WorldWideScience

Sample records for net horizontal displacement

  1. Some Considerations on Horizontal Displacement and Horizontal Displacement Coefficient B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining-induced deformations of the ground surface and within the rock mass may pose danger not only for surface constructions but also for underground objects (e.g., tunnels, underground storages, garages, diverse types of pipelines, electric cables, etc. For a proper evaluation of hazard for surface and underground objects, such parameters as horizontal displacement and horizontal deformations, especially their maximum values, are of crucial importance. The paper is an attempt at a critical review of hitherto accomplished studies and state of the art of predicting horizontal displacement u, in particular the coefficient B, whose value allows determination of the value of maximum displacement if the value of maximum slope is known, or the value of maximum deformation if the value of maximum trough slope is recognized. Since the geodesic observations of fully developed subsidence troughs suggest that the value of the coefficient depends on the depth H, radius of main influences range r and properties of overburden rock, in particular the occurrence of sub-eras Paleogene and Neogene layers (old name: Quaternary and Tertiary with low strength parameters, therefore a formula is provided in the present paper allowing for the estimation of the influence of those factors on the value of coefficient B.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Horizontal Displacement of Above-Ground Gas Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Kukhtar, D.

    2017-01-01

    The modern geodetic equipment allows observations as soon as possible, providing high accuracy and productivity. Achieving high accuracy of measurement is impossible without taking into account external factors that create influence on an observation object. Therefore, in order to evaluate an influence of thermal displacement on the results of geodetic monitoring a mathematical model of horizontal displacement of above-ground pipelines was theoretically grounded and built. In this paper we us...

  3. Robustness of Three-Phase Contactless Power Transfer System for Horizontal Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Neba, Yasuhiko; Ishizaka, Kouichi; Itoh, Ryozo

    This paper presents a model of a three-phase contactless power transfer system with short gap between the primary and secondary armatures. The model of the system is derived from typical equivalent circuit equations of a three-phase induction motor. On the basis of this model, robustness of the system for the horizontal displacement between the primary and secondary armatures is proved.

  4. Reliability of buildings in service limit state for maximum horizontal displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. B. Corelhano

    Full Text Available Brazilian design code ABNT NBR6118:2003 - Design of Concrete Structures - Procedures - [1] proposes the use of simplified models for the consideration of non-linear material behavior in the evaluation of horizontal displacements in buildings. These models penalize stiffness of columns and beams, representing the effects of concrete cracking and avoiding costly physical non-linear analyses. The objectives of the present paper are to investigate the accuracy and uncertainty of these simplified models, as well as to evaluate the reliabilities of structures designed following ABNT NBR6118:2003[1&] in the service limit state for horizontal displacements. Model error statistics are obtained from 42 representative plane frames. The reliabilities of three typical (4, 8 and 12 floor buildings are evaluated, using the simplified models and a rigorous, physical and geometrical non-linear analysis. Results show that the 70/70 (column/beam stiffness reduction model is more accurate and less conservative than the 80/40 model. Results also show that ABNT NBR6118:2003 [1] design criteria for horizontal displacement limit states (masonry damage according to ACI 435.3R-68(1984 [10] are conservative, and result in reliability indexes which are larger than those recommended in EUROCODE [2] for irreversible service limit states.

  5. Vertical and horizontal surface displacements near Jakobshavn Isbræ driven by melt-induced and dynamic ice loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Spada, G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Global Positioning System (GPS) time series of relative vertical and horizontal surface displacements from 2006 to 2012 at four GPS sites located between ∼5 and ∼150 km from the front of Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI) in west Greenland. Horizontal displacements during 2006–2010 at KAGA, ILUL, a...... to 2006–2010. The sudden change in vertical and horizontal displacements is due to enhanced melt-induced ice loss in 2010 and 2012....... of surface elevations from 2006, 2009, and 2010. However, horizontal displacements during 2010–2012 at KAGA and ILUL are directed more towards the west suggesting a change in the spatial distribution of the ice mass loss. In addition, we observe an increase in the uplift rate during 2010–2012 as compared...

  6. Simulation of Rock Mass Horizontal Displacements with Usage of Cellular Automata Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    In the article there was presented two dimensional rock mass model as a deterministic finite cellular automata. Used to describe the distribution of subsidence of rock mass inside and on its surface the theory of automata makes it relatively simple way to get a subsidence trough profile consistent with the profile observed by geodetic measurements on the land surface. As a development of an existing concept of the rock mass model, as a finite cellular automaton, there was described distribution function that allows, simultaneously with the simulation of subsidence, to simulate horizontal displacements inside the rock mass model and on its surface in accordance with real observations. On the basis of the results of numerous computer simulations there was presented fundamental mathematical relationship that determines the ratio of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum subsidence, in case of full subsidence trough, in relation to the basic parameters of the rock mass model. The possibilities of presented model were shown on the example of simulation results of deformation distribution caused by extraction of abstract coal panel. Obtained results were consistent with results obtained by geometric-integral theory.

  7. Self-Organizing Neural-Net Control of Ship's Horizontal Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X J; Zhao, X R [Automation College of Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-10-15

    This paper describes the concept and an example of an adaptive neural-net controller system for ship's horizontal motion. The system consists of two parts, a real-world part and an imaginary-world part. The real-world part is a feedback control system for the actual ship. In the imaginary-world part, the model of ship and the controller are adjusted continuously in order to deal with changes of dynamic properties caused by disturbances and so on. In this paper, the adaptability of the controller system is investigated by controlling ship's horizontal motion including roll, yaw and sway. The results of simulation indicate that with selforganizing neural-net control, the mean square error of roll angle and yaw angle reduce to 0.92{sup 0}, and 0.74{sup 0} respectively. The control effect of SONC is better than conventional LQG controller.

  8. Estimating Horizontal Displacement between DEMs by Means of Particle Image Velocimetry Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Reinoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, digital terrain model (DTM accuracy has been studied almost exclusively by computing its height variable. However, the largely ignored horizontal component bears a great influence on the positional accuracy of certain linear features, e.g., in hydrological features. In an effort to fill this gap, we propose a means of measurement different from the geomatic approach, involving fluid mechanics (water and air flows or aerodynamics. The particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm is proposed as an estimator of horizontal differences between digital elevation models (DEM in grid format. After applying a scale factor to the displacement estimated by the PIV algorithm, the mean error predicted is around one-seventh of the cell size of the DEM with the greatest spatial resolution, and around one-nineteenth of the cell size of the DEM with the least spatial resolution. Our methodology allows all kinds of DTMs to be compared once they are transformed into DEM format, while also allowing comparison of data from diverse capture methods, i.e., LiDAR versus photogrammetric data sources.

  9. Horizontal Displacement Control in Course of Lateral Loading of a Pile in a Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Zbigniew; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Standard procedures concerning axial and lateral capacity testing of foundation piles usually consist of a single loading cycle. Constant load steps or constant settlement increments may be applied in the test. Such a procedure significantly differs from in-situ conditions of pile loading, which can be cyclic – especially in the case of the constructions, which are subject to wind load. Several tests were performed to observe the behaviour of the driven piles subject to fast cyclic loading in horizontal direction (lateral load). The manner in which the load tests were performed made it possible to determine the displacement of the 40×40 cm pile in the least favourable loading scheme, i.e. the lateral load capacity of the pile oriented towards the embankment slope. The piles were originally designed for the foundation of noise barriers along the highway. Some of the piles were broken in course of driving and a cautious check of their behaviour under load was requested before the assembling of the entire structure. Eight load tests were carried out altogether. While selecting the piles for further load tests, the representativeness of the random sample was taken into account. The piles with diverse cross section and length were chosen, on the basis of the previous low strain tests of their integrity. The subsoil around the piles consisted of medium and coarse sands with the density index ID>0.67. The pile heads were free. The points of support of the reference frame to which the sensors were fastened were located at the distance of 0.6 m from the side surface of the pile loaded laterally. In order to assure the independence of measurement, additional control (verifying) geodetic survey of the displacements of the piles subject to the load tests was carried out. The research conducted at Wroclaw University of Technology made it possible to collect and summarize the results of displacement measurements in course of static load testing of driven piles in a slope

  10. Evolution of mosaic operons by horizontal gene transfer and gene displacement in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Omelchenko, Marina V.; Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Rogozin, Igor B.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2003-01-01

    Background Shuffling and disruption of operons and horizontal gene transfer are major contributions to the new, dynamic view of prokaryotic evolution. Under the 'selfish operon' hypothesis, operons are viewed as mobile genetic entities that are constantly disseminated via horizontal gene transfer, although their retention could be favored by the advantage of coregulation of functionally linked genes. Here we apply comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis to examine horizontal transfer o...

  11. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the increase in both cadence and displacement results in significant cardiorespiratory responses as a result of deep water running. This finding is important for adapting exercise prescription to the goals of participants.

  12. Quantifying Migration Behaviour Using Net Squared Displacement Approach: Clarifications and Caveats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navinder J Singh

    Full Text Available Estimating migration parameters of individuals and populations is vital for their conservation and management. Studies on animal movements and migration often depend upon location data from tracked animals and it is important that such data are appropriately analyzed for reliable estimates of migration and effective management of moving animals. The Net Squared Displacement (NSD approach for modelling animal movement is being increasingly used as it can objectively quantify migration characteristics and separate different types of movements from migration. However, the ability of NSD to properly classify the movement patterns of individuals has been criticized and issues related to study design arise with respect to starting locations of the data/animals, data sampling regime and extent of movement of species. We address the issues raised over NSD using tracking data from 319 moose (Alces alces in Sweden. Moose is an ideal species to test this approach, as it can be sedentary, nomadic, dispersing or migratory and individuals vary in their extent, timing and duration of migration. We propose a two-step process of using the NSD approach by first classifying movement modes using mean squared displacement (MSD instead of NSD and then estimating the extent, duration and timing of migration using NSD. We show that the NSD approach is robust to the choice of starting dates except when the start date occurs during the migratory phase. We also show that the starting location of the animal has a marginal influence on the correct quantification of migration characteristics. The number of locations per day (1-48 did not significantly affect the performance of non-linear mixed effects models, which correctly distinguished migration from other movement types, however, high-resolution data had a significant negative influence on estimates for the timing of migrations. The extent of movement, however, had an effect on the classification of movements, and

  13. Research on the Horizontal Displacement Coefficient of Soil Surrounding Pile in Layered Foundations by Considering the Soil Mass’s Longitudinal Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wen-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When utilizing the p-y curve to simulate the nonlinear characteristics of soil surrounding pile in layered foundations, due to having not taken into account the soil mass’s longitudinal continuity, the calculation deviation of horizontal displacement increases with the growth of a load. This paper adopted the layered elasticity system theory to consider the soil mass’s longitudinal continuity, as well as utilizing the research method for layered isotropic bodies, assuming that the horizontal resistance is evenly distributed around the perimeter of the pile's cross-section. Then an appropriate transfer matrix method of horizontal displacement coefficient for the soil surrounding pile in layered foundations was established. According to the calculation principle of finite element equivalent load, the horizontal displacement coefficient matrix was deduced as well as providing a corrected formula for the horizontal displacement of soil surrounding pile through the p-y curve method when the external load was increased. Following the established model, a program was created which was used for calculating and analyzing the horizontal displacement coefficient matrix of three-layered soil in order to verify this method’s validity and rationale. Where there is a relatively large discrepancy in the soil layers’ properties, this paper’s method is able to reflect the influence on the layered soil’s actual distributional difference as well as the nearby soil layers’ interaction.

  14. A semi-empirical model for the estimation of maximum horizontal displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Allison T.; Seed, Raymond B.; Kayen, Robert E.; Wu, Jiaer

    2006-01-01

    During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and resultant ground displacements damaged bridges, buried utilities, and lifelines, conventional structures, and other developed works. This paper presents an improved engineering tool for the prediction of maximum displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. A semi-empirical approach is employed, combining mechanistic understanding and data from laboratory testing with data and lessons from full-scale earthquake field case histories. The principle of strain potential index, based primary on correlation of cyclic simple shear laboratory testing results with in-situ Standard Penetration Test (SPT) results, is used as an index to characterized the deformation potential of soils after they liquefy. A Bayesian probabilistic approach is adopted for development of the final predictive model, in order to take fullest advantage of the data available and to deal with the inherent uncertainties intrinstiic to the back-analyses of field case histories. A case history from the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake is utilized to demonstrate the ability of the resultant semi-empirical model to estimate maximum horizontal displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.

  15. Horizonte

    OpenAIRE

    BABIANO MARTÍNEZ, CARLOS JOSÉ

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto intenta ahondar en la idea de horizonte tratado desde la filosofía japonesa y de su nexo con el mundo occidental. De la necesidad latente de una restructuración de la educación para convertirla en una educación estética capaz de permitir a los individuos completarse plenamente como personas. A través de las enseñanzas orientales del zen, del haiku, de filósofos como Tanizaki, y sus ideas sobre la sombra y la sugerencia, frente a Kierkegaard o Schiller en el lado occidental y sus...

  16. Developing and measuring healthcare capacity and quality in Burundi: LifeNet International’s horizontal conversion franchise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and respond to a greater number of the obstacles preventing facilities from providing quality care. Through its Quality Score Card, LN measures improvements in quality of care within its network. This tool has measured consistent and significant improvements in quality of care following LN partnership. Together, these services improve quality of care at East African primary care facilities in ways that issue-specific, “vertical” interventions cannot.

  17. Ca2+ transport by reconstituted synaptosomal ATPase is associated with H+ countertransport and net charge displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, J M; Inesi, G; Rigaud, J L; Mata, A M

    1998-07-17

    The synaptosomal plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) purified from pig brain was reconstituted with liposomes prepared by reverse phase evaporation at a lipid to protein ratio of 150/1 (w/w). ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and H+ ejection by the reconstituted proteoliposomes were demonstrated by following light absorption and fluorescence changes undergone by arsenazo III and 8-hydroxy-1,3, 6-pyrene trisulfonate, respectively. Ca2+ uptake was increased up to 2-3-fold by the H+ ionophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, consistent with relief of an inhibitory transmembrane pH gradient (i.e. lumenal alkalinization) generated by H+ countertransport. The stoichiometric ratio of Ca2+/H+ countertransport was 1.0/0.6, and the ATP/Ca2+ coupling stoichiometry was 1/1 at 25 degrees C. The electrogenic character of the Ca2+/H+ countertransport was demonstrated by measuring light absorption changes undergone by oxonol VI. It was shown that a 20 mV steady state potential (positive on the lumenal side) was formed as a consequence of net charge transfer associated with the 1/1 Ca2+/H+ countertransport. Calmodulin stimulated ATPase activity, Ca2+ uptake, and H+ ejection, demonstrating that these parameters are linked by the same mechanism of PMCA regulation.

  18. Characterizing Spatial Variability of Ice Algal Chlorophyll a and Net Primary Production between Sea Ice Habitats Using Horizontal Profiling Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Lange

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the role of sea ice algal biomass and primary production for polar ecosystems remains challenging due to the strong spatio-temporal variability of sea ice algae. Therefore, the spatial representativeness of sea ice algal biomass and primary production sampling remains a key issue in large-scale models and climate change predictions of polar ecosystems. To address this issue, we presented two novel approaches to up-scale ice algal chl a biomass and net primary production (NPP estimates based on profiles covering distances of 100 to 1,000 s of meters. This was accomplished by combining ice core-based methods with horizontal under-ice spectral radiation profiling conducted in the central Arctic Ocean during summer 2012. We conducted a multi-scale comparison of ice-core based ice algal chl a biomass with two profiling platforms: a remotely operated vehicle and surface and under ice trawl (SUIT. NPP estimates were compared between ice cores and remotely operated vehicle surveys. Our results showed that ice core-based estimates of ice algal chl a biomass and NPP do not representatively capture the spatial variability compared to the remotely operated vehicle-based estimates, implying considerable uncertainties for pan-Arctic estimates based on ice core observations alone. Grouping sea ice cores based on region or ice type improved the representativeness. With only a small sample size, however, a high risk of obtaining non-representative estimates remains. Sea ice algal chl a biomass estimates based on the dominant ice class alone showed a better agreement between ice core and remotely operated vehicle estimates. Grouping ice core measurements yielded no improvement in NPP estimates, highlighting the importance of accounting for the spatial variability of both the chl a biomass and bottom-ice light in order to get representative estimates. Profile-based measurements of ice algae chl a biomass identified sea ice ridges as an underappreciated

  19. A modified invasion percolation model for low-capillary number immiscible displacements in horizontal rough-walled fractures: Influence of local in-plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; NICHOLL,MICHAEL J.; YARRINGTON,LANE

    2000-01-28

    The authors develop and evaluate a modified invasion percolation (MIP) model for quasi-static immiscible displacement in horizontal fractures. The effects of contact angle, local aperture field geometry, and local in-plane interracial curvature between phases are included in the calculation of invasion pressure for individual sites in a discretized aperture field. This pressure controls the choice of which site is invaded during the displacement process and hence the growth of phase saturation structure within the fracture. To focus on the influence of local in-plane curvature on phase invasion structure, they formulate a simplified nondimensional pressure equation containing a dimensionless curvature number (C) that weighs the relative importance of in-plane curvature and aperture-induced curvature. Through systematic variation of C, they find in-plane interracial curvature to greatly affect the phase invasion structure. As C is increased from zero, phase invasion fronts transition from highly complicated (IP results) to microscopically smooth. In addition, measurements of fracture phase saturations and entrapped cluster statistics (number, maximum size, structural complication) show differential response between wetting and nonwetting invasion with respect to C that is independent of contact angle hysteresis. Comparison to experimental data available at this time substantiates predicted behavior.

  20. How equitable is bed net ownership and utilisation in Tanzania? A practical application of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that the burden of malaria remains huge particularly in low-income settings. Although effective malaria control measures such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs have been promoted, relatively little is known about their equity dimension. Understanding variations in their use in low-income settings is important for scaling up malaria control programmes particularly ITNs. The objective of this paper is to measure the extent and causes of inequalities in the ownership and utilisation of bed nets across socioeconomic groups (SEGs and age groups in Tanga District, north-eastern Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire was administered to heads of 1,603 households from rural and urban areas. Households were categorized into SEGs using both an asset-based wealth index and education level of the household head. Concentration indices and regression-based measures of inequality were computed to analyse both vertical and horizontal inequalities in ownership and utilisation of bed nets. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs were used to explore community perspectives on the causes of inequalities. Results Use of ITNs remained appallingly low compared to the RBM target of 80% coverage. Inequalities in ownership of ITNs and all nets combined were significantly pro-rich and were much more pronounced in rural areas. FGDs revealed that lack of money was the key factor for not using ITNs followed by negative perceptions about the effect of insecticides on the health of users. Household SES, living within the urban areas and being under-five were positively associated with bed net ownership and/or utilisation. Conclusion The results highlight the need for mass distribution of ITN; a community-wide programme to treat all untreated nets and to promote the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal nets (LLINs or longer-lasting treatment of nets. The rural population and under-fives should be targeted through highly subsidised schemes and mass distribution of

  1. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  2. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  3. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  4. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  5. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  6. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...... medical conditions. Displacing use can be a valuable strategy for design, revealing some of the contextual conditions that influence an artefact's use, and broadening the space of alternatives explored in design. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...... in the room and in the inhalation of both manikins. Tracer gas was added in the heat plume above a sitting manikin, or in the exhalation through either the nose or the mouth. The other manikin moved back and forth at different speeds on a low trolley. The mentioned experimental conditions have a significant...

  8. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...... digital reforms in Denmark and shows how citizen service is transformed from service to support. The frontline employee’s classical tasks such as casework are being displaced into educational and support-oriented tasks with less professional content. Thus an unintended effect of digitisation is blurred......In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...

  9. Assessment of nonlinear site response at ocean bottom seismograph sites based on S-wave horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios: a study at the Sagami Bay area K-NET sites in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhakal, Yadab P; Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi; Suzuki, Wataru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    ...) sites of K-NET located in the Sagami Bay area of Japan for nonlinear site responses. The degree of nonlinearity was computed by comparing the S-H/V spectral ratios for strong motions (PGA ≥ 20 cm/s2...

  10. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  11. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  12. Elasto-plastic frame under horizontal and vertical Gaussian excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Randrup-Thomsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    /compression axial force. Assuming that the horizontal excitationof the traverse is Gaussian white noise, statistics related to the plastic displacement response are determinedby use of simulation based on the Slepian modelprocess method combined with envelope excursion properties. Besidesgiving physical insight...

  13. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...

  14. Sideways displacement and curved path of recti eye muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); F. Harting (Friedrich); B.J. de Waal (Bob); B.W.J.M. Verbeeten (Ben)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the sideways displacement of recti muscles with the eye in various gaze-positions by making computed tomographic (CT) scans in a plane perpendicular to the muscle cone, posterior to the globe. We found no consistent sideways displacement of the horizontal recti in the up

  15. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  16. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use

    OpenAIRE

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K.; Lambin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions-a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation-involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Addit...

  17. The use of GPS horizontals for loading studies, with applications to northern California and southeast Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahr, J.; Khan, S.A.; van Dam, T.; Liu, Lin; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Meertens, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe how GPS measurements of horizontal crustal motion can be used to augment vertical crustal motion measurements, to improve and extend GPS studies of surface loading. We show that the ratio of the vertical displacement to the horizontal displacement, combined with the direction of the

  18. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  19. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  20. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  1. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  2. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  3. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  4. XY displacement device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerens, W.C.; Laham, C.D.; Holman, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    An XY-displacement device (1) with a four-fold symmetry comprises a reference frame (10); an object mount (20) for holding an object (22) to be displaced; an X-manipulator (100) coupled between the reference frame (10) and the object mount (20), which provides a rigid coupling between the object

  5. Rising waters, displaced lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Brickle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Pakistan and Colombia have relatively advanced disaster management frameworks, they were unprepared and ill-equipped to assist and protect people displaced by recent floods.

  6. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  7. Horizontal angle of inclination of the Mandibular condyle in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal angle of inclination, is important in maintaining the function of the temporomandibular joint. It should be maintained in the manufacture of condylar prostheses since deviation may lead to disk displacement and degeneration of the articular fossa. While inter-population variations exist in mandibular ...

  8. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  9. Management of an extremely displaced maxillary canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Torsten; Stolze, Annemarie; Goldbecher, Heiko

    2005-07-01

    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. This case report illustrates the treatment of an extremely high displaced maxillary canine. The main diagnosis was the displacement and the retention of tooth 13 (in nearly horizontal position, apical to the neighboring teeth); further diagnoses were: transversal maxillary deficiency with frontal crowding and a distal bite of one premolar in width, a deep bite of 6 mm with contact in the palatal mucosa, mandibular midline deviation of 2.5 mm to the right, lingual eruption of teeth 32 and 42, retroinclination of the maxillary incisors, and retarded eruption of the permanent teeth. Initial treatment with active and functional appliances to correct the distal bite, midline deviation and deep bite. Surgical exposure of the high displaced canine at the age of 14. Onset of cuspid elongation with removable appliances and elastics, further movement with a transpalatinal bar and welded arm, and full alignment of the upper and lower arches with fixed appliances in both jaws. Stabilization of the orthodontic treatment results with retention devices. Duration of treatment: 5 years and 8 months. For the alignment of tooth 13, 2 years and 10 months were required; 1 year and 4 months were necessary with complete fixed appliance. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the potential of aligning an extremely displaced canine. Because of the esthetic and functional importance of the upper canines, therapeutic alignment should be initiated, provided there are no indications to the contrary.

