Sample records for net heating rate

  1. Tingkat Insidensi Malaria di Wilayah Pemanasan Kelambu Berinsektisida Tahan Lama dan Wilayah Kontrol (MALARIA INCIDENCE RATE OF HEAT ASSISTED REGENERATION LONG LASTING INSECTICIDAL NETS AREA AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etih Sudarnika


    Full Text Available Long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN is one effective way to prevent malaria. Permethrin treatedLLIN is one type of LLIN which is recommended by WHO. Several studies have shown that these types ofLLIN requiring heat assisted regeneration after washing to enhance the biological activity of insecticidethat contained in the LLIN fibers. This study aimed to compare the incidence rates of malaria in childrenunder five years old who live in the intervention area (where the heat assisted regeneration on LLIN afterwashing was applied and control area (where the heat assisted regeneration on LLIN after washing wasnot applied. Data of malaria cases was collected from laboratory log book at all health centers in BangkaDistrict, in the period of June June 2007 until July 2008. Data were analyzed with Poisson regressionmodels. The results showed that the incidence rate of malaria in children under five years old was notsignificantly different between the treatment and control areas.

  2. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions (United States)

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  3. Radiative heating rates near the stratospheric fountain (United States)

    Doherty, G. M.; Newell, R. E.; Danielsen, E. F.


    Radiative heating rates are computed for various sets of conditions thought to be appropriate to the stratospheric fountain region: with and without a layer of cirrus cloud between 100 and 150 mbar; with standard ozone and with decreased ozone in the lower stratosphere, again with and without the cirrus cloud; and with different temperatures in the tropopause region. The presence of the cloud decreases the radiative cooling below the cloud in the upper troposphere and increases the cooling above it in the lower stratosphere. The cloud is heated at the base and cooled at the top and thus radiatively destabilized; overall it gains energy by radiation. Decreasing ozone above the cloud also tends to cool the lower stratosphere. The net effect is a tendency for vertical convergence and horizontal divergence in the cloud region. High resolution profiles of temperature, ozone, and cloudiness within the fountain region are required in order to assess the final balance of the various processes.

  4. Numerical Computation of Net Radiative Heat Transfer within a Non Absorbing Furnace Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Ndache MOHAMMED


    Full Text Available The numerical evaluation of the net radiative heat transfer rate in a single zone, non absorbing furnace enclosure is reported. In this analysis, simplified mathematical furnace model namely, the long furnace model is used to determine furnace performance. The formulation assumes some known temperature values. Thus, heat transfer equations were set up and solved numerically. A FORTRAN computer program was developed and debugged. Results obtained from this study compare favourably well with the results from the traditional graphical method. Also, the computer program developed can handle variations in furnace operating conditions, temperatures, thermal properties and dimensions.

  5. System and method for determining the net output torque from a waste heat recovery system (United States)

    Tricaud, Christophe; Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.


    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system with a system and method for calculation of the net output torque from the waste heat recovery system. The calculation uses inputs from existing pressure and speed sensors to create a virtual pump torque sensor and a virtual expander torque sensor, and uses these sensors to provide an accurate net torque output from the WHR system.

  6. Heat Mismatch of future Net Zero Energy Buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    . NZEBs are characterized by having a greatly reduced energy demand that on an annual basis can be balanced out by an equivalent generation of energy from RES. Most buildings in Denmark are connected electricity grids and around half to district heating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy...... instead of wasting the energy. The objective in this paper is find how large an area of NZEBs is to be built within DH areas and how the heat mismatch of NZEBs influence different types of Danish DH systems. In the analyses nine different scenarios are analyzed. The examination is from a technical......The long-term goal for Denmark is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources (RES) in 2050. To reach this goal energy savings in buildings are essential. Therefore, a focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) have increased...

  7. Annual variation in the net longshore sediment transport rate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS


    Full Text Available from wave data spanning a number of years, or by measuring continuously the longshore transport over a number of years. In both cases, it must be known over how many consecutive years either the computations or the measurements should be done. Ž... the annual variation in the net longshore transport rates over a period of 7 years. In a study Ž . Žby Shi-Leng and Teh-Fu 1987 , a longshore sediment transport formula the Bijker, .1967 method was calibrated against short-term measurements at Nouakchott...

  8. The effect of net foreign assets on saving rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben David Nissim


    Full Text Available Observing empirical data we find that many countries try to delay the decision of increasing saving rate in order to avoid a decrease of the living standards. However the delay leads a deterioration of countries financial stability. We present a simple theoretical model that connects between countries' saving rate and their net foreign assets. Using cross section data set of 135 countries in 2010 we estimated the econometric relation between saving rate in 2010 as dependent variable and two explanatory variables: the current account in 2010 and the aggregated current account during 1980-2010. Our findings show that industrial countries in a bad financial state tend to decrease their saving rate as external debt is larger causing to deterioration in external debt while countries with good financial state tend to increase their saving rate and the tendency increase as financial state becomes better. Only in countries with a very large external debt saving rate tends to grow. The results point that gross foreign debt will keep increasing and will worsen world financial state causing increased risk of getting into a world crisis.

  9. Consumer Unit for Low Energy District Heating Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Otto; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon


    heat load on a daily basis, having a flow temperature control based on outdoor climate. The unit is designed for a near constant district heating water flow. The paper describes two concepts. The analyses are based on TRNSYS (Klein et al., 2006) simulation, supplied with laboratory verification...

  10. Evaluation of Advanced Stirling Convertor Net Heat Input Correlation Methods Using a Thermal Standard (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Schifer, Nicholas A.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, numerous tasks have been performed which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs, including testing validation hardware, known as the Thermal Standard, to provide a direct comparison to numerical and empirical models used to predict convertor net heat input. This validation hardware provided a comparison for scrutinizing and improving empirical correlations and numerical models of ASC-E2 net heat input. This hardware simulated the characteristics of an ASC-E2 convertor in both an operating and non-operating mode. This paper describes the Thermal Standard testing and the conclusions of the validation effort applied to the empirical correlation methods used by the Radioisotope Power System (RPS) team at NASA Glenn.

  11. An environmental rating for heat pump equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.


    The major federal and state regulatory trends that may affect heat pump markets are reviewed. Then the confluence of federal and state regulation, and what that may mean for heat pump markets, is discussed. The conclusion reached, and therefore the assumption for the rest of the paper, is that state regulators will increasingly be managing the environmental impacts associated with alternative heating, cooling, and water heating methods within the framework of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The input needs of IRP are reviewed, and some shortcomings of existing rating procedures for providing the IRP inputs are identified. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief suggestion on course of action.

  12. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.


    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhmedova


    Full Text Available Methods of computing and mathematical modeling are all widely used in the study of various heat exchange processes that provide the ability to study the dynamics of the processes, as well as to conduct a reasonable search for the optimal technological parameters of heat treatment.This work is devoted to the identification of correlations among the factors that have the greatest effect on the rate of heating of the product at hightemperature heat sterilization in a stream of hot air, which are chosen as the temperature difference (between the most and least warming up points and speed cans during heat sterilization.As a result of the experimental data warming of the central and peripheral layers compote of apples in a 3 liter pot at high-temperature heat treatment in a stream of hot air obtained by the regression equation in the form of a seconddegree polynomial, taking into account the effects of pair interaction of these parameters. 

  14. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.


    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  15. Achievement of Sustained Net Plasma Heating in a Fusion Experiment with the Optometrist Algorithm. (United States)

    Baltz, E A; Trask, E; Binderbauer, M; Dikovsky, M; Gota, H; Mendoza, R; Platt, J C; Riley, P F


    Many fields of basic and applied science require efficiently exploring complex systems with high dimensionality. An example of such a challenge is optimising the performance of plasma fusion experiments. The highly-nonlinear and temporally-varying interaction between the plasma, its environment and external controls presents a considerable complexity in these experiments. A further difficulty arises from the fact that there is no single objective metric that fully captures both plasma quality and equipment constraints. To efficiently optimise the system, we develop the Optometrist Algorithm, a stochastic perturbation method combined with human choice. Analogous to getting an eyeglass prescription, the Optometrist Algorithm confronts a human operator with two alternative experimental settings and associated outcomes. A human operator then chooses which experiment produces subjectively better results. This innovative technique led to the discovery of an unexpected record confinement regime with positive net heating power in a field-reversed configuration plasma, characterised by a >50% reduction in the energy loss rate and concomitant increase in ion temperature and total plasma energy.

  16. An examination of heat rate improvements due to waste heat integration in an oxycombustion pulverized coal power plant (United States)

    Charles, Joshua M.

    Oxyfuel, or oxycombustion, technology has been proposed as one carbon capture technology for coal-fired power plants. An oxycombustion plant would fire coal in an oxidizer consisting primarily of CO2, oxygen, and water vapor. Flue gas with high CO2 concentrations is produced and can be compressed for sequestration. Since this compression generates large amounts of heat, it was theorized that this heat could be utilized elsewhere in the plant. Process models of the oxycombustion boiler, steam cycle, and compressors were created in ASPEN Plus and Excel to test this hypothesis. Using these models, heat from compression stages was integrated to the flue gas recirculation heater, feedwater heaters, and to a fluidized bed coal dryer. All possible combinations of these heat sinks were examined, with improvements in coal flow rate, Qcoal, net power, and unit heat rate being noted. These improvements would help offset the large efficiency impacts inherent to oxycombustion technology.

  17. Excess heat production of future net zero energy buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd


    buildings in Denmark are connected to electricity grids and around half are connected to districtheating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy systems enables them to send and receive energy from these systems. This paper’s objective is to examine how excess heat production from NZEBs...... excess heat production from solar thermal collectors. The main findings are that the excess heat from NZEBs can benefit DH systems by decreasing the production from production units utilizing combustible fuels. In DH areas where the heat demand in summer months is already covered by renewable energy......Denmark’s long-term energy goal is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources by 2050. To reach this goal, energy savings in buildings is essential. Therefore, the focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and netzeroenergybuildings (NZEBs) has increased. Most...

  18. Elevated CO2 maintains grassland net carbon uptake under a future heat and drought extreme. (United States)

    Roy, Jacques; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Augusti, Angela; Benot, Marie-Lise; Thiery, Lionel; Darsonville, Olivier; Landais, Damien; Piel, Clément; Defossez, Marc; Devidal, Sébastien; Escape, Christophe; Ravel, Olivier; Fromin, Nathalie; Volaire, Florence; Milcu, Alexandru; Bahn, Michael; Soussana, Jean-François


    Extreme climatic events (ECEs) such as droughts and heat waves are predicted to increase in intensity and frequency and impact the terrestrial carbon balance. However, we lack direct experimental evidence of how the net carbon uptake of ecosystems is affected by ECEs under future elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2). Taking advantage of an advanced controlled environment facility for ecosystem research (Ecotron), we simulated eCO2 and extreme cooccurring heat and drought events as projected for the 2050s and analyzed their effects on the ecosystem-level carbon and water fluxes in a C3 grassland. Our results indicate that eCO2 not only slows down the decline of ecosystem carbon uptake during the ECE but also enhances its recovery after the ECE, as mediated by increases of root growth and plant nitrogen uptake induced by the ECE. These findings indicate that, in the predicted near future climate, eCO2 could mitigate the effects of extreme droughts and heat waves on ecosystem net carbon uptake.

  19. Temporal and spatial changes in mixed layer properties and atmospheric net heat flux in the Nordic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A; Alekseev, G [SI ' Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Korablev, A; Esau, I, E-mail: avsmir@aari.nw.r [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen (Norway)


    The Nordic Seas are an important area of the World Ocean where warm Atlantic waters penetrate far north forming the mild climate of Northern Europe. These waters represent the northern rim of the global thermohaline circulation. Estimates of the relationships between the net heat flux and mixed layer properties in the Nordic Seas are examined. Oceanographic data are derived from the Oceanographic Data Base (ODB) compiled in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Ocean weather ship 'Mike' (OWS) data are used to calculate radiative and turbulent components of the net heat flux. The net shortwave flux was calculated using a satellite albedo dataset and the EPA model. The net longwave flux was estimated by Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) method. Turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface were calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm. The net heat flux was calculated by using oceanographic and meteorological data of the OWS 'Mike'. The mixed layer depth was estimated for the period since 2002 until 2009 by the 'Mike' data as well. A good correlation between these two parameters has been found. Sensible and latent heat fluxes controlled by surface air temperature/sea surface temperature gradient are the main contributors into net heat flux. Significant correlation was found between heat fluxes variations at the OWS 'Mike' location and sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  20. Net Reaction Rate and Neutrino Cooling Rate for the Urca Process in Departure from Chemical Equilibrium in the Crust of Fast-accreting Neutron Stars (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Hua; Huang, Xi; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    We discuss the effect of compression on Urca shells in the ocean and crust of accreting neutron stars, especially in superbursting sources. We find that Urca shells may be deviated from chemical equilibrium in neutron stars which accrete at several tenths of the local Eddington accretion rate. The deviation depends on the energy threshold of the parent and daughter nuclei, the transition strength, the temperature, and the local accretion rate. In a typical crust model of accreting neutron stars, the chemical departures range from a few tenths of kBT to tens of kBT for various Urca pairs. If the Urca shell can exist in crusts of accreting neutron stars, compression may enhance the net neutrino cooling rate by a factor of about 1-2 relative to the neutrino emissivity in chemical equilibrium. For some cases, such as Urca pairs with small energy thresholds and/or weak transition strength, the large chemical departure may result in net heating rather than cooling, although the released heat can be small. Strong Urca pairs in the deep crust are hard to be deviated even in neutron stars accreting at the local Eddington accretion rate.

