period. The modified model allowed evaluation of the long-term important role of hydrogen energy, in particular, the capability of CO2 gas reduction all over the world. 28 refs., 92 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 4. Development of hydrogen production technology; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen production technology as a part of the WE-NET project. For the solid polymer water electrolysis method higher in efficiency and lower in cost than the previous methods, 5 companies have developed element technologies for improving electrolysis cells and synthesis technologies of hot solid polymer electrolyte based on each proper catalyst electrode production method. In fiscal 1996, the initial study on large-scale systems by middle laboratory cells was made as well as improvement of electrolysis performance by small laboratory cells and endurance tests. Among the previous methods such as a hot press method (bonding of an ion exchange membrane to an electrode), an electroless plating method (preparation of porous surface onto a membrane electrode assembly), a zero gap method (preparation of high-efficiency high-current density cells), and a sintered porous electrode method (carrying of the mixture of catalytic powder and ion exchange resin-dissipated solution onto sintered metallic porous electrode surface), the former two methods were adopted for development of bench-scale cells as effective promising methods. 192 refs., 183 figs., 108 tabs.

  8. Experimental and theoretical study of hydrogen atom abstraction from n-butane by lanthanum oxide cluster anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Zhao, Yan-Xia; Li, Xiao-Na; Ding, Xun-Lei; He, Sheng-Gui

    2011-09-22

    Lanthanum oxide cluster anions are prepared by laser ablation and reacted with n-C(4)H(10) in a fast flow reactor. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used to detect the cluster distribution before and after the reactions. (La(2)O(3))(m=1-3)OH(-) and La(3)O(7)H(-) are observed as products, which suggests the occurrence of hydrogen atom abstraction reactions: (La(2)O(3))(m=1-3)O(-) + n-C(4)H(10) → (La(2)O(3))(m=1-3)OH(-) + C(4)H(9) and La(3)O(7)(-) + n-C(4)H(10) → La(3)O(7)H(-) + C(4)H(9). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to study the structures and bonding properties of La(2)O(4)(-), La(3)O(7)(-), and La(4)O(7)(-) clusters. The calculated results show that each of La(2)O(4)(-) and La(4)O(7)(-) contains one oxygen-centered radical (O(-•)) which is responsible for the high reactivity toward n-C(4)H(10). La(3)O(7)(-) contains one oxygen-centered radical (O(-•)) and one superoxide unit (O(2)(-•)), and the O(-•) is responsible for its high reactivity toward n-C(4)H(10). The O(-•) and O(2)(-•) can be considered to be generated by the adsorption of an O(2) molecule onto the singlet La(3)O(5)(-) with electron transfer from a terminally bonded oxygen ion (O(2-)) to the O(2). This may help us understand the mechanism of the formation of O(-•) and O(2)(-•) radicals in lanthanum oxide systems. The reaction mechanisms of La(2)O(4)(-) + n-C(4)H(10) and La(3)O(7)(-) + n-C(4)H(10) are also studied by the DFT calculations, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental observations. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Negative catalytic effect of water on the reactivity of hydrogen abstraction from the C-H bond of dimethyl ether by deuterium atoms through tunneling at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-10-01

    We report an experimental study on the catalytic effect of solid water on the reactivity of hydrogen abstraction (H-abstraction) from dimethyl ether (DME) in the low-temperature solid DME-H2O complex. When DME reacted with deuterium atoms on a surface at 15-25 K, it was efficiently deuterated via successive tunneling H-abstraction and deuterium (D)-addition reactions. The 'effective' rate constant for DME-H2O + D was found to be about 20 times smaller than that of pure DME + D. This provides the first evidence that the presence of solid water has a negative catalytic effect on tunneling H-abstraction reactions.

  10. How is a metabolic intermediate formed in the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 by using 1,1-dimethylhydrazine: hydrogen abstraction or nitrogen oxidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Hajime; Chuanprasit, Pratanphorn; Cheong, Ying Yi; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2013-06-03

    A precise understanding of the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) at the quantum mechanical level should allow more reliable predictions of drug-drug interactions than those currently available. Hydrazines are among the molecules that act as mechanism-based inactivators to terminate the function of P450s, which are essential heme enzymes responsible for drug metabolism in the human body. Despite its importance, the mechanism explaining how a metabolic intermediate (MI) is formed from hydrazine is not fully understood. We used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to compare four possible mechanisms underlying the reaction between 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (or unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, UDMH) and the reactive compound I (Cpd I) intermediate of P450. Our DFT calculations provided a clear view on how an aminonitrene-type MI is formed from UDMH. In the most favorable pathway, hydrogen is spontaneously abstracted from the N2 atom of UDMH by Cpd I, followed by a second hydrogen abstraction from the N2 atom by Cpd II. Nitrogen oxidation of nitrogen atoms and hydrogen abstraction from the C-H bond of the methyl group were found to be less favorable than the hydrogen abstraction from the N-H bond. We also found that the reaction of protonated UDMH with Cpd I is rather sluggish. The aminonitrene-type MI binds to the ferric heme more strongly than a water molecule. This is consistent with the notion that the catalytic cycle of P450 is impeded when such an MI is produced through the P450-catalyzed reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mechanism and Kinetics of Methane Combustion, Part I: Thermal Rate Constants for Hydrogen-Abstraction Reaction of CH4 + O(3P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ya; Jiang, Zhong'an; Chen, Jushi

    2017-03-23

    The mechanism and kinetics of gas-phase hydrogen-abstraction by the O(3P) from methane are investigated using ab initio calculations and dynamical methods. Not only are the electronic structure properties including the optimized geometries, relative energies, and vibrational frequencies of all the stationary points obtained from state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field calculations, but also the single-point energies for all points on the intrinsic reaction coordinate are evaluated using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach with modified optimized cc-pCVDZ basis sets. Our calculations give a fairly accurate description of the regions around the 3A″ transition state in the O(3P) attacking a near-collinear H-CH3 direction with a barrier height of 12.53 kcal/mol, which is lower than those reported before. Subsequently, thermal rate constants for this hydrogen-abstraction are calculated using the canonical unified statistical theory method with the temperature ranging from 298 K to 1000 K. These calculated rate constants are in agreement with experiments. The present work reveals the reaction mechanism of hydrogen-abstraction by the O(3P) from methane, and it is helpful for the understanding of methane combustion.

  12. Understanding the Mechanism of the Hydrogen Abstraction from Arachidonic Acid Catalyzed by the Human Enzyme 15-Lipoxygenase-2. A Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Free Energy Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardíaz, Reynier; Jambrina, Pablo G; Masgrau, Laura; González-Lafont, Àngels; Rosta, Edina; Lluch, José M

    2016-04-12

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a family of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of several lipid mediators. In the case of human 15-LOX, the 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 isoforms show slightly different reaction regiospecificity and substrate specificity, indicating that substrate binding and recognition may be different, a fact that could be related to their different biological role. Here, we have used long molecular dynamics simulations, QM(DFT)/MM potential energy and free energy calculations (using the newly developed DHAM method), to investigate the binding mode of the arachidonic acid (AA) substrate into 15-LOX-2 and the rate-limiting hydrogen-abstraction reaction 15-LOX-2 catalyzes. Our results strongly indicate that hydrogen abstraction from C13 in 15-LOX-2 is only consistent with the "tail-first" orientation of AA, with its carboxylate group interacting with Arg429, and that only the pro-S H13 hydrogen will be abstracted (being the pro-R H13 and H10 too far from the acceptor oxygen atom). At the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level the potential and free energy barriers for the pro-S H13 abstraction of AA by 15-LOX-2 are 18.0 and 18.6 kcal/mol, respectively. To analyze the kinetics of the hydrogen abstraction process, we determined a Markov model corresponding to the unbiased simulations along the state-discretized reaction coordinate. The calculated rates based on the second largest eigenvalue of the Markov matrices agree well with experimental measurements, and also provide the means to directly determine the pre-exponential factor for the reaction by comparing with the free energy barrier height. Our calculated pre-exponential factor is close to the value of kBT/h. On the other hand, our results suggest that the spin inversion of the complete system (including the O2 molecule) that is required to happen at some point along the full process to lead to the final hydroperoxide product, is likely to take place during the hydrogen transfer, which is a proton coupled electron transfer

  13. Investigation of hydrogenase molecular marker to optimize hydrogen production from organic wastes and effluents of agro-food industries [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years policy makers have started looking for alternatives to fossil fuels, not only to counter the threat of global warming, but also to reduce the risk of overdependence on imported oil and gas supplies. By contrast with hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen (H2, whether burned directly or used in fuel cells, is intrinsically a clean energy vector with near zero emission. However the main current method of producing hydrogen, steam reforming of methane, involves the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases. So although hydrogen already accounts for around 2% of world consumption of energy, its more widespread adoption is limited by several challenges. Therefore new processes are investigated, especially those using renewable raw material, e.g. woods and organic wastes, and/or involving microorganisms. Indeed, for some algae and bacteria, the generation of molecular hydrogen is an essential part of their energy metabolism. The approach with the greatest commercial potential is fermentative hydrogen generation (dark fermentation by bacteria from the Clostridium genus. This biological process, as a part of the methane-producing anaerobic digestion process, is very promising since it allows the production of hydrogen from a wide variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrate waste from the agricultural and agro-food industries or processed urban waste and sewage. To date most publications on hydrogen production by Clostridium strains have focused on the effects of operating parameters (such as temperature, pH, dilution rate, etc.. We now need to extend this knowledge by identifying and monitoring the various different metabolic agents involved in high H2 activity. Consequently the aim of this research at the CWBI in the University of Liege is to investigate the role of [Fe] hydrogenases, the key enzymes that remove excess electrons accumulating during fermentation. Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009, the strain used for these investigations

  14. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Conceptual design of the total system; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on the conceptual design of the total system for the WE-NET project in 1996. Basic conditions are as follows: solid polymer water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbine power generation, hydrogen transport/storage through ammonia medium, power generation scale of 1000-4000MW (2-5 yen/kWh), and transport distance of 5000-20000km between supply and consumption places. The system efficiency was estimated to be 68% and 23% at an ammonia arrival time and power sending end, respectively, and it was dependent on a transport distance, while no power generation scale. The power cost was estimated to be 7 yen/Mcal and 33 yen/kWh, respectively. The system efficiency at a sending end was lower by 15% and 2% than that of the liquid hydrogen and methanol system, while the power cost was higher by 0 and 8 yen/kWh, respectively. It was necessary for loss reduction of this ammonia system to develop a new high-efficiency ammonia synthesis process, and hydrogen separation (decomposition/refining) process. 80 figs., 52 tabs.

  15. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH3CH2OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: a multi-path variational transition state theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-07

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.

  16. Hydrogen atom abstraction from C-H bonds of benzylamides by the aminoxyl radical BTNO: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniglio, Alessandra; Galli, Carlo; Gentili, Patrizia; Vadalà, Raffaella

    2009-01-07

    The aminoxyl radical BTNO (benzotriazole-N-oxyl; >N-O*) is generated from HBT (1-hydroxybenzotriazole; >N-OH) by oxidation with a Ce(IV) salt. BTNO presents a broad absorption band with lambda(max) 474 nm that lends itself to investigate the kinetics of H-abstraction from H-donor substrates by spectrophotometry. Thus, rate constants (k(H)) of H-abstraction by BTNO from CH(2)-groups alpha to the nitrogen atom in X-substituted-(N-acetyl)benzylamines (X-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NHCOCH(3)) have been determined in MeCN solution at 25 degrees C. Correlation of the k(H)(X) data with the Hammett sigma(+) parameters gives a small value for rho (-0.65) that is compatible with a radical H-abstraction step. The sizeable value (k(H)/k(D)=8.8) of the kinetic isotope effect from a suitably deuteriated amide substrate further confirms H-abstraction as rate-determining. Evidence is acquired for the relevance of stereoelectronic effects that speed up the H-abstraction whenever the scissile C-H bond is co-linear with either the nitrogen lone-pair of the amide moiety or an adjacent aromatic group. An assessment of the dissociation energy value of the benzylic C-H bond in ArCH(2)NHCOMe is accordingly reported.

  17. Hydrogen abstraction from CH3NH2, (CH3)2 NH, and (CH3)3 N by HO˙2 radicals: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J. C.; Shang, Y. L.; Du, S. Y.; Luo, S. N.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen abstraction from CH3NH2, (CH3)2 NH, and (CH3)3 N by HO˙2 radicals, is investigated via quantum chemistry calculations.The B3LYP/6-31G(2df, p) method is employed in geometry optimizations, frequencies, and intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. The G4 method is applied in energy and thermodynamical property calculations. Rate constants are obtained from variation transition state theory and conventional transition state theory calculations with one-dimensional hindered rotor treatment and Eckart tunneling correction. A branching ratio analysis for each reaction system is further performed.

  18. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (development of various common equipment); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (kakushu kyotsu kikirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes large pumps for liquid hydrogen, large-size vacuum-insulated tubes, valves for liquid hydrogen, and instrumentation equipment. In the WE-NET Project, large pumps for liquid hydrogen are to be used for feeding pressurized liquid hydrogen to the combustors in power generative facilities as well as transferring large amounts of liquid hydrogen in liquefying facilities, and to or from tankers, etc. As a result of the examination, axial flow pump and mixed flow pump are to be applied to the large pumps, and centrifugal pump is to be applied to the pressurized pump. A vertical shaft wet motor pump which is directly connected to wound-rotor induction motor has been adopted as a basic specification. For the large-size vacuum-insulated tubes, examination has been conducted with the emphasis on method of relaxing the thermal stress from the viewpoint of transferring the liquid hydrogen at large flow-rate and cryogenic temperature in a stable and safe manner over long distances. It has been shown that the development of marine loading arm is indispensable. For the valves for liquid hydrogen, a ball valve and a butterfly valve, which are operated pneumatically, have been investigated. For the instrumentation equipment, level sensor for tanks, flow meter, and method of leakage detection have been examined. 315 refs., 50 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Joint Use of Bonding Evolution Theory and QM/MM Hybrid Method for Understanding the Hydrogen Abstraction Mechanism via Cytochrome P450 Aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciano, Ignacio; González-Navarrete, Patricio; Andrés, Juan; Martí, Sergio

    2015-04-14

    Bonding evolution theory (BET), as a combination of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT), has been coupled with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method in order to study biochemical reaction paths. The evolution of the bond breaking/forming processes and electron pair rearrangements in an inhomogeneous dynamic environment provided by the enzyme has been elucidated. The proposed methodology is applied in an enzymatic system in order to clarify the reaction mechanism for the hydrogen abstraction of the androstenedione (ASD) substrate catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 aromatase enzyme. The use of a QM/MM Hamiltonian allows inclusion of the polarization of the charges derived from the amino acid residues in the wave function, providing a more accurate and realistic description of the chemical process. The hydrogen abstraction step is found to have five different ELF structural stability domains, whereas the C-H breaking and O-H forming bond process rearrangements are taking place in an asynchronous way.

  20. Kinetics of the Hydrogen Atom Abstraction Reactions from 1-Butanol by Hydroxyl Radical: Theory Matches Experiment and More

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, Prasenjit; Oyedepo, Gbenga; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-01-17

    In the present work, we study the H atom abstraction reactions by hydroxyl radical at all five sites of 1-butanol. Multistructural variational transition state theory (MS-VTST) was employed to estimate the five thermal rate constants. MS-VTST utilizes a multifaceted dividing surface that accounts for the multiple conformational structures of the transition state, and we also include all the structures of the reactant molecule. The vibrational frequencies and minimum energy paths (MEPs) were computed using the M08-HX/MG3S electronic structure method. The required potential energy surfaces were obtained implicitly by direct dynamics employing interpolated variational transition state theory with mapping (IVTST-M) using a variational reaction path algorithm. The M08-HX/MG3S electronic model chemistry was then used to calculate multistructural torsional anharmonicity factors to complete the MS-VTST rate constant calculations. The results indicate that torsional anharmonicity is very important at higher temperatures, and neglecting it would lead to errors of 26 and 32 at 1000 and 1500 K, respectively. Our results for the sums of the site-specific rate constants agree very well with the experimental values of Hanson and co-workers at 896–1269 K and with the experimental results of Campbell et al. at 292 K, but slightly less well with the experiments of Wallington et al., Nelson et al., and Yujing and Mellouki at 253–372 K; nevertheless, the calculated rates are within a factor of 1.61 of all experimental values at all temperatures. Finally, this gives us confidence in the site-specific values, which are currently inaccessible to experiment.

  1. Kinetics of the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from 1-butanol by hydroxyl radical: theory matches experiment and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Prasenjit; Oyedepo, Gbenga; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-01-17

    In the present work, we study the H atom abstraction reactions by hydroxyl radical at all five sites of 1-butanol. Multistructural variational transition state theory (MS-VTST) was employed to estimate the five thermal rate constants. MS-VTST utilizes a multifaceted dividing surface that accounts for the multiple conformational structures of the transition state, and we also include all the structures of the reactant molecule. The vibrational frequencies and minimum energy paths (MEPs) were computed using the M08-HX/MG3S electronic structure method. The required potential energy surfaces were obtained implicitly by direct dynamics employing interpolated variational transition state theory with mapping (IVTST-M) using a variational reaction path algorithm. The M08-HX/MG3S electronic model chemistry was then used to calculate multistructural torsional anharmonicity factors to complete the MS-VTST rate constant calculations. The results indicate that torsional anharmonicity is very important at higher temperatures, and neglecting it would lead to errors of 26 and 32 at 1000 and 1500 K, respectively. Our results for the sums of the site-specific rate constants agree very well with the experimental values of Hanson and co-workers at 896-1269 K and with the experimental results of Campbell et al. at 292 K, but slightly less well with the experiments of Wallington et al., Nelson et al., and Yujing and Mellouki at 253-372 K; nevertheless, the calculated rates are within a factor of 1.61 of all experimental values at all temperatures. This gives us confidence in the site-specific values, which are currently inaccessible to experiment.

  2. A valence bond modeling of trends in hydrogen abstraction barriers and transition states of hydroxylation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Sason; Kumar, Devesh; de Visser, Sam P

    2008-08-06

    The paper outlines the fundamental factors that govern the mechanisms of alkane hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 and the corresponding barrier heights during the hydrogen abstraction and radical rebound steps of the process. This is done by a combination of density functional theory calculations for 11 alkanes and valence bond (VB) modeling of the results. The energy profiles and transition states for the various steps are reconstructed using VB diagrams (Shaik, S. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1981, 103, 3692-3701. Shaik, S.; Shurki, A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999, 38, 586-625.) and the DFT barriers are reproduced by the VB model from raw data based on C-H bond energies. The model explains a variety of other features of P450 hydroxylations: (a) the nature of the polar effect during hydrogen abstraction, (b) the difference between the activation mechanisms leading to the Fe(IV) vs the Fe(III) electromers, (c) the difference between the gas phase and the enzymatic reaction, and (d) the dependence of the rebound barrier on the spin state. The VB mechanism shows that the active species of the enzyme performs a complex reaction that involves multiple bond making and breakage mechanisms by utilizing an intermediate VB structure that cuts through the high barrier of the principal transformation between reactants and products, thereby mediating the process at a low energy cost. The correlations derived in this paper create order and organize the data for a process of a complex and important enzyme. This treatment can be generalized to the reactivity patterns of nonheme systems and synthetic iron-oxo porphyrin reagents.