  10. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  11. Forced Displacement and Refugee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutinwa: Forced Displacement and Refugee Rights in the Great Lakes 1 3 with the new problems associated with refugees, such as those outlined above. An effective system for refugee protection must be holistic and address the refugee problem at the levels of pre- vention, response and solution. At the level of prevention, ...

  12. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  13. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis PDMC 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ms... infographic /iraq_cccm_idp_settlement_status_map_ 16_July_2015 xxii DTM ROUND XXII JUNE 2015 xxiii REACH, Vulnerability, Needs and Intentions of

  14. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  15. Belo Horizonte em recortes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Lara Camargos Walty

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir do conceito de rizoma de Deleuze e Guatari, faz-se uma montagem de trechos de textos literários sobre Belo Horizonte, intercalados com extratos do livro As cidades invisíveis, de Italo Calvino, como objetivo de se esboçar faces/retratos da cidade.

  16. Software for determining the true displacement of faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Fuentes, R.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á. F.; Xu, S.-S.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important parameters of faults is the true (or net) displacement, which is measured by restoring two originally adjacent points, called “piercing points”, to their original positions. This measurement is not typically applicable because it is rare to observe piercing points in natural outcrops. Much more common is the measurement of the apparent displacement of a marker. Methods to calculate the true displacement of faults using descriptive geometry, trigonometry or vector algebra are common in the literature, and most of them solve a specific situation from a large amount of possible combinations of the fault parameters. True displacements are not routinely calculated because it is a tedious and tiring task, despite their importance and the relatively simple methodology. We believe that the solution is to develop software capable of performing this work. In a previous publication, our research group proposed a method to calculate the true displacement of faults by solving most combinations of fault parameters using simple trigonometric equations. The purpose of this contribution is to present a computer program for calculating the true displacement of faults. The input data are the dip of the fault; the pitch angles of the markers, slickenlines and observation lines; and the marker separation. To prevent the common difficulties involved in switching between operative systems, the software is developed using the Java programing language. The computer program could be used as a tool in education and will also be useful for the calculation of the true fault displacement in geological and engineering works. The application resolves the cases with known direction of net slip, which commonly is assumed parallel to the slickenlines. This assumption is not always valid and must be used with caution, because the slickenlines are formed during a step of the incremental displacement on the fault surface, whereas the net slip is related to the finite slip.

  17. Permeability of displaced fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Christian; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Flow along fractures or in fissured systems becomes increasingly important in the context of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), shale gas recovery or nuclear waste deposit. Commonly, the permeability of fractures is approximated using the Hagen-Poiseuille solution of Navier Stokes equation. Furthermore, the flow in fractures is assumed to be laminar flow between two parallel plates and the cubic law for calculating the velocity field is applied. It is a well-known fact, that fracture flow is strongly influenced by the fracture surface roughness and the shear displacement along the fracture plane. Therefore, a numerical approach was developed which calculates the flow pattern within a fracture-matrix system. The flow in the fracture is described by a free fluid flow and the flow in the matrix is assumed to be laminar and therefore validates Darcy's law. The presented approach can be applied for artificially generated fractures or real fractures measured by surface scanning. Artificial fracture surfaces are generated using the power spectral density of the surface height random process with a spectral exponent to define roughness. For calculating the permeability of such fracture-matrix systems the mean fracture aperture, the shear displacement and the surface roughness are considered by use of a 3D numerical simulator. By use of this approach correlation between shear displacement and mean aperture, shear displacement and permeability, as well as surface roughness and permeability can be obtained. Furthermore, the intrinsic measured permeability presents a combination of matrix and fracture permeability. The presented approach allows the separation and quantification of the absolute magnitudes of the matrix and the fracture permeability and the permeability of displaced fractures can be calculated. The numerical approach which is a 3D numerical simulation of the fracture-matrix system can be applied for artificial as well as real systems.

  18. Horizontal violence in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimoulaki Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.

  19. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  20. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  1. Tests for character displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D F; Mosimann, J E; Meeter, D A

    1985-12-01

    Character displacement is an important concept in ecology which has been surrounded by controversy due largely to a lack of clearly stated hypotheses and statistical tests. Existing tests implicity assume random species sizes estimated without error--a random-effects model. We introduce the log-uniform distribution for species sizes and show that it has properties of direct relevance to character displacement. We present tests which assume uniform and log-normal species sizes and have the log-uniform distribution as an alternative. The tests have low power for sample sizes typically encountered in ecology. The effect of estimating species sizes is small. The results exemplify the shortcomings of the traditional random-effects model for species sizes.

  2. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... and market as mutually exclusive (Mol 2008), care and market appear to be intertwined in political patient figures through which the organization is trying to manage and transform itself from the inside...

  3. Miniaturised optical displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindele, Frank; Gaul, Frank; Kraus, Silvio; Sigloch, Susanne; Teubner, Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    The primary object presented in this contribution is the miniaturization of a displacement sensor system with the potential for high accuracy measurements and for cost-effective production in polymers. The measurement of linear displacements can be performed by different methods e.g. magnetoresistive, potentiometric, electromagnetic or inductive encoder systems. For movements in the millimeter range and above the most precise systems are based on optical methods. The displacement measurement of our sensor system uses the intensity modulation of two amplitude gratings, moving relative to each other and illuminated by a LED. To increase the system resolution and the signal quality the grating/detector combination is divided into four areas which are phase shifted to each other. The grating period is 25 μm with a geometrical accuracy below 1 μm. The amplitude gratings have been processed on a glass substrate lithographically. Applying electro-discharge machining a miniaturised optical bench for the passive alignment of the optical and the opto-electronic components has been realised. The sensor has an overall size of 6x4x3 mm3 and is designed for the future replication in one single polymer part. In combination with an electronic interpolation the sensor will be capable for a sub-micrometer accuracy.

  4. The coseismic displacements of the 2013 Lushan Mw6.6 earthquake determined using continuous global positioning system measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on Continuous GPS (CGPS observation data of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and the Sichuan Continuous Operational Reference System (SCCORS, we calculated the horizontal coseismic displacements of CGPS sites caused by the 2013 Lushan Mw 6. 6 earthquake. The results indicate that the horizontal coseismic deformations of CGPS stations are consistent with thrust-compression rupture. Furthermore, the sites closest to the epicenter underwent significant coseismic displacements. Three network stations exhibited displacements greater than 9 mm (the largest is 20. 9 mm at SCTQ, while the others were displaced approximately 1–4 mm.

  5. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  6. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.

    1997-04-01

    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  8. Displacement Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, J. M.; Rosenthal, S.; Venkataramani, S.

    2013-05-01

    Geometric corrections are blended with nonlinear/non-Gaussian estimation methods to produced improved data assimilation outcomes on problems where features are critical. Problems of this sort are the estimation of hurricane tracks, tracking jet meandering, front propagation, among many others. The geometric correction is made possible by a data preserving map. It makes corrections on phase, primarily, as well as in the amplitude. The displacement assimilation is embedded in the analysis stage of a nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian data assimilation scheme, such as the path integral method. In addition to showing how the method improves upon the results, as compared to more standard methodologies.

  9. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  10. Displaced patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Evaluation of efficacy of different gingival displacement materials on gingival sulcus width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, G S Renuka; Reddy, Kesava; Kumar, R K Naveen; Shivaprakash, S

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present in vivo study was to measure the efficacy of different gingival displacement materials in achieving gingival tissue displacement and to compare the efficacy of Expasyl displacement paste (Pierre Rolland, France) and gingival displacement cord for gingival displacement. Sixteen subjects were included in the study. Premolars were prepared to receive full veneer crown, gingival displacement was carried using gingival retraction cord and gingival displacement paste. Impression of the gingival sulcus was made. Sulcus width after displacement was measured under magnification. The mean displacement value of sulcus width was 0.21 ± 0.01 mm for the gingival retraction cord and 0.26 ± 0.02 mm for the gingival displacement paste. 'F' test was used for statistical analysis. Difference among the two test agents was statistically significant (p paste showed better response in achieving horizontal displacement of the gingival sulcus than gingival retraction cord. Gingival displacement helps in recording the unprepared tooth surface adjacent to the finish line in the impression being made, thereby helping a better marginal adaptation and emergence profile in the extracoronal restoration.

  12. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  13. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  14. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  15. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  16. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  17. PRODUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Antolović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest and performance of horizontal drilling and completions has increased during the last two decades. Horizontal wells are advantageous compared to vertical wells in thin reservoirs, reservoirs with favorable vertical permeability and reservoirs with water and gas coning problems. In many reservoirs, the ratio of horizontal permeability to the vertical permeability is substantially larger than one and often is close to 10. Thus, these reservoirs are very good candidates for hydraulic fracturing. By hydraulic fracturing one or more fractures are created, which can be longitudinal or orthogonal. By that, flow is altered and it mostly conducts horizontally through reservoir toward horizontal wellbore. With this altered flow, fluid is produced faster, with less pressure loss by fluid unit of produced fluid. Some of the existing mathematical models to determine the productivity of multifractured horizontal wells are presented in this work (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  19. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  20. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  1. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  2. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  3. Advanced high performance horizontal piezoelectric hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, horizontal, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a horizontal piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The present invention is capable of installation in the wing surface as well as embedding in the wetted surfaces of a supersonic inlet. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the SJA-H will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  4. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  5. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  6. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  7. Contribución segmentaria de los saltos con contramovimiento en vertical y en horizontal. [Segmental contribution on countermovement vertical and horizontal jumps].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2014-10-01

    , time-synchronized to a video camera that recorded at 210 Hz the sagital plane of the jumps performed on the platform. The jumps have been considered as a symmetrical movement taking place in a plane, with a mechanical coordinated model of eight segments. In the SV condition, participants had to perform a maximum vertical jump, starting from a standing position on the force platform. In the SH condition, participants had to perform a maximal horizontal jump starting from the same position. The results show a greater time for the jump in SH, (0.898 vs 1.056 s using a strategy extension-rotation in the horizontal jumps. The net force exerted during the braking impulse is higher for SV due to the greater velocity at the beginning of this phase (-1.166 vs -0.992 m/s. There was a greater involvement of the ankle and hip in SH, with a higher contribution of the trunk during the jump, also there was a greater contribution of the arms to the vertical displacement of the CM in SV.

  8. Horizontal and vertical changes in anchor molars after extractions in bimaxillary protrusion cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate changes in the anchor molar position (horizontal, vertical after retraction in bimaxillary protrusion maximum anchorage cases. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients requiring maximum anchorage after extraction of the first premolars were selected for this study. The second molars were banded in both arches along with trans-palatal arch in the maxillary arch and lingual arch in the mandibular arch. En mass retraction was done using sliding mechanics. Horizontal and vertical positions of the anchor first molars were evaluated cephalometrically before and after orthodontic retraction. Results: In the horizontal plane, maxillary first molars showed net mesial movement of 1.72 mm, and there was a statistical difference between the pre- and post-values (P < 0.001. The mandibular molars showed a net horizontal movement of 2.26 mm, and there was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-values (P < 0.001. In the vertical plane, there was vertical movement of the maxillary anchor molars by a net value of 0.95 mm which was statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mandibular anchor molars moved vertically by a net value of 0.45 mm. This difference was statistically not significant. Conclusion: There was anchorage loss seen in both the planes (horizontal, vertical of the maxillary anchor molars. In the mandibular anchor molars, there was anchorage loss seen only in the horizontal plane. No anchorage loss was seen in the vertical plane.

  9. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  10. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  11. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  12. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  13. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  14. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  15. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  16. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  17. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  18. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  19. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rae

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  20. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  1. Notes on the horizontal cohomology

    OpenAIRE

    Verbovetsky, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the horizontal (``characteristic'') cohomology of systems of differential equations. Recent results on computing the horizontal cohomology via the compatibility complex are generalized. New results on the Vinogradov C-spectral sequence and the Krasil'shchik C-cohomology are obtained. As an application of general theory, the examples of an evolution equation and a p-form gauge theory are explicitly worked out.

  2. Mechanisms of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Cafini Barrado, Fabio; Medrano Romero, Verónica; Morikawa, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays important roles in the evolution of S. aureus, and indeed, a variety of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes are embedded in a series of mobile genetic elements. In this chapter, we review the mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer, including recent findings on the natural genetic competence. Then, we consider the transfer of two important antibiotic resistance genes: the methicillin resistance gene, mecA (in Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome) and ...

  3. Effect of Body Mass Index on Intrafraction Prostate Displacement Monitored by Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Wayne M., E-mail: wbutler@wheelinghospital.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Morris, Mallory N. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Kurko, Brian S.; Murray, Brian C. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). Methods and Materials: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a 'beam on' tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI {>=}30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Results: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 {+-} 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 {+-} 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI {>=}30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. Conclusions: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

  4. Effect of body mass index on intrafraction prostate displacement monitored by real-time electromagnetic tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Wayne M; Morris, Mallory N; Merrick, Gregory S; Kurko, Brian S; Murray, Brian C

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a "beam on" tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI ≥ 30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 ± 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 ± 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI ≥ 30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  6. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  7. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  8. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    The climate of the Earth is changing. A consequence of this is observed at the polar regions such as Greenland, where the ice sheet is melting with an increasing rate. The unloading of ice causes the Earth to respond elastically in terms of uplift and an outward horizontal deformation of the crust....... This motion can be measured by permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Hence, the rates of crustal displacement are an indirect measure of the occurring mass changes. Currently, 55 GPS sites are located around the margin of the Greenland ice sheet, continuously providing information about...... the state of the ice sheet. However, the Earth is also adjusting viscoelastically to variations in the late Pleistocene ice sheets i.e. glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Observed rates of crustal displacement therefor contain signals from both past and present ice mass variations. Hence, to interpret...

  9. Dynamically Induced Displacements of a Persistent Cold-Air Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, Neil P.; Horel, John D.

    2015-02-01

    We examine the influence of a passing weather system on a persistent cold-air pool (CAP) during the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, USA. The CAP experiences a sequence of along-valley displacements that temporarily and partially remove the cold air in response to increasing along-valley winds aloft. The displacements are due to the formation of a mountain wave over the upstream topography as well as adjustments to the regional horizontal pressure gradient and wind-stress divergence acting on the CAP. These processes appear to help establish a balance wherein the depth of the CAP increases to the north. When that balance is disrupted, the CAP tilt collapses, which sends a gravity current of cold air travelling upstream and thereby restores CAP conditions throughout the valley. Intra-valley mixing of momentum, heat, and pollution within the CAP by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and seiching is also examined.

  10. DRILL BITS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Macini

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of the correct drill bit application in horizontal wells. Afler the analysis of the peculiarities of horizontal wells and drainholes drilling techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the application of both roller cone and fixed cutters drill bits have been discussed. Also, a review of the potential specific featuries useful for a correct drill bit selection in horizontal small diameter holes has been highlighted. Drill bits for these special applications, whose importance is quickly increasing nowadays, should be characterised by a design capable to deliver a good penetration rate low WOB, and, at the same time, be able to withstand high RPM without premature cutting structure failure and undergauge. Formation properties will also determine the cutting structure type and the eventual specific features for additional gauge and shoulder protection.

  11. Nurses’ Perceptions of Horizontal Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Taylor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I describe a study exploring horizontal violence and nurses’ perceptions of the phenomenon within the context of two 28-bed inpatient hospital units. The purpose of the study was to develop a clearer understanding of horizontal violence, incorporating observation and inquiry to identify the language nurses use to describe their experiences and factors in the nursing work environment that may perpetuate the phenomenon. Observation, review and analysis of policies, and interviews with staff were completed between June and November 2012. Thematic analysis resulted in five themes: (a behaviors are minimized and not recognized, (b fear inhibits all reporting, (c avoidance and isolation are coping strategies, (d lack of respect and support, and (e organizational chaos. The findings suggest future interventions must address a range of factors that perpetuate horizontal violence within the nursing work environment with consideration for the embeddedness and complexity of the phenomenon.

  12. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  13. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  14. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  16. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  17. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  18. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  19. Speckle Imaging Over Horizontal Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J

    2002-05-21

    Atmospheric aberrations reduce the resolution and contrast in surveillance images recorded over horizontal or slant paths. This paper describes our recent horizontal and slant path imaging experiments of extended scenes as well as the results obtained using speckle imaging. The experiments were performed with an 8-inch diameter telescope placed on either a rooftop or hillside and cover ranges of interest from 0.5 km up to 10 km. The scenery includes resolution targets, people, vehicles, and other structures. The improvement in image quality using speckle imaging is dramatic in many cases, and depends significantly upon the atmospheric conditions. We quantify resolution improvement through modulation transfer function measurement comparisons.

  20. Special Programming for Displaced Homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, John S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Displaced homemakers returning to college need special services. These programs were developed by one university's center for women: Project Succeed, Back to School Workshops, and Special Programs to Build Self-Confidence. These programs were developed to provide on-the-job training while in college, help adults returning to college earn a degree,…

  1. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  2. Study into the displacement of tumor localization needle during navigated breast cancer surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Christina; Ungi, Tamas; Gauvin, Gabrielle; Jabs, Doris; Lasso, Andras; Engel, Jay; Rudan, John; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE: Early stage breast cancer is typically treated with lumpectomy. During lumpectomy, electromagnetic tracking can be used to monitor tumor position using a localization needle with an electromagnetic sensor fixed on the needle shaft. This needle is stabilized in the tumor with tissue locking wire hooks, which are deployed once the needle is inserted. The localization needle may displace from its initial position of insertion due to mechanical forces, providing false spatial information about the tumor position and increasing the probability of an incomplete resection. This study investigates whether gravitational and mechanical forces affected the magnitude of needle displacement. METHODS: Ten ultrasound scans were evaluated to measure needle displacement in vivo. Needle position was approximated by the distance between the needle tip and the tumor boundary on a 2D ultrasound image, and needle displacement was defined by the change in position. The angle between the localization needle and the coronal plane was computed in an open-source platform. RESULTS: A significant relationship (p = 0.04) was found between the needle to coronal plane angle and increased needle displacement. Needles inserted vertically, pointing towards the operating room ceiling, tended to exhibit greater needle displacement. Average needle displacement was 1.7 +/-1.2 mm. CONCLUSION: Angle between the needle and the horizontal plane has been shown to affect needle displacement, and should be taken into consideration when inserting the localization needle. Future works can be directed towards improving the clinical workflow and mechanical design of the localization needle to reduce slippage during surgery.

  3. New quantitative radiographic parameters for vertical and horizontal instability in acromioclavicular joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, Matthias A; Schiessl, Philippe; Ambuehl, Benedikt; Bolliger, Lilianna; Weihs, Johannes; Maurer, Martin H; Moor, Beat K; Schaer, Michael; Raniga, Sumit

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most accurate and reliable quantitative radiographic parameters for assessing vertical and horizontal instability in different Rockwood grades of acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) separations. Furthermore, the effect of projectional variation on these parameters was investigated in obtaining lateral Alexander view radiographs. A Sawbone model of a scapula with clavicle was mounted on a holding device, and acromioclavicular dislocations as per the Rockwood classification system were simulated with the addition of horizontal posterior displacement. Projectional variations for each injury type were performed by tilting/rotating the Sawbone construct in the coronal, sagittal or axial plane. Radiographic imaging in the form of an anterior-posterior Zanca view and a lateral Alexander view were taken for each injury type and each projectional variation. Five newly defined radiographic parameters for assessing horizontal and vertical displacement as well as commonly used coracoclavicular distance view were measured. Reliability, validity and the effect of projectional variation were investigated for these radiographic measurements. All radiographic parameters showed excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. The validity was excellent for the acromial centre line to dorsal clavicle (AC-DC) in vertical displacement and for the glenoid centre line to posterior clavicle (GC-PC) in horizontal displacement, whilst the remaining measurements showed moderate validity. For AC-DC and GC-PC, convergent validity expressed strong correlation to the effective distance and discriminant validity demonstrated its ability to differentiate between various grades of ACJ dislocations. The effect of projectional variation increased with the degree of deviation and was maximal (3 mm) for AC-DC in 20° anteverted malpositioning and for GC-PC in 20° retroverted malpositioning. AC-DC and the GC-PC are two novel quantitative radiographic parameters of

  4. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  5. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  6. Horizontal mantle flow controls subduction dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficini, E; Dal Zilio, L; Doglioni, C; Gerya, T V

    2017-08-08

    It is generally accepted that subduction is driven by downgoing-plate negative buoyancy. Yet plate age -the main control on buoyancy- exhibits little correlation with most of the present-day subduction velocities and slab dips. "West"-directed subduction zones are on average steeper (~65°) than "East"-directed (~27°). Also, a "westerly"-directed net rotation of the lithosphere relative to the mantle has been detected in the hotspot reference frame. Thus, the existence of an "easterly"-directed horizontal mantle wind could explain this subduction asymmetry, favouring steepening or lifting of slab dip angles. Here we test this hypothesis using high-resolution two-dimensional numerical thermomechanical models of oceanic plate subduction interacting with a mantle flow. Results show that when subduction polarity is opposite to that of the mantle flow, the descending slab dips subvertically and the hinge retreats, thus leading to the development of a back-arc basin. In contrast, concordance between mantle flow and subduction polarity results in shallow dipping subduction, hinge advance and pronounced topography of the overriding plate, regardless of their age-dependent negative buoyancy. Our results are consistent with seismicity data and tomographic images of subduction zones. Thus, our models may explain why subduction asymmetry is a common feature of convergent margins on Earth.

  7. The M-2 ocean tide loading wave in Alaska: vertical and horizontal displacements, modelled and observed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Scherneck, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Crustal deformations caused by surface load due to ocean tides are strongly dependent on the surface load closest to the observing site. In order to correctly model this ocean loading effect near irregular coastal areas, a high-resolution coastline is required. A test is carried out using two GPS...

  8. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  9. Co-seismic displacements of 2011 Japan Mw9. 0 earthquake recorded by far-field GPS stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shaomin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic displacements of the 2011 Mw9. 0 Japan earthquake recorded by GPS stations in China and surrounding areas showed a movement toward the epicenter. The horizontal displacements were up to 1 – 3 cm in northeastern China, 3 – 8 mm in the North China, and 2 cm in the Korean peninsula. The vertical movements in China were small uplifts.

  10. A concept for the examination of reference points stability in horizontal control networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malarski Ryszard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for the identification of stable reference points used in horizontal control networks, which is based on the lengths of apparent displacement vectors and their mean errors. These vectors and their mean errors are obtained during the process of calculating displacements with free adjustment conditions. It will be shown that the influence of the apparent displacement vectors has a significant effect on the calculation of results. The identification of stable points, using the proposed method, is an integral part of the adjustment process and allows for the interrogation the influence of individual point inclusion or deletion from the reference database, on the values of displacements of controlled points. A detailed process of stable reference points identification is presented using the example of a linear-angular network for a barrage.