  1. A SINDA '85 nodal heat transfer rate calculation user subroutine (United States)

    Cheston, Derrick J.


    This paper describes a subroutine, GETQ, which was developed to compute the heat transfer rates through all conductors attached to a node within a SINDA '85 thermal submodel. The subroutine was written for version 2.3 of SINDA '85. Upon calling GETQ, the user supplies the submodel name and node number which the heat transfer rate computation is desired. The returned heat transfer rate values are broken down into linear, nonlinear, source and combined heat loads.

  2. Convective Heat Transfer Scaling of Ignition Delay and Burning Rate with Heat Flux and Stretch Rate in the Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (United States)

    Olson, Sandra


    To better evaluate the buoyant contributions to the convective cooling (or heating) inherent in normal-gravity material flammability test methods, we derive a convective heat transfer correlation that can be used to account for the forced convective stretch effects on the net radiant heat flux for both ignition delay time and burning rate. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone heater to minimize buoyant effects while at the same time providing a forced stagnation flow on the sample, which ignites and burns as a ceiling fire. Ignition delay and burning rate data is correlated with incident heat flux and convective heat transfer and compared to results from other test methods and fuel geometries using similarity to determine the equivalent stretch rates and thus convective cooling (or heating) rates for those geometries. With this correlation methodology, buoyant effects inherent in normal gravity material flammability test methods can be estimated, to better apply the test results to low stretch environments relevant to spacecraft material selection.

  3. Heat release rate of wood-plastic composites (United States)

    N. M. Stark; R. H. White; C. M. Clemons


    Wood-plastic composites are becoming more important as a material that fulfills recycling needs. In this study, fire performance tests were conducted on several compositions of wood and plastic materials using the Ohio State University rate of heat release apparatus. Test results included five-minute average heat release rate in kW/m2 (HRR avg) and maximum heat release...

  4. Optimizing kick rate and amplitude for Paralympic swimmers via net force measures. (United States)

    Fulton, Sacha K; Pyne, David; Burkett, Brendan


    Kicking is a key component of freestyle swimming yet the optimum combination of kick rate and kick amplitude remains unknown. For Paralympic swimmers, with upper and lower limb disabilities, the influence of the kick plays an important role in net force production. To determine optimum kick characteristics, 12 Paralympic swimmers aged 19.8 ± 2.9 years (mean ± s) were towed at their individual peak freestyle speed. The experimental conditions were (i) a prone streamline glide for passive trials and (ii) maximal freestyle kicking in a prone streamline for active trials at different speeds and kick amplitudes. Kick rate was quantified using inertial sensor technology. Towing speed was assessed using a novel and validated dynamometer, and net force was assessed using a Kistler force-platform system. When peak speed was increased by 5%, the active force increased 24.2 ± 5.3% (90% confidence limits), while kick rate remained at approximately 150 kicks per minute. Larger amplitude kicking increased the net active force by 25.1 ± 10.6%, although kick rate decreased substantially by 13.6 ± 5.1%. Based on the current kick rate and amplitude profile adopted by Paralympic swimmers, these characteristics are appropriate for optimizing net force.

  5. Assessment of heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. (United States)

    Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy; Birla, Sohan L; Jones, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan


    Due to the inherent nature of standing wave patterns of microwaves inside a domestic microwave oven cavity and varying dielectric properties of different food components, microwave heating produces non-uniform distribution of energy inside the food. Non-uniform heating is a major food safety concern in not-ready-to-eat (NRTE) microwaveable foods. In this study, we present a method for assessing heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. In this study a custom designed container was used to assess heating rate and non-uniform heating of a range of microwave ovens using a hedgehog of 30 T-type thermocouples. The mean and standard deviation of heating rate along the radial distance and sector of the container were measured and analyzed. The effect of the location of rings and sectors was analyzed using ANOVA to identify the best location for placing food on the turntable. The study suggested that the best location to place food in a microwave oven is not at the center but near the edge of the turntable assuming uniform heating is desired. The effect of rated power and cavity size on heating rate and non-uniform heating was also studied for a range of microwave ovens. As the rated power and cavity size increases, heating rate increases while non-uniform heating decreases. Sectors in the container also influenced heating rate (p microwave ovens were inconsistent in producing the same heating patterns between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart.

  6. Single interval longwave radiation scheme based on the net exchanged rate decomposition with bracketing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geleyn, J.- F.; Mašek, Jan; Brožková, Radmila; Kuma, P.; Degrauwe, D.; Hello, G.; Pristov, N.


    Roč. 143, č. 704 (2017), s. 1313-1335 ISSN 0035-9009 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Keywords : numerical weather prediction * climate models * clouds * parameterization * atmospheres * formulation * absorption * scattering * accurate * database * longwave radiative transfer * broadband approach * idealized optical paths * net exchanged rate decomposition * bracketing * selective intermittency Impact factor: 3.444, year: 2016

  7. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; Langevoord, O; Bevan, RM; Engelaar, KR; Klaassen, M; Mulder, RJW

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  8. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Langevoord, O.; Bevan, R.M.; Engelaar, K.R.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Van Dijk, S.


    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  9. Study of Electrophysical Intrastratal Gasification at Different Coal Heating Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larionov Kirill


    Full Text Available Experimental instrumental multi-method research, electrophysical ihtrastratal gasification of antracite with further definition of quantitative syngas composition and its combustion heat design at different heating rates. It was stated that concentration of carbon dioxide CO2, hydrogen H2 decreases with heating rate increase in received syngas, and there is rise of carbon monoxide CO concentration. The results of the research showed that heating rate increase leads to a small rise of combustion heat as decrease of H2 and CH4 concentration is compensated with increase of CO.

  10. Net capital flows to and the real exchange rate of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrisch Hubert


    Full Text Available This paper uses Granger causality tests to assess the linkages between changes in the real exchange rate and net capital inflows using the example of Western Balkan countries, which have suffered from low competitiveness and external imbalances for many years. The real exchange rate is a measure of a country’s price competitiveness, and the paper uses two concepts: relative unit labour cost and relative inflation differential. The sample consists of six Western Balkan countries for the period 1996-2012, relative to the European Union (EU. The main finding is that changes in the net capital flows precede changes in relative unit labour costs and not vice versa. Also, there is evidence that net capital flows affect the inflation differential of countries, although to a less discernible extent. This suggests that the increasing divergence in the unit labour cost between the EU and Western Balkan countries up to the global financial crisis was at least partly the result of net capital inflows. The paper adds to the ongoing debate on improving cost competitiveness through wage restrictions as the main vehicle to avert the accumulation of current account imbalances. It shows the importance of changes in the exchange rate regime, reform of the interaction between the financial and the real sector, and financial supervision and structural change.

  11. Heat exchangers selection, rating, and thermal design

    CERN Document Server

    Kakaç, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa


    Praise for the Bestselling Second EditionThe first edition of this work gathered in one place the essence of important information formerly scattered throughout the literature. The second edition adds the following new information: introductory material on heat transfer enhancement; an application of the Bell-Delaware method; new correlation for calculating heat transfer and friction coefficients for chevron-type plates; revision of many of the solved examples and the addition of several new ones.-MEMagazine

  12. Reaction rate in a heat bath

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Maurice René Michel


    We show in detail how the presence of a heat bath of photons effectively gives charged particles in the final state of a decay process a temperature-dependent mass, and changes the effective strength of the force responsible for the decay. At low temperature, gauge invariance causes both these effects to be largely cancelled by absorption of photons from the heat bath and by stimulated emission into it, but at high temperature the temperature-dependent mass is the dominant feature.

  13. The global joule heat production rate and the AE index (United States)

    Wei, S.; Ahn, B.-H.; Akasofu, S.-I.


    The degree of accuracy with which the AE index may be used as a measure of the joule heat production rate is evaluated for a typical substorm event on March 18, 1978, by estimating the global joule heat production rate as a function of time on the basis of data obtained from the IMS's six meridian chains. It is found that, although the AE index is statistically linearly related to the global joule heat production rate, caution is required when one assumes that details of AE index time variations during individual events are representative of those of the joule heat production rate.

  14. Light environment alters ozone uptake per net photosynthetic rate in black cherry trees. (United States)

    Fredericksen, T S; Kolb, T E; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Joyce, B J; Savage, J E


    Foliar ozone uptake rates of different-sized black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were compared within a deciduous forest and adjacent openings in north-central Pennsylvania during one growing season. Study trees included open-grown seedlings and saplings, forest understory seedlings and saplings, and sunlit and shaded portions of mature canopy tree crowns. Instantaneous ozone uptake rates were highest in high-light environments primarily because of higher stomatal conductances. Low ozone uptake rates of seedlings and saplings in the forest understory could be attributed partially to lower average ambient ozone concentrations compared to the canopy and open environments. Among the tree size and light combinations tested, ozone uptake rates were highest in open-grown seedlings and lowest in forest-grown seedlings. Despite lower ozone uptake rates of foliage in shaded environments, ozone uptake per net photosynthesis of foliage in shaded environments was significantly higher than that of foliage in sunlit environments because of weaker coupling between net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in shaded environments. The potential for greater ozone injury in shaded environments as a result of greater ozone uptake per net photosynthesis is consistent with previous reports of greater ozone injury in shaded foliage than in sunlit foliage.

  15. Parameter study of r-process lanthanide production and heating rates in kilonovae (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.


    Explosive r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during compact object mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients are sensitive to the composition of the material after nuclear burning ceases, as the composition determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. The presence of lanthanides in the ejecta can drastically increase the opacity. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to run a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Ye, initial entropies s, and density decay timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Ye >~ 0 . 22 - 0 . 3 , depending on s and τ. The heating rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Ye lead to reduced heating rates, because single nuclides dominate the heating. With a simple model we estimate the luminosity, time, and effective temperature at the peak of the light curve. Since the opacity is much lower in the lanthanide-free case, we find the luminosity peaks much earlier at ~ 1 day vs. ~ 15 days in the lanthanide-rich cases. Although there is significant variation in the heating rate with Ye, changes in the heating rate do not mitigate the effect of the lanthanides. This research is partially supported by NSF under Award Numbers AST-1333520 and AST-1205732.

  16. Charring rate of wood exposed to a constant heat flux (United States)

    R. H. White; H. C. Tran


    A critical factor in the fire endurance of a wood member is its rate of charring. Most available charring rate data have been obtained using the time-temperature curves of the standard fire resistance tests (ASTM E 119 and ISO 834) to define the fire exposure. The increased use of heat release calorimeters using exposures of constant heat flux levels has broadened the...

  17. Sensors measure surface ablation rate of reentry vehicle heat shield (United States)

    Russel, J. M., III


    Sensors measure surface erosion rate of ablating material in reentry vehicle heat shield. Each sensor, which is placed at precise depths in the heat shield is activated when the ablator surface erodes to the location of a sensing point. Sensor depth and activation time determine ablator surface erosion rate.

  18. Relationship Between Diurnal Changes of Net Photosynthetic Rate and Influencing Factors in Rice under Saline Sodic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yang


    Full Text Available The net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves and influencing factors under saline sodic soil conditions were investigated at the full heading stage of rice. The net photosynthetic rate of rice leaves showed a double-peak curve in a day in both non-saline sodic and saline sodic soil treatments. The first peak of the net photosynthetic rate appeared at 9:00–10:00 and 9:00 in the saline sodic and non-saline sodic soil treatments, respectively, whereas the second peak both at 14:00. The midday depression of the net photosynthetic rate always appeared regardless of non-saline sodic or saline sodic soil conditions. In addition, the net photosynthetic rate significantly decreased in all day under saline sodic conditions compared with that under non-saline sodic conditions. Some differences were observed in correlation characters between the net photosynthetic rate and all influencing factors during 9:00–13:00. Under non-saline sodic conditions, the diurnal changes of the net photosynthetic rate in a day were mainly caused by stomatal conductance, and the limitation value and the stomatal factors served as determinants; whereas under saline sodic stress, the diurnal changes of the net photosynthetic rate in a day were mainly caused by non stomatal factors including light intensity and air temperature.

  19. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James


    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  20. Burning rate of solid wood measured in a heat release rate calorimeter (United States)

    H. C. Tran; R. H. White


    Burning rate is a key factor in modeling fire growth and fire endurance of wood structures. This study investigated the burning rate of selected wood materials as determined by heat release, mass loss and charring rates. Thick samples of redwood, southern pine, red oak and basswood were tested in a heat release rate calorimeter. Results on ignitability and average beat...