  3. Pronounced non-Arrhenius behaviour of hydrogen-abstractions from toluene and derivatives by phthalimide-N-oxyl radicals: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Ive; Jacobs, Pierre; Peeters, Jozef

    2008-02-28

    Abstraction of hydrogen atoms by pthalimide-N-oxyl radicals is an important step in the N-hydroxyphthalimide catalyzed autoxidation of hydrocarbons. In this contribution, the temperature dependency of this reaction is evaluated by a detailed transition state theory based kinetic analysis for the case of toluene. Tunneling was found to play a very important role, enhancing the rate constant by a factor of 20 at room temperature. As a result, tunneling, in combination with the existence of two distinct rotamers of the transition state, causes a pronounced temperature dependency of the pre-exponential frequency factor, and, as a consequence, marked curvature of the Arrhenius plot. This explains why earlier experimental studies over a limited temperature range around 300 K found formal Arrhenius activation energies and pre-factors that are 4 kcal mol(-1) and three orders of magnitude smaller than the actual energy barrier and the corresponding frequency factor, respectively. Also as a consequence of tunneling, substitution of a deuterium atom for a hydrogen atom causes a large decrease in the rate constant, in agreement with the measured kinetic isotope effects. The present theoretical analysis, complementary to the experimental rate coefficient data, allows for a reliable prediction of the rate coefficient at higher temperatures, relevant for actual autoxidation processes.

  4. Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.

    1943-02-19

    A transcript is presented of a speech on the history of the development of hydrogenation of coal and tar. Apparently the talk had been accompanied by the showing of photographic slides, but none of the pictures were included with the report. In giving the history, Dr. Pier mentioned the dependence of much of the development of hydrogenation upon previous development in the related areas of ammonia and methanol syntheses, but he also pointed out several ways in which equipment appropriate for hydrogenation differed considerably from that used for ammonia and methanol. Dr. Pier discussed the difficulties encountered with residue processing, design of the reaction ovens, manufacture of ovens and preheaters, heating of reaction mixtures, development of steels, and development of compressor pumps. He described in some detail his own involvement in the development of the process. In addition, he discussed the development of methods of testing gasolines and other fuels. Also he listed some important byproducts of hydrogenation, such as phenols and polycyclic aromatics, and he discussed the formation of iso-octane fuel from the butanes arising from hydrogenation. In connection with several kinds of equipment used in hydrogenation (whose pictures were being shown), Dr. Pier gave some of the design and operating data.

  5. Direct dynamics study of the hydrogen-abstraction reaction of 1,1,2,2,3-fluorinated propane with the hydroxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jing-Yao; Yang, Lei; Li, Ze-Sheng; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2008-05-08

    The hydrogen abstraction reactions by a hydroxyl radical from 1,1,2,2,3-fluorinated propane (CF2HCF2CFH2) have been investigated by the dual-level direct dynamics method. Three equilibrium conformers (I, II, III) of CF2HCF2CFH2, one with Cs and two with C1 symmetries, are identified by the rotations of -CFH2 and -CF2H groups. Two transition states are located for the conformer I (Cs symmetry) + OH --> products (R1) reaction, and three distinct transition states are identified for conformers II and III (C1 symmetry) + OH --> products (R2 and R3). The optimized geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of all reactants, complexes, transition states, and products are calculated at the BB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The single-point energy calculations are performed at the G3(MP2) level using the BB1K geometries. Using improved canonical variational transition-state theory (ICVT) with the small-curvature tunneling correction (SCT), the rate constants for each channel are calculated over a wide temperature range of 200-2000 K. It is found that the H-abstraction reaction from the -CFH2 group is the predominant product channel for three reactions. The total rate constant is evaluated by the Boltzmann distribution function, and the agreement between theoretical and experimental values is good.

  6. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for the hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 1. Investigations and researched on system assessment; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 1. System hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-1. Technologies drawing attentions relate to fuel cell driven automobiles and hybrid automobiles in the field of utilizing hydrogen derived from reproducible energies and fossil energies, and fuel cell co-generation and micro gas turbine co-generation in the field of electric power generation. Hydrogen reformed from gasoline on board the automobile as the fuel for fuel cell driven automobiles, hydrogen as a by-product of coke furnace off-gas (COG), and reproducible energy hydrogen have the same fuel consumption performance as in the hybrid automobiles. Particularly the COG is low in cost, and has large supply potential. Liquefied hydrogen is as promising as compressed hydrogen in view of the cost for automotive hydrogen supply stations. What has high economic performance as the self-sustaining systems for islands are photovoltaic and wind power generation, and the system using hydrogen as the secondary energy. Since much of the reproducible energies is used for electric power demand in Japan, the by-product hydrogen and the reformed hydrogen in an amount of 9.3 billion Nm{sup 3}/year would take care of majority of the demand in view of the short time period. For a longer time span, hydrogen originated from the reproduced energies in the Pan-Pacific Region should be introduced. (NEDO)

  8. High-level direct-dynamics variational transition state theory calculations including multidimensional tunneling of the thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from methanol by atomic hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Truhlar, Donald G; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2011-03-07

    We report a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methanol by atomic hydrogen. The study includes the analysis of thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects. Specifically, we have performed high-level computations at the MC3BB level together with direct dynamics calculations by canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with the microcanonically optimized multidimensional tunneling (μOMT) transmission coefficient (CVT/μOMT) to study both the CH(3)OH+H→CH(2)OH+H(2) (R1) reaction and the CH(3)OH+H→CH(3)O+H(2) (R2) reaction. The CVT/μOMT calculations show that reaction R1 dominates in the whole range 298≤T (K)≤2500 and that anharmonic effects on the torsional mode about the C-O bond are important, mainly at high temperatures. The activation energy for the total reaction sum of R1 and R2 reactions changes substantially with temperature and, therefore, the use of straight-line Arrhenius plots is not valid. We recommend the use of new expressions for the total R1 + R2 reaction and for the R1 and R2 individual reactions. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  10. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 11. Distributed transportation of hydrogen/hydrogen absorbing alloy for hydrogen storage; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 11. Suiso bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were conducted to find out hydrogen absorbing alloys with an effective hydrogen absorption rate of 3 mass % or more, hydrogen discharge temperature of 100 degrees C or lower, hydrogen absorbing capacity after 5,000 cycles not less than 90% of the initial capacity, applicable to stationary and mobile systems. The V-based alloy that achieved an effective hydrogen absorption rate of 2.6 mass % in the preceding fiscal year was subjected to studies relating to safety and durability. Since V is costly, efforts were exerted to develop TiCrMo alloys to replace the V-based alloy. In the search for novel high-performance alloys, endeavors centered on novel ternary alloys, novel alloys based on Mg and Ti, and novel intermetallic compounds of the Mg-4 family. In the study of guidelines for developing next-generation high-performance alloys, methods for creating hydrides with an H/M (hydrogen/metal) ratio far higher than 2 were discussed. Mentioned as techniques to produce such hydrides were the utilization of the hole regulated lattice, novel alloys based on the ultrahigh pressure hydride phase, new substances making use of the cooperative phenomenon in the coexistent multiple-phase structure, and the like. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 4 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen production technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 4 suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a WE-NET subtask, a study has been conducted of the solid polyelectrolyte water electrolysis method by which higher efficiency and lower cost hydrogen production is expected than in the conventional hydrogen production method. Production methods of electrode, electrolyte, etc. were studied. In the electroless plating method, the manufacturing process of membrane-electrode assemblies was realized in a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} by the porous-surfaced method by studying manufacturing conditions for slurry membrane/membrane assembly/electroless plating processes. In the hot-press method, the refining degree and dispersibility of iridium dioxide powder were studied to improve characteristics of anode catalyst. A method was developed to form polyelectrolyte coatings homogeneously on the surface of electrode layer catalytic powder, and a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} was realized. Beside the performance test using large single cells, FS was conducted to discuss optimum operating conditions and optimum structures of plants. Both methods indicated the performance exceeding the energy conversion efficiency of 90%, a WE-NET target, at current density of 1A/cm{sup 2} and electrolysis temperature of 80degC. A key was found to a bench-scale development (electrode area of 2500 cm{sup 2}, about 5 layers) to be planned in fiscal 1998. 136 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no choa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was aimed at developing the WE-NET as a joint project worldwide by taking concrete measures such PR activities to obtain international understanding and cooperation of WE-NET based on the survey/grasp of researches of research institutes in each country and the developmental trend of hydrogen energy in each of the main countries. Implementing a `long-term vision for the WE-NET international cooperation,` the following measures were taken in fiscal 1997. PR activities were positively developed which coped with the worldwide increasing interest in WE-NET such as delivery to overseas institutions of the fiscal 1996 survey report in English summarized by NEDO and information exchanges, and participation in international conferences and presentation of the research results. From a standpoint of positively proceeding with the international technical information exchange, the following were conducted following fiscal 1996: 1) the evaluation study jointly made with Stanford University of effects of reducing air pollution by introducing hydrogen cars, 2) survey on the U.S. hydrogen project, and 3) preparation for opening of the WE-NET internet home pages. 17 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Role of hydrogen abstraction acetylene addition mechanisms in the formation of chlorinated naphthalenes. 2. Kinetic modeling and the detailed mechanism of ring closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Grant J; Russell, Douglas K

    2014-12-26

    The dominant formation mechanisms of chlorinated phenylacetylenes, naphthalenes, and phenylvinylacetylenes in relatively low pressure and temperature (∼40 Torr and 1000 K) pyrolysis systems are explored. Mechanism elucidation is achieved through a combination of theoretical and experimental techniques, the former employing a novel simplification of kinetic modeling which utilizes rate constants in a probabilistic framework. Contemporary formation schemes of the compounds of interest generally require successive additions of acetylene to phenyl radicals. As such, infrared laser powered homogeneous pyrolyses of dichloro- or trichloroethylene were perturbed with 1,2,4- or 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene. The resulting changes in product identities were compared with the major products expected from conventional pathways, aided by the results of our previous computational work. This analysis suggests that a Bittner-Howard growth mechanism, with a novel amendment to the conventional scheme made just prior to ring closure, describes the major products well. Expected products from a number of other potentially operative channels are shown to be incongruent with experiment, further supporting the role of Bittner-Howard channels as the unique pathway to naphthalene growth. A simple quantitative analysis which performs very well is achieved by considering the reaction scheme as a probability tree, with relative rate constants being cast as branching probabilities. This analysis describes all chlorinated phenylacetylene, naphthalene, and phenylvinylacetylene congeners. The scheme is then tested in a more general system, i.e., not enforcing a hydrogen abstraction/acetylene addition mechanism, by pyrolyzing mixtures of di- and trichloroethylene without the addition of an aromatic precursor. The model indicates that these mechanisms are still likely to be operative.

  14. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 2. Examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku shuishin no tame no chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the results of examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation, and examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, conducted in the FY 1998 continuously from the previous year, with the object to realize the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project. In the FY 1998, the English version of the 1997 annual summary report was distributed to a total of about 150 overseas organizations. The WE-NET project activities were presented to the 12th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, International Joint Power Generation Conference held in 1998 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Energy Conversion Systems and Related Technologies. For the examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, the contracting party of Japan for the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement with IEA has been shifted from the government of Japan to NEDO. NEDO has been representing Japan for various workshops on the tasks. The hydrogen projects conducted by Germany and USA were also surveyed. The WE-NET project homepage was opened in June, 1998. (NEDO)

  15. Molecular adsorption of NH3 on MgO(001) and hydrogen abstraction from NH3 on gaseous LiO and Li-doped MgO(001). A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børve, Knut J.

    1992-04-01

    Accurate ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations are presented for the molecular and dissociative adsorption of ammonia on the pure and Li-doped MgO(001) surface, and also for the hydrogen abstraction from ammonia on gas-phase LiO. The surface is described in terms of embedded clusters. In its most stable physisorbed state the ammonia is found to be doubly coordinated, with the electrostatic attraction to a cation being the important feature for bonding. Heterolytic dissociation of the N-H bond is neither found to be feasible on the pure MgO(001) surface nor on the Li-doped surface. Likewise, no hydrogen abstraction from ammonia takes place on the perfect (001) surface. On the Li-doped surface, partial optimization of the transition state renders a low reaction barrier of 7 kcal/mol for the dissociative adsorption of ammonia. The gas-phase hydrogen abstraction starting from free reactants may take place with no barrier to a product LiOH-NH2 complex. However, the reactants may be trapped in a stable complex in which ammonia is doubly coordinated to the oxide, and from this state the reaction barrier is 13 kcal/mol. The end-on abstraction, having as products gas-phase LiOH and NH2, has a barrier of 11 kcal/mol.

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 6 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of technology of low temperature materials); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 6 teion zairyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the results of the development of technology of low temperature materials in the fiscal 1997 WE-NET. Using experimental equipment for materials under the atmosphere of liquid hydrogen, an experiment on mechanical characteristics under the liquid hydrogen atmosphere (20K) was conducted of the base materials of candidate steels (SUS304L, SUS316L and A5083). In material evaluation experiments (tension/fracture toughness/fracture tests), characteristic behaviors of the materials were shown which are different from those shown in the environment of liquid He (4k), etc. Even if the amount of {delta} ferrite in the metal welded of the stainless steel is small, approximately 1%, the degradation of low temperature toughness occurred. Welded joints of stainless steel by submerged arc welding and MAG welding were in now way inferior in tension characteristic to those by TIG welding, but were inferior in toughness ranging from room temperature to extremely low temperature. As to aluminum alloys, materials excellent in extremely-low temperature toughness were able to be found. Under the low temperature hydrogen gas atmosphere, the lower the strain rate is, the higher the hydrogen brittleness susceptibility is around 220K (extremely large hydrogen brittleness temperature) (SUS304L). In the hydrogen gas of 100 atm, hydrogen invades the material at 100degC, but does not at 77k. 38 refs., 173 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 9 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study on the innovative and leading technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of giving useful suggestions/proposals to the course of WE-NET and contributing to the R and D, conducted were survey/collection/evaluation of new technologies. The paper described the fiscal 1997 results. The number of the proposals of new technology accumulated during fiscal 1993 to 1997 is 28. The proposals of new technology made in fiscal 1997 are hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen storage using fullerene, and the methanol power generation turbine system. Four technologies proposed in fiscal 1996 and 1997 were evaluated. The evaluation method requires two steps of the marking using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the adjustment by the committee. The highly evaluated proposals out of those having been made were analysis/evaluation of hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling engine, hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration method for hydrogen liquefaction, hydrogen production technology using photocatalyst, etc. The paper also stated the result of studying concepts of innovative/leading technologies in fiscal 1996. 4 figs., 29 tabs.

  18. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 9. Research and evaluation of innovative and leading technologies; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 (kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to make useful suggestions and proposals for the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project and thereby to promote the research and development activities, the innovative and leading technologies have been studied, investigated and evaluated. In FY 1998, a total of 6 proposals were collected, and evaluated to prioritize for the conceptual studies. These are related to methanol-fueled power generation turbine system, conceptual design of high-efficiency production system for high-efficiency solar cell by the 10 GW/y scale production process, investigation of potential of wind power, CO2 recycling methanol fuel cell, investigation of catalysis materials for hydrogen combustion and catalytic combustion systems, development of reversible high-temperature steam electrolysis cell/solid oxide fuel cell by the synthesis from aqueous solutions, and mobile heat recovery hydrogen production system. Promising technologies to be reflected on the WE-NET project were examined, based on the new technologies acquired from the research and investigation so far. As a result, two candidates were selected; hydrogen liquefaction by magnetic refrigeration technology, and catalytic combustion gas turbine. (NEDO)

  19. Quantum effects in the abstraction reaction by H atoms of primary and secondary hydrogens in n-C4H10: a test of a new potential energy surface construction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiao; Clary, David C

    2013-01-28

    Recently, von Horsten et al. suggested an efficient method to construct two dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) for use in quantum scattering simulations, in which they utilised the minimum energy path (MEP) and assumed harmonic behaviour of the PES near the MEP. In the same paper, the authors applied this method to various H-abstraction reactions from C1-C3 alkane molecules. In this work we demonstrate an alternative PES construction method, and apply it to the more challenging H-abstraction from n-C(4)H(10) reactions. The geometry optimizations and frequency calculations are done at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory, while the energies are calculated with the CCSD(T) method with the same basis set. The calculations give adiabatic energy barrier heights of 45.9 kJ mol(-1) and 34.4 kJ mol(-1) for the primary and secondary hydrogens in n-C(4)H(10). When compared to purely classical transition state theory, quantum scattering calculations show that quantum tunnelling and zero-point effects have large contributions at low temperatures, typically below 500 K. The branching ratio study suggests that the abstraction of secondary hydrogen in n-C(4)H(10) dominates the overall reaction rate at low temperatures. The rate constants for the two abstraction channels become more comparable as the temperature increases.

  20. Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide sequestration in TBAF semi-clathrate hydrates: Kinetics and evolution of hydrate-phase composition by in situ raman spectroscopy - Abstract -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Trueba, A.; Radoviæ, I.R.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) represents almost one third of the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels additionally, CO2 has been identified as the mayor contributor of global warming. Hydrogen (H2), on the other hand, due to its properties is considered a promising energy carrier. Clathrate hydrates

  1. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Deskins, W E

    1996-01-01

    This excellent textbook provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the basic concepts of abstract algebra and to the analysis of abstract algebraic systems. These systems, which consist of sets of elements, operations, and relations among the elements, and prescriptive axioms, are abstractions and generalizations of various models which evolved from efforts to explain or discuss physical phenomena.In Chapter 1, the author discusses the essential ingredients of a mathematical system, and in the next four chapters covers the basic number systems, decompositions of integers, diop

  2. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean system technology) (WE-NET) (total system conceptual design/safety measures/evaluation technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 3 zentai system gainen sekkei - anzen taisaku hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the study of safety measures in WE-NET, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. For drawing up a policy for safety design, technology of preserving hydrogen at high temperature/pressure, continuing collecting information on existing plants (liquid hydrogen, LNG). Investigating manuals of NASA and NASDA and also referring to people`s opinions at chemical plants, etc., the study entered into the setting-up of the safety policy and design standards. Examples of anomalies/accidents were extracted, and classification/arrangement were commenced of the measures for anomalies of detection/prevention/protection. Toward the diffusion of hydrogen and the enhancement and unification of explosion/fire simulation models, the extraction of problems has been almost finished. The second mini work shop on safety was held in the U.S., and exchanges of information were made among researchers of each country. All agreed on the importance of collecting data as the base of safety standards. As to safety measures in various tests using combustor evaluation experimental facilities, experimental equipment for materials under liquid hydrogen and experimental equipment of thermal insulation under liquid hydrogen, problems were extracted between researchers and people concerned with safety measures, and the measures to solve them were studied. 18 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 2. development of the liquid hydrogen transportation tanker); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 2 hen ekitai suiso yuso tanker no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technology development is being conducted for construction of the long distance transportation tanker of large quantity liquid hydrogen. In fiscal 1997, test pieces of thermal insulating materials to be planned for fiscal 1998 were designed and studied. The purpose of the test is to confirm thermal insulating performance and behaviors of each material under the temperature of liquid hydrogen. The inside of the outer tank of the experimental equipment was held at vacuum of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} Torr to exclude thermal convection effects and evaluate only heat coming from heater through the test piece. The heat from the heater at the lower part of the test piece is through the test piece and makes the liquid hydrogen of the upper tank evaporate. Thermal conductivity of the test piece is calculated from the evaporation quantity. As to PUF (polyurethane foam) panels, studied were reformation preventive measures, influential evaluation of the side transfer heat quantity, and the time required for vacuuming. In the vacuum panel, study subjects were extracted on the selection of core materials, reformation preventive measures, deterioration with age, the practical manufacturing method of experimental panels, etc. As to the super insulation, subjects were studied on the performance measuring method/accuracy, measures against heat transfer from the inside of the experimental equipment, control of the vacuum degree, etc. 10 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Conceptual design of the total system (assessment on an urban scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to study the best method for introducing relatively a small amount of hydrogen into urban fuel economics, the field test was carried out in London. The study result in fiscal 1996 is as follows. In the case where hythane (mixture of NG with a small amount of hydrogen) is targeted to transport applications (targeted hythane) or hydrogen is used as an additive to gasoline for engines (hydrogen gasoline), the reduction effect of external environmental costs was larger than hydrogen production costs. The cost benefit on environment improvement was dependent on estimation of environmental costs. In the case of lower external costs, the hythane scenario (hydrogen is supplied to all users as hythane) was best for environment, and in intermediate external costs, the targeted hythane was best, while in higher external costs, measures against exhaust gas by catalytic technology was best. The preferential selective criterion of the scenarios for environment improvement was thus dependent on both assumed costs for environmental impacts and different areas such as the central, inner and outer areas of London. 32 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Effect of hydrogen charging on fracture toughness obtained by small specimen of SUS304L : Study on low temperature materials used in WE-NET 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, T.; Saito, M.; Yuri, T. [National Institute for Materials Science (Japan). Materials Information Technology Station; Hirayama, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Eguchi, H. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The ductility of austenitic stainless steels even at cryogenic temperatures and a hydrogen environment make it a widely used material in cryogenic applications. The evaluation of mechanical properties of structural materials including weld metals at low temperatures is important, as fracture toughness of cryogenic materials is required for the design of large scale facilities such as clean energy to transport and store liquid hydrogen. The authors used a new testing procedure of J-evaluation on tensile test (JETT) to evaluate local fracture toughness of top, middle, bottom, and heat-affected zone of welds of SUS304L. The tests revealed that a decrease of 9 parts per million hydrogen-charging occurred in fracture toughness in 5 per cent and 10 per cent delta-ferrite welds, and that toughness decreased by only 4 parts per million hydrogen-charging in 10 per cent welds. The authors concluded that less amount of delta-ferrite weld has less influence of hydrogen embrittlement and a critical amount of hydrogen-charging. 7 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 10. Development of low-temperature materials; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 10. Teion zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of candidate low-temperature materials for liquid hydrogen transportation and storage (including mother materials and welds) for WE-NET. Evaluation tests were performed on material properties (mechanical properties, low-temperature embrittlement, and hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity) under room temperature and low temperature regions including liquid hydrogen atmosphere. Low temperature toughness of welds was assessed particularly to identify characteristics of different welding methods developed newly for improvements. The stainless steels and the mother materials of aluminum alloy selected as the candidates have sufficient characteristics even under the liquid hydrogen atmosphere, but the welds have lower low-temperature toughness, requiring improvement. For the stainless steels, since the amount of {delta} ferrite in welds affects greatly the low-temperature toughness, adoption of complete austenite type welding metal is effective. The reduced pressure electron beam welding method can enhance drastically the low-temperature toughness of stainless steel. For the aluminum alloy, it can be one of the alternatives to use an alloy system with composition of high low-temperature toughness. The friction stir welding method for the aluminum alloy was found to provide extremely high low-temperature toughness, which can be evaluated as a new welding method. (NEDO)