  11. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  12. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  13. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  14. Center of Pressure Displacement of Standing Posture during Rapid Movements Is Reorganised Due to Experimental Lower Extremity Muscle Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Shiozawa

    Full Text Available Postural control during rapid movements may be impaired due to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental knee-related muscle pain on the center of pressure (CoP displacement in a reaction time task condition.Nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (dominant side shoulder flexion and bilateral heel lift before, during, and after experimental pain induced in the dominant side vastus medialis or the tibialis anterior muscles by hypertonic saline injections. The CoP displacement was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral side by two force plates and the net CoP displacement was calculated.Compared with non-painful sessions, tibialis anterior muscle pain during the peak and peak-to-peak displacement for the CoP during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs of the shoulder task reduced the peak-to-peak displacement of the net CoP in the medial-lateral direction (P<0.05. Tibialis anterior and vastus medialis muscle pain during shoulder flexion task reduced the anterior-posterior peak-to-peak displacement in the ipsilateral side (P<0.05.The central nervous system in healthy individuals was sufficiently robust in maintaining the APA characteristics during pain, although the displacement of net and ipsilateral CoP in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions during unilateral fast shoulder movement was altered.

  15. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Sila Mermut; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin

    2012-08-01

    The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing.

  16. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  17. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  18. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  19. Horizontal motions, bedrock incision, and the structure of relief in growing folds and orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, G.; Alejandre, J.; Hilley, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Topographic divide asymmetry may arise from gradients in rock erodibility and orographic precipitation across a mountain belt, and/or tectonic displacement fields that uplift and translate rock horizontally during orogenesis. While simple models exploring relief in active orogens typically consider tectonic motions that are uniform and vertical, the displacement field at Earth's surface generated by slip on finite-length faults is inherently inhomogeneous and contains vertical and horizontal components, which may play an important role in divide asymmetry. In this study, we consider channel profiles that evolve according to the shear stress rule for bedrock fluvial erosion and that experience inhomogeneous horizontal and vertical components of tectonic motion. Dimensional analysis of our revised shear stress rule reveals a dimensionless coefficient that relates bedrock erodibility and basin geometry to slip rate on the underlying fault. We implement our model in a series of 1D non-dimensional numerical experiments that calculate river profile geometry on either side of a topographic divide that is free to advect through the model domain in response to horizontal motion. We drive the models with displacements calculated over a dipping, buried edge dislocation, and examine non-dimensional relief and divide asymmetry resulting from variations in fault dip, non-dimensional fault tip location and non-dimensional model extent. We find that asymmetry results from the full displacement field and from the vertical displacement field alone. Fault dip plays a strong role in the magnitude and direction of divide asymmetry, both in models that include the horizontal motions and those that neglect them. The greatest divide asymmetry resulting from the full displacement field is achieved over dislocations with shallow non-dimensional upper tip depths and small dip angles, although steeply-dipping faults produce asymmetry in the opposite direction. By setting the horizontal

  20. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  1. Displacement determinations of synergistic motion platform jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Кабанячий

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Urgency, statement and precise solution of displacement determinations problem of synergistic motion platform jacks depending on construction parameters and desired displacements along degrees of freedom are represented

  2. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic centimeter...

  3. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  4. Survey of horizontal stresses in coal mines from available measurements and mapping.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frith, R

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available _______________________________________________________________________________ ___ STRATA ENGINEERING (Australia) Pty Ltd 3 A detailed description of the project outcomes will now be given. SIMRAC: Final Report, Project COL802 (Horizontal Stress Survey) 27th September 2002... of Inertia (m4) e = eccentricity (m) u = lateral displacement of buckling beam (m) l = beam length (m) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Displacement (mm) He ig ht in to R oo f ( m ) SIMRAC: Final Report, Project COL802...

  5. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2009-08-01

    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  6. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  7. Volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingxue Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep shale gas reservoirs buried underground with depth being more than 3500 m are characterized by high in-situ stress, large horizontal stress difference, complex distribution of bedding and natural cracks, and strong rock plasticity. Thus, during hydraulic fracturing, these reservoirs often reveal difficult fracture extension, low fracture complexity, low stimulated reservoir volume (SRV, low conductivity and fast decline, which hinder greatly the economic and effective development of deep shale gas. In this paper, a specific and feasible technique of volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells is presented. In addition to planar perforation, multi-scale fracturing, full-scale fracture filling, and control over extension of high-angle natural fractures, some supporting techniques are proposed, including multi-stage alternate injection (of acid fluid, slick water and gel and the mixed- and small-grained proppant to be injected with variable viscosity and displacement. These techniques help to increase the effective stimulated reservoir volume (ESRV for deep gas production. Some of the techniques have been successfully used in the fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells in Yongchuan, Weiyuan and southern Jiaoshiba blocks in the Sichuan Basin. As a result, Wells YY1HF and WY1HF yielded initially 14.1 × 104 m3/d and 17.5 × 104 m3/d after fracturing. The volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal well is meaningful in achieving the productivity of 50 × 108 m3 gas from the interval of 3500–4000 m in Phase II development of Fuling and also in commercial production of huge shale gas resources at a vertical depth of less than 6000 m.

  8. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  9. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  10. A Similitude Theory for Bucket Foundations Under Monotonic Horizontal Load in Dense Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    of bucket foundations under horizontal load, is put forward. A constitutive law of the soil and a load-displacement relationship for the bucket foundation are theoretically obtained. Triaxial tests of sand, and small-scale tests of bucket foundation, are respectively employed to corroborate the theory....... Attention is given to the different behaviour shown during the compressive and dilative phases of the soil. Some analogy between triaxial tests and tests of bucket foundation are pointed out. A theoretically derived power law is found capable to represent the dimensionless horizontal load......-displacement curves of experimental results. In accordance with the theory, the exponent of the power law slightly varies between tests with considerably different features. The non-dimensional moment-rotation relationship is represented by a power law as well. The approach is considered valid for fatigue design...

  11. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  12. Horizontal gene transfer in choanoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also known as lateral gene transfer, results in the rapid acquisition of genes from another organism. HGT has long been known to be a driving force in speciation in prokaryotes, and there is evidence for HGT from symbiotic and infectious bacteria to metazoans, as well as from protists to bacteria. Recently, it has become clear that as many as a 1,000 genes in the genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis may have been acquired by HGT. Interestingly, these genes reportedly come from algae, bacteria, and other choanoflagellate prey. Some of these genes appear to have allowed an ancestral choanoflagellate to exploit nutrient-poor environments and were not passed on to metazoan descendents. However, some of these genes are also found in animal genomes, suggesting that HGT into a common ancestor of choanozoans and animals may have contributed to metazoan evolution. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hue geometry and horizontal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Zucker, Steven W

    2004-01-01

    Primate visual systems support an elaborate specialization for processing color information. Concentrating on the hue component, we observe that, contrary to Mondrian-like assumptions, hue varies in a smooth manner for ecologically important natural imagery. To represent these smooth variations, and to support those information processing tasks that utilize hue, a piecewise smooth hue field is postulated. The geometry of hue-patch interactions is developed analogously to orientation-patch interactions in texture. The result is a model for long-range (horizontal) interactions in the color domain, the power of which is demonstrated on a number of examples. Implications for computer image processing, computer vision, visual neurophysiology and psychophysics are discussed.

  14. Explorando nuevos horizontes en NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, G. L.

    A pesar de la incesante expansión del Universo iniciada con el Big Bang 14 mil millones de años atrás, nuestro Universo se siente cada día más cercano. La inquebrantable vocación de la humanidad por descubrir nuevos horizontes ha permitido el acercamiento de civilizaciones en nuestro planeta y nos ha permitido conocer nuestro lugar en el Universo como nunca antes. En este artículo presento una breve sinopsis de nuestro trabajo que se relaciona con diversas investigaciones con implicaciones astrobiológicas, desde el origen de los ingredientes de la "sopa de la vida", hasta la evolución y composición de la atmósfera de Marte.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of anterior and posterior eye segment displacement during ocular gaze shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eter, N; Garbe, S; Pauleit, D; Schüttoff, T; Schüller, H

    2003-03-01

    To determine the relationship between movements of the posterior and anterior eye segments during arbitrary gaze shifts and to obtain information for monitoring fixation during radiotherapy for ocular diseases. We examined eye movements of ten emmetropic volunteers in a 1.5 T magnetic resonance system. Using a T2-weighted ultrafast turbo-spin echo sequence (UTSE), the eyes were examined within 21 seconds. Sagittal and transversal eye slices were obtained in five passages in five gaze directions (straight ahead, 15 degrees above, 15 degrees below, 15 degrees right and 15 degrees left of the primary position). Displacement of the posterior eye segment was analyzed in relation to the movement of the anterior segment in all directions. The relationship between the movements of the anterior and posterior eye segment was 1:0.8 (+/- 0.06 SD) during horizontal gaze shifts and 1:1.16 (+/- 0.11 SD) during vertical gaze shifts. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the relationship between anterior and posterior eye segments was different during horizontal and vertical eye movements, indicating the presence of more than one center of rotation. Compared to the anterior eye segment, there was less displacement of the posterior eye segment during horizontal eye movements and more displacement during vertical eye movements.

  16. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  17. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  18. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  19. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hovil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  20. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  1. Modeling Displacement Measurement using Vibration Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOSTON Katalin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding to small displacement measurement using vibration transducers. Mechanical faults, usages, slackness’s, cause different noises and vibrations with different amplitude and frequency against the normal sound and movement of the equipment. The vibration transducers, accelerometers and microphone are used for noise and/or sound and vibration detection with fault detection purpose. The output signal of the vibration transducers or accelerometers is an acceleration signal and can be converted to either velocity or displacement, depending on the preferred measurement parameter. Displacement characteristics are used to indicate when the machine condition has changed. There are many problems using accelerometers to measure position or displacement. It is important to determine displacement over time. To determinate the movement from acceleration a double integration is needed. A transfer function and Simulink model was determinate for accelerometers with capacitive sensing element. Using these models the displacement was reproduced by low frequency input.

  2. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  3. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Gao; Meng Ying-Feng; Wei Na; Xu Zhao-Yang; Li Hong-Tao; Xiao Gui-Lin; Zhang Yu-Rui

    2014-01-01

    .... Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling...

  4. The Design of an Online Petri Net Based Token (Ludo) Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavior of Petri nets with exponentially distributed firing times can be represented by labeled directed "slate" graphs in which labels describe the probabilities of transition firings (displacement of tokens) between vertices of the graph. The interactive firing of transitions in subsequent markings is known as token game.

  5. Articular disc displacement in mandibular asymmetry patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boonsiva Buranastidporn; Hisano, Masataka; Soma, Kunimichi

    2004-01-01

    ...) inmandibular asymmetry have not been clearlydefined. This study examines the degree anddirection of disc displacement and their relationshipwith vertical asymmetry in terms of both clinicaland biomechanical aspects...

  6. Percutaneous Fixation of Displaced Calcaneal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Yip-Kan

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous fixation of displaced tongue-type calcaneal fractures is an effective treatment with acceptable clinical outcome, short hospital stay, minimal skin complications, and quick recovery.

  7. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Stenner, Heidi D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  8. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  9. Human balance responses to perturbations in the horizontal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Michael; Jelinek, Herbert F; McGloughlin, Tim; Khalaf, Kinda; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Vallery, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Human balance strategies during standing have been studied extensively. Most of these studies rely on perturbations to the feet, for example by moving platforms or treadmills, and focus on the sagittal plane. Less research has been done on reactions to perturbations to the upper body, and the direction dependence of stabilizing strategies is still an open question. Here, we describe an experiment where we apply horizontal static pulling forces to the upper body of standing human subjects in different directions by means of an overhead robotic device, the FLOAT. Based on a simplified mechanical model, we propose the normalized displacement of the center of pressure, the ΔCoPn, as a measure of the selected balance strategy. We find that existing neuromechanical models do not fully explain responses to these static horizontal forces, because they predict too much CoP movement. Further, we found a tendency to particularly reduce CoP movement in anterior-posterior direction, indicating that reconfiguration of the body may play a larger role in this direction.

  10. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  11. Horizontal vortex single chamber hydroturbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Antonio Zarate-Orrego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una máquina con alta resistencia de forma para extraer energía de una quebrada, río o corriente marina, y generar electricidad. Sin instrumentos adecuados, la investigación fue cualitativa. Se supuso que si aun así funcionaba, su comportamiento podía mejorar suavizándose la forma. El aparato tiene una tobera semi-convergente de paredes planas, una cámara de vórtice cilíndrica y un rodete. Capta agua por su sección mayor y la descarga tangencialmente por su sección menor en la cámara de vórtice; ésta tiene un orificio en una de sus paredes laterales. Así forma un vórtice horizontal que hace girar un rodete cuyo eje acciona un generador eléctrico. El trabajo experimental realizado mostró que sí es posible producir energía eléctrica con este dispositivo pese a las condiciones adversas en que se ensayó.

  12. Co-seismic displacements from differencing and sub-pixel correlation of multi-temporal LiDAR and cadastral surveys: application to the Greendale Fault, Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, B. G.; Van Dissen, R.; Quigley, M.; Litchfield, N. J.; McInnes, C.; Leprince, S.; Barrell, D.; Stahl, T. A.; Bilderback, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Surface rupture on the dextral strike-slip Greendale fault during the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury), earthquake in New Zealand terminated in a releasing bend at the western end of the fault. Our first-ever co-seismic application of multi-temporal aerial LiDAR, coupled with cadastral surveying, real time kinematic GPS scarp profiling and offset mapping provides unprecedented documentation of surface displacements at the western end of the Greendale fault, particularly at the transition into the releasing bend. Cadastral trilateration data from the northern end of the releasing bend area demonstrate that the hanging wall (NE) side of the fault moved 1.5 m to the southeast while the footwall (SW) side of the fault moved 0.6 m to the southwest. This resulted in an oblique transtensional net slip of 2.5 m. At the southern end of the releasing bend, the north-side-down transtensional structure transitions into a north-side down transpressional structure. High-resolution absolute vertical motions associated with this transition, as well as relationships of drainage morphology to fault geometry, are captured by differencing of pre- and post-fault LiDAR. Vertical differencing reveals the distribution of vertical offsets, with some scarps defined that have vertical displacement gradients of only 1:1000. The geomorphology of these subtle vertical displacements reveals that the transition into the releasing bend is accommodated by a restraining stepover. Sub-pixel correlation of the pre-and post-earthquake LiDAR rasters using COSI-Corr (http://www.tectonics.caltech.edu/slip_history/spot_coseis/index.html) additionally reveal E-W shortening of approximately 0.8 m across a discontinuity that represents one side of the restraining stepover. This is consistent with the cadastral survey results. Our results demonstrate the utility of multi-temporal LiDAR for documenting both the vertical and horizontal components of co-seismic deformation.

  13. Surfactant-induced flow compromises determination of air-water interfacial areas by surfactant miscible-displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Henry, Eric J

    2017-03-01

    Surfactant miscible-displacement (SMD) column experiments are used to measure air-water interfacial area (AI) in unsaturated porous media, a property that influences solute transport and phase-partitioning. The conventional SMD experiment results in surface tension gradients that can cause water redistribution and/or net drainage of water from the system ("surfactant-induced flow"), violating theoretical foundations of the method. Nevertheless, the SMD technique is still used, and some suggest that experimental observations of surfactant-induced flow represent an artifact of improper control of boundary conditions. In this work, we used numerical modeling, for which boundary conditions can be perfectly controlled, to evaluate this suggestion. We also examined the magnitude of surfactant-induced flow and its impact on AI measurement during multiple SMD flow scenarios. Simulations of the conventional SMD experiment showed substantial surfactant-induced flow and consequent drainage of water from the column (e.g., from 75% to 55% SW) and increases in actual AI of up to 43%. Neither horizontal column orientation nor alternative boundary conditions resolved surfactant-induced flow issues. Even for simulated flow scenarios that avoided surfactant-induced drainage of the column, substantial surfactant-induced internal water redistribution occurred and was sufficient to alter surfactant transport, resulting in up to 23% overestimation of AI. Depending on the specific simulated flow scenario and data analysis assumptions used, estimated AI varied by nearly 40% and deviated up to 36% from the system's initial AI. We recommend methods for AI determination that avoid generation of surface-tension gradients and urge caution when relying on absolute AI values measured via SMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow Pattern Identification of Horizontal Two-Phase Refrigerant Flow Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    making classification difficult. Consequently, Table 5 shows neural net - work classification results for nine flow patterns. The number of runs...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2016-0079 FLOW PATTERN IDENTIFICATION OF HORIZONTAL TWO-PHASE REFRIGERANT FLOW USING NEURAL NETWORKS (POSTPRINT) Abdeel J... NEURAL NETWORKS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62203F 6. AUTHOR(S) Abdeel J. Roman and

  15. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  16. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  17. Stationary core-annular flow through a horizontal pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, G; Poesio, P

    2003-12-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of core-annular flow: the flow of a high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a low-viscosity annular liquid layer through a horizontal pipe. Special attention is paid to the question how the buoyancy force on the core, caused by a possible density difference between the core and the annular layer, is counterbalanced. From earlier studies it is known that at the core surface ripples are present that have the shape of "bamboo" waves or "snake" waves. They generate pressure variations and secondary flows in the annular layer that can cause a net hydrodynamic force on the core. Using hydrodynamic-lubrication theory (assuming the core to be rigid) it has been shown that for snake waves the lubrication force can counterbalance the buoyancy force. For bamboo waves that is not the case.

  18. Horizontal cooperation in logistics : Opportunities and impediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Cools, Martine; Dullaert, Wout

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale survey on the potential benefits of and impediments for horizontal cooperation in Flanders. The main findings are that in general Logistics Service Providers strongly believe in the potential benefits of horizontal cooperation to increase their

  19. Rectifying Horizontal Inequalities: Lessons from African Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most prevalent and underrepresented root causes of conflict in Africa and worldwide is that of horizontal inequalities. In that light, the goal of this paper is to provide practical solutions for the long-term resolution of conflict by addressing one of its root causes, that of horizontal inequalities. Reference will be made ...

  20. Rectifying Horizontal Inequalities: Lessons from African Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and horizontal (between groups) inequalities. A number of scholars have addressed the question of inequalities. Frances Stewart, for example, deals with the problem of horizontal inequalities in a number of papers.2 Stewart. (2002:3) argues that 'unequal access to political/economic/social resources. 1 The social contract ...

  1. Do infants have the horizontal bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Renswoude, D.R.; Johnson, S.P.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.; Visser, I.

    2016-01-01

    A robust set of studies show that adults make more horizontal than vertical and oblique saccades, while scanning real-world scenes. In this paper we study the horizontal bias in infants. The directions of eye movements were calculated for 41 infants (M = 8.40 months, SD = 3.74, range = 3.48–15.47)

  2. The Process of Horizontal Differentiation: Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Richard L.; Bradshaw, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the process of horizontal differentiation by examining events leading to the establishment of 30 new departments in five universities. Two types of horizontal differentiation processes--administrative and academic--were observed and each was associated with different organizational conditions. (Author/IRT)

  3. Circular Orbit Target Capture Using Space Tether-Net System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space tether-net system for on-orbit capture is proposed in this paper. In order to research the dynamic behaviors during system deployment, both free and nonfree deployment dynamics in circular orbit are developed; the system motion with respect to Local Vertical and Local Horizontal frame is also researched with analysis and simulation. The results show that in the case of free deployment, the capture net follows curve trajectories due to the relative orbit dynamic perturbation, and the initial deployment velocities are planned by state transformation equations for static and floating target captures; in the case of non-free deployment, the system undergoes an altitude libration along the Local Vertical, and the analytical solutions that describe the attitude libration are obtained by using variable separation and integration. Finally, the dynamics of postdeployment system is also proved marginally stable if the critical initial conditions are satisfied.

  4. Seismic displacement of gravity retaining walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as elasto-plastic material according to Mohr–Column criteria while the gravity wall is assumed elastic. By comparing the resulted seismic wall displacements calculated by numerical analysis for six historical ground motions with that calculated by the pseudo-static method, it is found that numerical seismic displacements are either equal to or greater than corresponding pseudo-static values. Permissible seismic wall displacement calculated by AASHTO can be used for empirical estimation of seismic displacement. It is also found that seismic wall displacement is directly proportional with the positive angle of inclination of the back surface of the wall, soil flexibility and with the earthquake maximum ground acceleration. Seismic wall sliding is dominant and rotation is negligible for rigid walls when the ratio between the wall height and the foundation width is less than 1.4, while for greater ratios the wall becomes more flexible and rotation (rocking increases till the ratio reaches 1.8 where overturning is susceptible to take place. Cumulative seismic wall rotation increases with dynamic time and tends to be constant at the end of earthquake.

  5. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  6. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  7. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 68; Issue 4. Atomic displacements in bcc ... metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method.

  8. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  9. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has been...

  10. Redistribution or horizontal equity in Hong Kong's mixed public-private health system: a policy conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Gabriel M; Tin, Keith Y K; O'Donnell, Owen

    2009-01-01

    We examine the distributional characteristics of Hong Kong's mixed public-private health system to identify the net redistribution achieved through public spending on health care, compare the income-related inequality and inequity of public and private care and measure horizontal inequity in health-care delivery overall. Payments for public care are highly concentrated on the better-off whereas benefits are pro-poor. As a consequence, public health care effects significant net redistribution from the rich to the poor. Public care is skewed towards the poor in part not only because of allocation according to need but also because the rich opt out of the public sector and consume most of the private care. Overall, there is horizontal inequity favouring the rich in general outpatient care and (very marginally) inpatient care. Pro-rich bias in the distribution of private care outweighs the pro-poor bias of public care. A lesser role for private finance may improve horizontal equity of utilisation but would also reduce the degree of net redistribution through the public sector. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Horizontal gene transfer in human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has a tremendous impact on the genome plasticity, adaptation and evolution of bacteria. Horizontally transferred mobile genetic elements are involved in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, thus contributing to the emergence of novel "superbugs". This review provides update on various mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer and examines how horizontal gene transfer contributes to the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. Special focus is paid to the role horizontal gene transfer plays in pathogenicity of the emerging human pathogens: hypervirulent Clostridium difficile and Escherichia coli (including the most recent haemolytic uraemic syndrome outbreak strain) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which have been associated with largest outbreaks of infection recently.

  12. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  13. Simulations of threshold displacement in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew L. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fossati, Paul C. M.; Grimes, Robin W. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-28

    Atomic scale molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage have been performed on beryllium. Direct threshold displacement simulations along a geodesic projection of directions were used to investigate the directional dependence with a high spatial resolution. It was found that the directionally averaged probability of displacement increases from 0 at 35 eV, with the energy at which there is a 50% chance of a displacement occurring is 70 eV and asymptotically approaching 1 for higher energies. This is, however, strongly directionally dependent with a 50% probability of displacement varying from 35 to 120 eV, with low energy directions corresponding to the nearest neighbour directions. A new kinetic energy dependent expression for the average maximum displacement of an atom as a function of energy is derived which closely matches the simulated data.

  14. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  15. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  16. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  17. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  18. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  19. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  20. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  1. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  2. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  3. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  4. The effects of drift and displacement motion on Dynamic Visual Acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Sinnett

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA can be measured from two types of equivalently considered movement referred to as drifting-motion and displacement-motion. Displacement motion can be best described as the horizontal displacement of a stimulus, thus implying pursuit eye movements, and involves moving the stimulus from the fixation point of gaze towards the periphery. The drifting motion of a Gabor patch, for example, avoids pursuit eye movements, since the gaze is fixed in a point of the patch. Our data shows that in both types of movement visual acuity (VA, expressed in terms of spatial frequency, diminished as the velocity of the target increased. However, the slope of the regression equation indicated that this impairment is more than two-fold in the case of drifting-motion when compared to displacement motion. As the greater impairment took place when pursuit eye movements did not exist, our data suggests that these two types of motions correct differently for retinal slip. Retinal slip appears to be less efficiently compensated for in the case of drifting motion having adverse consequences on VA, while retinal slip has a higher tolerance in the case of displacement motion exhibited by the performance in VA.