  1. NOy production, ozone loss and changes in net radiative heating due to energetic particle precipitation in 2002–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinnhuber


    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the stratospheric nitrogen budget, ozone abundances and net radiative heating using results from three global chemistry-climate models considering solar protons and geomagnetic forcing due to auroral or radiation belt electrons. Two of the models cover the atmosphere up to the lower thermosphere, the source region of auroral NO production. Geomagnetic forcing in these models is included by prescribed ionization rates. One model reaches up to about 80 km, and geomagnetic forcing is included by applying an upper boundary condition of auroral NO mixing ratios parameterized as a function of geomagnetic activity. Despite the differences in the implementation of the particle effect, the resulting modeled NOy in the upper mesosphere agrees well between all three models, demonstrating that geomagnetic forcing is represented in a consistent way either by prescribing ionization rates or by prescribing NOy at the model top.Compared with observations of stratospheric and mesospheric NOy from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS instrument for the years 2002–2010, the model simulations reproduce the spatial pattern and temporal evolution well. However, after strong sudden stratospheric warmings, particle-induced NOy is underestimated by both high-top models, and after the solar proton event in October 2003, NOy is overestimated by all three models. Model results indicate that the large solar proton event in October 2003 contributed about 1–2 Gmol (109 mol NOy per hemisphere to the stratospheric NOy budget, while downwelling of auroral NOx from the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere contributes up to 4 Gmol NOy. Accumulation over time leads to a constant particle-induced background of about 0.5–1 Gmol per hemisphere during solar minimum, and up to 2 Gmol per hemisphere during solar maximum. Related negative anomalies of ozone are predicted by

  2. Methodology for DSC calibration in high heating rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Isidoro Braga


    Full Text Available Despite the large use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique in advanced polymer materials characterization, the new methodology called DSC in high heating rates was developed. The heating rate during conventional DSC experiments varying from 10 to 20ºC.min-¹, sample mass from 10 to 15mg and standard aluminum sample pan weighting, approximately, 27mg. In order to contribute to a better comprehension of DSC behavior in different heating rates, this work correlates as high heating rate influences to the thermal events in DSC experiments. Samples of metallic standard (In, Pb, Sn and Zn with masses varying from 0.570mg to 20.9mg were analyzed in multiples sample heating rate from 4 to 324°C. min-¹. In order to make properly all those experiments, a precise and careful temperature and enthalpy calibrations were performed and deeply discussed. Thus, this work shows a DSC methodology able to generate good and reliable results on experiments under any researcher choice heating rates to characterize the advanced materials used, for example, for aerospace industry. Also it helps the DSC users to find in their available instruments, already installed, a better and more accurate DSC test results, improving in just one shot the analysis sensitivity and resolution. Polypropylene melting and enthalpy thermal events are also studied using both the conventional DSC method and high heating rate method.

  3. Higher flow rates improve heating during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion. (United States)

    Furman, Matthew J; Picotte, Robert J; Wante, Mark J; Rajeshkumar, Barur R; Whalen, Giles F; Lambert, Laura A


    Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) kills cancer cells via thermal injury and improved chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity. We hypothesize that higher HIPEC flow rates improve peritoneal heating and HIPEC efficacy. (1) A HIPEC-model (30.8 L cooler with attached extracorporeal pump) was filled with 37°C water containing a suspended 1 L saline bag (SB) wrapped in a cooling sleeve, creating a constant heat sink. (2) HIPECs were performed in a swine model. Inflow, outflow, and peritoneal temperatures were monitored as flow rates varied. (3) Flow rates and temperatures during 20 HIPECs were reviewed. Higher flow rates decreased time required to increase water bath (WB) and SB temperature to 43°C. With a constant heat sink, the minimum flow rate required to reach 43°C in the WB was 1.75 L/min. Higher flow rates lead to greater temperature gradients between the WB and SB. In the swine model, the minimum flow rate required to reach 43°C outflow was 2.5-3.0 L/min. Higher flows led to more rapid heating of the peritoneum and greater peritoneal/outflow temperature gradients. Increased flow during clinical HIPEC suggested improved peritoneal heating with lower average visceral temperatures. There is a minimum flow rate required to reach goal temperature during HIPEC. Flow rate is an important variable in achieving and maintaining goal temperatures during HIPEC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Modelling of elastic heat conductors via objective rate equations (United States)

    Morro, Angelo


    A thermoelastic solid is modelled by letting the heat flux be given by a rate equation. As any constitutive property, the rate equation has to be objective and consistent with thermodynamics. Accordingly, firstly a theorem is given that characterizes objective time derivatives. This allows the known objective time derivatives to be viewed as particular elements of the set so specified. Next the thermodynamic consistency is established for the constitutive models involving objective time derivatives within appropriate sets. It emerges that the thermodynamic consistency holds provided the stress contains additively terms quadratic in the heat flux vector in a form that is related to the derivative adopted for the rate of the heat flux.

  5. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vargas-Ángel

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2 yr(-1 of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons

  6. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs. (United States)

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Richards, Cristi L; Vroom, Peter S; Price, Nichole N; Schils, Tom; Young, Charles W; Smith, Jennifer; Johnson, Maggie D; Brainard, Russell E


    This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2) yr(-1)) of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU) plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years) of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA) percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons makes CCA

  7. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim


    Abstract Major insights into the relationship between life-history features and fitness have come from Lotka's proof that population growth rate is determined by the level (expected amount) of reproduction and the average timing of reproduction of an individual. But this classical result is limited...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...... features of the life history determine population growth rate r and reveal a complex interplay of trait dynamics, timing, and level of reproduction. Our results contribute to a new framework of population and evolutionary dynamics in stage-and-age-structured populations....

  8. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat stress in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Girish Chandra Pandey, Jagadish Rane, Sindhu Sareen, Priyanka Siwach, NK Singh, Ratan Tiwari ...

  9. Surface Oxide Net Charge of a Titanium Alloy; Comparison Between Effects of Treatment With Heat or Radiofrequency Plasma Glow Discharge (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel E.; Rapuano, Bruce E.; Schniepp, Hannes C.


    In the current study, we have compared the effects of heat and radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD) treatment of a Ti6Al4V alloy on the physico-chemical properties of the alloy’s surface oxide. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were passivated alone, heated to 600 °C, or RFGD plasma treated in pure oxygen. RFGD treatment did not alter the roughness, topography, elemental composition or thickness of the alloy’s surface oxide layer. In contrast, heat treatment altered oxide topography by creating a pattern of oxide elevations approximately 50–100 nm in diameter. These nanostructures exhibited a three-fold increase in roughness compared to untreated surfaces when RMS roughness was calculated after applying a spatial high-pass filter with a 200 nm cutoff wavelength. Heat treatment also produced a surface enrichment in aluminum and vanadium oxides. Both RFGD and heat treatment produced similar increases in oxide wettability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of metal surface oxide net charge signified by a long range force of attraction to or repulsion from a (negatively charged) silicon nitride AFM probe were also obtained for all three experimental groups. Force measurements showed that the RFGD-treated Ti6Al4V samples demonstrated a higher net positive surface charge at pH values below 6 and a higher net negative surface charge at physiological pH (pH values between 7 and 8) compared to control and heat-treated samples These findings suggest that RFGD treatment of metallic implant materials can be used to study the role of negatively charged surface oxide functional groups in protein bioactivity, osteogenic cell behavior and osseointegration independently of oxide topography. PMID:20880672

  10. Relationship Between Diurnal Changes of Net Photosynthetic Rate and Influencing Factors in Rice under Saline Sodic Stress


    Fu Yang; Zheng-wei Liang; Zhi-chun Wang; Yuan Chen


    The net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves and influencing factors under saline sodic soil conditions were investigated at the full heading stage of rice. The net photosynthetic rate of rice leaves showed a double-peak curve in a day in both non-saline sodic and saline sodic soil treatments. The first peak of the net photosynthetic rate appeared at 9:00–10:00 and 9:00 in the saline sodic and non-saline sodic soil treatments, respectively, whereas the second peak both at 14:00. The midday depr...

  11. Heating rate of egg albumin solution and its change during Ohmic heating. (United States)

    Imai, T; Uemura, K; Noguchi, A


    Ohmic heating of egg albumin solution (10 w/v%) was examined at 50-10 kHz under a constant 10 V/cm. The heating rate of the solution was almost constant and increased slightly as the frequency increased. The gel formation was observed at about 75 degrees C and the heating rate increased above this temperature irrespective of the frequency used. The solution and gel showed almost the same impedance at the examined temperature (20-90 degrees C) and frequency (10 Hz-100 kHz). When the concentration of egg albumin was reduced to 2 w/v%, no gel was formed and a constant heating rate at over 75 degrees C was observed. The breaking strength of the gels showed little difference among the gels prepared by boiling water or Ohmic heating. These results suggest that the liquid components are not compartmentalized in the gel and that the sudden increase of heating rate above 75 degrees C was caused by the reduction of heat transfer of the gel at its phase change to the gel. Ohmic heating was also applied to the fresh egg white at the same conditions as that of the egg albumin solution. The fresh egg white did not show any sudden increase of heating rate until it reached 90 degrees C. However, the homogenized fresh egg white and its soluble part separated beforehand showed a slightly reduced heating rate and a sudden increase at about 60 degrees C. These results suggest that the gelatinous component of fresh egg white such as ovomucin represses the transfer of generated heat during Ohmic heating.

  12. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility. (United States)

    Payne, W Vance


    A 2715 ft2 (252 m2), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft-2, 51.7 kWh m-2), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft-2, 24.7 kWh m-2) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W-1h-1 (2.95 W W-1), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W-1h-1 (4.63 W W-1). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W-1h-1 (2.09 W W-1), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W-1h-1 (2.65 W W-1). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively.

  13. Solar transition region and coronal response to heating rate perturbations (United States)

    Mariska, John T.


    Observations of Doppler shifts in UV emission lines formed in the solar transition region show continual plasma downflows and impulsive plasma upflows. Using numerical simulations, the authors examine the conjecture that areas of downflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating is gradually decreasing and that areas of upflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating rate is gradually increasing. Beginning with a coronal loop in equilibrium, the heating rate is reduced on time scales of 100, 1000, and 2000 s to 10 percent and 1 percent of the initial value, and the loop is allowed to evolve to a new equilibrium. The heating rate for the cooled models is then increased back to the initial value on the same time scales. While significant mass motions do develop in the simulations, both the emission measure and the velocity at 100,000 K do not show the characteristics present in UV observations.

  14. Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.


    An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette


    Miura K; Nagao A; Ueyama K


    We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smolder...

  16. Heating and cooling rates and their effects upon heart rate in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rates increase with increasing body temperature, and for all body temperatures heart rates were greater during heating than during cooling. This suggests that the cardiovascular system plays a role in the heat exchange of the tortoises, but further study is required to completely understand the thermoregulatory process.

  17. Annual and Seasonal Variability of Net Heat Budget in the Northern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Bentamy, Abderrahim; Chen, Wen; Kumar, M. R. Ramesh; Mathew, Simi; Venkatesan, Ramasamy


    In this study we investigate the spatial and temporal features of the net heat budget over the Northern Indian Ocean (focusing on the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal), using satellite and numerical model estimates. The main objective is to characterize the annual, seasonal, and inter-annual patterns over this basin of climatic significance. To assess the temporal variability, several turbulent and radiative fluxes are used The turbulent fluxes are based on information from the Institut Français pout la Recherche et l'Exploitation de la MER (IFREMER V3), the Hamburg Ocean-Atmosphere Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS V3), the SEAFLUX V1, the Japanese Ocean Flux Data sets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (J-OFURO V2), the Objective Analysis Fluxes (OAFlux V2), the European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the ERA Interim, the National centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, CFSR, and the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA). The radiative fluxes, both shortwave and longwave, include those produced at the University of Maryland (UMD) as well as those derived from several of the above mentioned numerical models. An attempt will be made to evaluate the various fluxes against buoy observations such as those from the RAMA array. The National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, India under its Ocean Observation Program has deployed a series of OMNI Buoys both in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These buoys are equipped with sensors to measure the radiation as well as other parameters. Comparison has been done with the OMNI observations and good agreement has been found with the current set-up of the instrument at a 3 m level. We found significant differences between the various products at specific locations. The ultimate objective is to investigates the sources of the differences in terms of atmospheric variables (surface

  18. Effect of water activity and heating rate on Staphylococcus aureus heat resistance in walnut shells. (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Kou, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shuang; Cheng, Teng; Wang, Shaojin


    Water activity (a w ) and heating rate have shown important effects on the thermo-tolerance of pathogens in low moisture foods during thermal treatments. In this study, three strains were selected to compare the heat resistance in walnut shell powder and finally the most heat resistant S. aureus ATCC 25923 was chosen to investigate the influence of a w and heating rate using a heating block system (HBS). The results showed that S. aureus ATCC 25923 became more thermo-tolerant at lower a w . The D-values of S. aureus ATCC 25923 increased with decreasing water activity and heating rates (<1°C/min). A significant increase in heat resistance of S. aureus ATCC 25923 in walnut shell powder was observed only for the heating rates of 0.2 and 0.5°C/min but not at 1, 5 and 10°C/min. There was a rapid reduction of S. aureus ATCC 25923 at elevated temperatures from 26 to 56°C at a heating rate of 0.1°C/min. The inactivation under non-isothermal conditions was better fitted by Weibull distribution (R 2 =0.97 to 0.99) than first-order kinetics (R 2 =0.88 to 0.98). These results suggest that an appropriate increase in moisture content of in-shell walnuts and heating rate during thermal process can improve the inactivation efficiency of pathogens in low moisture foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens. P NAVANEETHAKRISHNAN. ∗. , P S S SRINIVASAN and. S DHANDAPANI. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,. Perundurai 638 052 e-mail:, MS received 24 May 2006; ...