  7. Path integral calculation of thermal rate constants within the quantum instanton approximation: application to the H + CH4 --> H2 + CH3 hydrogen abstraction reaction in full Cartesian space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Miller, William H

    2004-02-15

    The quantum instanton approximation for thermal rate constants of chemical reactions [Miller, Zhao, Ceotto, and Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)], which is modeled after the earlier semiclassical instanton approach, is applied to the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methane by a hydrogen atom, H + CH4 --> H2 + CH3, using a modified and recalibrated version of the Jordan-Gilbert potential surface. The quantum instanton rate is evaluated using path integral Monte Carlo approaches based on the recently proposed implementation schemes [Yamamoto and Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 3086 (2004)]. The calculations were carried out using the Cartesian coordinates of all the atoms (thus involving 18 degrees of freedom), thereby taking explicit account of rotational effects of the whole system and also allowing the equivalent treatment of the four methane hydrogens. To achieve such a treatment, we present extended forms of the path integral estimators for relevant quantities that may be used for general N-atom systems with any generalized reaction coordinates. The quantum instanton rates thus obtained for the temperature range T = 200-2000 K show good agreement with available experimental data, which gives support to the accuracy of the underlying potential surface used. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics

  8. Free radical hydrogen atom abstraction from saturated hydrocarbons: A crossed-molecular-beams study of the reaction Cl + C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} HCl + C{sub 3}H{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; Hemmi, N.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The abstraction of hydrogen atoms from saturated hydrocarbons are reactions of fundamental importance in combustion as well as often being the rate limiting step in free radical substitution reactions. The authors have begun studying these reactions under single collision conditions using the crossed molecular beam technique on beamline 9.0.2.1, utilizing VUV undulator radiation to selectively ionize the scattered hydrocarbon free radical products (C{sub x}H{sub 2x+1}). The crossed molecular beam technique involves two reactant molecular beams fixed at 90{degrees}. The molecular beam sources are rotatable in the plane defined by the two beams. The scattered neutral products travel 12.0 cm where they are photoionized using the VUV undulator radiation, mass selected, and counted as a function of time. In the authors initial investigations they are using halogen atoms as protypical free radicals to abstract hydrogen atoms from small alkanes. Their first study has been looking at the reaction of Cl + propane {r_arrow} HCl + propyl radical. In their preliminary efforts the authors have measured the laboratory scattering angular distribution and time of flight spectra for the propyl radical products at collision energies of 9.6 kcal/mol and 14.9 kcal/mol.

  9. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  10. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  11. Towards high-level theoretical studies of large biodiesel molecules: an ONIOM [QCISD(T)/CBS:DFT] study of hydrogen abstraction reactions of C(n)H(2n+1)COOC(m)H(2m+1) + H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lidong; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-07

    Recent interest in biodiesel combustion urges the need for the theoretical chemical kinetics of large alkyl ester molecules. This is, however, computationally challenging for prevalent high-level electronic structure theory based methods. The hydrogen abstraction reactions of alky esters CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 (n = 1-5, 9, 15; m = 1, 2) by a hydrogen radical were investigated by a computational technique based on a two-layer ONIOM method, employing a QCISD(T)/CBS method for the high layer and a DFT method for the low layer. The calculated energy barriers and heats of reaction, using the ONIOM method with a minimum of the required chemically active portion, are in very good agreement with those obtained using the widely accepted high-level QCISD(T)/CBS theory because the computational errors were less than 0.1 kcal mol(-1) for all the tested cases. The ONIOM[QCISD(T)/CBS:DFT] method provides a computationally accurate and affordable approach to the high-level theoretical chemical kinetics of large biodiesel molecules.

  12. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 8 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen combustion turbines/development of combustion control technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET) subtask 8 suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the development of hydrogen combustion turbines, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. As a hydrogen/oxygen combustor, the annular combustor was studied. Based on the results obtained by the last fiscal year, a combustor for the evaluation test was designed/fabricated. Oxygen is mixed with vapor at the portion of the burner, rotated/jetted (flame held by the circulation flow generated) and made to burn with hydrogen (porous injection). The smooth ignition and equilibrium wall temperature distribution were made possible. Concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were both less than 1%. Further, can type combustor I is a type in which hydrogen and oxygen are burned near the burner and then are diluted by vapor. Improved of the burner structure and diluted vapor hole, it was tested. In can type combustor II, a mixture of oxygen and vapor is supplied and burned with hydrogen. The appropriate supply of oxygen was 20% distribution to the primary scoop and 80% to secondary. In both combustors, smooth ignition was possible, and concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were controlled at minimum (approximately 1%). The evaluation method for the optimum hydrogen/oxygen combustor was studied. 142 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  14. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  15. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 9. Development of liquid hydrogen transportation and storage technologies - 1; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 9. Ekitai suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of liquid hydrogen transportation and storage technologies. Discussions were given on the following three types of specimens as the heat insulation performance test structures: the vacuum panel type (polyurethane foam coated with SUS sheet, while the inside is kept in the vacuum state); the solid vacuum type (combination of polyurethane foam with vacuum heat insulation); and the powder under normal pressure type (a structure in which the ambient of powder pearlite heat insulating material becomes the atmospheric pressure, whereas a SUS case is set up to separate vacuum layer of the test apparatus from atmosphere layer of the specimen, with the SUS case filled with pearlite). Adding the two types of specimens used in the previous fiscal year, five test specimens in total were discussed on the result of the performance tests to advance the database management. As a low temperature strength test for the insulating materials, the compression test was performed on a microsphere being a kind of solid vacuum (normal pressure) heat insulating materials at room temperature, the liquid nitrogen temperature and in liquid hydrogen atmosphere. The compression strength under liquid hydrogen is 1,044 MPa, which is two times greater than the normal temperature strength of 496 MPa, representing the compression strength rising in proportion with temperature drop. Problems were extracted in developing a small capacity liquid hydrogen transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  17. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Development of technology of hydrogen transportation/storage (3rd edition, development of liquid hydrogen storage equipment, report on results of Air Liquide); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (daisanpen ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu Air Liquide sha seika hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the fiscal 1995 study, items were searched which are keys to the design of a liquid hydrogen tanker of a capacity of 200,000m{sup 3}. Among those, the basic concepts were summarized which are necessary for the design of a liquid hydrogen tanker in terms of safety, and the extraporation of the existing low temperature technology into the large liquid hydrogen tank was studied. When adopting safety conditions of IGC Code applied to LNG to the liquid hydrogen tanker, it is necessary to limit the discharge amount of hydrogen to 3 kg/s. When considering safety at fire, for keeping safety of the same level as that of the LNG tanker, it is not appropriate to adopt the conventional vacuum insulation liquid hydrogen tank. In the fiscal 1995 study, 7 kinds of concept of the insulation structure were assumed, and it was concluded that BOR of 0.04-0.23/d was obtained. Also in fiscal 1996, the large liquid hydrogen tank was studied. For insulation of the large liquid hydrogen tank, the structure is most promising where AEROSIL bag or homogeneous AEROSIL is substituted for a forming heat insulating material of 4 design, but further study is needed for selection of the optimum heat insulating structure. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of ultra-high temperature materials); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development of ultra-high temperature materials for parts of hydrogen combustion turbines, as part of the hydrogen utilization technology, which have excellent environmental protectivity and remarkably high efficiency. By the optimized solution heat treatment of monocrystal alloy developed in the previous fiscal year, obtained was strength property the same as the existing super alloys. As to FRC, pore size and strength property of SiC organic hybrid were made clear. ODS alloy cooling blades and heat insulation coating were studied, and YSZ was found to be most excellent as coating material. Concerning intermetallic compounds, the applicability to ultra-high temperatures up to 1700degC was not obtained. For improvement of heat resistance and environment resistance, adopted were highly compacting SiC matrix and BN coatings. Al2O3 was excellent in long-time stability. In the 1600degC steam corrosion test on multiplex structural materials with Al2O3 as surface material, chemical stability was confirmed. Three-dimensional woven fiber reinforced composite materials of C/C{center_dot}CMC were trially produced by changing the fiber orientation, and improvement in ultra-high temperature thermal shock resistance was confirmed. A study was made of spot observation of the specimen surface by laser microscope, and development was conducted of a temperature measuring method with no influence of radiant heat. 44 refs., 250 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of the main component devices such as turbine blades and rotors); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development relating to hydrogen combustion turbines, as one of the hydrogen utilization technologies, which have excellent environmentality and are expected of remarkably high efficiency. In the film cooling system of first-stage moving/stationary blades, the smaller the pitch of film pore is, the higher the mean cooling efficiency becomes, indicating 0.7 at maximum. As compared with the conventional shower head type, the metal temperature can be reduced 30-40degC. In the recovery type inner (convection) cooling system, by reducing the blade number, the consumption amount of coolant can be reduced 6% in stationary blade and 13% in moving blade, as compared with the result of the preceding year. In the element test of the hybrid cooling system, film cooling efficiency was actually measured by the porous module test equipment, and the result well agreed with the calculation result. In the water cooling system, studied were water (stationary blade) and vapor (moving blade) of the closed cooling structure for realization of a cycle efficiency of 60%. In rotor/disk cooling, analyses were made of seal characteristic grasp tests and characteristics of the rotor. The effect of deflection in the mainstream was small. Besides, proper value of the seal overlapping amount could be obtained. 6 refs., 368 figs., 55 tabs.

  20. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  1. Process mining meets abstract interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Vargas, Josep; Cortadella Fortuny, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of process models out of system traces is an interesting problem that has received significant attention in the last years. In this work, a theory for the derivation of a Petri net from a set of traces is presented. The method is based on the theory of abstract interpretation, which has been applied successfully in other areas. The principal application of the theory presented is Process Mining, an area that tries to incorporate the use of formal models both in the design and us...

  2. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine and ultrahigh-temperature materials; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 8 (suiro nensho turbine no kaihatsu/chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are the materials designs/production and tests/evaluation results of heat-resistant materials, i.e., alloys, ceramic composites and carbon-based composites, which are expected to be applicable to the hydrogen combustion turbines. These have been studied since 1993, and this paper summarizes the overall evaluation results of the phase I program. The intermetallic compound as one of the candidate materials has a high-temperature strength in a range from 1200 to 1400 degrees C by optimizing elements added. However, no prospect is obtained for heat resistance at 1700 degrees C or more for the material not coated or cooled moderately. Each of the other candidate materials tested shows a bright prospect of applicability at the base material and specimen levels. The single-crystal superalloy for hybrid cooling structures has novelty in that it is free of Cr but incorporated with Si and Hf, showing approximately 10 degrees C higher heat-resistant temperature than CMSX-4. CMC and C/C are inherently excellent heat-resistant materials, and are attractive advanced composites, because they are expected to realize no-cooled blades at 1700 degrees C. (NEDO)

  3. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  4. PRISMA for Abstracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Elaine M; Glasziou, Paul P; Altman, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Elaine Beller and colleagues from the PRISMA for Abstracts group provide a reporting guidelines for reporting abstracts of systematic reviews in journals and at conferences.......Elaine Beller and colleagues from the PRISMA for Abstracts group provide a reporting guidelines for reporting abstracts of systematic reviews in journals and at conferences....

  5. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation; survey/study on the standardization for hydrogen energy technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In relation to the basic study of the standardization for hydrogen energy technology and ISO/TC197, the results of the fiscal 1997 survey were summarized. From fiscal 1994 through 1996, in the wide-range field related to hydrogen energy technology, the survey of the present situation of the related standards/laws was made and the needs/subjects of standardization to be studied in the future were extracted. At the present stage, however, it is still early to enter into the stage of discussing the standardization. Therefore, in this fiscal year, only in the field of the storage/transportation/handling of liquid hydrogen, standards/laws abroad and in Japan were comparatively investigated for the basic study toward the standardization. Further, concerning ISO/TC197, studies were proceeded with of the liquid hydrogen land vehicle fueling system interface/fuel tanks/transportation containers/hydrogen fuel product specifications/airport hydrogen fueling facilities. Some are at the stage of drafting the international standard. Three drafts for the new standard were added such as gaseous hydrogen/hydrogen blend vehicular fuel systems, gaseous hydrogen fuel tanks, and basic requirements for safety of hydrogen systems. The standardization is indispensable to introducing the developed technology to the commercialization. 9 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  7. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  8. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (conceptual design of the total system/city-level energy estimation and assessment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask zentai system gainen sekkei (toshi kibo deno yosoku hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the study of scenarios for introducing hydrogen to the urban area. In the case of studying it in London, it was found that hythane (mixture of hydrogen into town gas) was effective, but in the case of doing in Tokyo, it was found that the scenario was undesirable because of the increasing infracost. Accordingly, another scenario was studied. It was assessed from the aspects of environmental advantages, infracosts, and potential advantageous values in urban areas associated with hydrogen utilization (hydrogen premium). It is most effective to use hydrogen as a fuel of transportation means from the aspect of environmental merits as the decrease in external cost. In Tokyo, the dependence upon electric power is large, and therefore it is attractive to introduce highly efficient fuel cells which enable the dispersed cogeneration using hydrogen. The value of hydrogen is determined by the avoidance of environmentally influential substances and the surplus generated output by fuel cells (substitution for the existing natural gas). When the high external cost can be assumed, the value of hydrogen becomes large. The paper also considered the arrangement of infrastructures in Tokyo. 187 refs., 14 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  10. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  11. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  12. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...

  13. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  14. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 3. Prediction evaluation on a national scale; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 3. Ikkoku kibo deno yosoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japanese long-term energy demand and various energy use styles were simulated from the viewpoint of a profitability and environmental preservation, and hydrogen consumption was studied. In the research in fiscal 1998, the data on available primary energy was modified based on the upper limit of CO{sub 2} emission by COP3, and the long-term energy supply and demand outlook of Advisory Committee for Energy in June, 1998. The result of scenario analysis is as follows: (1) The reference scenario showed that reduction of a hydrogen price is indispensable to use imported hydrogen, (2) The carbon externality scenario showed that market penetration of hydrogen can be large if the carbon externality amounts to $300/t-C, (3) The high fossil fuel price scenario showed that a fossil fuel price (in particular, price of hydrocarbon) highly affects market penetration of hydrogen, and (4) The low nuclear capacity scenario suggested that a competitiveness of hydrogen is considerably improved as an energy supply-demand-balance is tight. (NEDO)

  15. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  16. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  17. Synthesis of Nano-Light Magnesium Hydride for Hydrogen Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nano-light magnesium hydride that has the capability for hydrogen storage was synthesized from treatment of magnesium ribbon with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum time for complete hydrogenation of the magnesium hydride was 5 hours.

  18. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  19. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...... machines to singular, non-axiomatic and diagrammatic machines. That is: Machines which constitute becomings. This presentation gives a survey of the development of the concept of abstract machines in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guatari and the function of these abstract machines in the creation of works...... of art. From Difference and Repetition to Anti-Oedipus, the machines are conceived as binary machines based on the exclusive or inclusive use respectively of the three syntheses: conexa, disjuncta and conjuncta. The machines have a twofold embedment: In the desiring-production and in the social...