  5. Numerical Simulation of High Viscosity Oil Displacement by Water Following Non-Linear Filtration Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Slabnov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-linear filtration law with a limiting gradient of two immiscible fluids (oil and water into a flat warp-free layer exploited by horizontal and vertical wells is investigated. The method for numerical determination of pressure and oil saturation and the corresponding difference analogues are considered. The analysis of high viscosity oil displacement by water in the five-point waterflooding element for three types of heterogeneity (zonal, with spline-interpolation application, and laminated is carried out. The influence of the displacement limiting gradient on the basic technological characteristics of non-Newtonian oil production is studied. The results of the mathematical simulation show that the front movement at the initial stage of displacement is close to circular. The movement of non-Newtonian oil after the displacing fluid breakthrough into the producing well occurs mainly in a narrow area close to the straight current line connecting the producing and pressure wells. The dynamics of the current oil recovery coefficient depends on the properties of the displaced fluid, absolute permeability distribution in the filtration area, and set of limitations to exploitation of the operating producing and pressure wells.

  6. Optimizing the productivity of acid-fracture treatments in horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.

    1995-12-31

    Existing prediction methods are inadequate for unstable radial displacement, with prediction errors of up to 500%. This work provides a new theoretical basis for understanding unstable displacements in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, based on a detailed analysis of the fingering morphology and a new derivation using fractional flow theory for radial flow. Design guidelines are given to assist in optimizing the design of fingered acid-fracture treatments for horizontal wells in carbonate formations. Unstable radial displacement creates power-law (fractal) displacement patterns, for a wide range of mobility ratios, and the displacement efficiency can be expressed as a function of the mobility ratio M. The finger wavelength is a function of the Peclet number and the fracture aperture, and the detailed morphology can be understood in terms of the fluid theology. The size of the fingering zone can be predicted from the mobility ratio and Peclet number. A productivity index factor PIF can be used to compare different treatment scenarios, and thus optimise the productivity of acid-fracture treatments.

  7. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  8. Low-Cost GNSS Receivers for Local Monitoring: Experimental Simulation, and Analysis of Displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Ludovico; Grec, Florin Cătălin; Negretti, Marco

    2016-12-15

    The geodetic monitoring of local displacements and deformations is often needed for civil engineering structures and natural phenomena like, for example, landslides. A local permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) network can be installed: receiver positions in the interest area are estimated and monitored with respect to reference stations. Usually, GNSS geodetic receivers are adopted and provide results with accuracies at the millimeter level: however, they are very expensive and the initial cost and the risk of damage and loss can discourage this approach. In this paper the accuracy and the reliability of low-cost u-blox GNSS receivers are experimentally investigated for local monitoring. Two experiments are analyzed. In the first, a baseline (65 m long) between one geodetic reference receiver and one u-blox is continuously observed for one week: the data are processed by hourly sessions and the results provide comparisons between two processing packages and a preliminary accuracy assessment. Then, a network composed of one geodetic and two u-blox receivers is set up. One u-blox is installed on a device (slide) that allows to apply controlled displacements. The geodetic and the other u-blox (at about 130 m) act as references. The experiment lasts about two weeks. The data are again processed by hourly sessions. The estimated displacements of the u-blox on the slide are analyzed and compared with the imposed displacements. All of the results are encouraging: in the first experiment the standard deviations of the residuals are smaller than 5 mm both in the horizontal and vertical; in the second, they are slightly worse but still satisfactory (5 mm in the horizontal and 13 mm in vertical) and the imposed displacements are almost correctly identified.

  9. Investigation of post-earthquake displacements in viaducts using Geodetic and Finite Element Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Güney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research into the post-earthquake displacements of the partially constructed road viaducts in Bolu, Turkey after the Izmit/Kocaeli, (Mw = 7.4, and Düzce (Mw = 7.1 earthquakes on 17 August and 12 November 1999, respectively. The investigations on the viaducts were carried out using both Geodetic and Finite Element Methods (FEM. Firstly, all the geodetic network stations selected for the project were checked because of the recent deformation in the area. Then, new control stations were placed between the piers of the viaducts. 28 object points were placed and measured on each pier to determine their displacements. In the second stage, the behaviours of the viaducts were modelled using the FEM, and the Düzce earthquake acceleration record was analysed to observe the response of the viaducts in a time history domain. The modelled displacement response of the viaducts was compared with the geodetic measurements in order to interpret the sensitivity of the design calculation of the engineering model. The pier displacements that were geodetically measured and calculated using FEM peak pier displacements showed an increase in the piers located closer to the surface rupture from the Izmit/Kocaeli and Düzce earthquakes. The agreement between the observed and modelled displacements decreases with the increase in the distance from the fault line. Since, near the fault trace the horizontal displacement field is discontinuous and large inelastic deformation is expected, the behaviour of the part of the structure located near the fault line cannot be easily reproduced by FEM simulations. This is because the applied model loads derived from the source acceleration spectra cannot be included in the localized finite deformation effects. In order to obtain an improved engineering analysis, it is necessary to utilise more parameters in the numerical analysis.

  10. PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  11. Recompletion by horizontal drilling pays off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holifield, R.H.; Rehm, B.

    1989-03-01

    More than 20 wells have been recompleted in the Giddings field by drilling a new, horizontal interval from existing 5 1/2-in. cased wells for distances of 300 to 1,250 ft. Recompleting existing wells is much cheaper than drilling a new well. Plus, the new completions, overall, produce better. The horizontal wells are routinely profitable now, and pay out occurs in 3 to 24 months. During this program, the techniques for slim-hole- medium-radius, horizontal drilling in Giddings have been mastered and costs have dropped 75%. It is believed that this program may be the first (or among the first) continuing horizontal project drilled out of cased wells with repeatable profitability as opposed to projected viability.

  12. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Khalid

    2000-03-06

    One of the key issues addressed was pressure drop in long horizontal wells and its influence on well performance. Very little information is available in the literature on flow in pipes with influx through pipe walls. Virtually all of this work has been in small diameter pipes and with single-phase flow. In order to address this problem new experimental data on flow in horizontal and near horizontal wells have been obtained. Experiments were conducted at an industrial facility on typical 6 1/8 ID, 100 feet long horizontal well model. The new data along with available information in the literature have been used to develop new correlations and mechanistic models. Thus it is now possible to predict, within reasonable accuracy, the effect of influx through the well on pressure drop in the well.

  13. Assisting the return of displaced Dinka Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murphy

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues involved in supporting the return of internally displaced Dinka Bor communities highlight the complex, and often ignored, challenges of addressing the consequencesof South-South conflict.

  14. Colombia’s displaced indigenous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Escobar Cuero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are one of the most vulnerable groups within Colombia’s internally displaced population, and a lack of understanding of their culture and needs constitutes a major challenge to their protection and assistance.

  15. Miscible, Porous Media Displacements with Density Stratification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RIAZ, AMIR; MEIBURG, ECKART

    2004-01-01

    A bstract : High accuracy, three‐dimensional numerical simulations of miscible displacements with gravity override, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, are discussed for the quarter five‐spot configuration...

  16. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  17. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  18. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  19. Horizontal Compilations of Nuclear Data III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroko, Z. N.; Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Sukhoruchkin, D. S.

    2001-11-01

    Compilations of resonance parameters for all nuclei (horizontal-type compilations) derived from study of reactions with neutrons and charge particles are described. Systematic trends in experimental data due to the differences in energy scales of spectrometers were found after comparison of data for many nuclei. The combination of data from horizontal-type compilations with data from the well-known file ENSDF expands the usefulness of these data files.

  20. Horizontal Brand Extension and Customer perception

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khalid; Janthimapornkij, Rattanawilai

    2011-01-01

    Company use different method for extended their business to different market and to different segment. They use different method; brand extension is one of popular strategy for extension of business. Brand extension does not become successful for every brand, it is very risky. The purpose of this thesis is to study horizontal brand extension and customer perception. We will discuss horizontal brand extension and its two main types franchise brand extension and line extension. Brand extension ...

  1. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  2. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  3. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    chromatin. The condensed nature of chromatin inhibits many DNA metabolizing activities, including NER. In order to promote efficient repair, detection of a lesion not only has to activate the NER pathway but also chromatin remodeling. In general, such remodeling is thought on the one hand to precede NER...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  4. Suppression of displacement in severely slowed saccades

    OpenAIRE

    MacAskill, Michael R; Tim J. Anderson; Jones, Richard D

    2000-01-01

    Severely slowed saccades in spinocerebellar ataxia have previously been shown to be at least partially closed-loop in nature: their long duration means that they can be modified in-flight in response to intrasaccadic target movements. In this study, a woman with these pathologically slowed saccades could modify them in-flight in response to target movements, even when saccadic suppression of displacement prevented conscious awareness of those movements. Thus saccadic suppression of displace...

  5. Do infants have the horizontal bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renswoude, D R; Johnson, S P; Raijmakers, M E J; Visser, I

    2016-08-01

    A robust set of studies show that adults make more horizontal than vertical and oblique saccades, while scanning real-world scenes. In this paper we study the horizontal bias in infants. The directions of eye movements were calculated for 41 infants (M=8.40 months, SD=3.74, range=3.48-15.47) and 47 adults (M=21.74 years, SD=4.54, range=17.89-39.84) while viewing 28 real-world scenes. Saccade directions were binned to study the proportion of saccades in the horizontal, vertical and oblique directions. In addition, saccade directions were also modeled using a mixture of Von Mises distributions, to account for the relatively large amount of variance in infants data. Horizontal bias was replicated in adults and also found in infants, using both the binning and Von Mises approach. Moreover, a developmental pattern was observed in which older infants are more precise in targeting their saccades than younger infants. That infants have a horizontal bias is important in understanding infants' eye movements. Future studies should account for the horizontal bias in their designs and analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  7. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  8. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  9. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  10. The age and rate of displacement along the Main Central Thrust in the western Bhutan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, Tobgay; McQuarrie, Nadine; Long, Sean; Kohn, Matthew J.; Corrie, Stacey L.

    2012-02-01

    In western Bhutan, the Main Central Thrust (MCT) is broadly folded, creating multiple exposures of the fault surface over a ~ 70 km across-strike distance. This unusual map pattern presents a unique opportunity to map the MCT and document both the magnitude and age of displacement. In situ Th-Pb (SIMS and LA-ICP-MS) geochronology of metamorphic monazite from the immediate hanging wall of the MCT indicates that prograde monazite growth in Greater Himalayan (GH) rocks continued until 20.8 ± 1.1 Ma, whereas crystallization of in situ melts, characterized by high Y monazite overgrowths, occurred during cooling from ca. 15-10 Ma. Prograde monazite growth at 15 Ma in Lesser Himalaya (LH) rocks in the immediate footwall requires that LH footwall strata began to be buried at this time, and the MCT had reached its southernmost, exposed extent. By combining prograde monazite ages in the immediate hanging wall and footwall, the duration of MCT displacement is bracketed between 20.8 ± 1.1 and 15.0 ± 2.4 Ma. Immediately north of our study area, a published estimate of shearing along the outer-South Tibetan detachment (STD) argues for displacement between 20 and 15 Ma, coeval with the age range for MCT displacement that we document in this study. However retrograde monazite grains as young as 10 Ma suggest that GH rocks were cooling until ~ 10 Ma, 5 Myr later than motion on the outer-STD immediately to the north. This cooling was either the result of continued displacement on the MCT, or growth of a duplex that passively folded the MCT. Using a sequential reconstruction, we estimate a total displacement of ~ 230 km, which is the sum of displacements on the MCT and the structurally-lower Paro Thrust, over a duration of 5.8 ± 2.6 Myr. This indicates a horizontal shortening rate of 4.0 + 3.2/- 1.3 cm/yr, which exceeds present rates estimated from geodetic measurements across the Himalaya, and MCT displacement rates (c. 2 cm/yr) inferred from petrologic and thermal models in

  11. Non-tectonic liquefaction-induced large surface displacements in the Aso Valley, Japan, caused by the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, revealed by ALOS-2 SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Morishita, Yu; Nakano, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Yarai, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    We constructed and analyzed full 3-D ground surface displacement field associated with the 2016 Kumamoto (Japan) earthquake using satellite radar images from ALOS-2. Displacements reflect not only tectonic crustal deformation caused by main earthquake faults but also non-tectonic surface deformations. The largest deformations in the earthquake sequence were found in the Aso Valley, along the NW outer rim of the Mt. Aso caldera. Large, independent surface deformations occurred in three areas with diameters of 500 m-2 km in the Aso Valley, and each area was horizontally displaced by more than 2 m to the NNW. These areas are underlain by thick lake-bottom deposits of saturated silt with low penetration resistance. As the direction of the displacements was parallel to the ground slope in each area, the strong seismic motion of the earthquake most probably induced liquefaction in the lake-bottom deposits and the ground surface slid horizontally along the slope on the liquefied silt. Because the areas of the large displacements are closely related to the thickness and shape of the lake-bottom deposits, amplification of the seismic wave in these deposits likely contributed to the liquefaction. A seismograph installed at the Aso Valley recorded co-seismic movement within several seconds of the main shock, indicating a possibility of the strong seismic motion amplifying the horizontal displacement of this area. On the SSE side of the deformed areas, numerous graben-like ruptures developed. As these ruptures are caused by surface tension during the large horizontal displacement, they are not earthquake fault traces and the process of this deformation is non-tectonic.

  12. The impact of internal displacement on child mortality in post-earthquake Haiti: a difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bradley; Halliday, Timothy J; Fan, Victoria Y

    2016-07-19

    The Haiti earthquake in 2010 resulted in 1.5 million internally displaced people (IDP), yet little is known about the impact of displacement on health. In this study, we estimate the impact of displacement on infant and child mortality and key health-behavior mechanisms. We employ a difference-in-differences (DID) design with coarsened exact matching (CEM) to ensure comparability among groups with different displacement status using the 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The participants are 21,417 births reported by a nationally representative sample of 14,287 women aged 15-49. The main independent variables are household displacement status which includes households living in camps, IDP households (not in camps), and households not displaced. The main outcomes are infant and child mortality; health status (height-for-age, anemia); uptake of public health interventions (bed net use, spraying against mosquitoes, and vaccinations); and other conditions (hunger; cholera). Births from the camp households have higher infant mortality (OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.15 to 4.75) and child mortality (OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.10 to 5.00) than those in non-camp IDP households following the earthquake. These odds are higher despite better access to food, water, bed net use, mosquito spraying, and vaccines among camp households. IDP populations are heterogeneous and households that are displaced outside of camps may be self-selected or self-insured. Meanwhile, even households not displaced by a disaster may face challenges in access to basic necessities and health services. Efforts are needed to identify vulnerable populations to provide targeted assistance in post-disaster relief.

  13. Effect of motion artifacts and scan circle displacements on Cirrus HD-OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibbi, Giovanni; Peterson, Gregory C; Syed, Misha F; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2014-04-07

    To evaluate the effect of scan circle displacements on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements in Cirrus HD-OCT scans with motion artifacts affecting the optic disc. In this cross-sectional study, 70 scans from 18 healthy eyes and 100 scans from 26 glaucomatous eyes were divided into 85 pairs, each composed by a scan with one motion artifact affecting the optic disc, and a scan from the same eye without motion artifacts. En face images underwent automated realignment, and horizontal/vertical scan circle displacements were determined. Multiple regression analysis evaluated the relationship between scan circle displacements and RNFLT change. Scans with motion artifacts showed similar displacements in healthy and glaucomatous eyes (P values ≥ 0.08). Average RNFLT and quadrants were relatively unchanged, while clock-hours showed more changes (e.g., in glaucomatous eyes, clock-hour-7 RNFLT was lower in scans with motion artifacts, P = 0.05). Scan circle displacements produced average RNFLT changes above test-retest variability in 3/85 cases (3.53%). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness tended to decrease in sectors moved away from the disc and to increase in sectors closer to the disc (R(2) ≤ 0.40 and R(2) ≤ 0.22 in healthy and glaucomatous eyes, respectively). In healthy eyes, horizontal displacements ≥ 423 and 325 μm were associated with average and quadrant RNFLT changes above test-retest variability, respectively. Scan circle displacements occurred in all scans with motions artifacts affecting the optic disc. Average RNFLT and quadrants were more robust than clock-hours. Because motion artifacts may be difficult to detect, clinicians should carefully inspect en face OCT images for their presence and interpret clock-hour results cautiously.

  14. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  15. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  16. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  17. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  18. Using Horizontal Wells for Chemical EOR: Field Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Delamaide

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary production of heavy oil in general only achieves a recovery of less than 10% OOIP. Waterflooding has been applied for a number of years in heavy oil pools and can yield much higher recovery but the efficiency of the process diminishes when viscosity is above a few hundreds cp with high water-cuts and the need to recycle significant volumes of water; in addition, significant quantities of oil are still left behind. To increase recovery beyond that, Enhanced Oil Recovery methods are needed. Thermal methods such as steam injection or Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD are not always applicable, in particular when the pay is thin and in that case chemical EOR can be an alternative. The two main chemical EOR processes are polymer and Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP flooding. The earlier records of field application of polymer injection in heavy oil fields date from the 1970’s however; the process had seen very few applications until recently. ASP in heavy oil has seen even fewer applications. A major specificity of chemical EOR in heavy oil is that the highly viscous oil bank is difficult to displace and that injectivity with vertical wells can be limited, particularly in thin reservoirs which are the prime target for chemical EOR. This situation has changed with the development of horizontal drilling and as a result, several chemical floods in heavy oil have been implemented in the past 10 years, using horizontal wells. The goal of this paper is to present some of the best documented field cases. The most successful and largest of these is the Pelican Lake polymer flood in Canada, operated by CNRL and Cenovus which is currently producing over 60,000 bbl/d. The Patos Marinza polymer flood by Bankers Petroleum in Albania and the Mooney project (polymer, ASP by BlackPearl (again in Canada are also worthy of discussion.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HORIZONTAL LATERAL STIFFNESS OF RAILS UNDER DIFFERENT DESIGNS OF RAIL FASTENERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Velinets

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation of a railway track on the strength is one of the sections of the overall complex research problems of interaction track and rolling stock. This paper describes the experimental study of horizontal transverse stiffness of railway rails with various strands of rail fasteners. Materials of this article should be relevant and will make it possible to calculate the strength of railway track using the correct and corrected performance of horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads. Methodology. Determination of horizontal transverse rigidity of rail yarns with different designs of rail fasteners was conducted by measuring the quantities of transverse displacement of rails calculation points – namely the head and sole. For research the specialist equipment was created, made up of lineside jack DC-20, equipped with a hydraulic pressure gauge to measure pressure and rigid rod for horizontal rail stop in the thread, the opposite of the jack. Lateral movement of the head and sole of the track were recorded, and measured with indicators of clock type within a few hundredths of a millimeter. The horizontal lateral load on the rail jack was created by the injection pressure in the cylinder which was fixed with manometer into the jack. Load of rails was conducted over 2 tons of degrees ranging from 0 to 8 tons. To obtain reliable measurement results of lateral movement of the head and the base rails, its movement was conducted for each type fasteners not less than in 3 sections. Measurements were carried out without the creation of vertical load. Findings. With the developed method was found transverse displacement magnitude of rails calculation points at different designs of rail fasteners. Originality. The experimental studies were first found the mentioned horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads in the head and sole of modern designs for different rail fasteners. Practical value. The values of horizontal transverse

  20. Net-generation attributes and seductive properties of the internet as predictors of online activities and internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Louis

    2004-06-01

    Born between 1977 and 1997, Net-generation is the first generation to grow up surrounded by home computers, video games, and the Internet. As children of the Baby Boomers, the Internet is the medium of choice for the Net-geners. Based on the assumption that Net-generation has unique characteristics, this study examined (1) how Net-geners addicted to the Internet differ from the non-addicted and (2) how these attributes, together with the seductive properties of the Internet, are related to Internet addiction. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 699 Net-geners between the ages of 16 and 24. Results show that Net-geners addicted to the Internet tend to be young female students. Being emotionally open on the Net and a heavy user of ICQ were most influential in predicting Net-geners' problematic use of the Internet. Addicted Net-geners are also strongly linked to the pleasure of being able to control the simulated world in online games. The finding reinforces previous research that "dependents" of the Internet spend most of their time in the synchronous communication environment engaging in interactive online games, chat rooms, and ICQ for pleasure-seeking or escape, while "non-dependents" use information-gathering functions available on the Internet. Furthermore, Internet addicts tend to watch television significantly less, indicating a displacement effect on traditional media use for the Net-generation.

  1. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Rohini, S.; Naveen, A.; Haritha, A.; Reddy, Krishnanjeneya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician’s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs) (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care), which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm) or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36%) OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2%) teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8%) of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001). Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3%) have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7%) have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for

  2. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  3. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  4. Horizontal bone augmentation: the decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of implant dentistry has led to the need for bone augmentation procedures. With the removal of a tooth, there is an inevitable three-dimensional (3D) loss of alveolar bone. More often than not, horizontal bone loss occurs at a faster rate and to a greater extent compared to vertical bone loss. This led to the development of several horizontal bone augmentation techniques, such as guided bone regeneration, ridge expansion, distraction osteogenesis, and block grafts. These proposed augmentation techniques aim to place the implant in an ideal 3D position for successful restorative therapy. The literature has shown that horizontal bone augmentation is fairly predictable if certain criteria are fulfilled. However, with numerous techniques and materials currently available, it is difficult to choose the most suitable treatment modality. A search of the literature available was conducted to validate the decision-making process when planning for a horizontal ridge augmentation procedure. The decision tree proposed in this paper stems from the 3D buccolingual bone width available at the site of implant placement (⋝ 3.5 mm, factors such as the tissue thickness, the arch position, and the availability of autogenous bone. The decision tree provides insight on how clinicians can choose the most appropriate and predictable horizontal ridge augmentation procedure to minimize unnecessary complications.

  5. A capacitive displacement sensing technique for early detection of unbalanced loads in a washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Melur K; Tiruthani, Karthik

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm) is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance.

  6. A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Tiruthani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance.

  7. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  8. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  9. Horizontal Deformation Monitoring of Kut Barrage-Iraq using High Precision GNSS& Total Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Riyad Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern evaluation and analysis techniques for the horizontal deformation of concretestructures such as barrages depend on a geodetic network, with control points, required to carry out the adjustment for the networks according to the adjustment techniques "Least Squares method". The study included measurement of fourteen point in the downstream side, depending on the global satellite navigation system and using the Adjust program to calculate the amount of displacement resulting. A comparison done between the resulted deformations magnitude for the network points for 2014 epoch with respect to the General Directorate for Survey (GDS at epoch 2005 the deformation or movement could be verified by applying the statistical techniques to analyze the movement. The analysis shows that the movement displacement systems stable and amount 3.5cm.