  20. Molecular dynamics study on the effect of boundary heating rate on the phase change characteristics of thin film liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim, E-mail:; Morshed, A. K. M. Monjur, E-mail:; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle, E-mail:; Haque, Mominul, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)


    In this study, theoretical investigation of thin film liquid phase change phenomena under different boundary heating rates has been conducted with the help of molecular dynamics simulation. To do this, the case of argon boiling over a platinum surface has been considered. The study has been conducted to get a better understanding of the nano-scale physics of evaporation/boiling for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of boundary heating rate. The simulation domain consisted of liquid and vapor argon atoms placed over a platinum wall. Initially the whole system was brought to an equilibrium state at 90 K with the help of equilibrium molecular dynamics and then the temperature of the bottom wall was increased to a higher temperature (250 K/130 K) over a finite heating period. Depending on the heating period, the boundary heating rate has been varied in the range of 1600×10{sup 9} K/s to 8×10{sup 9} K/s. The variations of argon region temperature, pressure, net evaporation number with respect to time under different boundary heating rates have been determined and discussed. The heat fluxes normal to platinum wall for different cases were also calculated and compared with theoretical upper limit of maximum possible heat transfer to elucidate the effect of boundary heating rate.

  1. Low rate loading-induced convection enhances net transport into the intervertebral disc in vivo. (United States)

    Gullbrand, Sarah E; Peterson, Joshua; Mastropolo, Rosemarie; Roberts, Timothy T; Lawrence, James P; Glennon, Joseph C; DiRisio, Darryl J; Ledet, Eric H


    The intervertebral disc primarily relies on trans-endplate diffusion for the uptake of nutrients and the clearance of byproducts. In degenerative discs, diffusion is often diminished by endplate sclerosis and reduced proteoglycan content. Mechanical loading-induced convection has the potential to augment diffusion and enhance net transport into the disc. The ability of convection to augment disc transport is controversial and has not been demonstrated in vivo. To determine if loading-induced convection can enhance small molecule transport into the intervertebral disc in vivo. Net transport was quantified via postcontrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the discs of the New Zealand white rabbit lumbar spine subjected to in vivo cyclic low rate loading. Animals were administered the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide intravenously and subjected to in vivo low rate loading (0.5 Hz, 200 N) via a custom external loading apparatus for either 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 minutes. Animals were then euthanized and the lumbar spines imaged using postcontrast enhanced MRI. The T1 constants in the nucleus, annulus, and cartilage endplates were quantified as a measure of gadodiamide transport into the loaded discs compared with the adjacent unloaded discs. Microcomputed tomography was used to quantify subchondral bone density. Low rate loading caused the rapid uptake and clearance of gadodiamide in the nucleus compared with unloaded discs, which exhibited a slower rate of uptake. Relative to unloaded discs, low rate loading caused a maximum increase in transport into the nucleus of 16.8% after 5 minutes of loading. Low rate loading increased the concentration of gadodiamide in the cartilage endplates at each time point compared with unloaded levels. Results from this study indicate that forced convection accelerated small molecule uptake and clearance in the disc induced by low rate mechanical loading. Low rate loading may, therefore, be therapeutic to the disc as it

  2. A New Approach for Mobile Advertising Click-Through Rate Estimation Based on Deep Belief Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hao Chen


    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet and its business applications, mobile advertising Click-Through Rate (CTR estimation has become a hot research direction in the field of computational advertising, which is used to achieve accurate advertisement delivery for the best benefits in the three-side game between media, advertisers, and audiences. Current research on the estimation of CTR mainly uses the methods and models of machine learning, such as linear model or recommendation algorithms. However, most of these methods are insufficient to extract the data features and cannot reflect the nonlinear relationship between different features. In order to solve these problems, we propose a new model based on Deep Belief Nets to predict the CTR of mobile advertising, which combines together the powerful data representation and feature extraction capability of Deep Belief Nets, with the advantage of simplicity of traditional Logistic Regression models. Based on the training dataset with the information of over 40 million mobile advertisements during a period of 10 days, our experiments show that our new model has better estimation accuracy than the classic Logistic Regression (LR model by 5.57% and Support Vector Regression (SVR model by 5.80%.

  3. Biomass rather than growth rate determines variation in net primary production by giant kelp. (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Arkema, Katie K


    Net primary production (NPP) is influenced by disturbance-driven fluctuations in foliar standing crop (FSC) and resource-driven fluctuations in rates of recruitment and growth, yet most studies of NPP have focused primarily on factors influencing growth. We quantified NPP, FSC, recruitment, and growth rate for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, at three kelp forests in southern California, U.S.A., over a 54-month period and determined the relative roles of FSC, recruitment, and growth rate in contributing to variation in annual NPP. Net primary production averaged between 0.42 and 2.38 kg dry mass x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the three sites. The initial FSC present at the beginning of the growth year and the recruitment of new plants during the year explained 63% and 21% of the interannual variation observed in NPP, respectively. The previous year's NPP and disturbance from waves collectively accounted for 80% of the interannual variation in initial FSC. No correlation was found between annual growth rate (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit of existing kelp mass) and annual NPP (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit area of ocean bottom), largely because annual growth rate was consistent compared to initial FSC and recruitment, which fluctuated greatly among years and sites. Although growth rate was a poor predictor of variation in annual NPP, it was principally responsible for the high mean values observed for NPP by Macrocystis. These high mean values reflected rapid growth (average of approximately 2% per day) of a relatively small standing crop (maximum annual mean = 444 g dry mass/m2) that replaced itself approximately seven times per year. Disturbance-driven variability in FSC may be generally important in explaining variation in NPP, yet it is rarely examined because cycles of disturbance and recovery occur over timescales of decades or more in many systems. Considerable insight into how variation in FSC drives variation in NPP may

  4. Downward Heat Penetration below Seasonal Thermocline and its Impact on Sea Surface Temperature Variation Affected by Net Heat Flux during Summer Season (United States)

    Hosoda, S.; Nonaka, M.; Tomita, T.; Taguchi, B.; Tomita, H.; Iwasaka, N.


    Oceanic heat capacity of the upper layer is a key of the change in the sea surface temperature (SST) affecting air-sea heat exchange and of the temporal scale of SST variability. In the past, studies of SST variability associated with the air-sea heat exchange have mainly focused on the conditions during the winter, because wintertime deep mixed layer (ML) accumulates a huge amount of heat to the atmosphere. On the contrary, ML during the warming season is thinner than it is during the cooling season, being only a few tens of meters deep at mid- and high- latitudes, bounded by a shallow and sharp seasonal thermocline. Since the ML that directly communicates with the atmosphere is thin, the ocean has been considered to play a passive role in air-sea interactions during the warming season. In this study, we clarified that subsurface ocean plays an important role to seasonal changes of SST and heat capacity during the warming season using observational data of Argo and J-OFURO2, which is net heat flux (Qnet) data from satellites. To clarify the role of upper ocean to the Qnet during summer, we introduce a concept of heat penetration depth (HPD), defined as the depth to which Qnet distinctly penetrates below the seasonal thermocline. Then we assume vertical one dimensional process between Qnet and temporal heat content (HC) change integrating temperature from surface to HPD. The vertical one dimensional process can be assumed in almost mid- and high-latitude NP, and we successfully characterize the heat capacity in terms of the HC above the HPD. The downward heat penetration below the shallow seasonal thermocline is widely found throughout the NP. On the basis of a simple estimation that the amount of heat accumulated by summer Qnet in the NP, about two-thirds of Qnet penetrates below the shallow seasonal thermocline. The effect of heat penetration also makes a magnitude of seasonal change in SST to be smaller, at least a half of that the magnitude under the assumption

  5. Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory Associated with Fixed Power Output or Fixed Heat Transfer Rate Input


    COSTEA M.; Petrescu, S; K. Le Saos; Michel Feidt


    The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal distribution of the heat transfer surface area or conductance among the Stirling engine heat exchangers when the minimum of the total heat transfer surface area of the heat exchangers is sought. The optimization procedure must fulfill one of the following constraints: (1) fixed power output of the engine, (2) fixed heat transfer rate available at the source, or (3) fixed power output and heat transfer rate at the source. Internal and exter...

  6. Atomic recombination rate determination through heat-transfer measurement. (United States)

    Park, C.; Anderson, L. A.; Sheldahl, R. E.


    A theoretical and experimental demonstration is presented which shows that under suitable conditions the volume recombination coefficient can be determined by measuring the heat transfer rate into the wall of a cylinder through which a dissociated stream is passing. The experimental results obtained are in agreement with those of other investigators.

  7. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa


    Jul 10, 2013 ... of determination (R2) was recorded 0.10 and 0.06, respectively. This indicates that the two markers were associated with the differences in grain filling (dGFR) rate as indicator for heat tolerance. Xbarc04 (Figure 1) and. Xgwm314 have their locus position on chromosomes 5B and 3D, respectively (Table 2).

  8. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa


    Jul 10, 2013 ... Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate ... 75% of the progenies showed no difference while 25% showed significant difference in GFR under high temperature .... timely (normal) and late (terminal heat stress) conditions. Data on.

  9. A kinetic model for estimating net photosynthetic rates of cos lettuce leaves under pulsed light. (United States)

    Jishi, Tomohiro; Matsuda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro


    Time-averaged net photosynthetic rate (P n) under pulsed light (PL) is known to be affected by the PL frequency and duty ratio, even though the time-averaged photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) is unchanged. This phenomenon can be explained by considering that photosynthetic intermediates (PIs) are pooled during light periods and then consumed by partial photosynthetic reactions during dark periods. In this study, we developed a kinetic model to estimate P n of cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves under PL based on the dynamics of the amount of pooled PIs. The model inputs are average PPFD, duty ratio, and frequency; the output is P n. The rates of both PI accumulation and consumption at a given moment are assumed to be dependent on the amount of pooled PIs at that point. Required model parameters and three explanatory variables (average PPFD, frequency, and duty ratio) were determined for the simulation using P n values under PL based on several combinations of the three variables. The model simulation for various PL levels with a wide range of time-averaged PPFDs, frequencies, and duty ratios further demonstrated that P n under PL with high frequencies and duty ratios was comparable to, but did not exceed, P n under continuous light, and also showed that P n under PL decreased as either frequency or duty ratio was decreased. The developed model can be used to estimate P n under various light environments where PPFD changes cyclically.

  10. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K


    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smoldering burn rate did not affect the total amount of heat emitted nor the ratio of radiated heat to convected heat.

  11. Oxygen Ion Heat Rate within Alfvenic Turbulence in the Cusp (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Singh, Nagendra; Chandler, Michael O.


    The role that the cleft/cusp has in ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling makes it a dynamic and important region. It is directly exposed to the solar wind, making it possible for the entry of electromagnetic energy and precipitating electrons and ions from dayside reconnection and other dayside events. It is also a significant source of ionospheric plasma, contributing largely to the mass loading of the magnetosphere with large fluxes of outflowing ions. Crossing the cusp/cleft near 5100 km, the Polar instruments observe the common correlation of downward Poynting flux, ion energization, soft electron precipitation, broadband extremely low-frequency (BB-ELF) emissions, and density depletions. The dominant power in the BB-ELF emissions is now identified to be from spatially broad, low frequency Alfv nic structures. For a cusp crossing, we determine using the Electric Field Investigation (EFI), that the electric and magnetic field fluctuations are Alfv nic and the electric field gradients satisfy the inequality for stochastic acceleration. With all the Polar 1996 horizontal crossings of the cusp, we determine the O+ heating rate using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI). We then compare this heating rate to other heating rates assuming the electric field gradient criteria exceeds the limit for stochastic acceleration for the remaining crossings. The comparison suggests that a stochastic acceleration mechanism is operational and the heating is controlled by the transverse spatial scale of the Alfvenic waves.

  12. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan


    Net metering has become a widespread policy in the U.S. for supporting distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. Though specific design details vary, net metering allows customers with PV to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption - in effect, compensating the PV generation at retail electricity rates (Rose et al. 2009). While net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the residential PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the value of net metering - and the impact of moving to alternative compensation mechanisms - can vary substantially from one customer to the next. For these reasons, it is important for policymakers and others that seek to support the development of distributed PV to understand both how the bill savings varies under net metering, and how the bill savings under net metering compares to other possible compensation mechanisms. To advance this understanding, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). The analysis is based on hourly load data from a sample of 215 residential customers located in the service territories of the two utilities, matched with simulated hourly PV production for the same time period based on data from the nearest of 73 weather stations in the state.

  13. Net herbage accumulation rate and crude protein content of Urochloa brizantha cultivars under shade intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles


    Full Text Available The use of silvopastoral systems is a sustainable alternative for animal production in various regions of the Brazil. However to obtain satisfactory results in these systems, the selection of forage species that grows well in the shade should be done. The tolerance of plants to light restriction and the correctly choice of species, considering good nutritional values for these conditions has great importance. The study of artificial shading for forage production helps the clarification of issues related to the behavior of plants under reduced light prior to use in integrations with forests. The aim of the study was to evaluate the net herbage accumulation rate of forage (HAR and crude protein (CP of Urochloa brizantha cultivars (Marandu and Piatã under natural light and shading of 30 and 60%. The experiment was conducted at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (three shading levels: 0, 30 and 60%, two cultivars: Marandu and Piatã with three replications and repeated measures (3 cuts. Sample collection occurred when the cultivars reached 35 cm in height. The treatments with shading showed lower cutting intervals as compared to those subjected to full sunlight, because they have reached in a shorter time to time as determined cut-off criterion (mean of 37, 45 and 61 days for reduction of 60%, reduction of 30% and full sun. Significant effects (P<0.05 interaction cultivar x shade x cut on the net herbage accumulation rate (HAR. Most HAR (P<0.05 was observed for cv. Marandu 60% reduction in lightness (127 kg/ha/day due to increased production of stem during the first growing cycle. The lower HAR also occurred to Marandu, but under natural light in the third cut (34 kg/ha/day due to adverse weather conditions during the growth interval. The shadow effect and the cutting (P<0.05 affected CP. The percentage of CP on cultivars showed the highest values (average value of 9.27% in 60

  14. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedano, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Selecky, James [Brubaker & Associates, Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States); Iverson, Kathryn [Brubaker & Associates, Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States); Al-Jabir, Ali [Brubaker & Associates, Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States); Garland, Patricia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  15. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate]. (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin


    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  16. The bounds of the heat production rate within the moon (United States)

    Hsui, A. T.