  20. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  1. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jonathan D H

    2008-01-01

    Taking a slightly different approach from similar texts, Introduction to Abstract Algebra presents abstract algebra as the main tool underlying discrete mathematics and the digital world. It helps students fully understand groups, rings, semigroups, and monoids by rigorously building concepts from first principles. A Quick Introduction to Algebra The first three chapters of the book show how functional composition, cycle notation for permutations, and matrix notation for linear functions provide techniques for practical computation. The author also uses equivalence relations to introduc

  2. Writing good abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Hennerici, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    Writing an abstract means to extract and summarize (AB - absolutely, STR - straightforward, ACT - actual data presentation and interpretation). Thousands of abstracts are submitted to stroke conferences each year. The following suggestions may improve the chances of your work being selected for presentation, and to communicate results in the most efficient and unambiguous way. TITLE AND STRUCTURE: Make the title dynamic and informative, rather than descriptive. Structure the abstract following the IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) principle for your future original paper where background would become Introduction and conclusions would enter Discussion. Select the appropriate category for submission carefully. This determines which experts grade the abstract and the session where your competitors represent their work. If selected appropriately, your abstract is more likely to be graded by peers with similar interests and familiarity with your work or field. Methods should describe the study design and tools of data acquisition shortly, not data. Provide data that answer the research question. Describe most important data with numbers and statistics. Make your point with data, not speculations and opinions. Abbreviations should be avoided and only be used after they have been spelled out or defined. Common mistakes include failure to state the hypothesis, rationale for the study, sample size and conclusions. Highlight the novelty of your work by carefully chosen straightforward wording. Conclusions have to be based on the present study findings. Make sure your abstract is clear, concise and follows all rules. Show your draft to colleagues for critique, and if you are not a native English speaker show it to a person who can improve/correct your text. Remember that accepted abstracts of completed original research should be followed by published original papers - if this is not intended or fails, it may indicate an impaired ability to succeed in

  3. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  5. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  6. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  7. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  8. Crystal engineering using bisphenols and trisphenols. Complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline: hydrogen-bonded chains in adducts with 4,4'-biphenol (1/1) and 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol (2/3), pi-pi stacked chains in the (1/2) adduct with 4,4'-thiodiphenol, and pairwise-interwoven nets in 1,1,1-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane-1,10-phenanthroline-methanol (1/1/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson; Glidewell; Lavender

    1999-08-01

    In 4,4'-biphenol-1,10-phenanthroline (1/1) [systematic name: 4,4'-biphenyldiol-1,10-phenanthroline (1/1)] the diphenol molecules lie across centres of inversion and the phenanthroline molecules lie across twofold rotation axes; the phenanthroline molecules act as chain-building units and the molecular components are linked into steeply zigzag C(16) chains parallel to [101] by means of O-H.N hydrogen bonds. In the structure of 4,4'-thiodiphenol-1,10-phenanthroline (1/2) the phenanthroline molecules act as chain-terminating units; the supramolecular aggregation is finite, with the bisphenol linked to each phenanthroline molecule by means of a single O-H.N hydrogen bond. pi-pi stacking interactions between the phenanthroline molecules in neighbouring hydrogen-bonded aggregates serve to link these aggregates into a continuous two-dimensional array. The phenanthroline molecules in 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol-1,10-phenanthroline (2/3) play two roles: molecules in general positions act as chain-terminating units and are linked to the sulfonyldiphenol molecules by means of three-centre O-H.(N)(2) hydrogen bonds, while those lying across twofold rotation axes act as chain builders and are linked to two different sulfonyldiphenol molecules by means of a two-centre O-H.N hydrogen bond in each case; the resulting U-shaped five-component aggregates are further linked by C-H.O=S hydrogen bonds into a C(3)(3)(17)[R(2)(2)(12)] 'chain of rings' along [001]. In 1,1,1-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane-1,10-phenanthroline-methanol (1/1/1) [systematic name: 4,4',4"-ethylidynetriphenol-1,10-phenanthroline-methanol (1/1/1)] the phenanthroline molecules again act as chain-terminating units: the trisphenol molecules and the methanol molecules are linked by O-H.O hydrogen bonds into two-dimensional nets built from R(6)(6)(42) rings, and pairs of these nets are interwoven. The formation of each net utilizes two hydroxyl groups per trisphenol molecule as hydrogen-bond donors and the remaining hydroxyl

  9. Abstract 1. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maseh

    School of Information Sciences, Eldoret,. Kenya. Second affiliation: Research collaborator,. InterPARES Africa, coordinated by the. University of South Africa, Pretoria, South. Africa. Email: jmaseh@gmail.com. Abstract. Increasingly, governments all over the world are adopting e-government by deploying Information and.

  10. Humor, Abstraction, and Disbelief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-01-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1- to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing…

  11. Full Abstraction for HOPLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2003-01-01

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for the higher-order process language HOPLA is presented. It characterises contextual and logical equivalence, the latter linking up with simulation. The semantics is a clean, domain-theoretic description of processes as downwards-closed sets of computation...

  12. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  13. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  14. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  15. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  16. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  17. The Abstraction Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher forms of cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving force throughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rational thought. Wending its way...

  18. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  19. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    as well as programming, and we describe how this has had an impact on the design of the language. Although Beta supports the definition of high-level concurrency abstractions, the use of these rely on the discipline of the programmer as is the case for Java and other mainstream OO languages. We introduce...

  20. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  1. Excited-state hydrogen atom abstraction initiates the photochemistry of β-2′-deoxycytidine† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Including relevant preliminary results as well as illustrations and geometrical parameters of selected structures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03761h Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jesús; Šponer, Judit E.; Šponer, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on nucleotides in solution is an important step towards a comprehensive description of the photochemistry of nucleic acids and their constituents. Apart from having implications for mutagenesis and DNA photoprotection mechanisms, the photochemistry of cytidines is a central element in UV-assisted syntheses of pyrimidine nucleotides under prebiotically plausible conditions. In this contribution, we present UV-irradiation experiments of β-2′-deoxycytidine in aqueous solution involving H–D exchange followed by NMR spectroscopic analysis of the photoproducts. We further elucidate the outcome of these experiments by means of high-level quantum chemical calculations. In particular, we show that prolonged UV-irradiation of cytidine may lead to H–C1′ hydrogen atom abstraction by the carbonyl oxygen atom of cytosine. This process may enable photoanomerisation and nucleobase loss, two previously unexplained photoreactions observed in pyrimidine nucleotides. PMID:27182431

  2. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  3. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  4. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  5. Fermentative biohydrogen production: Evaluation of net energy gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J.; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany [Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88011 (United States); Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana [Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Most dark fermentation (DF) studies had resorted to above-ambient temperatures to maximize hydrogen yield, without due consideration of the net energy gain. In this study, literature data on fermentative hydrogen production from glucose, sucrose, and organic wastes were compiled to evaluate the benefit of higher fermentation temperatures in terms of net energy gain. This evaluation showed that the improvement in hydrogen yield at higher temperatures is not justified as the net energy gain not only declined with increase of temperature, but also was mostly negative when the fermentation temperature exceeded 25 C. To maximize the net energy gain of DF, the following two options for recovering additional energy from the end products and to determine the optimal fermentation temperature were evaluated: methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD); and direct electricity production via microbial fuel cells (MFC). Based on net energy gain, it is concluded that DF has to be operated at near-ambient temperatures for the net energy gain to be positive; and DF + MFC can result in higher net energy gain at any temperature than DF or DF + AD. (author)

  6. Muonium/muonic hydrogen formation in atomic hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The muonium/muonic hydrogen atom formation in µ±–H collisions is in- vestigated, using a two-state approximation in a time dependent formalism. It is found that muonium cross-section results are similar to the cross-section results obtained for positronium formation in e+–H collision. Muonic hydrogen atom ...

  7. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  8. PETRI NET MODELING OF COMPUTER VIRUS LIFE CYCLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri nets. Petri nets a powerful modeling tool in the field of dynamic system analysis is applied to model the virus life cycle. Simulation of the derived model is also presented.

  9. Beyond the abstractions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

    the abstractions by broadening it's scope of interest, by focussing on differences of learners, by age, gender, ethnicity, social experience, and differences in context, by socioeconomic environment, culture etc. Practically, it is argued, this means to embrace the new focus on informal learning and work related......  The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...... are set. The ideological discourse of recent policies seems to neglect the fact that history and resources for lifelong learning are different across Europe, and also neglects the multiplicity of adult learners. Instead of refusing the new agendas, however, adult education research should try to dissolve...

  10. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...... of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases....

  11. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Rat.0 (Abstract #886). a. LEONE’, S. A., YEAGER, J. S., WOODRUFF, L. L. and CLARK, G. S. - ’An In Vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Dental...Evaluation of sixteen dyes, with aqueous and ethanol bases, using white and ultraviolet light has been conducted in vitro and in vivo. Naturally...mandibular incisors in 8 adult Rhesus monkeys. Doubled I/8", medium force orthodontic elastics were placed around the teeth and changed every two weeks for

  12. DEGRO 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    The volume includes abstracts of the Annual DEGRO Meeting 2017 covering lectures and poster sessions with the following issues: lymphoma, biology, physics, radioimmunotherapy, sarcomas and rare tumors, prostate carcinoma, lung tumors, benign lesions and new media, mamma carcinoma, gastrointestinal tumors, quality of life, care science and quality assurance, high-technology methods and palliative situation, head-and-neck tumors, brain tumors, central nervous system metastases, guidelines, radiation sensitivity, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy.

  13. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  14. Towards Composable Concurrency Abstractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janwillem Swalens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many different programming models for managing concurrency in applications have been proposed, such as the actor model, Communicating Sequential Processes, and Software Transactional Memory. The ubiquity of multi-core processors has made harnessing concurrency even more important. We observe that modern languages, such as Scala, Clojure, or F#, provide not one, but multiple concurrency models that help developers manage concurrency. Large end-user applications are rarely built using just a single concurrency model. Programmers need to manage a responsive UI, deal with file or network I/O, asynchronous workflows, and shared resources. Different concurrency models facilitate different requirements. This raises the issue of how these concurrency models interact, and whether they are composable. After all, combining different concurrency models may lead to subtle bugs or inconsistencies. In this paper, we perform an in-depth study of the concurrency abstractions provided by the Clojure language. We study all pairwise combinations of the abstractions, noting which ones compose without issues, and which do not. We make an attempt to abstract from the specifics of Clojure, identifying the general properties of concurrency models that facilitate or hinder composition.

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  16. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  17. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  18. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  19. IPR 2016. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.

  20. SPR 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.

  1. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-10

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  2. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wilson

    2001-02-08

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology

  3. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases....

  4. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  5. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  6. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  7. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  8. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  9. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  10. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  11. Hydrogen and water reactor safety: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas of interest: 1) hydrogen research programs; 2) hydrogen behavior during light water reactor accidents; 3) combustible gas generation; 4) hydrogen transport and mixing; 5) combustion modeling and experiments; 6) accelerated flames and detonations; 7) combustion mitigation and control; and 8) equipment survivability.

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  13. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  14. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  15. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...

  16. Towards Self-Managed Executable Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads

    2008-01-01

    An issue in self-managed systems is that different abstractions and programming models are used on different architectural layers, leading to systems that are harder to build and understand. To alleviate this, we introduce a self-management approach which combines high-level Petri nets...... with the capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service......-oriented pervasive computing systems through the runtime interpretation of colored Petri nets. The current work focuses on the change management and component control layers....

  17. Hydrogen Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  18. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  19. Judgement of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakulović Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Marković et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

  20. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  1. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  2. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  3. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  4. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package

  5. Abstracts of the communications presented during the 6th World Rabbit Congress: GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY. Toulouse, July 9-12, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY

    1996-01-01

    Abstract not available. GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY (1996). Abstracts of the communications presented during the 6th World Rabbit Congress: GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY. Toulouse, July 9-12, 1996. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10487.

  6. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  7. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  8. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  10. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  11. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  13. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a process resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness or ductility of a metal due to the presence of atomic hydrogen. In addition to pure hydrogen gas as a direct source for the absorption of atomic hydrogen, the damaging effect can manifest itself from other hydrogen-containing gas species such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) environments. It has been known that H2S environment may result in a much more severe condition of embrittlement than pure hydrogen gas (H2) for certain types of alloys at similar conditions of stress and gas pressure. The reduction of fracture loads can occur at levels well below the yield strength of the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is usually manifest in terms of singular sharp cracks, in contrast to the extensive branching observed for stress corrosion cracking. The initial crack openings and the local deformation associated with crack propagation may be so small that they are difficult to detect except in special nondestructive examinations. Cracks due to HE can grow rapidly with little macroscopic evidence of mechanical deformation in materials that are normally quite ductile. This Technical Memorandum presents a comprehensive review of experimental data for the effects of gaseous Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) for several types of metallic materials. Common material screening methods are used to rate the hydrogen degradation of mechanical properties that occur while the material is under an applied stress and exposed to gaseous hydrogen as compared to air or helium, under slow strain rates (SSR) testing. Due to the simplicity and accelerated nature of these tests, the results expressed in terms of HEE index are not intended to necessarily represent true hydrogen service environment for long-term exposure, but rather to provide a practical approach for material screening, which is a useful concept to qualitatively evaluate the severity of

  14. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  15. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  16. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  17. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.

    2009-01-15

    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Direct-dynamics VTST study of hydrogen or deuterium abstraction and C-C bond formation or dissociation in the reactions of CH3 + CH4, CH3 + CD4, CH3D + CD3, CH3CH3 + H, and CH3CD3 + D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Shapour

    2013-05-01

    Direct-dynamics variational transition-state theory calculations are studied at the MPWB1K/6-311++G(d,p) level for the four parts of reactions. The first part is hydrogen or deuterium abstraction in the reactions of CH3 + CH4, CH3 + CD4, and CH3D + CH3. The second part involves C-C bond formation in these reactions. The third one is the reactions of CH3CH3 + H and CH3CD3 + D to form of H2, HD, and D2. The last one is the dissociation of C-C bonds in the last group of reactions. The ground-state vibrational adiabatic potential is plotted for all channels. We have carried out direct-dynamics calculations of the rate constants, including multidimensional tunneling in the temperature range T = 200-2200 K. The results of CVT/μOMT rate constants were in good agreement with the experimental data which were available for some reactions. Small-curvature tunneling and Large-curvature tunneling with the LCG4 version were used to include the quantum effects in calculation of the rate constants. To try to find the region of formation and dissociation of bounds we have also reported the variations of harmonic vibrational frequencies along the reaction path. The thermally averaged transmission probability (P(E)exp (-ΔE/RT)) and representative tunneling energy at 298 K are reported for the reactions in which tunneling is important. We have calculated kinetic isotope effect which shows tunneling and vibrational contributions are noticeable to determine the rate constant. Nonlinear least-squares fitting is used to calculate rate constant expressions in the temperature range 200-2200 K. These expressions revealed that pre-exponential factor includes two parts; the first part is a constant number which is important at low temperatures while the second part is temperature dependent which is significant at high temperatures.

  19. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher Aryc W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia where transmission is unstable. While household ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN has increased greatly, there are concerns about inadequate net use. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with net use at two time points, before and after mass distribution of nets. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were carried out in 2006 and 2007 in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions. The latter was a sub-sample of the national Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 3R. Each survey wave used multi-stage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster (224 clusters with 5,730 households in Baseline 2006 and 245 clusters with 5,910 households in MIS 3R 2007. Net ownership was assessed by visual inspection while net utilization was reported as use of the net the previous night. This net level analysis was restricted to households owning at least one net of any type. Logistic regression models of association between net use and explanatory variables including net type, age, condition, cost and other household characteristics were undertaken using generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM. Results A total of 3,784 nets in 2,430 households were included in the baseline 2006 analysis while the MIS 3R 2007 analysis comprised 5,413 nets in 3,328 households. The proportion of nets used the previous night decreased from 85.1% to 56.0% between baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased proportion of nets used were: LLIN net type (at baseline 2006; indoor residual spraying (at MIS 3R 2007; and increasing wealth index at both surveys. At both baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, reduced proportion of nets used was independently associated with increasing net age, increasing damage of nets, increasing household net density, and increasing altitude (>2,000 m. Conclusion This study identified

  20. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  1. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  2. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  3. Hydrogen Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  4. Grounding abstractness: Abstract concepts and the activation of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth. While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  5. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  6. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  7. Abstract shape analysis of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Stefan; Giegerich, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract shape analysis abstract shape analysis is a method to learn more about the complete Boltzmann ensemble of the secondary structures of a single RNA molecule. Abstract shapes classify competing secondary structures into classes that are defined by their arrangement of helices. It allows us to compute, in addition to the structure of minimal free energy, a set of structures that represents relevant and interesting structural alternatives. Furthermore, it allows to compute probabilities of all structures within a shape class. This allows to ensure that our representative subset covers the complete Boltzmann ensemble, except for a portion of negligible probability. This chapter explains the main functions of abstract shape analysis, as implemented in the tool RNA shapes. RNA shapes It reports on some other types of analysis that are based on the abstract shapes idea and shows how you can solve novel problems by creating your own shape abstractions.

  8. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  9. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  10. Recognition memory for concrete, regular abstract, and diverse abstract pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellhouse-King, Mathew W; Standing, Lionel G

    2007-06-01

    Based on previous research by Goldstein and Chance in which poor recognition memory for abstract visual patterns was reported, this study compared recognition memory for pictures of everyday concrete objects, regular abstract stimuli as employed by Goldstein and Chance, and diverse abstract stimuli. A (3) x 2 design (stimulus type x test order) analysis of variance design was used. The subjects (N = 31) first viewed 30 target stimuli, followed by an immediate recognition test in which for 30 paired target and distractor stimuli shown they indicated which one they had seen previously. Concrete pictures were recognized with near perfect accuracy, and above the level for diverse abstract pictures; these in turn were better identified than regular abstract items, on which performance resembled that found by Goldstein and Chance. It is concluded that stimulus discriminability, rather than representational meaningfulness, may be crucial in picture recognition.

  11. SOVIET ABSTRACTS ON POWDER METALLURGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    CERMETS, * POWDER METALLURGY , ABSTRACTS, CERAMIC MATERIALS, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS, POLARIZATION, POROUS METALS, POWDER ALLOYS, POWDER METALS, SINTERING.

  12. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.9 No.1 December 2013 62. After the design, it was coded using Visual basic 6.0, hyper text markup language (HTML) integrating Microsoft Agent and Microsoft Access at the back end .The general interface of the authoring system is as shown in the figure below.

  13. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circles are further broken down in the zones, for convenience and effective supervision training and visit. The blocks are made up of many communities with the block extension supervisor resident and controlling all field visits in the block. The Extension Agents (EAs) are resident in the circle, and each circle consist of about ...

  14. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . user

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF677 and selected natural hybrid of peach × almond (H1and H2, and almond vegetative rootstock (local control.In this study,EMtreatments for 60 days before stress treatments were applied so that in each irrigation, EM solution to a concentration of one percent was given to half of the experiment pots. Other pots were irrigated equally with normal water. Stress levels were applied from July as follow: full irrigation, watering after unloading 33% and 66% soil moisture availability. In order to evaluate the performance, seedling survival, plant growth, number of leaves, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight and leaves and root length were measured. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that between rootstock levels across all treatments were significantly differences at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that the highest fresh and dry weight and leaf are awere observed forGF677and H1.Rootstockannualgrowth rate was also different. Most of the growth was related to the H1 Rootstocks. Thes urvival ratewas significantly different from the Rootstocks ofGF677,andH1showedthe highestpercentage of survival. The degree of adaptation to drought in varieties of almonds is different. The results showed that changes ingrowthparametersinGF677and H1were observed less often than other rootstocks. Because of strong roots,GF677and H1continue to attract more minerals under stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that the between irrigation levels for all treatments were significantly different at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that among the study traits, the highest amount was obtained from complete irrigation, while irrigationat66 percenthad the least amount. Water stress may directly affect photosyn thesis, through leaf photochemicalprocessorindirectly,byclosing stomata, reducingleaf area and growth. The results showed that the levels of(EM on the leaf surface, leaf number, annual growth, root dry weight and volume were significantly different (p

  15. ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Stefano Sabino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and to analyze the integration observed in the Sintonia project with respect to the comparison of project management processes to the model of the Stage-Gate ®. The literature addresses these issues conceptually, but lack an alignment between them that is evident in practice. As a method was used single case study. The report is as if the Sintonia project, developed by PRODESP - Data Processing Company of São Paulo. The results show the integration of project management processes with the Stage-Gate model developed during the project life cycle. The formalization of the project was defined in stages in which allowed the exploitation of economies of repetition and recombination to the development of new projects. This study contributes to the technical vision in dealing with the integration of project management processes. It was concluded that this system represents an attractive way, in terms of creating economic value and technological innovation for the organization.

  16. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concern include peer counselling and meetings with local community leaders or local cultural representatives. ... Dr Kyriaki Mystakidou is Associate Professor at the Department of Radiology, Areteion Hospital, University of Athens and in charge of the Pain ... and developing new strategies for treatment and prevention.

  17. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    result of traumatic injury to the thoracic duct, the cisterna chyli, or the retroperitoneal lymphatic vessels. We report a case of a 56 year old female with thoracic spine disc prolapses with cord compression. She had chylous leakage following anterior .... or via nasogastric tube. This induces a change in the colour or the fluid ...

  18. abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deterioration of seed quality after harvest may occur as a result of chemical reactions brought ... It is an evidence of spoilage. ... food reserves. Early August may therefore be the best time to collect seeds for storage. Transportation ' ' '. Care should be taken in transporting seeds from the site of collection, in order to ensure.

  19. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    18

    -friendly method of preservation and has been extensively studied to extend the shelf-life of food products. For example it has also been used to protect the grain and seeds from insect infestation and microbial contamination during storage ...