  10. 1 Reevaluation of the integrated horizontal flux approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Häni, Christoph; Hensen, Arjan

    2017-04-01

    The integrated horizontal flux (IHF) method is a simplified mass balance approach frequently used to determine emissions from confined source areas, e.g. NH3 emissions from slurry spread to a circular plot (Denmead, 2008). With a mast in the center of the circle with radius R, the total flux F of the upwind emitted NH3 is approximated from the measured vertical (z) profiles of concentration (c) and horizontal wind speed (u) as (Denmead 1983): F = 1/R\\intz=zplz=0\\overline{u(c - cbgd)}dz where cbgd is the ``background'' concentration upwind of the emitting area and zpl is the maximum height of the emission plume (where the concentration c equals cbgd).The IHF method is a robust approach, as it is independent of surface characteristics and the state of atmospheric diffusion (Denmead, 2008; Laubach,2010). Ryden and McNeill (1984) published guidelines on how to evaluate IHF measurements, which have been used in many investigations that followed. In the following we analyze systematic biases that might occur by applying different recipes to both modelled concentration profiles as well as measured profiles from a recent field experiment in the Netherlands. Typical differencs using the approach by Ryden et al. (1984) are in the order +10% to +30% compared to the reference values from the model or alternative determination of the emissions based on the experimental values. The positive biases consist of several contributions: horizontal diffusion, logarithmic fit of the concentration profile, displacement height. References Denmead, O. T., 1983. Micrometeorological methods for measuring gaseous losses of nitrogen in the field. In: Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plum-Soil Systems (Freney, J. R.; Simpson, J. R., Eds) Martinus Nijhof/Dr W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 133-157. Denmead, O. T., 2008. Approaches to measuring fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide between landscapes and the atmosphere. Plant Soil 309 (1-2), 5a\\euro 24.Laubach, J., 2010. Testing of a lagrangian model of

  11. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...... the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the underlying...

  12. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  13. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  14. Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woisetschlaeger, Jakob [Graz University of Technology, Experimental Turbomachinery Research and Optical Measurement Group, Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz (Austria); Wexler, Adam D.; Fuchs, Elmar C. [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Holler, Gert [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz (Austria); Eisenhut, Mathias [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Graz (Austria); Gatterer, Karl [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with polar liquid dielectrica like water or methanol, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. By repeating a version of Pellat's experiment, it is shown that a horizontal bridge is stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic pressure. Thus, the static and dynamic properties of the phenomenon called a 'floating water bridge' can be explained by the gradient of Maxwell pressure, replenishing the liquid within the bridge against any drainage mechanism. It is also shown that a number of liquids can form stable and long horizontal bridges. The stability of such a connection, and the asymmetry in mass flow through such bridges caused by the formation of ion clouds in the vicinity of the electrodes, is also discussed by two further experiments. (orig.)

  15. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  16. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  17. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  18. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  19. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  20. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber...

  1. Comparison on the Horizontal Behaviors of Lattice-Shaped Diaphragm Wall and Pile Group under Static and Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-jiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lattice-shaped diaphragm wall (hereafter referring to LSDW is a new type of bridge foundation, and the relevant investigation on its horizontal behaviors is scant. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of the comparison on the static and seismic responses of LSDW and pile group under similar material quantity in soft soil. It can be found that the horizontal bearing capacity of LSDW is considerably larger than that of pile group, and the deformation pattern of LSDW basically appears to be an overall toppling while pile group clearly shows a local bending deformation pattern during the static loading process. The acceleration response and the acceleration amplification effects of LSDW are slightly greater than that of pile group due to the existing of soil core and the difference on the ability of energy dissipation. The horizontal displacement response of pile group is close to that of LSDW at first and becomes stronger than that of LSDW due to the generation of plastic soil deformation near the pile-soil interface at last. The pile body may be broken in larger potential than LSDW especially when its horizontal displacement is notable. Compared with pile group, LSDW can be a good option for being served as a lateral bearing or an earthquake-proof foundation in soft soil.

  2. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  3. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  4. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  5. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  6. Education: protecting the rights of displaced children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Mahalingam

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

  7. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  8. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Atomic displacements; crystal defects; crystalline solids. PACS Nos 63.43.j; 63.43.Dq; 61.66.Dk; 61.72.Ji. 1. Introduction. The transition metal dilute alloys are studied for their unique properties such as high strength ...... Even the recent techniques like EXAFS are inadequate for bcc alloys because in the EXAFS ...

  9. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  10. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury Extra. 2006;37:31-3. 4. Collier SG, Wynn-Jones CH. Displacement of the biceps with subscapularis avulsion. J Bone Joint. Surg Br. 1990;72:145. 5. Ogawa K, Takahashi M. Long-term outcome of isolated lesser tuberosity fractures of the humerus. J Trauma. 1997;42:955-9. 6. Robinson CM, Teoh KH, Baker A, et al.

  11. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hoff, Lars; Pedersen, Lars Germann

    The paper describes measuring results of the air movement from three different types of diffusers for displacement ventilation. Two of the diffusers are lowlevel wall mounted diffusers, one with a low and one with a high initial entrainment. The third diffuser is of the floor mounted type....

  12. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...

  13. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean du Plessis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  14. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Jean du Plessis

    2007-01-01

    The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  15. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  16. Internal displacement in Nigeria: an urgent challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past five years an estimated 800,000 people have been displaced in Africa’s most populous state. AddressingNigeria’s neglected IDP crisis must be a key priority in the run-up to the country’s 2007 presidential elections.

  17. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ``geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is given and the associated projection-operator partitioning of the hardness and softness operators (kernels) is developed. The eigenvectors |á 〉 = \\{| 〉 \\} of the hardness operator define the complete (identity) projector P ^ = |  ...

  18. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  19. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both...... horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening......-closing net were used for describing fish larval horizontal and vertical distributions, while a submersible pump was used for describing vertical distributions of copepods. Hydrographic profiles and current velocity measurements were used to outline variability in temperature, salinity and current structure...

  20. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  1. Horizontal transfer of a plant transposon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmin Diao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of well-documented cases of horizontal transfer between higher eukaryotes involve the movement of transposable elements between animals. Surprisingly, although plant genomes often contain vast numbers of these mobile genetic elements, no evidence of horizontal transfer of a nuclear-encoded transposon between plant species has been detected to date. The most mutagenic known plant transposable element system is the Mutator system in maize. Mu-like elements (MULEs are widespread among plants, and previous analysis has suggested that the distribution of various subgroups of MULEs is patchy, consistent with horizontal transfer. We have sequenced portions of MULE transposons from a number of species of the genus Setaria and compared them to each other and to publicly available databases. A subset of these elements is remarkably similar to a small family of MULEs in rice. A comparison of noncoding and synonymous sequences revealed that the observed similarity is not due to selection at the amino acid level. Given the amount of time separating Setaria and rice, the degree of similarity between these elements excludes the possibility of simple vertical transmission of this class of MULEs. This is the first well-documented example of horizontal transfer of any nuclear-encoded genes between higher plants.

  2. Horizontal Transfer of a Plant Transposon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of well-documented cases of horizontal transfer between higher eukaryotes involve the movement of transposable elements between animals. Surprisingly, although plant genomes often contain vast numbers of these mobile genetic elements, no evidence of horizontal transfer of a nuclear-encoded transposon between plant species has been detected to date. The most mutagenic known plant transposable element system is the Mutator system in maize. Mu-like elements (MULEs are widespread among plants, and previous analysis has suggested that the distribution of various subgroups of MULEs is patchy, consistent with horizontal transfer. We have sequenced portions of MULE transposons from a number of species of the genus Setaria and compared them to each other and to publicly available databases. A subset of these elements is remarkably similar to a small family of MULEs in rice. A comparison of noncoding and synonymous sequences revealed that the observed similarity is not due to selection at the amino acid level. Given the amount of time separating Setaria and rice, the degree of similarity between these elements excludes the possibility of simple vertical transmission of this class of MULEs. This is the first well-documented example of horizontal transfer of any nuclear-encoded genes between higher plants.

  3. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that not all types of natural resource endowment have a 'Dutch disease' effect. While inflation, exchange rate, and foreign aid variables have a mixed effect on vertical and horizontal export diversification, political instability however has a strong adverse effect on export diversification; especially for SSA. The key ...

  4. Horizontal Axis Levitron--A Physics Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Max M.

    2014-01-01

    After a brief history of the Levitron, the first horizontal axis Levitron is reported. Because it is easy to operate, it lends itself to educational physics experiments and analogies. Precession and nutation are visualized by reflecting the beam from a laser pointer off the "spignet". Precession is fundamental to nuclear magnetic…

  5. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  6. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  7. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  8. Teaching Activities on Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, John

    1990-01-01

    Provides learning activities concerning the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. Includes step-by-step directions for four activities: (1) the life cycle of nuclear weapons; (2) nuclear nonproliferation: pros and cons; (3) the nuclear power/nuclear weapons connection; and (4) managing nuclear proliferation. (NL)

  9. Horizontal gene transfer in the phytosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsas, van J.D.; Turner, S.; Bailey, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Here, the ecological aspects of gene transfer processes between bacteria in the phytosphere are examined in the context of emerging evidence for the dominant role that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played in the evolutionary shaping of bacterial communities. Moreover, the impact of the putative

  10. Detecting Highways of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Mukul S.; Gogarten, J. Peter; Shamir, Ron

    In a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event a gene is transferred between two species that do not share an ancestor-descendant relationship. Typically, no more than a few genes are horizontally transferred between any two species. However, several studies identified pairs of species between which many different genes were horizontally transferred. Such a pair is said to be linked by a highway of gene sharing. We present a method for inferring such highways. Our method is based on the fact that the evolutionary histories of horizontally transferred genes disagree with the corresponding species phylogeny. Specifically, given a set of gene trees and a trusted rooted species tree, each gene tree is first decomposed into its constituent quartet trees and the quartets that are inconsistent with the species tree are identified. Our method finds a pair of species such that a highway between them explains the largest (normalized) fraction of inconsistent quartets. For a problem on n species, our method requires O(n 4) time, which is optimal with respect to the quartets input size. An application of our method to a dataset of 1128 genes from 11 cyanobacterial species, as well as to simulated datasets, illustrates the efficacy of our method.

  11. Horizontal gene transfer and bacterial diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    introduction of novel physiological traits from distantly related organisms, horizontal gene transfer often causes drastic changes in the ecological ..... degradation by host restriction endonucleases. (iii) Conjugation: In this mechanism, ... mosome, formation of a conjugative bridge and trans- position into the recipient strain.

  12. comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and vertical well, eventually, compared based dimensionless pressures and pressure derivatives computed by varying the reservoir geometry. Results presented as type curves show that the rate of decline of the pressure derivative curve is.

  13. Comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and vertical well, eventually, compared based dimensionless pressures and pressure derivatives computed by varying the reservoir geometry. Results presented as type curves show that the rate of decline of the pressure derivative curve is ...

  14. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  15. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-08-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  16. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  17. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  18. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  19. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  20. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  1. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  2. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  3. The comparative performance of Roots type aircraft engine superchargers as affected by change in impeller speed and displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Marsden; Wilson, Ernest E

    1929-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests made on three sizes of roots type aircraft engine superchargers. The impeller contours and diameters of these machines were the same, but the length were 11, 8 1/4, and 4 inches, giving displacements of 0.509, 0.382, and 0.185 cubic foot per impeller revolution. The information obtained serves as a basis for the examination of the individual effects of impeller speed and displacement on performance and of the comparative performance when speed and displacement are altered simultaneously to meet definite service requirements. According to simple theory, when assuming no losses, the air weight handled and the power required for a given pressure difference are directly proportional to the speed and the displacement. These simple relations are altered considerably by the losses. When comparing the performance of different sizes of machines whose impeller speeds are so related that the same service requirements are met, it is found that the individual effects of speed and displacement are canceled to a large extent, and the only considerable difference is the difference in the power losses which decrease with increase in the displacement and the accompanying decrease in speed. This difference is small in relation to the net power of the engine supercharger unit, so that a supercharger with short impellers may be used in those applications where the space available is very limited with any considerable sacrifice in performance.

  4. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy

  5. Characterization of interfacial waves in horizontal core-annular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sumit; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Singh, Ramesh; Tabor, Rico F.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we characterize interfacial waves in horizontal core annular flow (CAF) of fuel-oil and water. Experimental studies on CAF were performed in an acrylic pipe of 15.5mm internal diameter, and the time evolution of the oil-water interface shape was recorded with a high speed camera for a range of different flow-rates of oil (Qo) and water (Qw). The power spectrum of the interface shape shows a range of notable features. First, there is negligible energy in wavenumbers larger than 2 π / a , where a is the thickness of the annulus. Second, for high Qo /Qw , there is no single dominant wavelength, as the flow in the confined annulus does not allow formation of a preferred mode. Third, for lower Qo /Qw , a dominant mode arises at a wavenumber of 2 π / a . We also observe that the power spectrum of the interface shape depends weakly on Qw, and strongly on Qo, perhaps because the net shear rate in the annulus appears to depend weakly on Qw as well. We also attempt to build a general empirical model for CAF by relating the interfacial stress (calculated via the mean pressure gradient) to the flow rate in the annulus, the annular thickness and the core velocity. Authors are thankful to Orica Mining Services (Australia) for the financial support.

  6. The use of vertical and horizontal surface displacements at EPOS GNSS stations in Greenland to study ice sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) includes e.g. seismic and geodetic permanent national monitoring networks on a European scale. The main purpose is to create data platforms for monitoring and study geophysics processes like earthquakes, volcanoes, surface dynamics and tectonics. Here we...

  7. Displacement volume collected from tows monitoring collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-11 to 1999-06-23 (NODC Accession 0098781)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BioVolume Data from Bongo Tows during Broadscale Cruises, 1995-1999 Dave Mountain, Jack Green and Joe Kane, NMFS This displacement volume data comes from one net...

  8. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  9. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  10. Stochastic aggregation model (SAM) for DNAPL water displacement in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, H.; Durnford, D.

    1999-03-01

    Source zone characterization of DNAPL in the subsurface is a necessary part of managing environmental risks. Modeling DNAPL-water displacement processes at the pore-scale can lead to greater insight and understanding of lateral spreading, the extent of vertical migration, and the final fluid distributions of dense non-aqueous phase liquids. A two-dimensional stochastic aggregation model is developed to study DNAPL-water displacement in porous media. The model is a modified diffusion limited aggregation model, and uses essential properties governing front stability as model input: DNAPL-water viscosity differences, DNAPL-water density differences, intrinsic permeability of the porous media, flow rate, and the inclination angle of the porous media from the horizontal. Due to the simplicity of the algorithm, this modeling technique can produce realistic DNAPL-water configurations much faster than conventional continuum approaches and allows for a Monte Carlo approach to be utilized. The model is validated through comparison to laboratory experiments involving 1,2-Dichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, and mobile pyrogard 53. These experiments were performed at varying flow rates and angles of inclination from the horizontal.

  11. Leaf area and net photosynthesis during development of Prunus serotina seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S B; Gottschalk, K W

    1993-01-01

    We used the plastochron index to study the relationship between plant age, leaf age and development, and net photosynthesis of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings. Leaf area and net photosynthesis were measured on all leaves >/= 75 mm of plants ranging in age from 7 to 20 plastochrons. Effects of plant developmental stage on leaf area and net photosynthesis were evaluated for leaves of differing age (horizontal series), leaves on plants of constant age (vertical series), and leaves of constant age (oblique series). Regression techniques were used to estimate leaf area from leaf blade dimensions. The best equations for predicting leaf area had R(2) values of 0.991-0.992 and used linear or logarithmic functions of both leaf length and width. Suitable, but less precise, equations with R(2) values of 0.946-0.962 were developed from either leaf length or leaf width. Leaf area development in black cherry seedlings was similar to that in other indeterminate species. Leaves of young plants reached full expansion at a lower leaf plastochron age than leaves of older plants. Maximum net photosynthesis per unit leaf area occurred 2-3 plastochrons before full leaf expansion. There was strong ontogenetic drift in net photosynthesis with leaf age; net photosynthesis decreased as plant age increased in leaves of the same plastochron age. Plots of the oblique series were particularly useful in providing information about interaction effects.

  12. Corneal flap displacement and drift in LASIK: comparison of Hansatome and Automated Corneal Shaper microkeratomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L; Jiunn-Liang Chen, Rogan; Azar, Dimitri T

    2002-11-01

    To describe and compare the displacement of corneal flaps created during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedures performed with two different microkeratomes and analyze parameters (for example, pupil-to-hinge distance, drift during suction) that might affect the flap displacement or be influenced by flap displacement. This work was based on a cross-sectional study design. Images copied from video recordings of 206 consecutive LASIK surgeries were analyzed to determine the distance from pupil center to corneal flap hinge (pupil-to-hinge distance), the hinge size, the distance from the center of the pupil to the margins of the flap, and the positions of the suction ring before and after vacuum in corneal flaps created by the Hansatome and the Automated Corneal Shaper (ACS) microkeratomes. Accurate measurements of all these variables could be obtained in 121 eyes (Hansatome: n = 66, right eye (OD) = 27 eyes, left eye (OS) = 39 eyes; ACS: n = 55, OD = 25 eyes, OS = 30 eyes), which were included in the analysis. Formulas were derived to calculate from the measurements the magnitude and direction of the drift of the suction ring during vacuum and the final displacement of the corneal flap. The mean +/- standard deviation (SD) drift of eyes during suction with the Hansatome was 0.27 +/- 0.02 mm and with the ACS was 0.12 +/- 0.02 mm (P pupil was of equal magnitude for the two instruments (0.37 +/- 0.02 mm and 0.36 +/- 0.02 mm with the Hansatome and ACS, respectively). The drift induced by the Hansatome contributes to the horizontal component of the final decentration of the corneal flaps. This tendency for drift and the resultant decrease in pupil-to-hinge distance should be considered to minimize flap displacements during LASIK.

  13. Global surface displacement data for assessing variability of displacement at a point on a fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Sickler, Robert; Feigelson, Leah; Abrahamson, Norman; Hassett, Will; Rosa, Carla; Sanquini, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a global dataset of site-specific surface-displacement data on faults. We have compiled estimates of successive displacements attributed to individual earthquakes, mainly paleoearthquakes, at sites where two or more events have been documented, as a basis for analyzing inter-event variability in surface displacement on continental faults. An earlier version of this composite dataset was used in a recent study relating the variability of surface displacement at a point to the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes on faults, and to hazard from fault rupture (Hecker and others, 2013). The purpose of this follow-on report is to provide potential data users with an updated comprehensive dataset, largely complete through 2010 for studies in English-language publications, as well as in some unpublished reports and abstract volumes.

  14. The influence of suture material on the strength of horizontal mattress suture configuration for meniscus repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapa, Onur; Akşahin, Ertuğrul; Erduran, Mehmet; Davul, Serkan; Havitçioğlu, Hasan; LaPrade, Robert F; Bozdağ, Ergun; Sünbüloğlu, Emin

    2013-12-01

    Comparison of the mechanical characteristics of meniscal repair fixation using horizontal sutures and six different sutures under submaximal cyclic and load to failure test conditions may aid physicians in selecting a suture type. A 2-cm long anteroposterior vertical longitudinal incision was created in six groups of bovine medial menisci. Lesions were repaired using a No. 2 suture either composed of polyester or polyester and ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), or UHMWPE and polydioxanone or pure UHMWPE. Endpoints included ultimate failure load (N), pull-out stiffness (N/mm), pull-out displacement (mm), cyclic displacement (mm) after 100cycles, after 500cycles, and mode of failure. Polyester suture had lower ultimate load than all groups except the suture composed of polyester and UHMWPE (Psuture had higher ultimate failure load than sutures composed of either polyester or polyester plus UHMWPE (Psuture cutting through the meniscus for the groups except for polyester suture which failed by suture rupture. Under cyclic loading conditions in bovine meniscus, braided polyester suture fixation provided lower initial fixation strength than fixation with various high strength sutures composed of pure UHMWPE or a combination of absorbable monofilament polydioxanone and UHMWPE, except for combination of polyester and UHMWPE sutures. Present study does not support the usage of the braided polyester sutures instead of high strength sutures composed either partially or totally of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for the horizontal suture configuration of meniscus repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-phase flow properties of a horizontal fracture: The effect of aperture distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zuyang; Liu, Hui-Hai; Jiang, Qinghui; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2015-02-01

    A systematic numerical method has been presented to investigate the constitutive relationships between two-phase flow properties of horizontal fractures and aperture distributions. Based on fractal geometry, single rough-walled fractures are generated numerically by modified successive random addition (SRA) method and then aperture distributions with truncated Gaussian distribution are formed by shear displacement between lower and upper surfaces. (The truncated Gaussian distribution is used to describe aperture evolution under different normal stresses.) According to the assumption of two-dimensional porous media and local parallel plate model, invasion percolation approach is employed to model the two-phase flow displacement (imbibition) in generated horizontal fractures, in which capillary forces are dominant over viscous and gravity forces. For truncated Gaussian distributions, constitutive relationships from numerical simulation are compared to closed-form relationships and a good agreement is obtained. The simulation results indicate strong phase interference with the sum of two phase relative permeability values being less than one in the intermediate saturations. It is found that fracture properties related to residual saturations depend on spatial correlation of aperture distributions. Based on the simulation results, we proposed an empirical relationship between the fracture residual-saturation-rated parameters and the corresponding aperture distributions.

  16. Diagnosing disconjugate eye movements: phase-plane analysis of horizontal saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Alessandro; Liao, Ke; Matta, Manuela; Leigh, R John

    2008-10-07

    Saccades are fast eye movements that conjugately shift the point of fixation between distant features of interest in the visual environment. Several disorders, affecting sites from brainstem to extraocular muscle, may cause horizontal saccades to become disconjugate. Prior techniques for detection of saccadic disconjugacy, especially in internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO), have compared only one point in abducting vs adducting saccades, such as peak velocity. We applied a phase-plane technique that compared each eye's velocity as a function of change in position (normalized displacement) in 22 patients with disease variously affecting the brainstem reticular formation, the abducens nucleus, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the oculomotor nerve, the abducens nerve, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles; 10 age-matched subjects served as controls. We found three different patterns of disconjugacy throughout the course of horizontal saccades: early abnormal velocity disconjugacy during the first 10% of the displacement in patients with INO, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, and advanced extraocular muscle disease; late disconjugacy in patients with disease affecting the neuromuscular junction; and variable middle-course disconjugacy in patients with pontine lesions. When normal subjects made disconjugate saccades between two targets aligned on one eye, the initial part of the movement remained conjugate. Along with conventional measures of saccades, such as peak velocity, phase planes provide a useful tool to determine the site, extent, and pathogenesis of disconjugacy. We hypothesize that the pale global extraocular muscle fibers, which drive the high-acceleration component of saccades, receive a neural command that ensures initial ocular conjugacy.

  17. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  18. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  19. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  20. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated...

  1. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2018-01-01

    If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ →ℓ‧ γ but rather ℓ →ℓ‧ X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z‧ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ →ℓ‧ + inv , but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ → eX , X → γγ , ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  2. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  3. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning Hotopp, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is increasingly described between bacteria and animals. Such transfers that are vertically inherited have the potential to influence the evolution of animals. One classic example is the transfer of DNA from mitochondria and chloroplasts to the nucleus after the acquisition of these organelles by eukaryotes. Even today, many of the described instances of bacteria to animal transfer occur as part of intimate relationships like those of endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts, particularly insects and nematodes, while numerous transfers are also found in asexual animals. Both of these observations are consistent with modern evolutionary theory, in particular the serial endosymbiotic theory and Muller’s ratchet. While it is tempting to suggest that these particular lifestyles might promote horizontal gene transfer, it is difficult to ascertain given the non-random sampling of animal genome sequencing projects and the lack of a systematic analysis of animal genomes for such transfers. PMID:21334091

  4. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  5. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  6. Study on Horizontally Polarized Omnidirectional Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A horizontally polarized omnidirectional microstrip antenna is proposed in this paper. The structure of designed antenna is with two back-to-back horizontally polarized microstrip antenna elements. Gain variation on main radiation plane of this new antenna is analyzed and radiation theory is deduced; formula of directivity on main radiation plane is given. Better omnidirectional characteristic of this antenna can be obtained by decreasing patch physical length. Both simulated and measured results verify the omnidirectional radiation patterns and input impedance characteristics. Good omnidirectional radiation patterns (gain variation in E-plane less than ±0.4 dBi and input impedance characteristics are obtained; moreover, cross polarization less than −20 dBi is achieved.