    A new approach is proposed to the evaluation of the lower and upper bounds of the global heat production rate within planetary interiors. The approach is based on the relationship between the internal energy change and the volume change of a planetary object. For illustration, the approach is applied to the moon. Using an average global surface heat flux of 18 erg/sq cm-sec, and assuming constancy of the lunar radius during the past 3.2 billion years. the lunar heat release within the past 3.2 billion years is estimated at (30 to 40) x 10 to the tenth erg/cu cm. This is equivalent to the present day uranium concentration of 35 to 50 ppb provided the radiogenic isotopes are of the same proportion as that given by Toksoz et al. (1978).

  17. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley; Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan


    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate.

  18. 40 CFR 75.36 - Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations. (United States)


    ....36 Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations. (a) When hourly heat input rate is... the heat input rate calculation shall be provided according to § 75.31 or § 75.33, as applicable. When... heat input rate calculations in accordance with paragraphs (b) and (d) of this section. (b) During the...

  19. Heating and cooling rates and their etTects upon heart rate in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 16, 1988 ... have investigated aspects of thermoregulation, but the results obtained are contradictory, and no heart rate measurements were done. The purpose of this study was to investigate the heating and cooling rates of the angulate tortoise, Chersina angulata, in the eastern Cape Province,. South Africa.

  20. Data filtering and expected muon and neutrino event rates in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanidze, Rezo [ECAP, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str.1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration


    KM3NeT is a future Mediterranean deep sea neutrino telescope with an instrumented volume of several cubic kilometres. The neutrino and muon events in KM3NeT will be reconstructed from the signals collected from the telescope's photo detectors. However, in the deep sea the dominant source of photon signals are the decays of K40 nuclei and bioluminescence. The selection of neutrino and muon events requires the implementation of fast and efficient data filtering algorithms for the reduction of accidental background event rates. Possible data filtering and triggering schemes for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and expected muon and neutrino event rates are discussed.

  1. Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts. (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A


    The rate at which airborne particulate matter deposits onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components is important from both indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy perspectives. This modeling study predicts size-resolved particle mass loading rates for residential and commercial filters, heat exchangers (i.e. coils), and supply and return ducts. A parametric analysis evaluated the impact of different outdoor particle distributions, indoor emission sources, HVAC airflows, filtration efficiencies, coils, and duct system complexities. The median predicted residential and commercial loading rates were 2.97 and 130 g/m(2) month for the filter loading rates, 0.756 and 4.35 g/m(2) month for the coil loading rates, 0.0051 and 1.00 g/month for the supply duct loading rates, and 0.262 g/month for the commercial return duct loading rates. Loading rates are more dependent on outdoor particle distributions, indoor sources, HVAC operation strategy, and filtration than other considered parameters. The results presented herein, once validated, can be used to estimate filter changing and coil cleaning schedules, energy implications of filter and coil loading, and IAQ impacts associated with deposited particles. The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components in residential and commercial buildings. This knowledge informs the development and comparison of control strategies to limit particle deposition. The predicted mass loading rates allow for the assessment of pressure drop and indoor air quality consequences that result from particle mass loading onto HVAC system components.

  2. Low inflation, a high net savings surplus and institutional restrictions keep the Japanese long-term interest rate low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pieter W.


    This paper explains that the interest rate on long-term Japanese government bonds is low in comparison with other industrialised countries for four main reasons: lower inflation, net savings surplus, institutional restrictions and home bias. Monetary policy and institutionalised purchases of

  3. Fitness-related differences in the rate of whole-body evaporative heat loss in exercising men are heat-load dependent. (United States)

    Lamarche, Dallon T; Notley, Sean R; Louie, Jeffrey C; Poirier, Martin P; Kenny, Glen P


    What is the central question of this study? Aerobic fitness modulates heat loss, but the heat-load threshold at which fitness-related differences in heat loss occur in young healthy men remains unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate using direct calorimetry that aerobic fitness modulates heat loss in a heat-load-dependent manner, with fitness-related differences occurring between young men who have low and high fitness when the heat load is ∼≥500 W. Although aerobic fitness has been known for some time to modulate heat loss, our findings define the precise heat-load threshold at which fitness-related differences occur. The effect of aerobic fitness (defined as rate of peak oxygen consumption) on heat loss during exercise is thought to be related to the level of heat stress. However, it remains unclear at what combined exercise and environmental (net) heat-load threshold these fitness-related differences occur. To identify this, we assessed whole-body heat exchange (dry and evaporative) by direct calorimetry in young (22 ± 3 years) men matched for physical characteristics with low (Low-fit; 39.8 ± 2.5 ml O2  kg-1  min-1 ), moderate (Mod-fit; 50.9 ± 1.2 ml O2  kg-1  min-1 ) and high aerobic fitness (High-fit; 62.0 ± 4.4 ml O2  kg-1  min-1 ; each n = 8), during three 30 min bouts of cycling in dry heat (40°C, 12% relative humidity) at increasing rates of metabolic heat production of 300 (Ex1), 400 (Ex2) and 500 W (Ex3), each followed by a 15 min recovery period. Each group was exposed to a similar net heat load (metabolic plus ∼100 W dry heat gain; P = 0.83) during each exercise bout [∼400 (Ex1), ∼500 (Ex2) and ∼600 W (Ex3); P fit (Ex2, 466 ± 21 W; Ex3, 557 ± 26 W) compared with the Low-fit group (Ex2, 439 ± 22 W; Ex3, 511 ± 20 W) during Ex2 and Ex3 (P ≤ 0.03). Conversely, evaporative heat loss for the Mod-fit group did not differ from either the High-fit or Low

  4. Prototyping Energy Efficient Thermo-Magnetic & Induction Hardening for Heat Treat & Net Shape Forming Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquil Ahmad


    Within this project, Eaton undertook the task of bringing about significant impact with respect to sustainability. One of the major goals for the Department of Energy is to achieve energy savings with a corresponding reduction in carbon foot print. The use of a coupled induction heat treatment with high magnetic field heat treatment makes possible not only improved performance alloys, but with faster processing times and lower processing energy, as well. With this technology, substitution of lower cost alloys for more exotic alloys became a possibility; microstructure could be tailored for improved magnetic properties or wear resistance or mechanical performance, as needed. A prototype commercial unit has been developed to conduct processing of materials. Testing of this equipment has been conducted and results demonstrate the feasibility for industrial commercialization.

  5. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  6. Solar Sustainable Heating, Cooling and Ventilation of a Net Zero Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Skrupskelis, Martynas; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    Present work addresses the heating, cooling and ventilation concerns of the Technical University of Denmark’s house, Fold, for Solar Decathlon Europe 2012. Various innovative approaches are investigated, namely, utilization of ground, photo-voltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels and phase change materials...... by the embedded pipes which are coupled with the ground. Ventilation is mainly used to control the humidity and to remove sensory and chemical pollution. PV/T panels enable the house to be a “plus” energy house. PV/T also yields to a solar fraction of 63% and 31% for Madrid and Copenhagen, respectively...

  7. Analysis of Water Recovery Rate from the Heat Melt Compactor (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Hegde, U.; Gokoglu, S.


    any remaining free water in the trash by evaporation. The temperature settings of the heated surfaces are usually kept above the saturation temperature of water but below the melting temperature of the plastic in the waste during this step to avoid any encapsulation of wet trash which would reduce the amount of recovered water by blocking the vapor escape. In this paper, we analyze the water recovery rate during Phase B where the trash is heated and water leaves the waste chamber as vapor, for operation of the HMC in reduced gravity. We pursue a quasi-one-dimensional model with and without sidewall heating to determine the water recovery rate and the trash drying time. The influences of the trash thermal properties, the amount of water loading, and the distribution of the water in the trash on the water recovery rates are determined.

  8. Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath (United States)

    Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.


    The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

  9. Gill net selectivity and catch rates of pelagic fish in tropical coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish species and size selectivity of gillnets design with monofilament nylon polyethylene netting materials were investigated in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria between September and December 2005. The gillnets floats and sinkers were improvised from rubber slippers and lead metallic objects which were attached at intervals ...

  10. Maximum orbit plane change with heat-transfer-rate considerations (United States)

    Lee, J. Y.; Hull, D. G.


    Two aerodynamic maneuvers are considered for maximizing the plane change of a circular orbit: gliding flight with a maximum thrust segment to regain lost energy (aeroglide) and constant altitude cruise with the thrust being used to cancel the drag and maintain a high energy level (aerocruise). In both cases, the stagnation heating rate is limited. For aeroglide, the controls are the angle of attack, the bank angle, the time at which the burn begins, and the length of the burn. For aerocruise, the maneuver is divided into three segments: descent, cruise, and ascent. During descent the thrust is zero, and the controls are the angle of attack and the bank angle. During cruise, the only control is the assumed-constant angle of attack. During ascent, a maximum thrust segment is used to restore lost energy, and the controls are the angle of attack and bank angle. The optimization problems are solved with a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. Numerical results for the Maneuverable Re-entry Research Vehicle with a heating-rate limit of 100 Btu/ft(2)-s show that aerocruise gives a maximum plane change of 2 deg, which is only 1 deg larger than that of aeroglide. On the other hand, even though aerocruise requires two thrust levels, the cruise characteristics of constant altitude, velocity, thrust, and angle of attack are easy to control.

  11. Effect of the rate of temperature increase on water quality during heating in electromagnetic- and gas-heated pans. (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Ken


    More rapid increases in the pH value and hardness during electromagnetic heating of a pan of water were observed than when the pan was heated by LNG or LPG. The water quality changed universally in several tap water samples across Japan. This quality change was closely correlated with the rate of temperature increase, irrespective of heating by electromagnetic induction, LNG or LPG.

  12. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)]. (United States)

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang


    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P lead, with decline of 57.8%,11.0%, respectively. Total content of ginsenoside in ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P lead concentration was also observed (P lead negatively affects photosynthetic performance in ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  13. The Relationship between the Heat Disorder Incidence Rate and Heat Stress Indices at Yamanashi Prefecture in Japan


    Shin Akatsuka; Tadashi Uno; Masahiro Horiuchi


    In recent years, the risk of heat disorder in daily life has increased dramatically because the thermal environment has been deteriorating. The main objective of this study was to examine regional differences in the relationship between heat disorder incidence rate and heat stress indices at Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Daily maximum air temperature and daily maximum WBGT were used as heat stress indices in each region. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to examine the regional difference...

  14. Studi Pengaruh Operating Heat Rate Terhadap Efisiensi Kinerja Pltu Labuhan Angin Sibolga


    Simanjuntak, Sari Manna


    130402104 Heat rate merupakan ukuran keandalan dari suatu unit pembangkit. Heat rate didefinisikan sebagai jumlah energi bahan bakar yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan listrik sebesar 1 kWh. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kinerja PLTU dari pengaruh beban terhadap pemakaian konsumsi spesifik bahan bakar, heat rate dan efisiensi termal pada PLTU Labuhan Angin Sibolga. Perhitungan nilai heat rate dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode langsung atau sering dikenal den...

  15. 40 CFR 75.83 - Calculation of Hg mass emissions and heat input rate. (United States)


    ... heat input rate. 75.83 Section 75.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Calculation of Hg mass emissions and heat input rate. The owner or operator shall calculate Hg mass emissions and heat input rate in accordance with the procedures in sections 9.1 through 9.3 of appendix F to...

  16. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah


    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  17. Pyrolysis mechanism of macerals at a low heating rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Yuan, J.; Xu, Y. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermal Energy Engineering Research Institute


    Pyrolysis of macerals at a low heating rate was studied using DTA technology. The process of the pyrolysis was analyzed using a combined differential and integral method. The results showed that the process was quite complicated and cannot be described as a one-step reaction. However, there was a definite dividing point for the process, corresponding to the temperature of the maximum weight loss rate, T{sub m}. Based on the assumption that the pyrolysis reaction consisted of two steps, it was found that the rates of both steps are controlled by diffusion of different mechanism. The former step is Anti-Jander three dimension, the later ZLT equation. The activation energies of the two steps are also different, the former is larger than the later. The reasons causing the change of activation energy in the two steps were discussed by comparing the change of pososity in pyrolysis. The macerals showed similar pyrolysis mechanism but different activation energies. Usually the activation energy for inertinite was the lowest. The activation energy was affected by rank and increased with increasing rank. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Analysis of Effect of Heat Pipe Parameters in Minimising the Entropy Generation Rate


    Rakesh Hari; Chandrasekharan Muraleedharan


    Heat transfer and fluid flow in the heat pipe system result in thermodynamic irreversibility generating entropy. The minimum entropy generation principle can be used for optimum design of flat heat pipe. The objective of the present work is to minimise the total entropy generation rate as the objective function with different parameters of the flat heat pipe subjected to some constraints. These constraints constitute the limitations on the heat transport capacity of the heat pipe. This physic...