  20. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ... نوع المؤسسة التي تدعموها. وتتفاقم عواقب انعدام الاستقرار الاقتصادي المُستمر بحجم الدوران الوظيفي غير الاعتيادي للقيادات المكتبية، ولذلك يتطلب هذا الدوران إمدادات...

  1. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farmers in Ondo Statel Nigeria and its implication for food security. A .... has fertile soils, a tropical climate, abundant land and rain, and a staple diet based on ... domestic productive labour interface by diverting women's labour to care for .... HIV/AIDS thereby limiting their access to information about the deadly disease.

  2. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maureen L Chirwa is a Senior Lecturer, University of Malawi, specialising in health management and health systems. ..... and job satisfaction. The HASI-N was inductively derived and measures the stigma experienced and enacted by nurses (Uys et al., 2009). 3. HASI-P (HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument – People Living With.

  3. abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, having attempted yo' conceptualize the ' terms cooperatives and rural development, the paper'reveals that attempts by government to mobilize cooperatives to achieve rural development have not worked out. This, the paper attributed to government involvement in cooperatives, role of ...

  4. Abstract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafdrup, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf......Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf...

  5. abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variables associated with technology changes and information needs. it is important to put into perspective the roles of information, communication and institutions activities in removing constraints which impede the acceptance and continued usage of technologies. Part of the solution to the earlier mentioned constraint is ...

  6. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that trip generation and trip attraction can be significantly season- detenwned. ... recommendations were then made, sequel to highlighting of policy implications of .... It is recommended that bus operator should increase their fleet size yearly to take advantage of the secular rend of growing annual demand for bus travel.

  7. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 2008 she has been working as a physician at the Pain Relief and Palliative Care Unit of Areteion Hospital, Department of Athens University Medical. School. .... Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS, 2002): disclosure of all relevant ... to sex, relationship to older persons, and the caregiving arrangement (Shaibu ...

  8. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... average travel cost between demand locations and facilities. a) Center problems (minimax problems): ... median problem, minimum travel cost is substituted with distance and waste generation points can then be allocated ... demand distributed in space. Several GIS software packages such as ArcInfo and ...

  9. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abstract abstract

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including 0, 500 and 1000 µl L-1 and 3 level of MeSA including 0, 0.1 and 0.2 mM. After treatment, the fruits were inoculated by Botrytis suspension and transferred to storage and quality parameters were evaluated after 7, 14 and 21 days. At each sampling time, disease incidence, weight loss, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that both LEO and MeSA treatments had significant effects on inhibition of mycelium growth within in-vitro condition (p < 0.05. Inhibition rate of mycelium growth significantly improved by LEO and MeSA concentration increase of, (Table 1. At in-vivo assessment, diseases incidence of treated fruits with 500 µl L-1 LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA were 32% and 64% lower than untreated fruits, respectively (Fig. 1 and 2. During storage period, the percentage of infected fruits increased. In addition, LEO and MeSA treatments affected quality parameters of strawberry fruits including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity. Treated fruits had a high content of soluble solids, vitamin C and antioxidant activity in comparison to untreated fruits (Table 3 and 4. Probably ascorbic acid decreased through fungal infection duo to cell wall break down during storage. Any factors such as essential oil and salicylate that inhibit fungal growth can help preserving vitamin C in stored products. High level of vitamin C and antioxidant activity was observed in treated fruits with 0.1 mM MeSA and 500 µl L-1 LEO. In controlling weight loss of fruits, 0.2 mM of MeSA and 500 µl L-1 of LEO had significant effects, although MeSA was more effective than LEO treatments, possibly due to elimination of respiration rates and fungi infection (Table 4. Therefore, LEO and MeSA with fungicide effects could be replaced with synthetic fungicides in controlling fungal diseases of strawberry and maintain fruits quality during storage. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results showed that LEO and MeSA treatments could be safe and used to prevent infection of strawberry during storage, although LEO was more effective than MeSA treatments. Concentration of 500 μl L-1 of LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA could control fungal infection of fruits during storage. Also, LEO and MeSA treatments can extend shelf life for over the minimum period required to transit strawberries to foreign markets and without affecting quality, adversely. However, future studies are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms by which LEO and MeSA treatments may act as a fungicide and increase their postharvest life.

  10. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    ... المكتبات والمعلومات على المستوى العالمي. يتناول المقال ثلاث فترات: الأولى من عام 1947م إلى عام م1977، عندما عملت الإفلا عن قرب مع قسم المكتبات التابع لليونسكو (الذي...

  11. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    forms and be delivered on different platform. (computer, mobile phone and printed document). They usually ... (Manipulative and observant). When learning about things in natural contexts, humans interact with ..... should also be geared towards developing authoring systems that will handle Simulation and Virtual Reality:.

  12. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    ... الإنترنت كبديل، الذي يُقدم طرق أرخص وأسرع وأسهل كي تقوم المكتبات بالدعاية لأفضل مُقتنياتها، ولكن ما دور هذه المُجلدات وما مدى نجاحها في أن تكون محتوياتها مؤشرًّا...

  13. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    The function of the frame system in a structure is to carry loads (dead, imposed and wind) acting on the structure. The frames ... structure's subsequent behaviour on the sub-base (soil) which is elastic in nature (5) has more to be desired: The paper investigates the ..... Building and Architecture Publisher,. Warsaw, 1996 ...

  14. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advances in electronic technology have created opportunities for new ... the necessary knowledge (both practical) on people to enable them survive in a ... Implementing this collaborative e-learning environment on a Linux thin-client ...

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ­E¢b

    (emotional stability and independence). So, the reviewed literature showed both the prevalence and the non-prevalence of gender differences on entrepreneurship. Methodology. Sampling: This study focused on privately owned pharmaceutical retail outlets that are found in Addis Ababa. According to. Ministry of Health ...

  16. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    pods and closed. It has been claimed that milk pn .. :.erved for 1-3 days maintains its original texture. taste and odour. Cowpca is an indigenous crop of Africa where it is eaten as processed dry grain. green pods. and tender green leaves. Co" pea grain has high protein content up to 24 percent. It is a seasonal plant with ...

  17. ABSTRACT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the last three decades or so research on rock art in several parts of the world has assumed great proportions. The study has progressed from the stage of discovery of rock shelters, identification of animals depicted in, animal distribution pattern during the periods of depiction and their extensions in the past ...

  18. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found that employment and education were the major reasons for rural- urban migration. It was also found that the migration affected various agricultural activities seriously. The study found that with the absence of youths in the area, agriculture labour force is continually costly and this has a negative effect on agricultural ...

  19. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    ...، ويستكشف مُتطلبات النساء في هذه المناطق من المعلومات المُتعلقة بالصحة الإنجابية، إن أكثر من800 امرأة تموت كل يوم لأسباب مُتعلقة بالحمل، 99% منهم في الدول النامية، كان...

  20. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    ...قتطفات وأد وثيقة الحق في المعلومات في بتسوانا:ًّ Emmanuel Kopang Botlhale Kaelo Molefhe العدد 39 (2013) من مجلة الإفلا المُتخصصة، رقم 3، ص.:204–213 تُناقش هذه...

  1. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getachew

    revenue management in the airline industry. The first overbooking model proposed by. Beckmann was a single leg single fare-class problem, which is a very simplified form of the actual overbooking problem that airline faces. His model tries to determine the optimal overbooking level by balancing the spoilage cost (lost ...

  2. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    work substituting the classroom teacher, students will practice for 8 weeks like that of practicum III. 1.6. Practicum V (Research. Project) (Prac 302) [3 cr. hrs]. This is the last phase of the practicum courses. During this course the student teacher finalizes his or her action research that was started during practicum two. Hence.

  3. Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Carvalho de Souza Domingues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of teaching, in actuality, shows the necessity of teachers and students coming together to form a behavior that is different from the traditional model of teaching. The unity formed from various types of knowledge and the relation between theory and practice show themselves to be fundamental. Starting in 2002, and in search of this unity, a project that hoped to unify the disciplines taught in the second semester of the course in Administration was implemented. During the semester, a single work sought to relate the theories studied with the reality of an organization. Each professor evaluated the works from the point of view of his discipline, as well as the presentation, in general, of the group. It can be affirmed that seeking to bring together various types of knowledge necessarily passes to a rethinking of the postures of teachers and students.

  4. Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Antoine Gaudin. “Fantastique” as a principle of composing: a question of narrative poetics The main goal of this paper is to state precisely the notion of “Fantastique” (as to call Horror Movies) in the theorical sphere, in order to build up a definition of the genre within the field of fiction arts. As an aesthetical category, Fantastique mainly consists in narrative poetics. This paper suggests a definition of the genre as a principle of composing. Keywords: horror movie, genre, narration, ...

  5. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATTAMAH C. O

    Climate change has been a major natural challenge facing entrepreneurship in agriculture especially livestock production (Anyadike, 2009), mainly arising from its impact on grassland and productivity. Heat stress suffered by animals will reduce the rate of animal feed intake and result in poor growth performance ...

  6. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2015-01-01

    ... Pearlstein العدد رقم 41،1 من مجلة الإفلا المُتخصصة: 5-12 لقد أعاقت الشبكات التي تُتيح قواعد بيانات النصوص الكاملة، عملية البحث في المكتبات الأكاديمية والمُشتركة، وقد...

  7. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    ...–120 يُلقي هذا المقال نظرة شاملة على مشهد تطور المكتبات في سنغافورة. فقد لعبت مكتبة سنغافورة الوطنية وجامعة سنغافورة الوطنية دورًّا هامًّا في تأسيس المكتبات في هذه...

  8. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2015-01-01

    ... نقدية بأفكار مُستقبلية: Loriene Roy العدد رقم 41،3 من مجلة الإفلا المُتخصصة: تعرض هذه المُراجعة النقدية خبرات حفظ التراث الثقافي الخاص بالشعوب الأصلية في المكتبات...

  9. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ... مجلة الإفلا: المُلخص: تعمل الإدارة الوطنية لدراسة المحيطات والغلاف الجوي (NOAA) والمُنظمة الأوروبية لاستغلال السواتل المُخصصة للأرصاد الجوية (EUMETSAT) في ثلاثة...

  10. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... Genomic DNA from whole blood was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes samples taken from patients and controls by standard methods (Gustincich et al. 1991). The rs6457617 and rs13192471 were genotyped with a TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination assay on an Applied Biosystems StepOne™ ...

  11. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML). This portal enabled the users of the collaborative e-learning environment to have access to the needed tools. 1 6.0 Implementation, Methodology and Updates. After 2X ThinClientOS has booted from the client's hard disk, it obtains the IP address of 2X ThinClientServer from the.

  12. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    ... الورقة البحثية كون الحق في المعلومة أحد حقوق الإنسان الأساسية مُتبنية في ذلك منهجًّا قائمًّا على الحقوق. لذا؛ فالحكومات مُلزَمة بإتاحة المعلومات للمواطنين والتوقيع...

  13. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De DARWIN au géographe allemand RATZEL en passant par le zoologiste HEACKEL fondateur de l'Ecologie, il y ... Cette mondialisation qui a débuté au cours des années 80 se distingue par une activité accrue des ... d'origine allemande a même fondé en 1954 la "société par l'étude du système général". Il entendait par ...

  14. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Tindall (1989) the commercial production of vegetables is ... Growing vegetables is an old art in the West African sub region. Joy (1980) .... H. 111 в в. В в в о. 0н m. □^^^^^^^^^. □ щщщв. ^и^ш. □. □. ^^^п. N. (0. «л с га. § 2 £ ф. CL. 4-. (0. Ф га E £ 2. (А je. N га о>. О) со ф о». О. S ф r> со «s ^. E *. □о. O. Ф.

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    difficult financial terrain in rural settings characterized by high covariant risks, missing markets for ... mining sector. This created the need to seek alternatives for the largely rural, non-business public who are also largely rural people, who were unbanked and outside of the commercial/investment banking system.

  16. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  17. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  18. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulule John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs with attached global positioning systems (GPS were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3% of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0% of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7% slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1% of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%. Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  19. Hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, E.

    1942-10-16

    This report mentioned that not very severe demands for purity were made on the hydrogen used in hydrogenation of coal or similar raw materials, because the catalysts were not very sensitive to poisoning. However, the hydrogenation plants tried to remove most impurities anyway by means of oil washes. The report included a table giving the amount of wash oil used up and the amount of hydrogen lost by dissolving into the wash oil used up and the amount of hydrogen lost by dissolving into the wash oil in order to remove 1% of various impurities from 1000 m/sup 3/ of the circulating gas. The amounts of wash oil used up were 1.1 m/sup 3/ for removing 1% nitrogen, 0.3 m/sup 3/ for 1% carbon monoxide, 0.03 m/sup 3/ for 1% methane. The amount of hydrogen lost was 28 m/sup 3/ for 1% nitrogen, 9 m/sup 3/ for 1% methane and ranged from 9 m/sup 3/ to 39 m/sup 3/ for 1% carbon monoxide and 1 m/sup 3/ to 41 m/sup 3/ for carbon dioxide depending on whether the removal was done in liquid phase or vapor phase and with or without reduction of the oxide to methane. Next the report listed and described the major processes used in German hydrogenation plants to produce hydrogen. Most of them produced water gas, which then had its carbon monoxide changed to carbon dioxide, and the carbon oxides washed out with water under pressure and copper hydroxide solution. The methods included the Winkler, Pintsch-Hillebrand, and Schmalfeldt-Wintershall processes, as well as roasting of coke in a rotating generator, splitting of gases formed during hydrogenation, and separation of cokery gas into its components by the Linde process.

  20. Abstract models of transfinite reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We investigate transfinite reductions in abstract reduction systems. To this end, we study two abstract models for transfinite reductions: a metric model generalising the usual metric approach to infinitary term rewriting and a novel partial order model. For both models we distinguish between a w...

  1. Abstract concepts in grounded cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298811855

    2010-01-01

    When people think about highly abstract concepts, they draw upon concrete experiences to structure their thoughts. For example, black knights in fairytales are evil, and knights in shining armor are good. The sensory experiences black and white are used to represent the abstract concepts of good and

  2. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  3. Abstract algebra structure and application

    CERN Document Server

    Finston, David R

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to generate interest in abstract algebra by introducing each new structure and topic via a real-world application. The down-to-earth presentation is accessible to a readership with no prior knowledge of abstract algebra. Students are led to algebraic concepts and questions in a natural way through their everyday experiences. Applications include: Identification numbers and modular arithmetic (linear) error-correcting codes, including cyclic codes ruler and compass constructions cryptography symmetry of patterns in the real plane Abstract Algebra: Structure and Application is suitable as a text for a first course on abstract algebra whose main purpose is to generate interest in the subject, or as a supplementary text for more advanced courses. The material paves the way to subsequent courses that further develop the theory of abstract algebra and will appeal to students of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, and engineering interested in applications of algebraic concepts.

  4. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broesius, J.Y. (comp.)

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  5. Metaphor: bridging embodiment to abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  6. Mosquito nets in a rural area of Western Kenya: ownership, use and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githinji Sophia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are regarded as one of the most effective strategies to prevent malaria in Africa. This study analyses the use and quality of nets owned by households in an area of high net coverage. Methods A structured questionnaire on ownership and use of nets was administered to the households of individuals sampled from a local health centre in south Kisii district, Kenya. A physical inspection of all the nets in the households was done and their conditions recorded on spot check forms designed for that purpose. Results Of the 670 households surveyed, 95% owned at least one net. Only 59% of household residents slept under a net during the night prior to the survey. 77% of those who slept under a net used an insecticide-treated net (ITN or long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN. Out of 1,627 nets in the survey households, 40% were deemed to be of poor quality because of holes. Compared to other age groups, children aged 5-14 years were most likely to have slept under nets of poor quality (odds ratio 1.41; p = 0.007. Conclusions Although net ownership was high following increased delivery of ITNs, continuous promotion of effective maintenance and routine use is needed and efforts to replace damaged nets must be implemented.

  7. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  8. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  9. dimensional architectures via hydrogen bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    dimensional architectures via hydrogen bonds. LALIT RAJPUT, MADHUSHREE SARKAR and KUMAR BIRADHA*. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 e-mail: kbiradha@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in. Abstract. The reactions of bis(pyridylcarboxamido)alkanes (amides) and bis(3-pyridyl) ...

  10. Biocards and Level of Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Keshwani, Sonal; Chakrabarti, Amaresh

    2015-01-01

    Biocards are formal descriptions of biological phenomena and their underlying functional principles. They are used in bioinspired design to document search results and to communicate the findings for use in the further design process. The present study explored the effect of abstraction level used...... with concrete descriptions. The novelty of found solutions was evaluated by the students by rating novelty of each solution on a scale from 1 to 5. Mean values for abstract descriptions were 0,3 higher than for concrete descriptions indicating that more innovative solutions were found when students used...... biocards with abstract descriptions compared to concrete descriptions. The difference in mean value is significant with a confidence level better than 1%. It seems likely that more abstract descriptions in biocards helps avoiding design fixation in biomimetic design work....

  11. Utilisation of insecticide treated nets among pregnant women in Gulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Malaria during pregnancy causes severe anaemia, placental malaria or death to the mother while the fetus may be aborted or stillborn. Objective: To establish the prevalence and factors associated with Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) utilisation among pregnant women in a post conflict Internally ...

  12. SHARE-NET: Progress or Paradox Jim Taylor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This paper is drawn from research that led to the development of Share-Net, an informal, ... The research took the form of a case study that was located ..... action. Research in Science Education, 22, 291-298. O'Donoghue, R. 1993. Clarifying environmental education: A search for clear action in southern. Africa.

  13. Spatial language and abstract concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Bottini, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    What is the relationship between spatial language and abstract concepts? When people talk about abstract things that they can never see or touch, they often use spatial metaphors (e.g., a long vacation, a high price, a close friendship). According to theories of metaphorical mental representation, linguistic metaphors reflect underlying mental metaphors. Yet, behavioral experiments show that this is only one of the possible relationships between spatial metaphors in language and our spatial conceptualizations of abstract domains. In some cases, linguistic metaphors not only reflect speakers' thoughts, they also change those thoughts, such that people who use different linguistic metaphors rely on correspondingly different mental metaphors. Alternatively, spatial metaphors in language may reflect the way people conceptualize an abstract domain in some circumstances, but not in others. Finally, spatial language may reflect the way an abstract domain is typically conceptualized by some people, but not by others. There is no single relationship between spatial language and abstract concepts. Discovering whether (and under what conditions) a linguistic metaphor corresponds to a mental metaphor can illuminate the ways in which our interactions with the physical and social environment shape our mental lives. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:139-149. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1271 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples.......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  15. Ground state structures and properties of small hydrogenated silicon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We present results for ground state structures and properties of small hydrogenated silicon clus- ters using the Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics with simulated annealing. We discuss the nature of bonding of hydrogen in these clusters. We find that hydrogen can form a bridge like Si–H–Si bond connecting two ...

  16. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide for methanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; van den Berg, Henderikus; Benneker, A.; Simmelink, G.; Timmer, J.; van Weerden, S.

    2012-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol with a capacity of 10 kt/y methanol is designed in a systematic way. The challenge will be to obtain a process with a high net CO2 conversion. From initially four conceptual designs the most feasible is selected and designed in more detail. The

  17. Hydrogen program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  18. Hydrogen usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-10-22

    This short tabular report listed the number of m/sup 3/ of hydrogen required for a (metric) ton of product for various combinations of raw material and product in a hydrogenation procedure. In producing auto gasoline, bituminous coal required 2800 m/sup 3/, brown coal required 2400 m/sup 3/, high-temperature-carbonization tar required 2100 m/sup 3/, bituminous coal distillation tar required 1300 m/sup 3/, brown-coal low-temperature-carbonization tar required 850 m/sup 3/, petroleum residues required 900 m/sup 3/, and gas oil required 500 m/sup 3/. In producing diesel oil, brown coal required 1900 m/sup 3/, whereas petroleum residues required 500 m/sup 3/. In producing diesel oil, lubricants, and paraffin by the TTH (low-temperature-hydrogenation) process, brown-coal low-temperature-carbonization tar required 550 m/sup 3/. 1 table.