  7. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  8. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  9. Surgical treatment for paralytic horizontal strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou*

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effect of surgery for paralytic horizontal strabismus and the paralytic horizontal strabismus performed by Jensen procedure with antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession and medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession.METHODS: Fifteen cases(17 eyeswith complete or nearly complete paralytic horizontal strabismus from January 2005 to August. 2014 in our hospital were assessed retrospectively,7 eyes of 7 cases with treatment group A were performed Jensen procedure combined antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession, 10 eyes of 8 cases with treatment group B were performed medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession. seventeen eyes of 15 cases with an average of 21±8.71mo follow-up were observed.RESULTS: All 17 eyes of 15 cases after the operation obtained satisfied effects, 16 eyes of 14 cases obtained ideal long-term effect. One eye of a patient with a 6mo follow-up was undercorrected of 30△. We found a varying degree of postoperative improvement in visual function. There was a significant reduction in the strabismus angle for distance and near(t=28.71, Pt=36.21, Pt=17.96, Pt=9.20,PCONCLUSION: Jensen procedure combined antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession and medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession is a safe and successful method of treatment in complete or nearly complete paralysis horizontal strabismus. Patients achieve orthophoria, improvement of the motor ability, and larger field of binocular single vision for long time.

  10. Stress Intensity Factor calculation from displacement fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beretta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, visual image techniques such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC enabled to experimentally determine the crack tip displacement and strain fields at small scales. The displacements are tracked during loading, and parameters as the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, opening and closing loads, T-stress can be readily measured. In particular, the SIFs and the T-stress can be obtained by fitting the analytical equation of the Williamstype expansion with the experimentally-determined displacement fields. The results in terms of fracture mechanics parameters strictly depend on the dimension of the area considered around the crack tip in conjunction with the crack length, the maximum SIF (and thus the plastic tip radius, and the number of terms to be considered in the Williams-type expansion. This work focuses in understanding the accuracy of the SIF calculation based on these factors. The study is based on Finite Element Analysis simulations where purely elastic material behavior is considered. The accuracy of the estimation of the SIF is investigated and a guide-line is provided to properly set the DIC measurements. The analysis is then experimentally validated for crack closure measurements adopting the SENT specimen geometry.

  11. Displacement Processes in Stable Drainage Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Pride, S. R.; Manga, M.

    2016-12-01

    Drainage fronts are stabilized at large bond number, when a low density nonwetting fluid displaces a high density wetting fluid from above. This is an ideal flow scenario for studying the correspondence between pore scale processes and continuum models because the front is a persistent macroscale feature that is propagated by discrete, multiplepore scale displacements. We present new observations of stable air/water drainage in thin, threedimensional, poured bead packs at varying capillary number. With backlighting and a high speed camera, we observe short range front velocities that are an order of magnitude larger than bulk pore velocity, consistent with previous studies in ordered 2D structures. We also quantify displacement lengths and front width. For comparison to continuum simulations, we measure saturation by light transmission continuously over a series of 1 cm length voxels. We focus on the critical nonwetting saturation (CNS, or "emergence point") at which voxels are percolated by air and continuum air permeability becomes nonzero. We find that mean CNS is capillary number dependent even at large bond number, with larger CNS at lower capillary number. Continuum simulations with an equivalent discretization demonstrate that CNS is a significant source of uncertainty for predictions of the time and saturation profile at chamber-length air breakthrough.

  12. Automating Recession Curve Displacement Recharge Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan; Schwartz, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Recharge estimation is an important and challenging element of groundwater management and resource sustainability. Many recharge estimation methods have been developed with varying data requirements, applicable to different spatial and temporal scales. The variability and inherent uncertainty in recharge estimation motivates the recommended use of multiple methods to estimate and bound regional recharge estimates. Despite the inherent limitations of using daily gauged streamflow, recession curve displacement methods provide a convenient first-order estimate as part of a multimethod hierarchical approach to estimate watershed-scale annual recharge. The implementation of recession curve displacement recharge estimation in the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) RORA program relies on the subjective, operator-specific selection of baseflow recession events to estimate a gauge-specific recession index. This paper presents a parametric algorithm that objectively automates this tedious, subjective process, parameterizing and automating the implementation of recession curve displacement. Results using the algorithm reproduce regional estimates of groundwater recharge from the USGS Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, with an average absolute error of less than 2%. The algorithm facilitates consistent, completely automated estimation of annual recharge that complements more rigorous data-intensive techniques for recharge estimation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  14. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus

    2006-10-24

    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  15. Portable top drive cuts horizontal drilling costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, B. [Saskoil, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yager, D. [Tesco Drilling Tech., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1993-11-01

    Economic analysis of a seven-well, long-reach horizontal drilling program into an unconsolidated, heavy-oil-bearing reservoir in Winter field near the Alberta/Saskatchewan border in Canada reveals that -- in the right application -- renting a portable top drive drilling system can reduce total drilling costs. Use of the portable top drive combined with other cost-saving measures enabled Saskoil, one of Canada`s larger independents, to drill more cheaply, on a cost-per-meter basis, in 1993 than in 1992. This was despite significant rental rates for drilling rigs and directional drilling services caused by increased demand in Western Canada. Total cost savings of 10% on wells that would otherwise cost in the (C) $500,000 range are believed realistic. Based on this year`s performance, Saskoil recommends top drive for the company`s future horizontal wells in this area. This article describes the operator`s horizontal well program, advantages of top drive in that program and how it was installed and applied. Estimated time savings for six wells, plus other ways top drive can cut costs and improve operations are discussed.

  16. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... of scoliosis. The approach used is simple. These results are sufficient for a first visual analysis furnishing significant clinical information in all three anatomical planes. This visualization represents a reasonable compromise between mathematical purity and practical use....

  17. Construction of preheaters with horizontal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze

    1944-09-27

    This report involved construction of preheaters for distillation and cracking plants in the oil industry, particularly in America. The use of heat transmission by radiation was also a consideration here. The recycling of waste gases occurred, but was not the rule. A convection section was often built next to the radiation section, in which the discharge gases were used for heating the incoming product. The general arrangement of the preheaters was discussed. The first form was a rectangular box with fireproof lining with tubes arranged in a single row along the outer walls and sometimes in a double row on the ceiling. It consisted of smooth and finned tubes. From the simple form a double preheater was developed that allowed one or two common discharge flues to provide as large a heating surface as possible within a reasonable space. Other items discussed were recycling of waste gases, reasons for the choice of horizontal preheaters with radiation heating, the use of vertical tubes in the U.S.A. and elsewhere in the oil industry, details of horizontal preheater tubes, end closures, material, suspension, protection against overloading by radiation, circulation heating, burners, use of horizontal radiation preheaters in hydrogenation in the U.S.A., rebuilding I. G. preheaters, construction, tube supports, and masonry. A list of references on cracking, preheaters, heat transmission, and alloyed steels was given.

  18. Data assimilation of surface displacements to improve geomechanical parameters of gas storage reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, C.; Baó, D.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Alzraiee, A.; Teatini, P.

    2016-03-01

    Although the beginning of reservoir geomechanics dates back to the late 1960s, only recently stochastical geomechanical modelling has been introduced into the general framework of reservoir operational planning. In this study, the ensemble smoother (ES) algorithm, i.e., an ensemble-based data assimilation method, is employed to reduce the uncertainty of the constitutive parameters characterizing the geomechanical model of an underground gas storage (UGS) field situated in the upper Adriatic sedimentary basin (Italy), the Lombardia UGS. The model is based on a nonlinear transversely isotropic stress-strain constitutive law and is solved by 3-D finite elements. The Lombardia UGS experiences seasonal pore pressure change caused by fluid extraction/injection leading to land settlement/upheaval. The available observations consist of vertical and horizontal time-lapse displacements accurately measured by persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) on RADARSAT scenes acquired between 2003 and 2008. The positive outcome of preliminary tests on simplified cases has supported the use of the ES to jointly assimilate vertical and horizontal displacements. The ES approach is shown to effectively reduce the spread of the uncertain parameters, i.e., the Poisson's ratio, the ratio between the horizontal and vertical Young and shear moduli, and the ratio between the virgin loading (I cycle) and unloading/reloading (II cycle) compressibility. The outcomes of the numerical simulations point out that the updated parameters depend on the assimilated measurement locations as well as the error associated to the PSI measurements. The parameter estimation may be improved by taking into account possible model and/or observation biases along with the use of an assimilation approach, e.g., the Iterative ensemble smoother, more appropriate for nonlinear problems.

  19. Spatial organization of linear vestibuloocular reflexes of the rat: responses during horizontal and vertical linear acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B J; Dieringer, N

    1991-12-01

    compensatory horizontal responses. Forward-backward translation evoked movements of both eyes that were symmetric in amplitude, but 180 degrees out-of-phase. Translation along diagonal axes evoked almost no horizontal responses in the eye facing in the direction of linear motion but maximal horizontal responses in the eye facing away from the direction of linear motion. These disconjugate movements resulted in a modulation of the vergence angle of the eyes. 7. Disconjugate horizontal responses in darkness are best explained by the assumption that part of the visual consequences of a translational head displacement (i.e., change of viewing distance in light) is taken into account centrally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  20. Estimates of Minor Ocean Tide Loading Displacement and Its Impact on Continuous GPS Coordinate Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The site displacement due to ocean tidal loading is regarded as one of the largest uncertainties in precise geodetic positioning measurements, among which the effect of minor ocean tides (MOT, except for the 11 main tidal constituents, are sometimes neglected in routine precise global positioning system (GPS data processing. We find that MOT can cause large vertical loading displacements with peak-to-peak variations reaching more than 8 mm at coastal/island stations. The impact of MOT on the 24-hour GPS solution is slightly larger than the magnitude of MOT loading itself, with peak-to-peak displacement variation at about 10 mm for the horizontal and 30 mm for the vertical components. We also find that the vertical velocity of all the selected stations in the Southwest Pacific was reduced by more than 10% after considering the MOT effect, while stations with weighted root mean square reduced data account for 62%, 59%, and 36% for the up, east, and north components respectively, in particular for most coastal/island stations. Furthermore, MOT correction could significantly reduce the annual signal of the global stacked east component, the near fortnightly and the long-term periodic signals in the up component. The power of some anomalous harmonics of 1.04 cycle per year is also decreased to some extent. These results further proved the benefits of MOT correction in precise GPS data processing.

  1. Simple method to measure effects of horizontal atmospherical turbulence at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tíjaro Rojas, Omar J.; Galeano Traslaviña, Yuber A.; Torres Moreno, Yezid

    2016-09-01

    The Kolmogorov's theory has been used to explain physical phenomena like the vertical turbulence in atmosphere, others recent works have made new advances and have improved K41 theory. In addition, this theory has been applied to studying different issues associated to measure atmospheric effects, and have special interest to find answers in optics to questions as e.g. at ground level, Could it find edges of two or more close objects, from a distant observer? (Classic resolution problem). Although this subject is still open, we did a model using the statistics of the centroid and the diameter of the laser beam propagated under horizontal turbulence at ground level until the object plane. The goal is to measure efficiently the turbulence effects in the long horizontal path propagation of electromagnetic wave. Natural movement of laser beam within the cavity needs be subtracted from the total transversal displacement in order to obtain a best approach. This simple proposed method is used to find the actual statistics of the centroid and beam diameter on the object plane where the turbulence introduces an additional transversal shift. And it has been tested for different values of horizontal distances under non-controlled environment in a synchronized acquisition scheme. Finally, we show test results in open very strong turbulence with high controlled temperature. This paper presents the implemented tests mainly into laboratory and discuss issues to resolve.

  2. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  3. The Potential for Horizontal Gene Transfer in Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R. E.; Deming, J. W.

    2010-04-01

    Sea ice is a potential hotspot for horizontal gene transfer due to physical concentration of bacteria, viruses, and extracellular DNA. An ice-affiliated bacterium, "Colwellia psychrerythraea," has acquired genes for compatible solute degradation via horizontal gene transfer.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions HGPPS Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis ( HGPPS ) is a disorder that affects vision and ...

  5. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  6. Deriving time-series three-dimensional displacements of mining areas from a single-geometry InSAR dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zefa; Li, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jianjun; Feng, Guangcai; Wang, Qijie; Hu, Jun; Wang, Changcheng

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a method for deriving time-series three-dimensional (3-D) displacements of mining areas from a single-geometry interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) dataset (hereafter referred to as the SGI-based method). This is mainly aimed at overcoming the limitation of the traditional multi-temporal InSAR techniques that require SAR data from at least three significantly different imaging geometries to fully retrieve time-series 3-D displacements of mining areas. The SGI-based method first generates the multi-temporal observations of the mining-induced vertical subsidence from the single-geometry InSAR data, using a previously developed method for retrieving 3-D mining-related displacements from a single InSAR pair (SIP). The weighted least-squares solutions of the time series of vertical subsidence are estimated from these generated multi-temporal observations of vertical subsidence. Finally, the time series of horizontal motions in the east and north directions are estimated using the proportional relationship between the horizontal motion and the subsidence gradient of the mining area, on the basis of the SGI-derived time series of vertical subsidence. Seven ascending ALOS PALSAR images from the Datong mining area of China were used to test the proposed SGI-based method. The results suggest that the SGI-based method is effective. The SGI-based method not only extends the SIP-based method to time-series 3-D displacement retrieval from a single-geometry InSAR dataset, but also limits the uncertainty propagation from InSAR-derived deformation to the estimated 3-D displacements.

  7. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felipe Gómez-Isa

    2010-01-01

    The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights...

  8. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  9. Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.O. den; Hansen, H.H.G.; Lopata, R.G.P.; Korte, C.L. de; Misra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic

  10. Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Buijs, J.; Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Lopata, Richard G.P.; de Korte, Chris L.; Misra, Sarthak

    Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic

  11. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Na Wei; YingFeng Meng; Gao Li; LiPing Wan; ZhaoYang Xu; XiaoFeng Xu; YuRui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport ma...

  12. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  13. Horizontal gene transfer among genomes: The complexity hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Ravi; Rivera, Maria C.; Lake, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes. Extensive horizontal transfer has occurred for operational genes (those involved in housekeeping), whereas informational genes (those involved in transcription, translation, and related processes) are seldomly horizontally transferred. Through phylogenetic analysis of six complete prokaryotic genomes and the identification of 312 sets of orthologous genes present i...

  14. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  15. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  16. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  17. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  18. 40 CFR 86.419-78 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.419-78 Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to...

  19. Year of displaced people’s rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Romero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Campaign for the Rights of Displaced People in Colombia, launched in 2007 by UNHCR, Colombian NGO CODHES and the Catholic Church, has tried to raise awareness in Colombia and the international community about the severity of the country’s displacement crisis and its failure to guarantee the rights of displaced people.

  20. Surface displacements in Japan before the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Hung; Wen, Strong; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Hattori, Katsumi; Han, Peng; Hobara, Yasuhide; Wang, Chung-Ho; Yeh, Ta-Kang; Yen, Horng-Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Daily resolution data retrieved from the 1243 ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in Japan are utilized to expose surface displacements before the destructive M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (March 11, 2011). Variations in the residual GPS data, in which effects of the long-term plate movements, short-term noise and frequency-dependent variations have been removed through a band-pass filter via the Hilbert-Huang transform, are compared with parameters of the focal mechanism associated with the Tohoku-Oki earthquake for validation. Analytical results show that the southward movements, which were deduced from the residual displacements and agree with the strike of the rupture fault, became evident on the 65th day before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. This observation suggests that the shear stress played an important role in the seismic incubation period. The westward movements, which are consistent with the angle of the maximum horizontal compressive stress, covered entire Japan and formed an impeded area (142°E, 42°N) about 75 km away from the epicenter on the 47th day prior to the earthquake. The horizontal displacements integrated with the vertical movements from the residual GPS data are very useful to construct comprehensive images in diagnosing the surface deformation from destructive earthquakes along the subduction zone.

  1. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  2. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  3. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  4. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  5. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  6. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzel, C.; Schmidt, D.; Kleusch, C.; Kirchenbüchler, D.; Seifert, U.; Smith, A.-S.; Sengupta, K.; Merkel, R.

    2015-10-01

    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique--dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes.

  7. New Electromagnetic Force-Displacement Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Benabdellah, Amine; Abbassi, Zakarya; Nakheli, Abdelrhani

    2016-01-01

    A new electromagnetic force-displacement sensor is presented. Its operating principle is based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetism (Faraday-Lenz law) and the mechanical properties of a spring. The active elements are two coils made by a wire of 60 µm in diameter. Using different wire diameters or different number of wire turns in the coil modify the intensity of the magnetic field and the sensor response. The average accuracy of the sensor is about ∆d=1µm, and as a force sensor is abo...

  8. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cardelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification.

  9. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  10. Search for horizontal bosons at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, C.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The production process anti p p ..-->.. l/sup -/l'/sup +/ + X, where the leptons belong to two different generations and X refers to spectator jets, provides a clear signature for horizontal (generation-changing) bosons when the leptons are emitted nearly back-to-back and p/sub T//sup miss/ = 0. Cross sections and p/sub T/ distributions for each lepton are presented, and discovery limits on M/sub H/ are extracted for several different channels.

  11. Variation in terminology: capoeira in Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Nardelli Cambraia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study we analyzed the variation in the terminology of capoeira in Belo Horizonte. The terms referring to 69 videotaped movements of capoeira were collected from 10 informants (5 men and 5 women, aged between 25 and 32 years, capoeira teachers. As a result we obtained 294 different terms whose patterns of variation are distributed among 15 types. We tested the hypothesis that the figurative terms tend to be replaced by non-figurative ones, and it was confirmed by the collected data. This trend was the result of a search for transparency in terminology, making the terms more descriptive in relation to capoeira’s movements.

  12. A Hydro-pneumatic Suspension of the Horizontally Balanced Loading Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is the horizontally balanced loading platform on soft suspension.Deviation from the horizontal direction of the platform can be caused by:- Displacement of the gravity centre of main unit load placed on it from the vertical axis of the platform;- Displacement of the mass centre of the load dispersed on the platform plane from its vertical axis;- Adding a load which gravity centre does not coincide with the gravity centre of the main load.In specific cases the use of complex and expensive tracking systems of high accuracy to balance loading platforms horizontally can be justified, e.g. when mounting the optical measuring or observation systems on a platform.The aim is to assess the possibility to use the soft hydro-pneumatic suspension with a low power supply unit to provide horizontal balance of platform.The paper offers a soft hydro-pneumatic suspension design of the rectangular loading platform based on four differential hydraulic cylinders to be the supports for two diagonal beams of the platform.The head and rod ends of each pair of the beam hydro-cylinders are cross-pipe connected, and to compensate for a difference between the volumes of head and rod ends of cylinders because of their differentiality, there are hydraulic bag-type accumulators installed in the hydraulic suspension system.The research technique involves the development of a mathematical model of the loading platform hydro-pneumatic suspension followed by its approbation using numerical methods. The paper presents algorithms of engineering analysis of parameters and structural dimensions of hydraulic suspension components.In order to assess the adequacy of the developed mathematical model of a hydro-pneumatic suspension the paper studiesthe an effect of the following factors on the quality of the platform stabilization in the horizon: initial volume values of the gas chamber of hydraulic accumulators; pressure level of initial pressurization of

  13. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on

  14. Feedback from luminosity horizontal cells mediates depolarizing responses of chromaticity horizontal cells in the Xenopus retina.

    OpenAIRE

    Witkovsky, P; Gabriel, R; Krizaj, D; Akopian, A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that the depolarizing responses of chromaticity horizontal cells (C-HCs) to red light depend on a feedback signal from luminosity horizontal cells (L-HCs) to short-wavelength-sensitive cones in the retinas of lower vertebrates. In this regard we studied the C-HCs of the Xenopus retina. C-HCs and L-HCs were identified by physiological criteria and then injected with neurobiotin. The retina then was incubated with peanut agglutinin, which stains red-but not blue-sensitive c...

  15. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Nidzvetska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique. Contrary to the expectations, the perceived physical health of mothers and their children was found not to be affected by conflict and displacement, while psychological distress was often reported. A weak healthcare system, Ukraine’s proneness to informal payments, and heavy bureaucracy to register as an IDP were reported in our study. A precarious social safety net to IDP mothers in Ukraine, poor dietary diversity, and a generalized rupture of vaccine stocks, with halted or delayed vaccinations in children were identified. Increasing social allowances and their timely delivery to IDP mothers might be the most efficient policy measure to improve health and nutrition security. Reestablishment and sustainability of vaccine stocks in Ukraine is urgent to avoid the risks of a public health crisis. Offering psychological support for IDP mothers is recommended.

  16. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzvetska, Svitlana; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Tappis, Hannah; van Loenhout, Joris A F; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-09

    Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique. Contrary to the expectations, the perceived physical health of mothers and their children was found not to be affected by conflict and displacement, while psychological distress was often reported. A weak healthcare system, Ukraine's proneness to informal payments, and heavy bureaucracy to register as an IDP were reported in our study. A precarious social safety net to IDP mothers in Ukraine, poor dietary diversity, and a generalized rupture of vaccine stocks, with halted or delayed vaccinations in children were identified. Increasing social allowances and their timely delivery to IDP mothers might be the most efficient policy measure to improve health and nutrition security. Reestablishment and sustainability of vaccine stocks in Ukraine is urgent to avoid the risks of a public health crisis. Offering psychological support for IDP mothers is recommended.

  17. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  18. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  19. Meridional displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Sarah T

    2014-07-13

    Observed long-term warming trends in the Southern Ocean have been interpreted as a sign of increased poleward eddy heat transport or of a poleward displacement of the entire Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) frontal system. The two-decade-long record from satellite altimetry is an important source of information for evaluating the mechanisms governing these trends. While several recent studies have used sea surface height contours to index ACC frontal displacements, here altimeter data are instead used to track the latitude of mean ACC transport. Altimetric height contours indicate a poleward trend, regardless of whether they are associated with ACC fronts. The zonally averaged transport latitude index shows no long-term trend, implying that ACC meridional shifts determined from sea surface height might be associated with large-scale changes in sea surface height more than with localized shifts in frontal positions. The transport latitude index is weakly sensitive to the Southern Annular Mode, but is uncorrelated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Displacing lateral meniscus masquerading as patella dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Fontboté, Cristián A; Rohr, Sara R

    2014-10-01

    To alert the treating clinician to an uncommon knee meniscal condition that often masquerades as a more common patella condition. Retrospective chart review of a series of cases was undertaken. A series of 12 knees in 11 patients were referred to an orthopaedic surgeon with a diagnosis of recurrent lateral patella dislocation. Three knees had undergone patella realignment surgery with continuance of symptoms. Eight patients had prior magnetic resonance images read as no meniscal pathology and no acute patella/patella retinacular injury. All patients presented for a consult with a similar history. Under anaesthesia, all knees had a stable patella as judged by physical examination. At the time of surgery, six patients had a frank tear in the lateral meniscus, all of which were readily displaceable. Six knees showed a displaceable lateral meniscus with attenuation but not a visible frank tear. Ten menisci were treated with repair, and two knees underwent partial lateral meniscectomies. Patient follow-up of minimally 18 months revealed no further episodes of "knee-cap dislocation" or symptoms of catching and locking. The clinician treating a patient with a history of a knee locking in flexion should have a high index of suspicion for a lateral meniscus tear or an unstable hypermobile lateral meniscus, despite patient report of perceived patella movement. History of symptoms occurring in knee flexion and attention to patella physical examination should be key factors in this diagnostic conundrum. Retrospective chart review, Level IV.