  19. Research of Heating Rates Influence on Layer Coal Gasification of Krasnogorsky And Borodinsky Coal Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovskiy Stanislav


    Full Text Available Experimental research of heating rate influence on coal samples gasification process of Krasnogorsky and Borodinsky coal deposit ranks A and 2B was done to define optimal heating mode in high intensification of dispersal of inflammable gases conditions. Abundance ratio of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide, water vapor, carbon dioxide at four values of heating rate within the range of 5 to 30 K/min. with further definition of optimal heating rate of coals was stated.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of radiative heating and cooling rates in planetary atmospheres: general linearization and adjoint approaches (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.


    Radiative heating and cooling provide primary source and ultimate sink of energy driving lower planetary atmospheres. Evaluating the sensitivities of atmospheric dynamics models on these primary atmospheric parameters requires knowing how heating and cooling rates depend on these same parameters. We discuss two approaches that make it possible to directly compute the sensitivities of heating and cooling rates in parallel with evaluation of heating and cooling rates themselves.

  1. Memory behaviors of entropy production rates in heat conduction (United States)

    Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang


    Based on the relaxation time approximation and first-order expansion, memory behaviors in heat conduction are found between the macroscopic and Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon (BGS) entropy production rates with exponentially decaying memory kernels. In the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics (CIT) and BGS statistical mechanics, the memory dependency on the integrated history is unidirectional, while for the extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) and BGS entropy production rates, the memory dependences are bidirectional and coexist with the linear terms. When macroscopic and microscopic relaxation times satisfy a specific relationship, the entropic memory dependences will be eliminated. There also exist initial effects in entropic memory behaviors, which decay exponentially. The second-order term are also discussed, which can be understood as the global non-equilibrium degree. The effects of the second-order term are consisted of three parts: memory dependency, initial value and linear term. The corresponding memory kernels are still exponential and the initial effects of the global non-equilibrium degree also decay exponentially.

  2. Dissolution and Precipitation Behaviour during Continuous Heating of Al–Mg–Si Alloys in a Wide Range of Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Osten


    Full Text Available In the present study, the dissolution and precipitation behaviour of four different aluminium alloys (EN AW-6005A, EN AW-6082, EN AW-6016, and EN AW-6181 in four different initial heat treatment conditions (T4, T6, overaged, and soft annealed was investigated during heating in a wide dynamic range. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to record heating curves between 20 and 600 °C. Heating rates were studied from 0.01 K/s to 5 K/s. We paid particular attention to control baseline stability, generating flat baselines and allowing accurate quantitative evaluation of the resulting DSC curves. As the heating rate increases, the individual dissolution and precipitation reactions shift to higher temperatures. The reactions during heating are significantly superimposed and partially run simultaneously. In addition, precipitation and dissolution reactions are increasingly suppressed as the heating rate increases, whereby exothermic precipitation reactions are suppressed earlier than endothermic dissolution reactions. Integrating the heating curves allowed the enthalpy levels of the different initial microstructural conditions to be quantified. Referring to time–temperature–austenitisation diagrams for steels, continuous heating dissolution diagrams for aluminium alloys were constructed to summarise the results in graphical form. These diagrams may support process optimisation in heat treatment shops.

  3. Dissolution and Precipitation Behaviour during Continuous Heating of Al–Mg–Si Alloys in a Wide Range of Heating Rates (United States)

    Osten, Julia; Milkereit, Benjamin; Schick, Christoph; Kessler, Olaf


    In the present study, the dissolution and precipitation behaviour of four different aluminium alloys (EN AW-6005A, EN AW-6082, EN AW-6016, and EN AW-6181) in four different initial heat treatment conditions (T4, T6, overaged, and soft annealed) was investigated during heating in a wide dynamic range. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to record heating curves between 20 and 600 °C. Heating rates were studied from 0.01 K/s to 5 K/s. We paid particular attention to control baseline stability, generating flat baselines and allowing accurate quantitative evaluation of the resulting DSC curves. As the heating rate increases, the individual dissolution and precipitation reactions shift to higher temperatures. The reactions during heating are significantly superimposed and partially run simultaneously. In addition, precipitation and dissolution reactions are increasingly suppressed as the heating rate increases, whereby exothermic precipitation reactions are suppressed earlier than endothermic dissolution reactions. Integrating the heating curves allowed the enthalpy levels of the different initial microstructural conditions to be quantified. Referring to time–temperature–austenitisation diagrams for steels, continuous heating dissolution diagrams for aluminium alloys were constructed to summarise the results in graphical form. These diagrams may support process optimisation in heat treatment shops.

  4. Methods of increasing net work output of organic Rankine cycles for low-grade waste heat recovery with a detailed analysis using a zeotropic working fluid mixture and scroll expander (United States)

    Woodland, Brandon Jay

    An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a thermodynamic cycle that is well-suited for waste heat recovery. It is generally employed for waste heat with temperatures in the range of 80 °C -- 300 °C. When the application is strictly to convert waste heat into work, thermal efficiency is not recommended as a key performance metric. In such an application, maximization of the net power output should be the objective rather than maximization of the thermal efficiency. Two alternative cycle configurations that can increase the net power produced from a heat source with a given temperature and flow rate are proposed and analyzed. These cycle configurations are 1) an ORC with two-phase flash expansion and 2) an ORC with a zeotropic working fluid mixture (ZRC). A design-stage ORC model is presented for consistent comparison of multiple ORC configurations. The finite capacity of the heat source and heat sink fluids is a key consideration in this model. Of all working fluids studied for the baseline ORC, R134a and R245fa yield the highest net power output from a given heat source. Results of the design-stage model indicate that the ORC with two-phase flash expansion offers the most improvement over the baseline ORC. However, the level of improvement that could be achieved in practice is highly uncertain due to the requirement of highly efficient two-phase expansion. The ZRC shows improvement over the baseline as long as the condenser fan power requirement is not negligible. At the highest estimated condenser fan power, the ZRC shows the most improvement, while the ORC with flash expansion is no longer beneficial. The ZRC was selected for detailed study because it does not require two-phase expansion. An experimental test rig was used to evaluate baseline ORC performance with R134a and with R245fa. The ZRC was tested on the same rig with a mixture of 62.5% R134a and 37.5% R245fa. The tested expander is a minimally-modified, of-the-shelf automotive scroll compressor. The high

  5. Analytical expressions for optimum flow rates in evaporators and condensers of heat pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granryd, E. [Dept. of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The flow velocities on the air or liquid side of evaporators and condensers in refrigerating or heat pump systems affect the system performance considerably. Furthermore the velocity can often be chosen rather freely without obvious first cost implications. The purpose of the paper is to show analytical relations indicating possible optimum operating conditions. Considering a base case where the design data are known, simple analytical relations are deduced for optimum flow rates that will result in highest overall COP of the system when energy demand for the compressor as well as pumps or fans are included. This optimum is equivalent to the solution for minimum total energy demand of the system for a given cooling load. It is also shown that a different (and higher) flow rate will result in maximum net cooling capacity for a refrigerating system with fixed compressor speed. The expressions can be used for design purposes as well as for checking suitable flow velocities in existing plants. The relations may also be incorporated in algorithms for optimal operation of systems with variable speed compressors. (author)

  6. Net accumulation rates derived from ice core stable isotope records of Pío XI glacier, Southern Patagonia Icefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schwikowski


    Full Text Available Pío XI, the largest glacier of the Southern Patagonia Icefield, reached its neoglacial maximum extent in 1994 and is one of the few glaciers in that area which is not retreating. In view of the recent warming it is important to understand glacier responses to climate changes. Due to its remoteness and the harsh conditions in Patagonia, no systematic mass balance studies have been performed. In this study we derived net accumulation rates for the period 2000–2006 from a 50 m (33.2 4 m weq ice core collected in the accumulation area of Pío XI (2600 m a.s.l., 49°16'40"S, 73°21'14"W. Borehole temperatures indicate near temperate ice, but the average melt percent is only 16 ± 14%. Records of stable isotopes are well preserved and were used for identification of annual layers. Net accumulation rates range from 3.4–7.1 water equivalent (m weq with an average of 5.8 m weq, comparable to precipitation amounts at the Chilean coast, but not as high as expected for the Icefield. Ice core stable isotope data correlate well with upper air temperatures and may be used as temperature proxy.

  7. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The CFD analysis of flow and temperature distribution in heating ovens used in bakery shop, to keep the foodstuffs warm, is attempted using finite element technique. The oven is modelled as a two-dimensional steady state natural convection heat transfer problem. Effects of heater location and total heat input on ...

  8. Heat storage rate and acute fatigue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.C. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Thermal environmental stress can anticipate acute fatigue during exercise at a fixed intensity (%VO2max. Controversy exists about whether this anticipation is caused by the absolute internal temperature (Tint, ºC, by the heat storage rate (HSR, cal/min or by both mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to study acute fatigue (total exercise time, TET during thermal stress by determining Tint and HSR from abdominal temperature. Thermal environmental stress was controlled in an environmental chamber and determined as wet bulb globe temperature (ºC, with three environmental temperatures being studied: cold (18ºC, thermoneutral (23.1ºC or hot (29.4ºC. Six untrained male Wistar rats weighing 260-360 g were used. The animals were submitted to exercise at the same time of day in the three environments and at two treadmill velocities (21 and 24 m/min until exhaustion. After implantation of a temperature sensor and treadmill adaptation, the animals were submitted to a Latin square experimental design using a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (velocity and environment, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. The results showed that the higher the velocity and the ambient temperature, the lower was the TET, with these two factors being independent. This result indicated that fatigue was independently affected by both the increase in exercise intensity and the thermal environmental stress. Fatigue developed at different Tint and HSR showed the best inverse relationship with TET. We conclude that HSR was the main anticipating factor of fatigue.

  9. Heating rate effect on thermoluminescence glow curves of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Gonzalez, P.R., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, C.P. 52750, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Touro University Rome, Division of Touro College New York, Circne Gianicolense 15-17, 00153 Rome (Italy)


    The influence of heating rate on the thermoluminescence (TL) property of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE was analyzed. The activation energy and the frequency factor as a function of the heating rate were determined. The kinetic parameters and their dependence on the heating rate were evaluated using the sequential quadratic programming glow curve deconvolution (SQPGCD). The results showed that as the heating rate increases, the peak intensity at the maximum (I{sub M}) decreases and shifts to higher temperature; similar behavior of the kinetics parameters was observed. - Highlights: >Heating rate influence on the thermoluminescence (TL) property of LiF:Mg,Cu,P was analyzed. > The kinetic parameters, activation energy and frequency factor were evaluated using the sequential quadratic programming glow curve deconvolution. > The peak intensity at the maximum (I{sub M}) of the glow curves decreases. > Shifts to higher temperature were observed as the heating rate increased. > Similar behavior of the kinetics parameters was noticed.

  10. Effect of stroke rate on the distribution of net mechanical power in rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; Landman, E.H.; Smith, R.M.; van Soest, A.J.


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of manipulating stroke rate on the distribution of mechanical power in rowing. Two causes of inefficient mechanical energy expenditure were identified in rowing. The ratio between power not lost at the blades and generated mechanical power (P̄

  11. A Simple Rate Law Experiment Using a Custom-Built Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter (United States)

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Xi.


    Most processes (whether physical, chemical, or biological) produce or consume heat: measuring thermal power (the heat production rate) is therefore a typical method of studying processes. Here we describe the design of a simple isothermal heat conduction calorimeter built for use in teaching; we also provide an example of its use in simultaneously…

  12. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps (United States)

    Daniilidis, N.; Narayanan, S.; Möller, S. A.; Clark, R.; Lee, T. E.; Leek, P. J.; Wallraff, A.; Schulz, St.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Häffner, H.


    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with a trapping height of approximately 240 μm. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation, the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion-loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and the possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed onto metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan Sampath


    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96224 during the period September 24, 1996 to September 23, 1999 which covers the entire performance period of the project. During this period, modification, alignment, and calibration of the measurement system, measurement of devolatilization time-scales for single coal particles subjected to a range of heating rates and temperature data at these time-scales, and analysis of the temperature data to understand the effect of heating rates on coal thermal properties were carried out. A new thermodynamic model was developed to predict the heat transfer behavior for single coal particles using one approach based on the analogy for thermal property of polymers. Results of this model suggest that bituminous coal particles behave like polymers during rapid heating on the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} K/s. At these heating rates during the early stages of heating, the vibrational part of the heat capacity of the coal molecules appears to be still frozen but during the transition from heat-up to devolatilization, the heat capacity appears to attain a sudden jump in its value as in the case of polymers. There are a few data available in the coal literature for low heating rate experiments (10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} K/s) conducted by UTRC, our industrial partner, in this project. These data were obtained for a longer heating duration on the order of several seconds as opposed to the 10 milliseconds heating time of the single particle experiments discussed above. The polymer analogy model was modified to include longer heating time on the order of several seconds to test these data. However, the model failed to predict these low heating rate data. It should be noted that UTRC's work showed reasonably good agreement with Merrick model heat capacity predictions at these low heating rates, but at higher heating rates UTRC observed that coal thermal response was heat flux dependent. It is concluded

  14. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  15. The usage of waste heat recovery units with improved heat engineering rates: theory and experimental research (United States)

    Chebotarev, Victor; Koroleva, Alla; Pirozhnikova, Anastasia


    Use of recuperator in heat producing plants for utilization of natural gas combustion products allows to achieve the saving of gas fuel and also provides for environmental sanitation. Decrease of the volumes of natural gas combustion due to utilization of heat provides not only for reduction of harmful agents in the combustion products discharged into the atmosphere, but also creates conditions for increase of energy saving in heating processes of heat producing plants due to air overheating in the recuperator. Grapho-analytical method of determination of energy saving and reduction of discharges of combustion products into the atmosphere is represented in the article. Multifunctional diagram is developed, allowing to determine simultaneously savings from reduction of volumes of natural gas combusted and from reduction of amounts of harmful agents in the combustion products discharged into the atmosphere. Calculation of natural gas economy for heat producing plant taking into consideration certain capacity is carried out.