  19. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  20. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  1. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  2. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  3. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  4. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  5. Hot hydrogen atom reactions moderated by H2 and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronowitz, S.; Scattergood, T.; Flores, J.; Chang, S.

    1986-01-01

    Photolysis experiments were performed on the H2-CD4-NH3 and He-CD4-NH3 systems. The photolysis (1849 A) involved only NH3. Mixtures of H2:CD4:NH3 included all combinations of the ratios (200,400,800):(10,20,40):4. Two He:CD4:NH3 mixtures were examined where the ratios equalled the combinations 100:(10,20):4. Abstraction of a D from CD4 by the photolytically produced hot hydrogen from ammonia was monitored by mass spectrometric determination of HD. Both experiment and semiempirical hot-atom theory show that H2 is a very poor thermalizer of hot hydrogens with excess kinetic energy of about 2 eV. Applications of the hard-sphere collision model to the H2-CD4-NH3 system resulted in predicted ratios of net HD production to NH3 decomposition that were two orders of magnitude smaller than the experimental ratios. On the other hand, helium is found to be a very efficient thermalizer; here, the classical model yields reasonable agreement with experiments. Application of a semiempirical hot-atom program gave quantitative agreement with experiment for either system.

  6. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  7. Abstracts from Rambam Research Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraga Blazer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [Extract] This Supplement of Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal presents the abstracts from the Eleventh Rambam Research Day. These abstracts represent the newest basic and clinical research coming out of Rambam Health Care Campus—research that is the oxygen for education and development of today’s generation of physicians. Hence, the research presented on Rambam Research Day is a foundation for future generations to understand patient needs and improve treatment modalities. Bringing research from the bench to the bedside and from the bedside to the community is at the heart of Maimonides’ scholarly and ethical legacy.

  8. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  9. Knotting the Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revellino, Silvana; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Research on megaprojects points out the crucial role of politics in managing major infrastructure projects. Politics is often here presented as misrepresentation by the project maker who manipulates everyone else. This is where power is concentrated in the hands of the few. However, this approach...... may overlook another lateral version of politics by which power is plural and ubiquitous, and which, through Latour's notion of Dingpolitics, combines the questions ‘who has to be taken into account’ and ‘what has to be taken into account’. This brings the analysis further than stakeholder theory...... with its focus on abstract structural interests, towards articulated concerns about the objects that matter to people. Through analysis of the Italian system for stakeholder management—the so-called Conferenza di Servizi, which was organised according to stakeholder theory with an emphasis...

  10. Patent landscape for biological hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David B; Lubieniechi, Simona

    2013-12-01

    Research and development of biological hydrogen production have expanded significantly in the past decade. Production of renewable hydrogen from agricultural, forestry, or other organic waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to hydrogen production capacity with no net, or at least with lower, greenhouse gas emissions. Significant improvements in the volumetric or molar yields of hydrogen production have been accomplished through genetic engineering of hydrogen synthesizing microorganisms. Although no commercial scale renewable biohydrogen production facilities are currently in operation, a few pilot scale systems have been demonstrated successfully, and while industrial scale production of biohydrogen still faces a number of technical and economic barriers, understanding the patent landscape is an important step in developing a viable commercialization strategy. In this paper, we review patents filed on biological hydrogen production. Patents on biohydrogen production from both the Canadian and American Patents databases were classified into three main groups: (1) patents for biological hydrogen by direct photolysis; (2) patents for biological hydrogen by dark fermentation; and (3) patents for process engineering for biological hydrogen production.

  11. Versatile Hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen is probably the most intriguing ele- ment in the periodic table. Although it is only the seventh most abundant element on earth, it is the most abundant element in the uni- verse. It combines with almost all the ele- ments of the periodic table, except for a few transition elements, to form binary compounds of the type E.

  12. Abstract Résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal des spects ociaux du VIH/ ID . 17. Article Original. Abstract. Discrimination against persons living with HIV/AIDS in hospital settings has been documented. This study examined the attitude of health care workers (HCWs) to nurses, doctors and patients infected with HIV. A total of 345 respondents selected by ...

  13. Understanding software through linguistic abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.

    2013-01-01

    Preprint submitted to "Science of Computer Programming", Elsevier, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scico.2013.12.001 In this essay, I argue that linguistic abstraction should be used systematically as a tool to capture our emerging understanding of domains of computation. Moreover, to enable that

  14. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  15. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulowetz, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  16. Transplantation as an abstract good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø; Olejaz, Maria

    2015-01-01

    a more general salience in the organ transplant field by way of facilitating a perception of organ transplantation as an abstract moral good rather than a specific good for specific people. Furthermore, we suggest that multiple forms of ignorance sustain each other: a desire for ignorance with respect...

  17. Teaching abstraction in introductory courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Hermannus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.

    Abstraction is viewed as a key concept in computer science. It is not only an important concept but also one that is difficult to master. This paper focuses on the problems that novices experience when they first encounter this concept. Three assignments from introductory courses are analyzed, to

  18. Abstract Machines for Polymorphous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ABSTRACT MACHINES FOR POLYMORPHOUS COMPUTING (AMP) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62712E 5d. PROJECT NUMBER AMPC 5e. TASK...since pathological communication patterns could incur higher overhead. To measure the performance of the communication APIs on more realistic mixes of

  19. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  20. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  1. Norddesign 2012 - Book of Abstract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    received more than 140 abstracts and through the review process this have resulted in approximately 70 accepted papers. One of the new research fields included in this conference is the area of Biomechanics – hence the cover graphics of the conference proceedings. With this short introduction we encourage...

  2. The Complexity of Abstract Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Accattoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-calculus is a peculiar computational model whose definition does not come with a notion of machine. Unsurprisingly, implementations of the lambda-calculus have been studied for decades. Abstract machines are implementations schema for fixed evaluation strategies that are a compromise between theory and practice: they are concrete enough to provide a notion of machine and abstract enough to avoid the many intricacies of actual implementations. There is an extensive literature about abstract machines for the lambda-calculus, and yet—quite mysteriously—the efficiency of these machines with respect to the strategy that they implement has almost never been studied. This paper provides an unusual introduction to abstract machines, based on the complexity of their overhead with respect to the length of the implemented strategies. It is conceived to be a tutorial, focusing on the case study of implementing the weak head (call-by-name strategy, and yet it is an original re-elaboration of known results. Moreover, some of the observation contained here never appeared in print before.

  3. Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat malaria, the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for use over beds, with coverage for children under five years of age increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, residents of fishing villages have started to use these bed nets for drying fish and fishing in Lake Victoria. This study investigated the extent of bed net misuse in fishing villages. Methods Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes. Results In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN. Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish. Conclusion There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations.

  4. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  5. Hydrogen in metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, TJ

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hydrogen on various metals and the use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage are discussed. The mechanisms of, and differences between, hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen attack of ferritic steels are compared, common sources...

  6. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  7. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  8. Time, Place and Identity in Project Work on the Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon; Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2005-01-01

    This chapter identifies some of the fundamental conditions and factors that affect collaborative project work on the Net. Understanding them is fundamental to developing key qualities in Net-based collaborative learning such as confidence, reliability, and trust. We argue that: (1) Collaboration...... and social interaction develop in continuous oscillations between abstract and meaningful frames of reference as to time and place. (2) Such oscillations condition the creation of a double identity of writer and author modes in social interaction. (3) Collaborative work creates an ever-increasing complexity...

  9. C# deconstructed discover how C# works on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    C# Deconstructed answers a seemingly simply question: Just what is going on, exactly, when you run C# code on the .NET Framework? To answer this question we will dig ever deeper into the structure of the C# language and the onion-skin abstraction layers of the .NET Framework that underpins it. We'll follow the execution thread downwards, first to MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) then down through just-in-time compilation into Machine Code before finally seeing the results executed at the hardware level. The aim of this deep-dive is to provide you with a much more rounded know

  10. Learning abstract algebra with ISETL

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed

    1994-01-01

    Most students in abstract algebra classes have great difficulty making sense of what the instructor is saying. Moreover, this seems to remain true almost independently of the quality of the lecture. This book is based on the constructivist belief that, before students can make sense of any presentation of abstract mathematics, they need to be engaged in mental activities which will establish an experiential base for any future verbal explanation. No less, they need to have the opportunity to reflect on their activities. This approach is based on extensive theoretical and empirical studies as well as on the substantial experience of the authors in teaching astract algebra. The main source of activities in this course is computer constructions, specifically, small programs written in the mathlike programming language ISETL; the main tool for reflections is work in teams of 2-4 students, where the activities are discussed and debated. Because of the similarity of ISETL expressions to standard written mathematics...

  11. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  12. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  13. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  14. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  15. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  16. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  17. Combinatorial Abstractions of Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal verification has been successfully developed in computer science for verifying combinatorial classes of models and specifications. In like manner, formal verification methods have been developed for dynamical systems. However, the verification of system properties, such as safety, is based on reachability calculations, which are the sources of insurmountable complexity. This talk addresses indirect verification methods, which are based on abstracting the dynamical systems by models of reduced complexity and preserving central properties of the original systems.

  18. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    as refutation of safety and liveness properties. However, the algorithmic construction of finite abstractions from potentially infinite concurrent processes is a missing link that prevents their more widespread usage for model checking of concurrent systems. Our algorithm is a worklist algorithm using concepts...... and that supports the definition of a 3-valued modal logic for validating as well as refuting properties of systems. The construction is illustrated on a few examples, including the Ingemarsson-Tang-Wong key agreement protocol. © 2011 ACM....

  19. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Processes. Journal of the ACM, 39, 1992. [44] Steven German. Cache Coherence Examples, 2006. [45] Thomas Henzinger, Ranjit Jhala, and Rupak Majumdar...46] Thomas A. Henzinger, Ranjit Jhala, Rupak Majumdar, and Kenneth L. McMillan. Abstractions from Proofs. In Proceedings of the 31st ACM Symposium on...Principles of Programming Languages (POPL), pages 232–244, 2004. [47] Thomas A. Henzinger, Ranjit Jhala, Rupak Majumdar, and Gregoire Sutre. Soft

  20. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen... hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4). Hydrogen sulfide was added to the...

  1. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  2. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  3. SkyNet: A Modular Nuclear Reaction Network Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-12-01

    Almost all of the elements heavier than hydrogen that are present in our solar system were produced by nuclear burning processes either in the early universe or at some point in the life cycle of stars. In all of these environments, there are dozens to thousands of nuclear species that interact with each other to produce successively heavier elements. In this paper, we present SkyNet, a new general-purpose nuclear reaction network that evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. SkyNet is free and open source, and aims to be easy to use and flexible. Any list of isotopes can be evolved, and SkyNet supports different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular so that new or existing physics, like nuclear reactions or equations of state, can easily be added or modified. Here, we present in detail the physics implemented in SkyNet with a focus on a self-consistent transition to and from nuclear statistical equilibrium to non-equilibrium nuclear burning, our implementation of electron screening, and coupling of the network to an equation of state. We also present comprehensive code tests and comparisons with existing nuclear reaction networks. We find that SkyNet agrees with published results and other codes to an accuracy of a few percent. Discrepancies, where they exist, can be traced to differences in the physics implementations.

  4. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  5. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  6. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  7. Abstraction by Set-Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The abstraction and over-approximation of protocols and web services by a set of Horn clauses is a very successful method in practice. It has however limitations for protocols and web services that are based on databases of keys, contracts, or even access rights, where revocation is possible, so...... language to standard Horn clauses and use the verifier ProVerif and the theorem prover SPASS to solve them. We show by a number of examples that this approach is practically feasible for wide variety of verification problems of security protocols and web services....

  8. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  9. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  10. Abstract decomposition theorem and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grossberg, R; Grossberg, Rami; Lessmann, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Let K be an Abstract Elementary Class. Under the asusmptions that K has a nicely behaved forking-like notion, regular types and existence of some prime models we establish a decomposition theorem for such classes. The decomposition implies a main gap result for the class K. The setting is general enough to cover \\aleph_0-stable first-order theories (proved by Shelah in 1982), Excellent Classes of atomic models of a first order tehory (proved Grossberg and Hart 1987) and the class of submodels of a large sequentially homogenuus \\aleph_0-stable model (which is new).

  11. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.

  12. The hydrogen; L'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The hydrogen as an energy system represents nowadays a main challenge (in a scientific, economical and environmental point of view). The physical and chemical characteristics of hydrogen are at first given. Then, the challenges of an hydrogen economy are explained. The different possibilities of hydrogen production are described as well as the distribution systems and the different possibilities of hydrogen storage. Several fuel cells are at last presented: PEMFC, DMFC and SOFC. (O.M.)

  13. Supplement: Community-based safety-nets and strategies to reduce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplement: Community-based safety-nets and strategies to reduce vulnerability to drought, crop losses and market crises. NA Ngongi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences Vol. 7 (3) 2008: pp. 229-236. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  14. An introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Derek JS

    2003-01-01

    This is a high level introduction to abstract algebra which is aimed at readers whose interests lie in mathematics and in the information and physical sciences. In addition to introducing the main concepts of modern algebra, the book contains numerous applications, which are intended to illustrate the concepts and to convince the reader of the utility and relevance of algebra today. In particular applications to Polya coloring theory, latin squares, Steiner systems and error correcting codes are described. Another feature of the book is that group theory and ring theory are carried further than is often done at this level. There is ample material here for a two semester course in abstract algebra. The importance of proof is stressed and rigorous proofs of almost all results are given. But care has been taken to lead the reader through the proofs by gentle stages. There are nearly 400 problems, of varying degrees of difficulty, to test the reader''s skill and progress. The book should be suitable for students ...

  15. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katja Wiemer‐Hastings, Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    ... number. Abstract concepts were predominantly related to social aspects of situations. Properties were significantly less specific for abstract than for concrete concepts. Thus, abstractness emerged as a function of several, both qualitative and quantitative, factors.

  16. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  17. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  18. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  19. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  20. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  1. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  2. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  3. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  4. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  5. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    Renewable hydrogen is one option for a clean energy carrier in the future. There were several research programs in the past, to produce hydrogen on a renewable basis by electrolysis, direct conversion of water or by gasification of biomass. None of these options were developed to a stage, that they could be used on a commercial basis. At the moment almost all hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels and one main consumer of hydrogen are refineries. So a good option to demonstrate the production of renewable hydrogen and bring it later into the market is over refineries. The most economic option to produce renewable hydrogen at the moment is over gasification of biomass. In Austria an indirect gasification system was developed and is demonstrated in Guessing, Austria. The biomass CHP Guessing uses the allothermal steam dual fluidised bed gasifier and produces a high grade product gas, which is used at the moment for the CHP in a gas engine. As there is no nitrogen in the product gas and high hydrogen content, this gas can be also used as synthesis gas or for production of hydrogen. The main aim of this paper is to present the experimental and simulation work to convert biomass into renewable hydrogen. The product gas of the indirect gasification system is mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Within the ERA-Net project ''OptiBtLGas'' the reforming of methane and the CO-shift reaction was investigated to convert all hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to hydrogen. On basis of the experimental results the mass- and energy balances of a commercial 100 MW fuel input plant was done. Here 3 different cases of complexity of the overall plant were simulated. The first case was without reforming and CO-shift, only by hydrogen separation. The second case was by including steam - reforming and afterwards separation of hydrogen. The third case includes hydrocarbon reforming, CO-shift and hydrogen separation. In all cases the off-gases (CO

  6. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  7. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  8. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  9. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  10. Argonne Code Center: compilation of program abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.K.; DeBruler, M.; Edwards, H.S.; Harrison, C. Jr.; Hughes, C.E.; Jorgensen, R.; Legan, M.; Menozzi, T.; Ranzini, L.; Strecok, A.J.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the eleventh supplement to, and revision of, ANL-7411. It contains additional abstracts and revisions to some earlier abstracts and other pages. Sections of the complete document ANL-7411 are as follows: preface, history and acknowledgements, abstract format, recommended program package contents, program classification guide and thesaurus, and the abstract collection. (RWR)

  11. Argonne Code Center: compilation of program abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.K.; DeBruler, M.; Edwards, H.S.

    1976-08-01

    This publication is the tenth supplement to, and revision of, ANL-7411. It contains additional abstracts and revisions to some earlier abstracts and other pages. Sections of the document are as follows: preface; history and acknowledgements; abstract format; recommended program package contents; program classification guide and thesaurus; and abstract collection. (RWR)

  12. Efficient abstractions for visualization and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstractions, such as functions and methods, are an essential tool for any programmer. Abstractions encapsulate the details of a computation: the programmer only needs to know what the abstraction achieves, not how it achieves it. However, using abstractions can come at a cost: the resulting program

  13. An abstract approach to music.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  14. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  15. ABSTRACT MODELS FOR SYSTEM VIRTUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Koveshnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to issues of system objects securing (system files and user system or application configuration files against unauthorized access including denial of service attacks. We have suggested the method and developed abstract system virtualization models, which are used toresearch attack scenarios for different virtualization modes. Estimation for system tools virtualization technology effectiveness is given. Suggested technology is based on redirection of access requests to system objects shared among access subjects. Whole and partial system virtualization modes have been modeled. The difference between them is the following: in the whole virtualization mode all copies of access system objects are created whereon subjects’ requests are redirected including corresponding application objects;in the partial virtualization mode corresponding copies are created only for part of a system, for example, only system objects for applications. Alternative solutions effectiveness is valued relating to different attack scenarios. We consider proprietary and approved technical solution which implements system virtualization method for Microsoft Windows OS family. Administrative simplicity and capabilities of correspondingly designed system objects security tools are illustrated on this example. Practical significance of the suggested security method has been confirmed.

  16. Neutrons for global energy solutions. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book of abstracts of the conference on neutrons for global energy solutions include contributions to the following topics: Views from politics: What do we need in European energy research: cooperation, large facilities, more science? Fundamental research for energy supply. View from the United States. View from industry: Neutrons for nuclear reactor development in transition stage between generation III and generation IV. Toyotas's expectations for neutron analysis. Instrumentation and cross cutting issues. Energy sources. Waste management and environment. Li ion batteries. Photovoltaics. Savings and catalysis. Fuel cells. Hydrogen storage.

  17. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  18. Patient-Centered Research Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerlip, MI; Desalvo, KB; Szerlip, HM

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE Providing clinicians with predictors to aid in the diagnosis of HIV disease in older adults should facilitate the identification of infected individuals. METHODS A retrospective case-control study was conducted comparing 53 HIV-positive patients over the age of 55 who were age, gender, and race matched to 106 controls. The patients were drawn from the New Orleans Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a public hospital. Both institutions serve predominantly African-American, inner-city, indigent patients. Clinical predictors of interest were abstracted from medical records onto standardized data collection sheets by the authors. RESULTS The mean age of the cases and controls was 62 (55–74), 60% were African-American, and 97% percent were male. Several positive findings in the past medical history were associated with an increased odds of testing HIV-positive. The mean values for several routinely tested laboratory studies were significantly different between the two groups. The mean globulin level for HIV-positive patients was 4.8 g/dL vs. 3.7 g/dL for HIV-negative patients (p = .001). The mean serum sodium for HIV-positive patients was 137 mg/dL vs. 140 mg/dL for HIV negative patients (p = .003) and the mean albumin was 3.0 g/dL vs. 3.6 g/dL (p < .001). Hemoglobin was significantly different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals(mean 12.0 g/dL vs. 13.9 g/dL, p = .029). CONCLUSION This data suggests that for patients over the age of 55, certain routine laboratory and medical history parameters may be useful in predicting patients at increased risk of being HIV-positive. A prospective study validating this data would be necessary to confirm this.