  1. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  2. Applying GPS to check horizontal control quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Vincent

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available GPS technologies can also be used for check quality in available horizontal point set with coordinates CJ of the frame S-JTSK. When survey and setting-out tasks should be performed in certain area, one can found in it allways some points of the fundamental and detail state controls. To use these points for some actual aims, it is necessary to investigate their compatibility (among the point mark positions and the point coordinate of control points. This can be done using GPS surveying that may be at the same time employed to determine the new point in the relevant area.Principle of quality investigatingf an existing control is founded on determination of point coordinates CJt from GPS measurements. Then, based on discrepancies among the "official" netpoint coordinates CJ and coordinates CJt "given by GPS", it can be estimated the degree and the real compatibility dislocations in the network structure of the existing points.Realisation procedure for the introduced investigation is demonstrated on GPS checking (by SOKKIA STRATUS receivers horizontal control for reconstruction of a railway bridge on river Bodrog in East Slovakia.It can be shown from the results in Table 3, that points P3 and P7 are useless due to their incompatibility (inconsistency in the inspected point set. For other 7 points (Table 7 the average measure of incompatibility reads 9.8 mm that make possible applying these points for precise setting-out

  3. Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of

  4. Numerical simulation research on cementing displacement in the expanding hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Xin, Jingmin; Zou, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    Due to the influence of geofactor, drilling fluid and construction work, irregular boreholes appear during the drilling, which will lead to poor cementing quality. Taking the well as an example, according to the phenomenon of lower displacement efficiency and serious mixing slurry during cementing in the out of round oversized hole, simulation and experimental research are carried out, how the displacement capacity affects the displacement efficiency is analyzed and the mixing cement strength test is carried out. Finally it is proposed that combined displacement can be used during cementing in the out of round oversized hole. Before the out of round oversized hole, displace in normal pump capacity. When the displacement interface flow to the out of round oversized whole, small displacement capacity is used.

  5. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  6. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  7. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  8. Changes in center of pressure displacement with the use of a foot drop stimulator in individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Karen J; Yarossi, Mathew; Mclaughlin, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Center of pressure measured during gait can provide information about underlying control mechanisms and the efficacy of a foot drop stimulator. This investigation evaluated changes in center of pressure displacement in individuals with stroke with and without a foot drop stimulator. Individuals with stroke-related foot drop (n=11) using a foot drop stimulator and healthy controls (n=11). Walking speed and bilateral center of pressure variables: 1) net displacement; 2) position and maximum displacement; and 3) mean velocity during walking. On the affected limb with the foot drop stimulator as compared to the affected limb without the foot drop stimulator: 1) increased anterior/posterior maximum center of pressure excursion 8% during stance; 2) center of pressure at initial contact was 6% more posterior; 3) medial/lateral mean, maximum and minimum center of pressure position during stance all significantly decreased; 4) anterior/posterior net displacement increased during stance and single support; and 5) anterior/posterior velocity of the center of pressure increased during stance. Individuals with stroke using a foot drop stimulator contacted the ground more posterior at initial contact and utilized more of the anterior/posterior plantar surface of the foot on the affected limb during stance. With the foot drop stimulator there was a shift in center of pressure toward the medial side possibly indicating an improvement in equinovarus gait where there is a tendency to load the lateral foot throughout stance. For individuals with stroke a foot drop stimulator can improve displacement of the center of pressure which indicates improved forward progression and stability during walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  10. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  11. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  12. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  13. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  14. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  15. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  16. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  17. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  18. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  19. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  20. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  1. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  2. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  3. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  4. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  5. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  6. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  7. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  8. NUMERICAL DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL SETTLERS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Horizontal settlers are one of the most important elements in the technological scheme of water purification. Their use is associated with the possibility to pass a sufficiently large volume of water. The important task at the stage of their designing is evaluating of their effectiveness. Calculation of the efficiency of the settler can be made by mathematical modeling. Empirical, analytical models and techniques that are currently used to solve the problem, do not allow to take into account the shape of the sump and various design features that significantly affects the loyalty to a decision on the choice of the size of the settling tank and its design features. The use of analytical models is limited only to one-dimensional solutions, does not allow accounting for nonuniform velocity field of the flow in the settler. The use of advanced turbulence models for the calculation of the hydrodynamics in the settler complex forms now requires very powerful computers. In addition, the calculation of one variant of the settler may last for dozens of hours. The aim of the paper is to build a numerical model to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal settling tank modified design. Methodology. Numerical models are based on: 1 equation of potential flow; 2 equation of inviscid fluid vortex flow; 3 equation of viscous fluid dynamics; 4 mass transfer equation. For numerical simulation the finite difference schemes are used. The numerical calculation is carried out on a rectangular grid. For the formation of the computational domain markers are used. Findings.The models allow calculating the clarification process in the settler with different form and different configuration of baffles. Originality. A new approach to investigate the mass transfer process in horizontal settler was proposed. This approach is based on the developed CFD models. Three fluid dynamics models were used for the numerical investigation of flows and waste waters purification

  9. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  10. Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohmann

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.

  11. Displaced photon-number entanglement tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, B.; Vogel, W.; Sperling, J.

    2017-09-01

    Based on correlations of coherently displaced photon numbers, we derive entanglement criteria for the purpose of verifying non-Gaussian entanglement. Our construction method enables us to verify bipartite and multipartite entanglement of complex states of light. An important advantage of our technique is that the certified entanglement persists even in the presence of arbitrarily high, constant losses. We exploit experimental correlation schemes for the two-mode and multimode scenarios, which allow us to directly measure the desired observables. To detect entanglement of a given state, a genetic algorithm is applied to optimize over the infinite set of our constructed witnesses. In particular, we provide suitable witnesses for several distinct two-mode states. Moreover, a mixed non-Gaussian four-mode state is shown to be entangled in all possible nontrivial partitions.

  12. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  13. Robustness of localized DNA strand displacement cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Mario; Kopperger, Enzo; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2014-08-26

    Colocalization can strongly alter the kinetics and efficiency of chemical processes. For instance, in DNA-templated synthesis unfavorable reactions are sped up by placing reactants into close proximity onto a DNA scaffold. In biochemistry, clustering of enzymes has been demonstrated to enhance the reaction flux through some enzymatic cascades. Here we investigate the effect of colocalization on the performance of DNA strand displacement (DSD) reactions, an important class of reactions utilized in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. We study colocalization by immobilizing a two-stage DSD reaction cascade comprised of a “sender” and a “receiver” gate onto a DNA origami platform. The addition of a DNA (or RNA) input strand displaces a signal strand from the sender gate, which can then transfer to the receiver gate. The performance of the cascade is found to vary strongly with the distance between the gates. A cascade with an intermediate gate distance of ≈20 nm exhibits faster kinetics than those with larger distances, whereas a cascade with smaller distance is corrupted by excessive intraorigami leak reactions. The 20 nm cascade is found to be considerably more robust with respect to a competing reaction, and implementation of multiple receiver gates further increases this robustness. Our results indicate that for the 20 nm distance a fraction of signal strands is transferred locally to a receiver gate on the same platform, probably involving direct physical contact between the gates. The performance of the cascade is consistent with a simple model that takes “local” and “global” transfer processes into account.

  14. Horizontal stresses below two agricultural vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamande, Mathieu André Maurice; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Janne Aalborg

    below the edge of tires. Stress distribution at the tire/soil contact is not uniform. Dimensions and inflation pressure are key factors for the ability of agricultural tires to distribute the wheel load. Our hypothesis was that the risk of shearing increases with the tire inflation pressure...... and the number of wheels. We measured horizontal stress at two depths (0.3 and 0.5 m) below tires of two slurry spreaders: one self-propelled machine equipped with wide tires (1.050 m) and low inflation pressure (150 kPa) but carrying a high wheel load (120 kN), and one tractor towing a three-axle slurry...... confounded (wheel load, inflation...

  15. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papke, R. Thane; Corral, Paulina; Ram-Mohan, Nikhil; de la Haba, Rafael R.; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Makkay, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation) are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria. PMID:25997110

  16. Horizontal gene exchange in environmental microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam I Aminov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays an important role in the evolution of life on the Earth. This view is supported by numerous occasions of HGT that are recorded in the genomes of all three domains of living organisms. HGT-mediated rapid evolution is especially noticeable among the Bacteria, which demonstrate formidable adaptability in the face of recent environmental changes imposed by human activities, such as the use of antibiotics, industrial contamination, and intensive agriculture. At the heart of the HGT-driven bacterial evolution and adaptation are highly sophisticated natural genetic engineering tools in the form of a variety of mobile genetic elements (MGEs. The main aim of this review is to give a brief account of the occurrence and diversity of MGEs in natural ecosystems and of the environmental factors that may affect MGE-mediated HGT.

  17. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylijoki, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C.; Porkholm, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  18. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thane Papke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria.

  19. Horizontal gene transfer, dispersal and haloarchaeal speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papke, R Thane; Corral, Paulina; Ram-Mohan, Nikhil; Haba, Rafael R de la; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Makkay, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-05-19

    The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation) are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria.

  20. Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soanes, Darren; Richards, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Gene transfer has been identified as a prevalent and pervasive phenomenon and an important source of genomic innovation in bacteria. The role of gene transfer in microbial eukaryotes seems to be of a reduced magnitude but in some cases can drive important evolutionary innovations, such as new functions that underpin the colonization of different niches. The aim of this review is to summarize published cases that support the hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a role in the evolution of phytopathogenic traits in fungi and oomycetes. Our survey of the literature identifies 46 proposed cases of transfer of genes that have a putative or experimentally demonstrable phytopathogenic function. When considering the life-cycle steps through which a pathogen must progress, the majority of the HGTs identified are associated with invading, degrading, and manipulating the host. Taken together, these data suggest HGT has played a role in shaping how fungi and oomycetes colonize plant hosts.

  1. Coseismic displacement of the 27th September 1997 Umbria - Marche (Italy earthquakes detected by GPS: campaigns and data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hunstad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available On September 26,1997 two earthquakes of Mw 5.7 (00.33 GMT and Mw 6.0 (9.40 GMT, occurred in the Umbria-Marche region (Central Apennines, Italy. The epicentres were located in an area of the Apenninic chain that experienced historical earthquakes up to X degrees of the MCS scale. During the time span 1992-1996, the Italian Istituto Geografico Militare (IGM set up a new national geodetic network measured by Global Positioning System space geodetic technique, consisting of more than 1200 vertices uniformly distributed on the Italian peninsula and islands. From October 7 to 11, 1997, a short while after the main shocks of the Umbria-Marche seismic sequence, we reoccupied thirteen stations belonging to the IGM and TYRGEONET networks to measure coseismic displacement. The determinations of the post-seismic coordinates at 13 GPS monuments detected significant coseismic displacements. The comparison between the preseismic and postseismic data sets show maximum displacements of 14 cm and 25 cm in the horizontal and vertical components respectively. In this paper, the GPS network, the field work, the data processing procedures and the computed coseismic displacements measured at the geodetic monuments are discussed with the aim to provide a data set useful to the scientific

  2. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  3. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  4. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  5. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  6. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  7. Readout system and predicted performance of a low-noise low-frequency horizontal accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy) and LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: alessandro.bertolini@desy.de; DeSalvo, Riccardo [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fidecaro, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Francesconi, Mario [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Marka, Szabolcs [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Sannibale, Virginio [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simonetti, Duccio [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Takamori, Akiteru [Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tariq, Hareem [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-08-01

    The readout system of a new very low noise low-frequency, force-feedback accelerometer is presented. The horizontal accelerometer carrying this sensor has been designed to be integrated in an advanced seismic isolation system for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. To make it suitable for ultra-high-vacuum operation and to reduce the probability of failures of the in-vacuum components, the accelerometer is equipped with a high-resolution capacitance sensor fully driven by remote signal conditioning electronics. The instrument's performance is not compromised by cabling lengths of up to 15 m. The accelerometer, equipped with this readout scheme, should be able to detect the inertial displacement of a platform with a root-mean-square noise less than 1 nm, integrated over all the frequencies above 0.01 Hz. We plan to implement the same readout scheme in a companion vertical sensor now being designed.

  8. Management of horizontal root fractures by fabrication of canine protected occlusion using composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hee Shin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries of the face often involve root fractures especially in anterior teeth. The prognosis and the treatment of the root fracture depend on the extent of the fracture line, general health and patient compliance. This case report outlines a new conservative trial treatment modality to stabilize the maxillary central incisors with horizontal root fracture on the cervical to middle third by fabricating canine guidance to remove loading on the traumatized maxillary central incisors during eccentric movements and thus inducing spontaneous healing of the fractured line between the fragments. Radiographs after thirty months showed adequate healing with no signs of pathological changes including root resorption, ankylosis or displacement. Long term follow-up revealed that vitality, stability and aesthetics were maintained and the patient was satisfied with the outcome.

  9. Use of shear horizontal waves to distinguish adhesive thickness variation from reduction in bonding strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin; Ech Cherif El Kettani, Mounsif; Leduc, Damien; Pareige, Pascal; Coné, Khadidiatou

    2015-08-01

    The capability of shear horizontal (SH) guided waves, to evaluate geometrical imperfections in a bonding layer, is investigated. SH waves are used in a three-layer structure in which the adhesive layer has variable thickness. It is proven that the SH waves are adapting to the local thickness of the adhesive layer (adiabatic waves). This is particularly useful in case of small thickness variations, which is of technical interest. The influence of thickness and stiffness of the adhesive layer on the wavenumbers are investigated. The selected SH2 mode is proven to be very sensitive to the adhesive layer thickness variation in the given frequency range and considerably less sensitive to the adhesive stiffness variation. This property is due to its specific displacement field and is important in practical applications, such as inspection techniques based on SH waves, in order to avoid false alarms.

  10. Shear-horizontal surface waves on piezoelectric ceramics with depolarized surface layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielczynski, P J; Pajewski, W; Szalewski, M

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical analysis and numerical results describing the propagation of SH (shear-horizontal) surface waves on piezoelectric ceramics with a depolarized surface layer are described. SH surface waves propagating in piezoelectric ceramics with a depolarized surface layer are shown to be a mixture of the Bleustein-Gulyaev surface wave, electrical potential, and the Love surface-wave mechanical displacement. Depolarization of the surface layer in piezoelectric ceramics produces strong dispersion and a multimode structure of the SH surface wave. The penetration depth of the SH surface waves propagating on an electrically free surface of a piezoelectric ceramic with a depolarized surface layer can be significantly smaller than that of the Bleustein-Gulyaev surface waves propagating on a free piezoelectric half-space. It is concluded that piezoelectric ceramics with a depolarized surface layer can be used in hybrid piezoelectric semiconductor convolvers of reduced size.

  11. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G......This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically...

  12. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    an explicit separation between modelling the behaviour of a system and monitoring the behaviour of the model. As a result, cleaner and more understandable models can be created. The third paper presents a novel method for adding auxiliary information to coloured Petri net models. Coloured Petri nets models...... in a very limited and predictable manner, and it is easy to enable and disable the auxiliary information. The fourth paper is a case study in which the performance of a web server was analysed using coloured Petri nets. This case study has shown that it is relatively easy to analyse the performance...

  13. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  14. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  15. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Zhu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction, with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground. Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more

  16. Horizontal gene transfer in evolution: facts and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Boto, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of horizontal gene transfer to evolution has been controversial since it was suggested to be a force driving evolution in the microbial world. In this paper, I review the current standpoint on horizontal gene transfer in evolutionary thinking and discuss how important horizontal gene transfer is in evolution in the broad sense, and particularly in prokaryotic evolution. I review recent literature, asking, first, which processes are involved in the evolutionary success of tran...

  17. Capillary-contacting horizontal cells in the rodent retina

    OpenAIRE

    Mojumder, Deb Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Horizontal cells, the interneurons in the distal retina, provide feedback control of the photoreceptor synaptic output at the first synapse in the visual pathway. This article, using immunohistological and confocal microscopy techniques, presents anatomical evidence that in rat and mouse retina, the horizontal cell processes are in contact with retinal capillaries as are retinal glial cells. This glia-like property of horizontal cells in these two species, also previously reported in tree shr...

  18. Horizontal Dental Changes during First Stage of Treatment Using the MBT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hosseinzadeh-Nik

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental movements of the labial segment and the canines during leveling and alignment using pre-adjusted appliances and light forces with the MBT technique. The effect of lacebacks on the horizontal movement of the first molars was also assessed.Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with a mean age of 14.08 years were selected for this before-after clinical study. Dental casts were prepared for each subject at the onset of the study followed by banding and bonding using preadjusted brackets. Alateral cephalogram was taken with the appliances in place (T0. All patients underwent exraction of the four first premolars and treatment started using the MBT technique. A second set of casts and another cephalogram was obtained after 8 weeks (T1.Results: All contact point displacements decreased between T1 and T2 with the mean (SD of -7.65 (4.16 mm in the upper arch; -7.07(3.28 mm in the lower arch.Retroclination was observed in the maxillary and mandibular incisors with the mean value of -0.021 (1.696 mm and -0.021 (1.515 mm during the study period respectively. The lower first molars showed 0.0207 (0.9657 mm displacement and theupper first molars showed 0.665 (1.296 mm mesial movement in the horizontal plane.The upper and lower canines moved distally and were uprighted, respectively. A significant increase was found in the mandibular intercanine width (P= 0.004.Conclusion: The results of this study are in favor of using preadjusted brackets for orthodontic treatment. In premolar-extraction, cases receiving preadjusted edgewise appliances; the lower labial segment does not procline during the leveling stage.

  19. Altered mandibular growth under functional posterior displacement in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farias-Neto, A; Martins, APVB; Figueroba, SR; Groppo, FC; Almeida, SM; Rizzatti-Barbosa, CM

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in mandibular growth between growing rats with posterior functional mandibular displacement and growing rats without functional mandibular displacement. Materials and Methods: Twenty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into two groups: (1) control and (2) mandible posterior displacement in the occluded condition induced by an occlusal guiding appliance. After 8 weeks all animals were sacrificed, cone beam computed...

  20. Job displacement and labor market outcomes by skill level

    OpenAIRE

    David Seim

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of displacement on outcomes such as annual earnings, unemployment, wages and hours worked. It relies on previously unexplored administrative data on all displaced workers in Sweden in 2002, 2003 and 2004 which are linked to employer-employee matched data at the individual level. By linking the data to military enlistment records, the paper assesses the selection into displacement and finds that workers with low cognitive and noncognitive skills are signific...

  1. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Gómez-Isa

    2010-01-01

    The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the r...

  2. Interferometric measurement of displacements and displacement velocities for nondestructive quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpeĭzman, V. V.; Peschanskaya, N. N.

    2007-07-01

    It is shown that the interferometric measurement of small displacements and small-displacement velocities can be used to determine internal stresses or the stresses induced by an applied load in solids and to control structural changes in them. The interferometric method based on the measurement of the reaction of a solid to a small perturbation in its state of stress is applied to determine stresses from the deviation of the reaction to perturbations from that in the standard stress-free case. For structural control, this method is employed to study the specific features of the characteristics of microplastic deformation that appear after material treatment or operation and manifest themselves in the temperature and force dependences of the rate of a small inelastic strain.

  3. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households' existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Rudy K; Lynch, Matt; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Kate

    2013-06-14

    Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. Where pre-campaign coverage

  4. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  5. Characterizing local variability in long‐period horizontal tilt noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, M.D.; Ringler, Adam; Hutt, Charles R.; Wilson, David; Holland, Austin; Sandoval, L.D; Storm, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal seismic data are dominated by atmospherically induced tilt noise at long periods (i.e., 30 s and greater). Tilt noise limits our ability to use horizontal data for sensitive seismological studies such as observing free earth modes. To better understand the local spatial variability of long‐period horizontal noise, we observe horizontal noise during quiet time periods in the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) underground vault using four small‐aperture array configurations. Each array comprises eight Streckeisen STS‐2 broadband seismometers. We analyze the spectral content of the data using power spectral density and magnitude‐squared coherence (γ2‐coherence). Our results show a high degree of spatial variability and frequency dependence in the long‐period horizontal wavefield. The variable nature of long‐period horizontal noise in the ASL vault suggests that it might be highly local in nature and not easily characterized by simple physical models when overall noise levels are low, making it difficult to identify locations in the vault with lower horizontal noise. This variability could be limiting our ability to apply coherence analysis for estimating horizontal sensor self‐noise and could also complicate various indirect methods for removing long‐period horizontal noise (e.g., collocated rotational sensor or microbarograph).

  6. The Impact of Horizontal Mergers on Competition: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay SARICA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have been devoted to the effects of horizontal mergers on competition. This survey intends to review some selected studies about the effects of competition on horizontal mergers with a special attention given the horizontal integration. One of the important results obtained from this literature survey is that the findings of many researches have largely been controversial due to the different approaches and the time periods used in their studies. In these studies, even though it has been proved that horizontal mergers have negative effects on competition, it is not possible to make any precise comment on the dimension of this effect.

  7. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport mathematical model according to gas-liquid-solid flow mechanism and large plane dunes particle transport theory.

  8. Lusin approximation for horizontal curves in step 2 Carnot groups

    OpenAIRE

    Donne, Enrico Le; Speight, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    A Carnot group $\\mathbb{G}$ admits Lusin approximation for horizontal curves if for any absolutely continuous horizontal curve $\\gamma$ in $\\mathbb{G}$ and $\\varepsilon>0$, there is a $C^1$ horizontal curve $\\Gamma$ such that $\\Gamma=\\gamma$ and $\\Gamma'=\\gamma'$ outside a set of measure at most $\\varepsilon$. We verify this property for free Carnot groups of step 2 and show that it is preserved by images of Lie group homomorphisms preserving the horizontal layer. Consequently, all step 2 Car...

  9. Misdirected horizontal saccades in pan-cerebellar atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2015-08-15

    Saccadic dysmetria is a sensitive marker of cerebellar dysfunction. We discovered misdirected horizontal saccades due to cross-coupled orthogonal (vertical) saccades in siblings with pan-cerebellar atrophy. There was an upward drift in vertical eye position after each cross-coupled downward saccade. Such drifts brought the eyes back to the desired target. Due to strong upward bias, downward compensatory slow movements did not follow cross-coupled upward saccades. There was minimal horizontal cross-coupling associated with vertical saccades. There was a reduced gain of horizontal pursuit causing lag in the horizontal eye movement and subsequent catch-up horizontal saccades. The horizontal catch-up saccades were also associated with vertical cross-coupled eye movements and subsequent drifts. There was no cross-coupling of pursuit eye movements. Our results support the hypothesis emphasizing adaptive cerebellar control of saccade direction. Commands for horizontal saccades trigger not only the activity of the horizontal burst generators, but also the vertical burst neurons. The activity of orthogonal (vertical) burst neurons is canceled by opposing signals under cerebellar supervision. Cerebellar lesions could disrupt such balance between opposing orthogonal signals leading to vertical cross-coupling during horizontal saccade. We speculate that upward drift might result from an imbalance in opposing orthogonal signals at the level of neural integrators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative Measurement of Out-of-plane Displacement Using Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Gu; Kim, Kyung Suk; Beack, Sang Kyu; Jang, Ho Sub [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung Suk [Mokpo Science College, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry is a common method for measuring out-of-plane displacement and in-plane displacement and applied for vibration analysis and strain/stress analysis. However, ESPI is sensitive to environmental disturbance, which provide the limitation of industrial application. On the other hand, Shearography based on shearing interferometer can directly measure the first derivative of out-of-plane displacement, which is insensitive to vibration disturbance. This paper proposes the out-of-plane displacement extraction technique from results of Shearography by numerical processing and measurement results of ESPI and Shearoraphy are compared quantitatively.