  16. Heat generation rates in lithium thionyl chloride cells (United States)

    Frank, H.


    An empirical equation that is useful for good first approximation in thermal modeling is presented. Indications and measurements of electrochemical heat effects were investigated. The particular cells of interest are of the D size, with spiral wound configuration and were instrumented with a thermocouple. It is found that cathode limited cells can explode on reversal at moderate temperatures.

  17. Analysis of Effect of Heat Pipe Parameters in Minimising the Entropy Generation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Hari


    Full Text Available Heat transfer and fluid flow in the heat pipe system result in thermodynamic irreversibility generating entropy. The minimum entropy generation principle can be used for optimum design of flat heat pipe. The objective of the present work is to minimise the total entropy generation rate as the objective function with different parameters of the flat heat pipe subjected to some constraints. These constraints constitute the limitations on the heat transport capacity of the heat pipe. This physical nonlinear programming problem with nonlinear constraints is solved using LINGO 15.0 software, which enables finding optimum values for the independent design variables for which entropy generation is minimum. The effect of heat load, length, and sink temperature on design variables and corresponding entropy generation is studied. The second law analysis using minimum entropy generation principle is found to be effective in designing performance enhanced heat pipe.

  18. Mixing rates and vertical heat fluxes north of Svalbard from Arctic winter to spring (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Peterson, Algot K.


    Mixing and heat flux rates collected in the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard during the N-ICE2015 drift expedition are presented. The observations cover the deep Nansen Basin, the Svalbard continental slope, and the shallow Yermak Plateau from winter to summer. Mean quiescent winter heat flux values in the Nansen Basin are 2 W m-2 at the ice-ocean interface, 3 W m-2 in the pycnocline, and 1 W m-2 below the pycnocline. Large heat fluxes exceeding 300 W m-2 are observed in the late spring close to the surface over the Yermak Plateau. The data consisting of 588 microstructure profiles and 50 days of high-resolution under-ice turbulence measurements are used to quantify the impact of several forcing factors on turbulent dissipation and heat flux rates. Wind forcing increases turbulent dissipation seven times in the upper 50 m, and doubles heat fluxes at the ice-ocean interface. The presence of warm Atlantic Water close to the surface increases the temperature gradient in the water column, leading to enhanced heat flux rates within the pycnocline. Steep topography consistently enhances dissipation rates by a factor of four and episodically increases heat flux at depth. It is, however, the combination of storms and shallow Atlantic Water that leads to the highest heat flux rates observed: ice-ocean interface heat fluxes average 100 W m-2 during peak events and are associated with rapid basal sea ice melt, reaching 25 cm/d.

  19. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  20. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh


    energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system......The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...

  1. Biomass Pyrolysis: Comments on Some Sources of Confusions in the Definitions of Temperatures and Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lédé


    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is usually characterized on the basis of temperature and heating rate. Unfortunately, these parameters are badly defined in processing reactors as well as in laboratory devices. From the results of simplified models, the present paper points out the significant mistakes that can be made when assuming that the actual temperature and heating rate of reacting biomass particles are the same as those of the external heating medium. The difficulties in defining these two parameters are underlined in both cases of a heat source temperature supposed to be constant or to increase with time.

  2. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris


    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  3. Prediction of the heat transfer rate of a single layer wire-on-tube type heat exchanger using ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayati, Mohsen [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Tagh-E-Bostan, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran); Computational Intelligence Research Center, Razi University, Tagh-E-Bostan, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran); Rezaei, Abbas; Seifi, Majid [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Tagh-E-Bostan, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran)


    In this paper, we applied an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model for prediction of the heat transfer rate of the wire-on-tube type heat exchanger. Limited experimental data was used for training and testing ANFIS configuration with the help of hybrid learning algorithm consisting of backpropagation and least-squares estimation. The predicted values are found to be in good agreement with the actual values from the experiments with mean relative error less than 2.55%. Also, we compared the proposed ANFIS model to an ANN approach. Results show that the ANFIS model has more accuracy in comparison to ANN approach. Therefore, we can use ANFIS model to predict the performances of thermal systems in engineering applications, such as modeling heat exchangers for heat transfer analysis. (author)

  4. Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but rely on the concentration of hydrogen. The model ... first-order rate law. Lehmhus and Rausch (2004) have annealed TiH2 pow- der in air and argon. In argon, the powder does not develop a surface layer and as a result, a small amount of hydro- gen is lost ... rate effect on the thermal decomposition behaviour of TiH2.

  5. The effect of heating rate on the surface chemistry of NiTi. (United States)

    Undisz, Andreas; Hanke, Robert; Freiberg, Katharina E; Hoffmann, Volker; Rettenmayr, Markus


    The impact of the heating rate on the Ni content at the surface of the oxide layer of biomedical NiTi is explored. Heat treatment emulating common shape-setting procedures was performed by means of conventional and inductive heating for similar annealing time and temperature, applying various heating rates from ~0.25 K s(-1) to 250 K s(-1). A glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy method was established and employed to evaluate concentration profiles of Ni, Ti and O in the near-surface region at high resolution. The Ni content at the surface of the differently treated samples varies significantly, with maximum surface Ni concentrations of ~20 at.% at the lowest and ~1.5 at.% at the highest heating rate, i.e. the total amount of Ni contained in the surface region of the oxide layer decreases by >15 times. Consequently, the heating rate is a determinant for the biomedical characteristics of NiTi, especially since Ni available at the surface of the oxide layer may affect the hemocompatibility and be released promptly after surgical application of a respective implant. Furthermore, apparently contradictory results presented in the literature reporting surface Ni concentrations of ~3 at.% to >20 at.% after heat treatment are consistently explained considering the ascertained effect of the heating rate. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer simulation of metal wire explosion under high rate heating (United States)

    Zolnikov, K. P.; Kryzhevich, D. S.; Korchuganov, A. V.


    Synchronous electric explosion of metal wires and synthesis of bicomponent nanoparticles were investigated on the base of molecular dynamics method. Copper and nickel nanosized crystallites of cylindrical shape were chosen as conductors for explosion. The embedded atom approximation was used for calculation of the interatomic interactions. The agglomeration process after explosion metal wires was the main mechanism for particle synthesis. The distribution of chemical elements was non-uniform over the cross section of the bicomponent particles. The copper concentration in the surface region was higher than in the bulk of the synthesized particle. By varying the loading parameters (heating temperature, the distance between the wires) one can control the size and internal structure of the synthesized bicomponent nanoparticles. The obtained results showed that the method of molecular dynamics can be effectively used to determine the optimal technological mode of nanoparticle synthesis on the base of electric explosion of metal wires.

  7. Effect of heat rate constraint on minimum-fuel synergetic plane change (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Utashima, Masayoshi


    The synergetic plane change offers substantial fuel savings over the pure-propulsive alternative for certain noncoplanar orbital transfers. On the other hand, the thermal environment for a synergetic plane change vehicle can be quite severe. The minimum-fuel controls are computed approximately by parametrizing the controls and solving the resulting nonlinear programming problem. By considering several different levels of heat rate constraint, we characterize how the control strategy should be modified in order to keep the heat rate below the specified limit. Flight on the heat rate constraint boundary at high angle of attack is the key characteristic.

  8. Influence of heating rate on the condensational instability. [in outer layers of solar atmosphere (United States)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Mariska, J. T.


    Analysis and numerical simulation are used to determine the effect that various heating rates have on the linear and nonlinear evolution of a typical plasma within a solar magnetic flux tube subject to the condensational instability. It is found that linear stability depends strongly on the heating rate. The results of numerical simulations of the nonlinear evolution of the condensational instability in a solar magnetic flux tube are presented. Different heating rates lead to quite different nonlinear evolutions, as evidenced by the behavior of the global internal energy.

  9. Inverse problem of estimating transient heat transfer rate on external wall of forced convection pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Lih; Yang, Yu-Ching; Chang, Win-Jin; Lee, Haw-Long [Clean Energy Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Yung-Kang City, Tainan 710-03 (China)


    In this study, a conjugate gradient method based inverse algorithm is applied to estimate the unknown space and time dependent heat transfer rate on the external wall of a pipe system using temperature measurements. It is assumed that no prior information is available on the functional form of the unknown heat transfer rate; hence, the procedure is classified as function estimation in the inverse calculation. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by using simulated exact and inexact temperature measurements. Results show that an excellent estimation of the space and time dependent heat transfer rate can be obtained for the test case considered in this study. (author)

  10. Effect of heating rate on intercritical annealing of low-carbon cold-rolled steel (United States)

    Thomas, Larrin

    A study was performed on the effect of heating rate on transformations during intercritical annealing of cold-rolled low-carbon sheet steels. Two sets of experiments were developed: 1) a series of alloys (1020, 1019M, 15B25) with two different cold reductions (nominally 40 and 60 pct) were heated at different rates and transformation temperatures were determined using analysis of dilatometry and metallography of intercritically annealed samples, allowing the study of the impact of composition and cold work on transformation behavior with different heating rates. 2) A cold-rolled C-Mn-Nb steel was tested with different heating rates selected for different degrees of recrystallization during austenite formation to test the impact of ferrite recrystallization on austenite formation. Heat treated samples were analyzed with SEM, EBSD, dilatometry, and microhardness to study the changes in transformation behavior. The results of this study were extended by adding step heating tests, heat treatments with an intercritical hold, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements of Mn distribution. Austenite transformation temperatures increased logarithmically with heating rate. Greater degrees of cold work led to reduced transformation temperatures across all heating rates because the energy of cold work increased the driving force for austenite formation. The relative effects of alloying additions on transformation temperatures remained with increasing heating rate. Rapid heating minimized ferrite recrystallization and pearlite spheroidization. Austenite formation occurred preferentially in recovered ferrite regions as opposed to recrystallized ferrite boundaries. Martensite was evenly distributed in slowly heated steels because austenite formed on recrystallized, equiaxed, ferrite boundaries. With rapid heating, austenite formed in directionally-oriented recovered ferrite which increased the degree of banding. The greatest degree of banding was found with

  11. Research of the relationship between delayed fluorescence and net photosynthesis rate in spinach under NaCl stress (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Xing, Da


    Under NaCl stress conditions, the relationship between delayed fluorescence (DF) and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) in detached leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was surveyed. Results showed that the changes in DF intensity of the spinach leaves directly exposed to different NaCl concentrations demonstrated considerably high consistency with that in Pn. Incubation of the leaves in 200mmol/L NaCl induced a gradual increase and subsequent decline of the DF intensity and Pu, whereas incubation of the leaves in 300mmol/L NaCl induced a continuous decline of the DF intensity and Pn, suggesting that DF bad the same response to duration of treatment of different NaC1 concentrations with Pn. Both DF and Pn showed maximal Ca 2+ antagonism effects on stress of high concentration NaC1 when the concentration of CaC1 II reached l5mmolfL. All the results demonstrated that DF has an excellent correlation with Pn and can be used as a sensitive test for the state of photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress physiology.

  12. Modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate for the sensitivity to acid rain of 21 plant species. (United States)

    Deng, Shihuai; Gou, Shuzhen; Sun, Baiye; Lv, Wenlin; Li, Yuanwei; Peng, Hong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Yingjun


    This study investigated the sensitivity of plant species to acid rain based on the modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate (P (N)) of 21 types of plant species, subjected to the exposure of simulated acid rain (SAR) for 5 times during a period of 50 days. Variable responses of P (N) to SAR occurred depending on the type of plant. A majority (13 species) of the dosage-response relationship could be described by an S-shaped curve and be fitted with the Boltzmann model. Model fitting allowed quantitative evaluation of the dosage-response relationship and an accurate estimation of the EC(10), termed as the pH of the acid rain resulting in a P (N) 10 % lower than the reference value. The top 9 species (Camellia sasanqua, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. EC(10) ≤ 3.0) are highly endurable to very acid rain. The rare, relict plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides was the most sensitive species (EC(10) = 5.1) recommended for protection.

  13. Study on heat transfer rate of an osmotic heat pipe. 3rd Report. Estimation of heat transport limits; Shinto heat pipe no netsuyuso ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Netsuyuso genkai no yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipposhi, S.; Imura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Konya, K. [Oji Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamamura, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    This paper describes an experimental and theoretical study on the heat transport limits of an osmotic heat pipe operated under the atmospheric pressure, using aqueous polyethylene glycol 600 solution (0.1 - 1.0 kmol/m{sup 3}) as the working fluid and 18 tubular-type acetyl cellulose osmotic membranes. As a result, the correlation between the heat transport rate and the osmotic area was revealed, and the effects of the physical properties of the solution and the geometry (i.e. inside diameters of the flow lines, etc.) of the osmotic heat pipe on the heat transport rate were theoretically investigated. Also, the heat transport rate of the present osmotic heat pipe is about 85% compared with that under such an ideal condition that the solution of the average concentration is assumed to be filled in the solution loop. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Flash-Fire Propensity and Heat-Release Rate Studies of Improved Fire Resistant Materials (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.