  19. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  20. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  1. Potential protective role of hydrogen against cisplatininduced side ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced side effects during chemotherapy. Methods: We searched PubMed and SCOPUS using the following keywords and combinations in titles, keywords, abstracts and full texts: cisplatin; side effects; chemotherapy; tumor; toxicity; hydrogen; ...

  2. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an NREL assessment of Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to appraise the potential of achieving net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Pacific Command partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency at Hawaii military installations. DOE selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. This paper summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. The analysis shows that MCBH Kaneohe Bay has the potential to make significant progress toward becoming a net zero installation. Wind, solar photovoltaics, solar hot water, and hydrogen production were assessed, as well as energy efficiency technologies. Deploying wind turbines is the most cost-effective energy production measure. If the identified energy projects and savings measures are implemented, the base will achieve a 96% site Btu reduction and a 99% source Btu reduction. Using excess wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen for a fleet and fuel cells could significantly reduce energy use and potentially bring MCBH Kaneohe Bay to net zero. Further analysis with an environmental impact and interconnection study will need to be completed. By achieving net zero status, the base will set an example for other military installations, provide environmental benefits, reduce costs, increase energy security, and exceed its energy goals and mandates.

  3. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  4. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  5. Effect of heat treatments on the hydrogen embrittlement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Delayed failure tests were carried out on hydrogen charged API X-65 grade line-pipe steel in as received (controlled rolled), normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement was found in the order of controlled rolled > quenched and tempered > normalized. The frac-.

  6. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds: From temperature-driven proton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have combined neutron scattering and a range of numerical simulations to study hydrogen bonds in condensed matter. Two examples from a recent thesis will be presented. The first concerns proton transfer with increasing temperature in short inter- molecular hydrogen bonds [1,2]. These bonds have unique ...

  7. A functional and transcriptomic analysis of NET1 bioactivity in gastric cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Gayle

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background NET1, a RhoA guanine exchange factor, is up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and drives the invasive phenotype of this disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of NET1 in GC by monitoring the proliferation, motility and invasion of GC cells in which NET1 has been stably knocked down. Additionally, we aimed to determine NET1-dependent transcriptomic events that occur in GC. Methods An in vitro model of stable knockdown of NET1 was achieved in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells via lentiviral mediated transduction of short-hairpin (sh) RNA targeting NET1. Knockdown was assessed using quantitative PCR. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTS assay and cell migration was assessed using a wound healing scratch assay. Cell invasion was assessed using a transwell matrigel invasion assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using affymetrix oligonucleotide U133A expression arrays. A student\\'s t test was used to determine changes of statistical significance. Results GC cells were transduced with NET1 shRNA resulting in a 97% reduction in NET1 mRNA (p < 0.0001). NET1 knockdown significantly reduced the invasion and migration of GC cells by 94% (p < 0.05) and 24% (p < 0.001) respectively, while cell proliferation was not significantly altered following NET1 knockdown. Microarray analysis was performed on non-target and knockdown cell lines, treated with and without 10 μM lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) allowing us to identify NET1-dependent, LPA-dependent and NET1-mediated LPA-induced gene transcription. Differential gene expression was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Shortlisted NET1-dependent genes included STAT1, TSPAN1, TGFBi and CCL5 all of which were downregulatd upon NET1 downregulation. Shortlisted LPA-dependent genes included EGFR and PPARD where EGFR was upregulated and PPARD was downregulated upon LPA stimulation. Shortlisted NET1 and LPA dependent genes included IGFR1 and PIP5K3. These LPA induced genes were

  8. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  9. Modeling biological gradient formation: combining partial differential equations and Petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertens, Laura M F; Kleijn, Jetty; Hille, Sander C; Heiner, Monika; Koutny, Maciej; Verbeek, Fons J

    2016-01-01

    Both Petri nets and differential equations are important modeling tools for biological processes. In this paper we demonstrate how these two modeling techniques can be combined to describe biological gradient formation. Parameters derived from partial differential equation describing the process of gradient formation are incorporated in an abstract Petri net model. The quantitative aspects of the resulting model are validated through a case study of gradient formation in the fruit fly.

  10. Web Development Technology-PHP. How It Is Related To Web Development Technology ASP.NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manya Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper tells about the technologies used in PHP and how they are related to ASP.NET. The paper begin with the introduction of PHP defining what and how technologies has been used in development of User Complaint Web Application. How thistechnology is related to ASP.NET in features such as implementation functionality validation and proactive behavior involved in validating user input from the browser providing users feedback overall time consumed in development and maintenance.

  11. Hydrogen mobility in transition zone silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracas, Razvan; Panero, Wendy R.

    2017-12-01

    We study the hydrogen mobility in ringwoodite and wadsleyite considering multiple charge-balanced defects, including Mg 2H, Si Mg + 2H, and the hydrogarnet defect, Si 4H, using molecular dynamics simulations based on the density functional theory at transition zone pressures and temperatures between 1500 and 2500 K. We determine the diffusion coefficients and study in detail the mechanism of hydrogen mobility during lengthy simulations. Our results show that temperature, water concentration, and defect mechanism have a significant effect on mobility. We find that the fastest diffusion is for the Mg 2H defect, while H is more mobile when incorporated as Si Mg + 2H than as hydrogarnet defects. The computed diffusivities for ringwoodite are larger than for wadsleyite: at 2000 K, diffusivity is 1.13 × 10-09 m2/s for ringwoodite compared to 0.93 × 10-09 m2/s for wadsleyite. In general, the hydrogen atoms spend on the order of tens of picoseconds or more trapped in or around the vacancy sites with net migration between sites over timescales of tens of femtoseconds. At 2500 K, some of these hydrogen excursions take place over several angstroms, while at 2000 K, they do not always result in net diffusion. At 1500 K, most of the defects fail to make excursions from their defect sites resulting in diffusion.

  12. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  13. A hydrogen ice cube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.J.; Schoonman, J.; Schrauwers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a highly promising energy carrier. Nonetheless, before hydrogen can become the fuel of choice for the future a number of slight problems will have to be overcome. For example, how can hydrogen be safely stored? Motor vehicles running on hydrogen may be clean in concept

  14. Abstract methods in partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Detailed, self-contained treatment examines modern abstract methods in partial differential equations, especially abstract evolution equations. Suitable for graduate students with some previous exposure to classical partial differential equations. 1969 edition.

  15. Atomistic understanding of hydrogen loading phenomenon into ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The inherent potency of palladium to sorb hydrogen atoms was examined empirically and theoret- ically through various electrochemical methods and high-level quantum chemical calculations (HSE06) based on cluster model (CM) and density functional theory (DFT). The CM-DFT approach using QZVP/cc-PV6Z.

  16. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  17. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  18. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  19. Minimalism in architecture: Abstract conceptualization of architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilski Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in architecture contains the idea of the minimum as a leading creative tend to be considered and interpreted in working through phenomena of empathy and abstraction. In the Western culture, the root of this idea is found in empathy of Wilhelm Worringer and abstraction of Kasimir Malevich. In his dissertation, 'Abstraction and Empathy' Worringer presented his thesis on the psychology of style through which he explained the two opposing basic forms: abstraction and empathy. His concl...

  20. Introduction to abstract algebra, solutions manual

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  1. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  2. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  3. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  4. Graph Subsumption in Abstract State Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Eduardo; Rensink, Arend; Wijs, A.; Bosnacki, D.; Edelkamp, S.

    In this paper we present the extension of an existing method for abstract graph-based state space exploration, called neighbourhood abstraction, with a reduction technique based on subsumption. Basically, one abstract state subsumes another when it covers more concrete states; in such a case, the

  5. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  6. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  7. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  8. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  9. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  10. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  11. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  12. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  13. Inequalities in purchase of mosquito nets and willingness to pay for insecticide-treated nets in Nigeria: Challenges for malaria control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the equity implications of insecticide-treated nets (ITN distribution programmes that are based on user charges. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect information on previous purchase of untreated nets and hypothetical willingness to pay (WTP for ITNs from a random sample of householders. A second survey was conducted one month later to collect information on actual purchases of ITNs. An economic status index was used for characterizing inequity. Major findings The lower economic status quintiles were less likely to have previously purchased untreated nets and also had a lower hypothetical and actual WTP for ITNs. Conclusion ITN distribution programmes need to take account of the diversity in WTP for ITNs if they are to ensure equity in access to the nets. This could form part of the overall poverty reduction strategy.

  14. 75 FR 8889 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release... toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4). Hydrogen sulfide was added to the EPCRA section 313 list of toxic chemicals in a...

  15. Physical exercise and intermittent administration of lactulose may improve autism symptoms through hydrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Autism is neuro-developmental disorder. Oxidative stress is enhanced in some children with autism. Hydrogen is a gas with anti-oxidative effects suggested for treating or prevention of some medical problems. It is hypothesized that lactulose or hydrogen water may provide hydrogen to reduce oxidative stress in autism.

  16. Physical exercise and intermittent administration of lactulose may improve autism symptoms through hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanizadeh Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autism is neuro-developmental disorder. Oxidative stress is enhanced in some children with autism. Hydrogen is a gas with anti-oxidative effects suggested for treating or prevention of some medical problems. It is hypothesized that lactulose or hydrogen water may provide hydrogen to reduce oxidative stress in autism.

  17. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  18. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  19. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  20. Hydrogen nanobubble at normal hydrogen electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, S.; Shinozaki, R.; Senda, Y.; Yoshikawa, H. Y.

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemically formed hydrogen nanobubbles at a platinum rotating disk electrode (RDE) were detected by re-oxidation charge. The dissolution time course of the hydrogen nanobubbles was measured by AFM tapping topography under open-circuit conditions at stationary platinum and gold single-crystal electrodes. The bubble dissolution at platinum was much faster than that at gold because two types of diffusion, bulk and surface diffusion, proceeded at the platinum surface, whereas surface diffusion was prohibited at the gold electrode. These findings indicated that the electrochemical reaction of normal hydrogen electrode partly proceeded heterogeneously on the three-phase boundary around the hydrogen nanobubble.

  1. Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutuku Francis M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the extensive ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs over the last decade, the effective lifespan of these nets, especially their physical integrity, under true operational conditions is not well-understood. Usefulness of nets declines primarily due to physical damage or loss of insecticidal activity. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was used to determine the physical condition and to identify predictors of poor physical condition for bed nets owned by individuals from communities in Kwale County, coastal Kenya. A proportionate hole index (pHI was used as a standard measure, and the cut-offs for an ‘effective net’ (offer substantial protection against mosquito bites and ‘ineffective nets’ (offer little or no protection against mosquito bites were determined (pHI ≤88 (about ≤500 cm2 of holes surface area and pHI of >88 (≥500 cm2 of holes surface area, respectively. Results The vast majority (78% of the surveyed nets had some holes. The median pHI was 92 (range: 1–2,980. Overall, half of the nets were categorized as ‘effective nets’ or ‘serviceable nets’. Physical deterioration of nets was associated with higher use and washing frequency. Young children and older children were found to use ineffective bed nets significantly more often than infants, while the physical integrity of nets owned by pregnant women was similar to those owned by infants. Estuarine environment inhabitants owned nets with the worst physical condition, while nets owned by the coastal slope inhabitants were in fairly good physical condition. The results suggest that bed nets are optimally utilized when they are new and physically intact. Thereafter, bed net utilization decreases gradually with increasing physical deterioration, with most net owners withdrawing physically damaged nets from routine use. This withdrawal commonly happens following 1.5 years of use, making bed net use the most

  2. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  3. Hydrogen in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pankove, Jacques I

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen plays an important role in silicon technology, having a profound effect on a wide range of properties. Thus, the study of hydrogen in semiconductors has received much attention from an interdisciplinary assortment of researchers. This sixteen-chapter volume provides a comprehensive review of the field, including a discussion of hydrogenation methods, the use of hydrogen to passivate defects, the use of hydrogen to neutralize deep levels, shallow acceptors and shallow donors in silicon, vibrational spectroscopy, and hydrogen-induced defects in silicon. In addition to this detailed cove

  4. anNET: a tool for network-embedded thermodynamic analysis of quantitative metabolome data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamboni Nicola

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to other omics techniques, quantitative metabolomics is still at its infancy. Complex sample preparation and analytical procedures render exact quantification extremely difficult. Furthermore, not only the actual measurement but also the subsequent interpretation of quantitative metabolome data to obtain mechanistic insights is still lacking behind the current expectations. Recently, the method of network-embedded thermodynamic (NET analysis was introduced to address some of these open issues. Building upon principles of thermodynamics, this method allows for a quality check of measured metabolite concentrations and enables to spot metabolic reactions where active regulation potentially controls metabolic flux. So far, however, widespread application of NET analysis in metabolomics labs was hindered by the absence of suitable software. Results We have developed in Matlab a generalized software called 'anNET' that affords a user-friendly implementation of the NET analysis algorithm. anNET supports the analysis of any metabolic network for which a stoichiometric model can be compiled. The model size can span from a single reaction to a complete genome-wide network reconstruction including compartments. anNET can (i test quantitative data sets for thermodynamic consistency, (ii predict metabolite concentrations beyond the actually measured data, (iii identify putative sites of active regulation in the metabolic reaction network, and (iv help in localizing errors in data sets that were found to be thermodynamically infeasible. We demonstrate the application of anNET with three published Escherichia coli metabolome data sets. Conclusion Our user-friendly and generalized implementation of the NET analysis method in the software anNET allows users to rapidly integrate quantitative metabolome data obtained from virtually any organism. We envision that use of anNET in labs working on quantitative metabolomics will provide the

  5. PENGEMBANGAN TARGET NET SEBAGAI ALAT PEMBELAJARAN PUKULAN BULUTANGKIS DI SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Khoirul Hidayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan dan menghasilkan alat target net untuk memudahkan peserta didik SMP memelajari dan meningkatkan kemampuan teknik dasar pukulan net, smash, drive, dan short serve. Dalam penelitian pengembangan ini, langkah-langkah yang harus ditempuh meliputi: (1 potensi dan masalah, (2 pengumpulan data, (3 desain produk, (4 validasi desain dan instrument, (5 revisi desain, (6 uji coba produk, (7 revisi, dan (8 produksi/implementasi produk. Uji coba penelitian dilakukan terhadap 168 peserta didik dari SMP se-Kecamatan Piyungan, Bantul, Yogyakarta. Teknik analisis data terdiri dari teknik analisis data deskriptif kuantitatif dan teknik analisis data deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil akhir dari penelitian ini adalah sebuah produk alat pembelajaran target net dan buku manual target net yang memiliki kualitas yang sangat baik. Hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan diperolehnya rerata persentase skor penilaian kualitas produk alat pembelajaran dan buku manual target net sebesar 98,66%.   DEVELOP TARGET NET AS A TOOL FOR SHOT LEARNING IN BADMINTON AT JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL   Abstract This research aims to produce and develop target net tools in facilitating JHS students to improve the basic techniques of net shots, smashes, drives, dan short serves. This research and development study follows the steps of: (1 the potential and problems identification, (2 data collection, (3 product design, (4 the design and validation of the instrumen, (5 revision of the design, (6 product trials, (7 revision, and (8 production/implementation of the product. The trials were conducted to 168 students from JSH in Piyungan districts, Bantul, Yogyakarta. The technique of data analysis is descriptive quantitative analysis and qualitative descriptive analysis. The result of this research is a learning tool of target net product and manual book of the target product, that have a very good quality.  Which is proved by the average percentage quality assessment

  6. SpectralNET – an application for spectral graph analysis and visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Stuart L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graph theory provides a computational framework for modeling a variety of datasets including those emerging from genomics, proteomics, and chemical genetics. Networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, or other objects of study can be represented as graphs of nodes (vertices and interactions (edges that can carry different weights. SpectralNET is a flexible application for analyzing and visualizing these biological and chemical networks. Results Available both as a standalone .NET executable and as an ASP.NET web application, SpectralNET was designed specifically with the analysis of graph-theoretic metrics in mind, a computational task not easily accessible using currently available applications. Users can choose either to upload a network for analysis using a variety of input formats, or to have SpectralNET generate an idealized random network for comparison to a real-world dataset. Whichever graph-generation method is used, SpectralNET displays detailed information about each connected component of the graph, including graphs of degree distribution, clustering coefficient by degree, and average distance by degree. In addition, extensive information about the selected vertex is shown, including degree, clustering coefficient, various distance metrics, and the corresponding components of the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian eigenvectors. SpectralNET also displays several graph visualizations, including a linear dimensionality reduction for uploaded datasets (Principal Components Analysis and a non-linear dimensionality reduction that provides an elegant view of global graph structure (Laplacian eigenvectors. Conclusion SpectralNET provides an easily accessible means of analyzing graph-theoretic metrics for data modeling and dimensionality reduction. SpectralNET is publicly available as both a .NET application and an ASP.NET web application from http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/resources/. Source code is

  7. Effect of the Hydrogen Bond on Photochemical Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-jiao; Liu, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Rui-ling; Ren, Guang-hua; Xu, Da-li; Zhou, Pan-wang; Han, Ke-li

    2015-12-17

    The effect of a hydrogen bond on the photochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been investigated via experimental and theoretical methods. In a benzophenone system, the photochemical synthesis process includes two steps, which are that hydrogen abstraction reaction and the following reduction reaction. We found that for the first step, an intermolecular hydrogen bond enhances the proton transfer. The efficiency of hydrogen abstraction increases with the hydrogen bond strength. For the second step, the hydrogen-bonded ketyl radical complex shows higher reducibility than the ketyl radical. The inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) measurement exhibits a 2.49 times higher yield of silver nanoparticles in the hydrogen bond ketyl radical complex system than that for the ketyl radical system. Theoretical calculations show that the hydrogen bond accelerates electron transfer from the ketyl radical to the silver ion by raising the SOMO energy of the ketyl radical; thus, the SOMO-LUMO interaction is more favorable.

  8. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment and languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eScorolli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept. To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC. This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA, participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  9. Minimalism in architecture: Abstract conceptualization of architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism in architecture contains the idea of the minimum as a leading creative tend to be considered and interpreted in working through phenomena of empathy and abstraction. In the Western culture, the root of this idea is found in empathy of Wilhelm Worringer and abstraction of Kasimir Malevich. In his dissertation, 'Abstraction and Empathy' Worringer presented his thesis on the psychology of style through which he explained the two opposing basic forms: abstraction and empathy. His conclusion on empathy as a psychological basis of observation expression is significant due to the verbal congruence with contemporary minimalist expression. His intuition was enhenced furthermore by figure of Malevich. Abstraction, as an expression of inner unfettered inspiration, has played a crucial role in the development of modern art and architecture of the twentieth century. Abstraction, which is one of the basic methods of learning in psychology (separating relevant from irrelevant features, Carl Jung is used to discover ideas. Minimalism in architecture emphasizes the level of abstraction to which the individual functions are reduced. Different types of abstraction are present: in the form as well as function of the basic elements: walls and windows. The case study is an example of Sou Fujimoto who is unequivocal in its commitment to the autonomy of abstract conceptualization of architecture.

  10. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  11. Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco

    2012-01-01

    Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...... to a small set of abstract events that can be handled by automata learning tools. In this article, we show how such abstractions can be constructed fully automatically for a restricted class of extended finite state machines in which one can test for equality of data parameters, but no operations on data...... automatically – models of several realistic software components, including the biometric passport and the SIP protocol....

  12. Injecting Abstract Interpretations into Linear Cost Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cachera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a semantics based framework for analysing the quantitative behaviour of programs with regard to resource usage. We start from an operational semantics equipped with costs. The dioid structure of the set of costs allows for defining the quantitative semantics as a linear operator. We then present an abstraction technique inspired from abstract interpretation in order to effectively compute global cost information from the program. Abstraction has to take two distinct notions of order into account: the order on costs and the order on states. We show that our abstraction technique provides a correct approximation of the concrete cost computations.