  11. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement and the c......We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement...

  12. Isothermal Gas assisted displacement of a polystyrene melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase in the s......Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase...

  13. Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Danø, Anne Møller; Heinesen, Eskil

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether job loss as the result of displacement causes hospitalization for stress-related diseases which are widely thought to be associated with unemployment. In doing this, we use much better data than any previous investigators. Our data are a random 10% sample of the male...... group of displaced workers if they had not in fact been displaced. Our results indicate unequivocally that being displaced in Denmark does not cause hospitalization for stress-related disease. An analysis of the power of our test suggests that even though we are looking for a relatively rare outcome...

  14. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  15. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  16. Homology Groups of a Pipeline Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Husainov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri net is said to be elementary if every place can contain no more than one token. In this paper, it is studied topological properties of the elementary Petri net for a pipeline consisting of n functional devices. If the work of the functional devices is considered continuous, we can come to some topological space of “intermediate” states. In the paper, it is calculated the homology groups of this topological space. By induction on n, using the Addition Sequence for homology groups of semicubical sets, it is proved that in dimension 0 and 1 the integer homology groups of these nets are equal to the group of integers, and in the remaining dimensions are zero. Directed homology groups are studied. A connection of these groups with deadlocks and newsletters is found. This helps to prove that all directed homology groups of the pipeline elementary Petri nets are zeroth.

  17. The Three Gorges: the unexamined toll of development-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stein

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, the context of forced displacement in its broadest sense centres on four issues: (1 coercive displacement for development; (2 political persecution resulting in controlled displacement; (3 massive labour dislocations; and (4 disaster-induced displacement. This article looks at the role of the state in displacement, focusing on the first of these issues: development-induced displacement.

  18. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found....... In both scenarios, the estimated melt rates are larger in HIRHAM than in the driving model....

  19. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J C

    2001-06-01

    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  20. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  1. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  2. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well...of Sonopia and will have a comprehensive review of the service in the coming weeks [12]. Twango, which was acquired by Nokia in July 2007, is an...EXPERIMENTATION As already mentioned the main purpose of this thesis is the development of a TwiddleNet portal running on a smartphone or a PDA, which can allow

  3. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  4. Assessment of noise in non-tectonic displacement derived from GRACE time-variable gravity filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Shen, Yunzhong

    2017-04-01

    Many studies have been focusing on estimating the noises in GNSS monitoring time series. While the noises of GNSS time series after the correction with non-tectonic displacement should be re-estimated. Knowing the noises in the non-tectonic can help to better identify the sources of re-estimated noises. However, there is a lack of knowledge of noises in the non-tectonic displacement. The objective of this work is to assess the noise in the non-tectonic displacement. GRACE time-variable gravity is used to reflect the global mass variation. The GRACE stokes coefficients of the gravity field are used to calculate the non-tectonic surface displacement at any point on the surface. The Atmosphere and Ocean AOD1B de-aliasing model to the GRACE solutions is added because the complete mass variation is requested. The monthly GRACE solutions from CSR, JPL, GFZ and Tongji span from January 2003 to September 2015 are compared. The degree-1 coefficients derived by Swenson et al (2008) are added and also the C20 terms are replaced with those obtained from Satellite Laser Ranging. The P4M6 decorrelation and Fan filter with a radius of 300 km are adopted to reduce the stripe errors. Optimal noise models for the 1054 stations in ITRF2014 are presented. It is found that white noise only take up a small proportion: less than 18% in horizontal and less than 13% in vertical. The dominant models in up and north components are ARMA and flicker, while in east the power law noise shows significance. The local distribution comparison of the optimal noise models among different products is quite similar, which shows that there is little dependence on the different strategies adopted. In addition, the reasons that caused to different distributions of the optimal noise models are also investigated. Meanwhile different filtering methods such as Gaussian filters, Han filters are applied to see whether the noise is related with filters. Keyword: optimal noise model; non-tectonic displacement

  5. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  6. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  7. Estimating Fault Displacement from the 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake Using LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Minster, J.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2001-12-01

    The 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake generated visible surface faulting along almost 60km of sparsely vegetated, undeveloped desert terrain. Six months after the earthquake, the entire length of the Hector Mine fault zone was mapped with a scanning laser altimeter as part of a joint experiment between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Southern California Earthquake Center and the commercial firm, Aerotec LLC. This data set has recently been recalibrated and validated with respect to GPS-measured ground control to provide a high-resolution, geodetic-quality digital elevation model (DEM) that can be used for applications requiring precise knowledge of the faulted terrain within a half-kilometer swath along the Hector Mine surface rupture. We show the various methods of calibration used and the improvements to the DEM that result. We then use this recalibrated DEM to estimate vertical and horizontal displacement at several diagnostic locations along the fault. Having a quantitative representation of the post-earthquake faulted terrain allows us to bring signal-processing techniques to bear on this problem, and we compare our results to those made by the USGS using conventional surveying techniques and to recently published Hector Mine displacement estimates from InSAR.

  8. Macroscopic Profile Modification and Microscopic Displacement Mechanism of Weak Gel Flowing in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flowing mechanism and function on the macroscopic and microscopic scale in the porous media of a widely used weak gel of an acrylamide based polymer crosslinked with chromium(III were studied. Innovative microscopic plane visualization model was designed for microscopic scale experiment and sand pack physical model for macroscopic scale. The microscopic displacing experiments indicate that weak gel mainly intrudes into big pores rather than small ones, which can improve the conformance horizontally and increase the sweep efficiency benefiting from fluid diversion. Additionally, due to good viscoelasticity of weak gel, the negative pressure effect was formed enhancing oil recovery flow from small pore throats. Results of macroscopic physical sand pack flow experiment indicate positive influence of weak gel on vertical conformance control. Although the high permeable layer was not completely blocked, the oil recovery improved as a result of weak gel movement by continuous water flooding. Experiments results lead to conclusion, the primary function of weak gel is oil displacement, profile modification is secondary, and its effect is temporary.

  9. Analytical Solution for Stress and Displacement after X-Section Cast-in-Place Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-section cast-in-place (referred to as XCC pile, which is one of new pile types developed by Hohai University, is widely used for pile foundation and pile-supported embankment over soft ground in China. However, little research has been carried out on this new type pile, especially the surrounding soil disturbance under XCC pile installation. This paper presents an analytical solution for estimating the horizontal stress and displacement of surrounding soil of XCC pile after XCC pile installation. The reliability and accuracy of the present solution are verified by comparing them with the field test results. Then, parametric studies, such as outsourcing diameter (a, open arc distance (b, open arc angle (θ, the undrained strength (Su, the limit pile cavity pressure (Plim, and the radius of the plastic zone (Rp, are discussed for the practice engineering design. The results show that the stress and displacement distributions of surrounding soil calculated by this paper are in agreement with field test results.

  10. Mechanisms for Hysteresis in a Horizontal Unsaturated Fracture with Matric Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D. T.; Glass, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    Within porous media, macroscopic hysteretic pressure-saturation relations have long been thought to be the result of microscopic effects such as phase invasion within local `ink bottle' geometry, phase trapping or accessibility, and differences between solid-liquid-liquid contact angles for wetting and nonwetting invasion. Here we consider the mechanisms for hysteresis within a horizontal rough-walled fracture. An analogue horizontal rough-walled fracture (10 cm x 15 cm) was formed by placing a piece of transparent textured glass against a water saturated, flat porous plate. Water could enter and leave the fracture via the porous plate while air entered or left via the fracture edges. The evolution of wetted structure within the fracture was recorded with digital images taken through the transparent side as the tension in the porous plate was raised and lowered. Following a sequence of such invasion experiments, the porous plate was replaced with a piece of flat glass and the aperture field was measured using a light transmission technique. Analysis of digital images taken during displacement demonstrated that the macroscopic hysteresis in pressure-saturation curves resulted primarily from the underlying microscopic mechanisms of ink bottle and phase trapping accessibility. Additionally, we found the wetted structure within the fracture to become connected and form a satiated (0 tension) structure containing complex entrapped air structures (volumetric saturation ~0.5) thus greatly reducing permeability at 0 tension. The pressure at which this structure formed on wetting and fragmented on drainage also showed significant hysteresis.

  11. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  12. Avulsions and intrusions: the controversial displacement injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, David J; Barrett, Edward J; Casas, Michael J

    2003-05-01

    Avulsions and intrusions are the most complicated and controversial displacement injuries of permanent teeth. Clinical guidelines published by authorities such as the American Association of Endodontists, the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the International Association of Dental Traumatology are inconsistent. While a certain amount of inconsistency might be expected, some of these guidelines recommend treatments that are experimental or have not incorporated research information from the past 5 years, and in one case the guidelines incorrectly describe the nature of Hank's balanced salt solution. Recent laboratory studies support previous clinical outcome studies in emphasizing that only for teeth replanted within 5 minutes of avulsion is there a chance of regeneration of the periodontal ligament and normal function. Teeth replanted beyond 5 minutes will take another path, that of repair followed by root resorption, ankylosis and eventual extraction. Dentists should explain these outcomes at the time of the replantation decision. Severe intrusions also have predictable outcomes. Teeth intruded beyond 6 mm cannot regenerate a functional periodontal ligament and so are prone to root resorption and eventual extraction as well. In this situation the decision is one of immediate extraction or repositioning, with the understanding that it is inevitable that the tooth will eventually be extracted. Authoritative clinical guidelines available on the Internet provide the clinician with useful outlines for treatment. However, individual inconsistencies stimulate academic controversies and, in some cases, clinical misdirection.

  13. TREATMENT OF DISPLACED MALLEOLAR FRACTURES AT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Vindišar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exact knowledge of the anatomic relations of the juvenile skeleton is of great importance for the determination of the injury and proper treatment. The treatment should be uniform and carried out in one act. Considering this facts the functional results are usually very good and no late sequel are recorded.Methods. In 5-years period 25 children with age 7 to 17 were treated with displaced fracture of ankle. The Salter-Harris classification (SHC was used. Children were classified in two groups. In first group (G-I 11 children were treated with closed reduction. Whole group was classified as type II fractures of SHC. In second group (G-II 14 children were treated operatively. 10 cases were type III, 2 cases were type IV of SHC and 2 were juvenil Tillaux fracture. In follow-up we registered the duration of immobilisation, non-weight bearing period, mobility and residual pain at the end of the treatment.Results. In G-I average non-weight bearing period was 10.4 weeks, in G-II only 7.8 weeks. At the end of the treatment in both groups very good functional results were achieved. There were no complications in operative group (G-II.Conclusions. Children relatively often suffer ankle injuries. With proper diagnosis and early adequate treatment the prognosis is good and no functional sequel were recorded.

  14. Mythic displacement in Nigerian narratives: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Chukwumah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2013n65p73 Five decades of resorting to humanistic critical procedureshave bequeathed to the Nigerian critical practice the legacy ofexamining and discovering in Nigerian and African narrativesthe historical and social concepts of the time and times theyare presumed to posit. These concepts include colonialism,corruption, war, political instability, and culture conflict. Theseprocedures are undertaken without due regard to seeing the wholeof the literary tradition as a stream out of which narratives emerge.This article, therefore, by way of introduction, seeks to retrieveNigerian narratives from “every author” and humanistic criticalapproach by placing them in a realm where a holistic method suchas Frye’s could be applied. Here, the traverses of the structure ofmythical imagery such as the mythos of crime and punishmentas embodied in these narratives and how this structure wasdisplaced/shrouded from Frye’s first mimetic mode to the last, viathe concept of mythic displacement, will be analysed.

  15. Airbag roll marks & displaced rocks and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Does temperature-mediated reproductive success drive the direction of species displacement in two invasive species of leafminer fly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Wang

    Full Text Available Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae are two highly invasive species of leafmining flies, which have become established as pests of horticultural crops throughout the world. In certain regions where both species have been introduced, L. sativae has displaced L. trifolii, whereas the opposite has occurred in other regions. These opposing outcomes suggest that neither species is an inherently superior competitor. The regions where these displacements have been observed (southern China, Japan and western USA are climatically different. We determined whether temperature differentially affects the reproductive success of these species and therefore if climatic differences could affect the outcome of interspecific interactions where these species are sympatric. The results of life table parameters indicate that both species can develop successfully at all tested temperatures (20, 25, 31, 33°C. L. sativae had consistently higher fecundities at all temperatures, but L. trifolii developed to reproductive age faster. Age-stage specific survival rates were higher for L. sativae at low temperatures, but these were higher for L. trifolii at higher temperatures. We then compared the net reproductive rates (R0 for both species in pure and mixed cultures maintained at the same four constant temperatures. Both species had significantly lower net reproductive rates in mixed species cultures compared with their respective pure species cultures, indicating that both species are subject to intense interspecific competition. Net reproductive rates were significantly greater for L. sativae than for L. trifolii in mixed species groups at the lower temperatures, whereas the opposite occurred at the higher temperature. Therefore, interactions between the species are temperature dependent and small differences could shift the competitive balance between the species. These temperature mediated effects may contribute to the current ongoing displacement

  17. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  18. Bubble growth in a narrow horizontal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, Benoit; Goulet, Remi [CETHIL, UMR5008, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon1 (France); Passos, Julio Cesar [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. LABSOLAR

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an axis-symmetric two-phase flow model describing the growth of a single bubble squeezed between a horizontal heated upward-facing disc and an insulating surface placed parallel to the heated surface. Heat transfers at the liquid-vapour interfaces are predicted by the kinetic limit of vaporisation. The depths of the liquid films deposed on the surfaces (heated surface and confinement space) are determined using the Moriyama and Inoue correlation (1996). Transient heat transfers within the heated wall are taken into account. The model is applied to pentane bubble growth. The influence of the gap size, the initial temperature of the system, the thermal effusivity of the heated wall and the kinetic limit of vaporisation are studied. The results show that the expansion of the bubbles strongly depends on the gap size and can be affected by the effusivity of the material. Mechanical inertia effects are mainly dominant at the beginning of the bubble expansion. Pressure drop induced by viscous effects have to be taken into account for high capillary numbers. Heat transfers at the meniscus are negligible except at the early stages of the bubble growth. (author)

  19. Horizontal Shear Wave Imaging of Large Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarry, M J

    2007-09-05

    When complete the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest and most energetic laser and will be capable of achieving for the first time fusion ignition in the laboratory. Detecting optics features within the laser beamlines and sizing them at diameters of 0.1 mm to 10 mm allows timely decisions concerning refurbishment and will help with the routine operation of the system. Horizontally polarized shear waves at 10 MHz were shown to accurately detect, locate, and size features created by laser operations from 0.5 mm to 8 mm by placing sensors at the edge of the optic. The shear wave technique utilizes highly directed beams. The outer edge of an optic can be covered with shear wave transducers on four sides. Each transducer sends a pulse into the optic and any damage reflects the pulse back to the transmitter. The transducers are multiplexed, and the collected time waveforms are enveloped and replicated across the width of the element. Multiplying the data sets from four directions produces a map of reflected amplitude to the fourth power, which images the surface of the optic. Surface area can be measured directly from the image, and maximum depth was shown to be correlated to maximum amplitude of the reflected waveform.

  20. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  1. Horizontal versus vertical orientation of the loop for tension band wiring of transverse patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ki; Hwang, Yoon Sub; Choy, Won Sik

    2014-03-01

    Conventional operative treatments of patella fractures are frequently associated with implant failure or displacement. Recent biomechanical studies showed that the orientation of the wire loop and the site of the wire twist can affect the fixation strength. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of the tension band technique with loops in different orientations and different knot positions. For this retrospective study, 72 patella fractures (71 patients) were fixed with figure-of-eight configurations in combination with 2 K-wires. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the orientation of tension band construct. A total of 40 patella fractures were placed with figure-of-eight configurations in a vertical orientation either with 1 wire twist (group 1; 16 patella fractures) or with 2 wire twists at the adjacent corners (group 2; 24 patella fractures). Thirty-two patella fractures were placed with figure-of-eight configurations in a horizontal orientation with 2 wire twists at the adjacent corners (group 3). Range of motion, complication rates, and knee scoring scales (Hospital for Special Surgery and Lysholm) were assessed during serial follow-up. Satisfactory reductions were achieved in all groups, but functional results in the early stage were different. Group 3 had better Hospital for Special Surgery and Lysholm scores at 3 months postoperatively; however, at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively, all groups had similar scores. At the 1-year follow-up, all groups achieved acceptable flexion and range of motion. The overall complication rate was lower in the horizontal group (12.5%). Placing the figure-of-eight tension band construct in a horizontal orientation can provide functional benefits in the early stage after patella fractures. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. A Simple Physics-Based Model Predicts Oil Production from Thousands of Horizontal Wells in Shales

    KAUST Repository

    Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-10-18

    Over the last six years, crude oil production from shales and ultra-deep GOM in the United States has accounted for most of the net increase of global oil production. Therefore, it is important to have a good predictive model of oil production and ultimate recovery in shale wells. Here we introduce a simple model of producing oil and solution gas from the horizontal hydrofractured wells. This model is consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. We then apply our model thousands of wells in the Eagle Ford shale. Given well geometry, we obtain a one-dimensional nonlinear pressure diffusion equation that governs flow of mostly oil and solution gas. In principle, solutions of this equation depend on many parameters, but in practice and within a given oil shale, all but three can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we linearize and solve exactly with a scaling

  3. The effect of displacement current on fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Bletzinger, P

    2003-01-01

    Applied voltage and gas pressure dependent electrical power deposition efficiencies in a short voltage pulse excited dielectric barrier discharge have been measured. The effect of time delay between the onset of gas breakdown, peak conduction current and the applied voltage pulse with increasing gas pressure leads to higher net power deposition at lower E/n, where E is the electric field and n is the gas density. An accurate measurement of the power deposition requires careful estimation of the displacement current with the applied voltage as the voltage time derivative dV/dt increases. The variation of optical emission intensity measurements of Ar 2p sub 1 -1s sub 2 , N sub 2 C-B and N sub 2 sup + B-X transitions with increasing gas pressure validated the conclusions reached from the time resolved electrical measurements.

  4. Freeze-out conditions from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Paolo; Alberico, Wanda [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bellwied, Rene [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Bluhm, Marcus [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Mantovani Sarti, Valentina [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Nahrgang, Marlene [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ratti, Claudia [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-11-10

    We calculate ratios of higher-order susceptibilities quantifying fluctuations in the number of net-protons and in the net-electric charge using the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. We take into account the effect of resonance decays, the kinematic acceptance cuts in rapidity, pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum used in the experimental analysis, as well as a randomization of the isospin of nucleons in the hadronic phase. By comparing these results to the latest experimental data from the STAR Collaboration, we determine the freeze-out conditions from net-electric charge and net-proton distributions and discuss their consistency.

  5. Towards a new natural theology based on horizontal transcendence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result the article rejects absolute transcendence, replacing it with a horizontal transcendence that accords with humans' biological makeup and with presentday scientifi c thinking. In the framework of horizontal transcendence the pivotal problem of the human condition is no longer death, but life. This has radical ...

  6. The Interplay of Different Types of Governance in Horizontal Cooperations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raue, Jan Simon; Wieland, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Over the last decades, horizontal cooperations between logistics service providers (LSPs) have become a well-established organizational form and their use is expected to grow even further in the future. In spite of this increasing importance of horizontal LSP cooperations, little research...

  7. Horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Dullaert, Wout; Fleuren, Hein

    This article presents a broad review of horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics. This topic is fast gaining momentum in the logistics sector and is thus highly relevant from a practical point of view. Moreover, horizontal cooperation is also interesting from a theoretical perspective

  8. Horizontal Cooperation in Transport and Logistics: A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Dullaert, Wout; Fleuren, Hein

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a broad review of horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics. This topic is fast gaining momentum in the logistics sector and is thus highly relevant from a practical point of view. Moreover, horizontal cooperation is also interesting from a theoretical perspective

  9. District Power Equalization, Horizontal Equity and the Property Mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, John

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the traditional district power equalization (DPE) grant formula achieves horizontal equity, that the formula must be modified when the measure of fiscal capacity differs from the legal tax base, and that the inclusion of a tax exporting variable leads to the breakdown of horizontal equity. (Author/IRT)

  10. Processing woody biomass with a modified horizontal grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; John Klepac

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the production rate and cost of producing woody biomass chips for use in a power plant. The power plant has specific raw material handling requirements. Output from a 3-knife chipper, a tub grinder, and a horizontal grinder was considered. None of the samples from these machines met the specifications needed. A horizontal grinder was modified to...

  11. Investigation of blade performance of horizontal axis wind turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shape of rotor blade plays an important role in determining the overall aerodynamic performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine. In this work, blade is designed for a 5KW horizontal axis wind turbine which is already in market. For designing blade, blade element momentum theory (BEMT) is used and a computer ...

  12. Artificial remisión de V. horizonte artificial.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Artificial remisión de V. horizonte artificial. en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Artificial remisión de V. horizonte artificial. in the dictionary Dicter.

  13. The use of crosshead displacement in determining fracture parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.; Voormeeren, L.O.; Janssen, M.

    2013-01-01

    In determining the fracture toughness of a test specimen, standards currently require either locally-measured load-line displacements or clip gage displacements. In order to measure these parameters, secondary sensors generally need to be installed and calibrated, which often comes at a higher cost.

  14. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...

  15. Traumatisk diafragmaruptur med displacering af leveren til thorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, L.; Burcharth, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with the liver displaced to the right hemithorax. MR diagnosed the rupture and the displacement of the liver. The patient was operated on and the total right diaphragmatic rupture was reconstructed by suturing. Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture ...

  16. A novel method for sensing rotational speed, linear displacement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We further demonstrate that such HTSC based magnetic sensors are capable of sensing the rotational speed, small displacement and direct current with good resolution. The experimental methods and results obtained are discussed. Keywords. Magnetic sensor; superconductor; rotational speed sensor; displacement ...

  17. Assessing Interventions Available to Internally Displaced Persons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these ...

  18. Displacement, Outplacement, or Inplacement? Options for Business and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Thomas J.

    This report considers the differences among displacement, outplacement, and inplacement and looks at the risks, benefits, and costs of each. Displacement is defined as the termination of employment with little attention given to corporate or individual needs. Outplacement is defined as the pre-planned management of employee termination, addressing…

  19. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  20. Displaced intra-uterine contraceptive device causing severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a common method of contraception in developing countries. Expulsion/displacement is a common complication of its use, occurring in 2-8 % of users per 100 women years. Two cases of menorrhagia resulting from displacement of Copper-T-380 IUCD to the cervical canal ...