  13. Handbook of hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sherif, SA; Stefanakos, EK; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    ""This book provides an excellent overview of the hydrogen economy and a thorough and comprehensive presentation of hydrogen production and storage methods.""-Scott E. Grasman, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York, USA

  14. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  15. Hydrogen transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  16. Solar hydrogen generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Sabol, A. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus, using solar energy to manufacture hydrogen by dissociating water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen molecules is described. Solar energy is concentrated on a globe containing water thereby heating the water to its dissociation temperature. The globe is pervious to hydrogen molecules permitting them to pass through the globe while being essentially impervious to oxygen molecules. The hydrogen molecules are collected after passing through the globe and the oxygen molecules are removed from the globe.

  17. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  18. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  19. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  20. Concurrency meets probability: theory and practice (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.

    Treating random phenomena in concurrency theory has a long tradition. Petri nets [18, 10] and process algebras [14] have been extended with probabilities. The same applies to behavioural semantics such as strong and weak (bi)simulation [1], and testing pre-orders [5]. Beautiful connections between

  1. MeGARA: Menu-based Game Abstraction and Abstraction Refinement of Markov Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Braitling, Bettina; Fioriti, Luis María Ferrer; Hatefi, Hassan; Wimmer, Ralf; Becker, Bernd; Hermanns, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Markov automata combine continuous time, probabilistic transitions, and nondeterminism in a single model. They represent an important and powerful way to model a wide range of complex real-life systems. However, such models tend to be large and difficult to handle, making abstraction and abstraction refinement necessary. In this paper we present an abstraction and abstraction refinement technique for Markov automata, based on the game-based and menu-based abstraction of probabilistic automata...

  2. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...

  3. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  4. Describing hydrogen-bonded structures; topology graphs, nodal symbols and connectivity tables, exemplified by five polymorphs of each of sulfathiazole and sulfapyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Michael B; Hughes, David S; Gelbrich, Thomas; Threlfall, Terence L

    2015-01-01

    Structural systematics is the comparison of sets of chemically related crystal structures with the aim to establish and describe relevant similarities and relationships. An important topic in this context is the comparison of hydrogen-bonded structures (HBSs) and their representation by suitable descriptors. Three different description methods for HBSs are proposed, a graphical representation, a symbolic representation and connectivity tables. The most comprehensive description is provided by a modified graph of the underlying net topology of an HBS which contains information on the multiplicity of links, the directionality and chemical connectivity of hydrogen bonds and on symmetry relations. By contrast, the alternative symbolic representation is restricted to essential properties of an HBS, i.e. its dimensionality, topology type and selected connectivity characteristics of nodes. A comparison of their connectivity tables readily identifies differences and similarities between crystal structures with respect to the intermolecular interaction modes adopted by their functional groups. The application of these methods to the known polymorphs of sulfathiazole and sulfapyridine is demonstrated and it is shown that they enable the rationalisation of previously reported and intricate relationships. The proposed methods facilitate the comprehensive description of the most important relevant aspects of an HBS, including its chemical connectivity, net topology and symmetry characteristics, and they represent a new way to recognise similarities and relationships in organic crystal structures. Graphical AbstractGraphical Representation of mixing of structures StzIV and StzV to give structure StzIII.

  5. Data Abstraction Mechanisms in Sina/st

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyrowitz, N.K.; Aksit, Mehmet; Tripathi, Anand

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new data abstraction mechanism in an object-oriented model of computing. The data abstraction mechanism described here has been devised in the context of the design of Sina/st language. In Sina/st no language constructs have been adopted for specifying inheritance or

  6. Visual Abstraction and Stylisation of Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isenberg, Tobias

    We explore visual map abstraction for the generation of stylized renderings of 2D map data. We employ techniques that are centred around the concept of shape simplification and graph layout and that allow iterative abstraction of 2D maps. We use data from publicly available sources and show how we

  7. Abstract algebra an introduction with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Derek JS

    2015-01-01

    This is the second edition of the introduction to abstract algebra. In addition to introducing the main concepts of modern algebra, the book contains numerous applications, which are intended to illustrate the concepts and to convince the reader of the utility and relevance of algebra today. There is ample material here for a two semester course in abstract algebra.

  8. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  9. Abstract Machines for Programming Language Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Stephan; Hartel, Pieter H.; Sestoft, Peter

    We present an extensive, annotated bibliography of the abstract machines designed for each of the main programming paradigms (imperative, object oriented, functional, logic and concurrent). We conclude that whilst a large number of efficient abstract machines have been designed for particular

  10. Geometry of abstraction in quantum computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Abramsky, S.; Mislove, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum algorithms are sequences of abstract operations, per formed on non-existent computers. They are in obvious need of categorical semantics. We present some steps in this direction, following earlier contribu tions of Abramsky, Goecke and Selinger. In particular, we analyze function abstraction

  11. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  12. Abstraction Power in Computer Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens Benned; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2006-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of the hypothesis that a person’s abstraction power (or ability) has a positive influence on their ability to program.......The paper is a discussion of the hypothesis that a person’s abstraction power (or ability) has a positive influence on their ability to program....

  13. On Abstraction Levels For Software Architecture Viewpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2005-01-01

    In the field of software architecture the abstraction level of a viewpoint has often been defined on a scale from low to high. However, the definition of abstraction levels on a scale from low to high makes it very subjective what is at each level. This makes it difficult to apply the different...... abstraction levels defined in this paper, viewpoints can be described more accurately and applied more consistently. This can help developers easier gain proficiency in the use of viewpoints to describe software architectures of systems. In this paper concepts which clarify the relation between the defined...... abstraction levels and viewpoints are also defined. Use of the three abstraction levels in practice will be illustrated by a case study which will present examples of viewpoints at the different levels. The role of the levels in connection with novice architects will also be discussed....

  14. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  15. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihua College, Huaihua 418008 (China); Yu, G., E-mail: yuganghnu@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. {yields} Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. {yields} Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. {yields} Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  16. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  17. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  18. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  19. Web Development Technology-PHP. How It Is Related To Web Development Technology ASP.NET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manya Sharma

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper tells about the technologies used in PHP and how they are related to ASP.NET. The paper begin with the introduction of PHP defining what and how technologies has been used in development of User Complaint Web Application...

  20. A Lesk-inspired Unsupervised Algorithm for Lexical Choice from WordNet Synsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, Valerio; Basili, Roberto; Lenci, Allesandro; Magnini, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    The generation of text from abstract meaning representations involves, among other tasks, the production of lexical items for the concepts to realize. Using WordNet as a foundational ontology, we exploit its internal network structure to predict the best lemmas for a given synset without the need

  1. Safe venting of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  3. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  4. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  5. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  6. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  7. Fuzzy Petri nets to model vision system decisions within a flexible manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Moheb M.; Buck, A. A.; Smith, R.

    1994-10-01

    The paper presents a Petri net approach to modelling, monitoring and control of the behavior of an FMS cell. The FMS cell described comprises a pick and place robot, vision system, CNC-milling machine and 3 conveyors. The work illustrates how the block diagrams in a hierarchical structure can be used to describe events at different levels of abstraction. It focuses on Fuzzy Petri nets (Fuzzy logic with Petri nets) including an artificial neural network (Fuzzy Neural Petri nets) to model and control vision system decisions and robot sequences within an FMS cell. This methodology can be used as a graphical modelling tool to monitor and control the imprecise, vague and uncertain situations, and determine the quality of the output product of an FMS cell.

  8. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  9. Hydrogen energy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights the outstanding role of hydrogen in energy processes, where it is the most functional element due to its unique peculiarities that are highlighted and emphasized in the book. The first half of the book covers the great natural hydrogen processes in biology, chemistry, and physics, showing that hydrogen is a trend that can unite all natural sciences. The second half of the book is devoted to the technological hydrogen processes that are under research and development with the aim to create the infrastructure for hydrogen energetics. The book describes the main features of hydrogen that make it inalienable player in processes such as fusion, photosynthesis, and metabolism. It also covers the methods of hydrogen production and storage, highlighting at the same time the exclusive importance of nanotechnologies in those processes.

  10. Cyclooctanaminium hydrogen succinate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Khorasani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated salt, C8H18N+·C4H5O4−·H2O, the cyclooctyl ring of the cation is disordered over two positions in a 0.833 (3:0.167 (3 ratio. The structure contains various O—H.·O and N—H...O interactions, forming a hydrogen-bonded layer of molecules perpendicular to the c axis. In each layer, the ammonium cation hydrogen bonds to two hydrogen succinate anions and one water molecule. Each hydrogen succinate anion hydrogen bonds to neighbouring anions, forming a chain of molecules along the b axis. In addition, each hydrogen succinate anion hydrogen bonds to two water molecules and the ammonium cation.

  11. MeGARA: Menu-based Game Abstraction and Abstraction Refinement of Markov Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Braitling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Markov automata combine continuous time, probabilistic transitions, and nondeterminism in a single model. They represent an important and powerful way to model a wide range of complex real-life systems. However, such models tend to be large and difficult to handle, making abstraction and abstraction refinement necessary. In this paper we present an abstraction and abstraction refinement technique for Markov automata, based on the game-based and menu-based abstraction of probabilistic automata. First experiments show that a significant reduction in size is possible using abstraction.

  12. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Stevenson

    Full Text Available Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72 and non-autistic participants (N = 72 completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal. Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract, suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

  13. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  14. Interdisciplinary perspectives on abstracts for information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Keng Chan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the abstract genre from the perspectives of English for Specific Purposes (ESP practitioners and information professionals. It aims to determine specific interdisciplinary interests in the abstract, and to explore areas of collaboration in terms of research and pedagogical practices. A focus group (FG comprising information professionals from the Division of Information Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, convened for a discussion on the subject of abstracts and abstracting. Two major issues that have significant implications for ESP practices emerged during the discussion. While differences in terms of approach to and objectives of the abstract genre are apparent between information professionals and language professionals, the demands for specific cognitive processes involved in abstracting proved to be similar. This area of similarity provides grounds for awareness raising and collaboration between the two disciplines. While ESP practitioners need to consider adding the dimension of information science to the rhetorical and linguistic scaffolding that they have been providing to novice-writers, information professionals can contribute useful insights about the qualities of abstracts that have the greatest impact in meeting the end-users' needs in information search.

  15. Hydrogen storage methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at Tchemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m-3, and large volumes, where the thermal losses are small, can cause hydrogen to reach a

  16. Reactive Desorption of CO Hydrogenation Products under Cold Pre-stellar Core Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Qasim, D.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2018-02-01

    The astronomical gas-phase detection of simple species and small organic molecules in cold pre-stellar cores, with abundances as high as ∼10‑8–10‑9 n H, contradicts the generally accepted idea that at 10 K, such species should be fully frozen out on grain surfaces. A physical or chemical mechanism that results in a net transfer from solid-state species into the gas phase offers a possible explanation. Reactive desorption, i.e., desorption following the exothermic formation of a species, is one of the options that has been proposed. In astronomical models, the fraction of molecules desorbed through this process is handled as a free parameter, as experimental studies quantifying the impact of exothermicity on desorption efficiencies are largely lacking. In this work, we present a detailed laboratory study with the goal of deriving an upper limit for the reactive desorption efficiency of species involved in the CO–H2CO–CH3OH solid-state hydrogenation reaction chain. The limit for the overall reactive desorption fraction is derived by precisely investigating the solid-state elemental carbon budget, using reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy and the calibrated solid-state band-strength values for CO, H2CO and CH3OH. We find that for temperatures in the range of 10 to 14 K, an upper limit of 0.24 ± 0.02 for the overall elemental carbon loss upon CO conversion into CH3OH. This corresponds with an effective reaction desorption fraction of ≤0.07 per hydrogenation step, or ≤0.02 per H-atom induced reaction, assuming that H-atom addition and abstraction reactions equally contribute to the overall reactive desorption fraction along the hydrogenation sequence. The astronomical relevance of this finding is discussed.

  17. Abstract Generation based on Rhetorical Structure Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, K; Ono, Kenji; Sumita, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    We have developed an automatic abstract generation system for Japanese expository writings based on rhetorical structure extraction. The system first extracts the rhetorical structure, the compound of the rhetorical relations between sentences, and then cuts out less important parts in the extracted structure to generate an abstract of the desired length. Evaluation of the generated abstract showed that it contains at maximum 74\\% of the most important sentences of the original text. The system is now utilized as a text browser for a prototypical interactive document retrieval system.

  18. Collected abstracts on particle beam diagnostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of abstracts on work related to particle beam diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. The abstracts were gathered in early 1978 and represent the status of the various programs as of that date. It is not suggested that this is a comprehensive list of all the work that is going on in the development of particle beam diagnostics, but it does provide a representative view of the work in this field. For example, no abstracts were received from the U.S.S.R. even though they have considerable activity in particle beam diagnostics.

  19. Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saitta, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is a fundamental mechanism underlying both human and artificial perception, representation of knowledge, reasoning and learning. This mechanism plays a crucial role in many disciplines, notably Computer Programming, Natural and Artificial Vision, Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Art, and Cognitive Sciences. This book first provides the reader with an overview of the notions of abstraction proposed in various disciplines by comparing both commonalities and differences.  After discussing the characterizing properties of abstraction, a formal model, the K

  20. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  1. Dynamics of hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bonding configuration due to hydrogen migration have been proposed as a mechanism of defect generation in a-Si:H [6,7]. Thus hydrogen plays a dual role in a-Si:H: (1) acting as a .... the sphere of radius R0 and allows to express. ∆F as a function of localization radius R0. Using eqs (10) and (11), the volume integration.

  2. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  3. *Abstracts - 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium, Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety - November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Heather; Verhoef, Marja J

    2012-10-23

    Abstract The following are abstracts of oral and poster presentations given at the 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium - Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety, and the 4th HomeoNet Research Forum, a pre-Symposium event. The IN-CAM Research Symposium was held November 2 to 4, 2012 at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. For more information, please visit: www.incamresearch.ca.

  4. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of By-product Hydrogen from Chlor-Alkali Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division; Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division

    2017-12-01

    Current hydrogen production capacity in the U.S. is about 15.8 million tonne (or metric ton) per year (Brown 2016). Some of the hydrogen (2 million tonne) is combusted for its heating energy value, which makes total annual net production 13.8 million tonne (Table 1). If captive by-product hydrogen (3.3 million tonne) from catalytic reforming at oil refineries is excluded (Brown 2016; EIA 2008), approximately 11 million tonne is available from the conventional captive and merchant hydrogen market (DOE 2013). Captive hydrogen (owned by the refiner) is produced and consumed on site (e.g., process input at refineries), whereas merchant hydrogen is produced and sold as a commodity to external consumers. Whether it is merchant or captive, most hydrogen produced in the U.S. is on-purpose (not by-product)— around 10 million tonne/year.

  6. A Revision of Clausius Work on the Second Law. 3. On the Non-Zero Net Value of Carnots Reversible Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Iñiguez

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Carnot's reversible cycle net value was determined using the previously derived values for the transformations there occurring. A negative net value is obtained as a result, in contradiction with current thermodynamics, Clausius analysis based position that the net value for such a cycle is zero. The entropy function is introduced and the new criterion's for spontaneity, reversibility and equilibrium are advanced.

  7. GIBS Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GDAL is an open source translator library for raster geospatial data formats that presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported...

  8. Complex of abstract cubes and median problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Cataranciuc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special complex $\\mathcal{K}^{n}$ of abstract cubes [2, 3], which contains only $n$-dimensional cubes is examined. The border of this complex is an abstract $(n-1$-dimensional sphere. It is proved that the abstract sphere contains at least one $0$-dimensional cube, which belongs to exactly $n$ cubes with dimension $1$, if the complex is a homogeneous $n$-dimensional tree. This result allows to solve, in an efficient way, the problem of median for a skeleton of size $1$ of the tree with weighted vertices and edges. The algorithm to calculate the median without using any metric is described. The proposed algorithm can be applied with some modifications, for arbitrary complex of abstract cubes. Mathematics subject classification: 18F15, 32Q60, 68R10

  9. The Triconnected Abstraction of Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyvyanyy, Artem; Smirnov, Sergey; Weske, Mathias

    Companies use business process models to represent their working procedures in order to deploy services to markets, to analyze them, and to improve upon them. Competitive markets necessitate complex procedures, which lead to large process specifications with sophisticated structures. Real world process models can often incorporate hundreds of modeling constructs. While a large degree of detail complicates the comprehension of the processes, it is essential to many analysis tasks. This paper presents a technique to abstract, i.e., to simplify process models. Given a detailed model, we introduce abstraction rules which generalize process fragments in order to bring the model to a higher abstraction level. The approach is suited for the abstraction of large process specifications in order to aid model comprehension as well as decomposing problems of process model analysis. The work is based on process structure trees that have recently been introduced to the field of business process management.

  10. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  11. Management plan abstract and keyword generator

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fill-in-the-blank Word form will generate abstracts for common management plans including: cropland management, disease contingency, fire management, fishing,...

  12. Writing a research abstract: eloquence in miniature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, N; Georgiadis, G S; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K

    2012-06-01

    Abstracts are summaries, usually of a full article or conference presentation, and may be classified into structured and unstructured ones. The former have a predefined layout necessitating the use of headings. Most journals and conferences now use the structured abstract format. Research abstracts are increasingly vital for scientific communication and are expected to continue playing a key role for the dissemination of medicine in the near future. Abstracts take time and need meticulous preparation. They must aptly summarise the content of the study or presentation and avoid vague statements and poor style. Moreover, they must comply with provided instructions. Finally, they should be pleasant to read and encourage study of the corresponding full work.

  13. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  14. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  15. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  16. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  17. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  18. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  19. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  20. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  1. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  2. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  3. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  4. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  5. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  6. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  7. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  8. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  9. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  10. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  11. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  12. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F. (eds.)

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  13. Abstracting audit data for lightweight intrusion detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    High speed of processing massive audit data is crucial for an anomaly Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to achieve real-time performance during the detection. Abstracting audit data is a potential solution to improve the efficiency of data processing. In this work, we propose two strategies of data abstraction in order to build a lightweight detection model. The first strategy is exemplar extraction and the second is attribute abstraction. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) as well as traditional k-means, are employed to extract the exemplars, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to abstract important attributes (a.k.a. features) from the audit data. Real HTTP traffic data collected in our institute as well as KDD 1999 data are used to validate the two strategies of data abstraction. The extensive test results show that the process of exemplar extraction significantly improves the detection efficiency and has a better detection performance than PCA in data abstraction. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.

  15. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  16. Allylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Dziuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C3H8N+·C2HO4−·0.5H2O, the water O atom lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The C=C—C—N torsion angle in the cation is 2.8 (3° and the dihedral angle between the CO2 and CO2H planes in the anion is 1.0 (4°. In the crystal, the hydrogen oxalate ions are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. The allylammonium cations bond to the chains through N—H...O and N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds. The water molecule accepts two N—H...O hydrogen bonds and makes two O—H...O hydrogen bonds. Together, the hydrogen bonds generate (100 sheets.

  17. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  18. Abstracts and abstracting a genre and set of skills for the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Koltay, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Despite their changing role, abstracts remain useful in the digital world. Highly beneficial to information professionals and researchers who work and publish in different fields, this book summarizes the most important and up-to-date theory of abstracting, as well as giving advice and examples for the practice of writing different kinds of abstracts. The book discusses the length, the functions and basic structure of abstracts, outlining a new approach to informative and indicative abstracts. The abstractors' personality, their linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge and skills are also discu

  19. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  20. Pathways to Metallic Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Silvera, Isaac F.; Deemyad, Shanti

    2008-01-01

    The traditional pathway that researchers have used in the goal of producing atomic metallic hydrogen is to compress samples with megabar pressures at low temperature. A number of phases have been observed in solid hydrogen and its isotopes, but all are in the insulating phase. The results of experiment and theory for this pathway are reviewed. In recent years a new pathway has become the focus of this challenge of producing metallic hydrogen, namely a path along the melting line. It has bee...