    Twenty-six improved fire resistant materials were tested for flash-fire propensity and heat release rate properties. The tests were conducted to obtain a descriptive index based on the production of ignitable gases during the thermal degradation process and on the response of the materials under a specific heat load.

  15. Estimation of shutdown heat generation rates in GHARR-1 due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fission products decay power and residual fission power generated after shutdown of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) by reactivity insertion accident were estimated by solution of the decay and residual heat equations. A Matlab program code was developed to simulate the heat generation rates by fission product ...

  16. Approximate Method of Calculating Heating Rates at General Three-Dimensional Stagnation Points During Atmospheric Entry (United States)

    Hamilton, H. H., II


    An approximate method for calculating heating rates at general three dimensional stagnation points is presented. The application of the method for making stagnation point heating calculations during atmospheric entry is described. Comparisons with results from boundary layer calculations indicate that the method should provide an accurate method for engineering type design and analysis applications.

  17. Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nkya, Watoky M M; Mahande, Aneth M


    . Sporozoite infectivity rates, mosquito host blood meal source, bed net coverage and mosquito abundance were assessed in this study. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal survey was conducted in four villages in two regions of Tanzania. Malaria vectors were sampled using the CDC light trap and pyrethrum spray catch......,628 (81.8%) Anopheles arabiensis, 1,100 (15.9%) Culex quinquefasciatus, 89 (1.4%) Anopheles funestus, and 66 (0.9%) Anopheles gambiae s.s. Of the total mosquitoes collected 3,861 were captured by CDC light trap and 3,022 by the pyrethrum spray catch method. The overall light trap: spray catch ratio was 1.......3:1. Mosquito densities per room were 96.5 and 75.5 for light trap and pyrethrum spray catch respectively. Mosquito infectivity rates between villages that have high proportion of bed net owners and those without bed nets was significant (P

  18. Average Rate of Heat-Related Hospitalizations in 23 States, 2001-2010 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the 2001–2010 average rate of hospitalizations classified as “heat-related” by medical professionals in 23 states that participate in CDC’s...

  19. Effects of heat input rates on T-1 and T-1A steel welds (United States)

    Davis, R. A.; Olsen, M. G.; Worden, S. W.


    Technology of T-1 and T-1A steels is emphasized in investigation of their weld-fabrication. Welding heat input rate, production weldment circumstances, and standards of welding control are considered.

  20. An analysis of representative heating load lines for residential HSPF ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report describes an analysis to investigate representative heating loads for single-family detached homes using current EnergyPlus simulations (DOE 2014a). Hourly delivered load results are used to determine binned load lines using US Department of Energy (DOE) residential prototype building models (DOE 2014b) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The selected residential single-family prototype buildings are based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2006) in the DOE climate regions. The resulting load lines are compared with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 210/240 (AHRI 2008) minimum and maximum design heating requirement (DHR) load lines of the heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) ratings procedure for each region. The results indicate that a heating load line closer to the maximum DHR load line, and with a lower zero load ambient temperature, is more representative of heating loads predicted for EnergyPlus prototype residential buildings than the minimum DHR load line presently used to determine HSPF ratings. An alternative heating load line equation was developed and compared to binned load lines obtained from the EnergyPlus simulation results. The effect on HSPF of the alternative heating load line was evaluated for single-speed and two-capacity heat pumps, and an average HSPF reduction of 16% was found. The alternative heating load line relationship is tied to the rated cooling capacity of the heat pump based on EnergyPlus autosizing, which is more representative of the house load characteristics than the rated heating capacity. The alternative heating load line equation was found to be independent of climate for the six DOE climate regions investigated, provided an adjustable zero load ambient temperature is used. For Region IV, the default DOE climate region used for HSPF ratings, the higher load line results in an ~28

  1. Effects of a clearcut on the net rates of nitrification and N mineralization in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, USA (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.


    The Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York receive among the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in eastern North America, and ecosystems in the region may be sensitive to human disturbances that affect the N cycle. We studied the effects of a clearcut in a northern hardwood forest within a 24-ha Catskill watershed on the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification in soil plots during 6 years (1994-1999) that encompassed 3-year pre- and post-harvesting periods. Despite stream NO3- concentrations that increased by more than 1400 ??mol l-1 within 5 months after the clearcut, and three measures of NO3- availability in soil that increased 6- to 8-fold during the 1st year after harvest, the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification as measured by in situ incubation in the soil remained unchanged. The net N-mineralization rate in O-horizon soil was 1- 2 mg N kg-1 day-1 and the net nitrification rate was about 1 mg N kg-1 day-1, and rates in B-horizon soil were only one-fifth to one-tenth those of the O-horizon. These rates were obtained in single 625 m2 plots in the clearcut watershed and reference area, and were confirmed by rate measurements at 6 plots in 1999 that showed little difference in N-mineralization and nitrification rates between the treatment and reference areas. Soil temperature increased 1 ?? 0.8??C in a clearcut study plot relative to a reference plot during the post-harvest period, and soil moisture in the clearcut plot was indistinguishable from that in the reference plot. These results are contrary to the initial hypothesis that the clearcut would cause net rates of these N-cycling processes to increase sharply. The in situ incubation method used in this study isolated the samples from ambient roots and thereby prevented plant N uptake; therefore, the increases in stream NO3- concentrations and export following harvest largely reflect diminished uptake. Changes in temperature and moisture after the clearcut were

  2. Measuring the impact of motivation on achievement and course completion rates in MarineNet distance education


    Lindshield, Timothy D.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Marine Corps Distance Learning Network (MarineNet) is the primary source for distance education (DE) and online training for the Marine Corps. This research applies the learning theory of human motivation to archival MarineNet data to determine if motivation factors impact academic performance and course completion. The literature on motivation divides this variable into multiple types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Each t...

  3. Changes in heart rate variability during the induction and decay of heat acclimation. (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poirier, Martin P; Bravi, Andrea; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Herry, Christophe; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P


    We evaluated the changes in core temperature, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) during the induction and decay of heat acclimation. Ten males (23 ± 3 years; 79.5 ± 3.5 kg; 15.2 ± 4.5 percent body fat; 51.13 ± 4.61 mLO(2)∙kg(-1)∙min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) underwent a 14-day heat acclimation protocol comprising of 90-min cycling at ~50 % peak oxygen uptake at 40 °C and ~20 % relative humidity. Core temperature, heart rate, and 102 HRV measures were recorded during a heat tolerance test conducted at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the induction (day 14) and decay (day 28) phases. Heat acclimation resulted in significantly reduced core temperature [rectal (χ (2) = 1298.14, p rate (χ (2) = 1230.17, p heat acclimation-induced reductions in rectal temperature, esophageal temperature, and heart rate, respectively, were lost. Heat acclimation was accompanied by profound and broad changes in HRV: at the end of the induction phase, 75 of the 102 variability measures computed were significantly different (p Heat acclimation is accompanied by reduced core temperature, significant bradycardia, and marked alterations in HRV, which we interpret as being related to vagal dominance. The observed changes in core temperature persist for at least 2 weeks of non-exposure to heat, while the changes in heart rate and HRV decay faster and are only partly evident after 2 weeks of non-exposure to heat.

  4. Dilatometric and hardness analysis of C45 steel tempering with different heating-up rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kulawik


    Full Text Available Modelling of technological processes of heat treatment or welding, involving multiple heat source transitions, requires considering the phenomenon of tempering. In work have been presented results of dilatometric research of hardened C45 steel subjected to tempering. The analysis of the influence of heating rate at the kinetic determined from dilatometric curves has been made. There have also been estimated quantities of transformation expansions and thermal expansion coefficients of hardening and tempering structures (austenite, ferrite, pearlite, martensite and sorbite. The analysis of tempering time influence on the hardness of tempered steel has been made. Functions associating hardness with tempering time (rate of heating-up in technological processes based on short-timed action of a heat source (eg. laser treatment have been suggested.

  5. Effects of particle size and heating rate on swelling characteristics of a bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, D.; Xu, M.; Liu, X.; Wang, Q.; Gao, X. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)


    A size-classified bituminous coal was pyrolyzed in a laboratory drop tube furnace at different heating rates. The effects of coal particle size and heating rate on particle swelling properties were investigated. The results show that coal particles undergo obvious swelling during pyrolysis, leading to the formation of a large number of char cenospheres with a large central void surrounded by a thin shell. Analyses indicate this is caused by high concentrations of vitrinite present in coal samples. At the same heating rate, the extent of swelling increases with deceasing particle size and the difference in swelling decreases with increasing particle size. Since finer coal samples contain higher content of vitrinite, the observed phenomena are considered to be the result of the different content of vitrinite in these samples. The reason is that coal particles containing more vitrinite early undergo a softening and deformation stage and swell significantly during pyrolysis. When the heating rate increases the swelling of coal particle sin the same size range firstly increases and then decreases, which implies that an optimum heating rate at which coal particles swell most must exist. Reasonable explanation for this effect of heating rate on particle swelling are provided in the present study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Modeling the influence of potassium content and heating rate on biomass pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Surup, Gerrit; Shapiro, Alexander


    . The shrinking particle model considers internal and external heat transfer limitations and incorporates catalytic effects of potassium on the product yields. Modeling parameters were tuned with experimentally determined char yields at high heating rates (>200 K s−1) using a wire mesh reactor, a single particle...... burner, and a drop tube reactor. The experimental data demonstrated that heating rate and potassium content have significant effects on the char yield. The importance of shrinkage on the devolatilization time becomes greater with increasing particle size, but showed little influence on the char yields....

  7. Solid motor aft closure insulation erosion. [heat flux correlation for rate analysis (United States)

    Stampfl, E.; Landsbaum, E. M.


    The erosion rate of aft closure insulation in a number of large solid propellant motors was empirically analyzed by correlating the average ablation rate with a number of variables that had previously been demonstrated to affect heat flux. The main correlating parameter was a heat flux based on the simplified Bartz heat transfer coefficient corrected for two-dimensional effects. A multiplying group contained terms related to port-to-throat ratio, local wall angle, grain geometry and nozzle cant angle. The resulting equation gave a good correlation and is a useful design tool.

  8. Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzewicz, C D; Chiaverini, J


    We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.

  9. The heating rate in the tropical tropopause region; Die Erwaermungsrate in der tropischen Tropopausenregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Ulrich


    The major part of the movement of air masses from the troposphere to the stratosphere takes place in the tropics. The conveyed air mass is transported with the Brewer-Dobson circulation poleward and therefore influences the global stratospheric composition. An important cause variable for the transport of air through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is the radiative heating, which is investigated in this work. The influence of trace gases, temperature, and cloudiness on the heating rate is quantified, especially the effect of the overlap of several cloud layers is discussed. The heating rate in the tropics is simulated for one year. Regional differences of the heating rate profile appear between convective and stably stratified regions. By means of trace gas concentrations, temperature, and heating rates it is determined that an enhanced transport of air through the TTL took place between January and April 2007. The comparison with previous works shows that accurate input data sets of trace gases, temperature, and cloudiness and exact methods for the simulation of the radiative transfer are indispensable for modeling of the heating rate with the required accuracy. (orig.)

  10. Melting and crystallization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate: effect of heating/cooling rates on phase transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Maria Ramos Wellen


    Full Text Available AbstractWe studied the crystallization and melting phenomena of poly (3- hydroxybutyrate (PHB, a biodegradable and biocompatible semi-crystalline thermoplastic, obtained from renewable resources. Its high crystallinity motivated several studies on crystallization and melting behavior, and also on ways to increase the amorphous polymer fraction. The effect of heating and cooling rates on the crystallization and melting of commercial PHB was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Several rates, ranging from 2.5 to 20 °C min–1, were used to study the phase changes during heating/cooling/reheating cycles. The results showed that PHB partially crystallizes from the melt during the cooling cycle and partially cold crystallizes on reheating, and that the relative amount of polymer crystallizing in each stage strongly depends on the cooling rate. The melt and cold crystallization temperatures, as well as the rates of phase change, depend strongly on the cooling and heating rates.

  11. Influence of heat transfer rates on pressurization of liquid/slush hydrogen propellant tanks (United States)

    Sasmal, G. P.; Hochstein, J. I.; Hardy, T. L.


    A multi-dimensional computational model of the pressurization process in liquid/slush hydrogen tank is developed and used to study the influence of heat flux rates at the ullage boundaries on the process. The new model computes these rates and performs an energy balance for the tank wall whereas previous multi-dimensional models required a priori specification of the boundary heat flux rates. Analyses of both liquid hydrogen and slush hydrogen pressurization were performed to expose differences between the two processes. Graphical displays are presented to establish the dependence of pressurization time, pressurant mass required, and other parameters of interest on ullage boundary heat flux rates and pressurant mass flow rate. Detailed velocity fields and temperature distributions are presented for selected cases to further illuminate the details of the pressurization process. It is demonstrated that ullage boundary heat flux rates do significantly effect the pressurization process and that minimizing heat loss from the ullage and maximizing pressurant flow rate minimizes the mass of pressurant gas required to pressurize the tank. It is further demonstrated that proper dimensionless scaling of pressure and time permit all the pressure histories examined during this study to be displayed as a single curve.

  12. Isothermal calorimeter for measurements of time-dependent heat generation rate in individual supercapacitor electrodes (United States)

    Munteshari, Obaidallah; Lau, Jonathan; Krishnan, Atindra; Dunn, Bruce; Pilon, Laurent


    Heat generation in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) may lead to temperature rise and reduce their lifetime and performance. This study aims to measure the time-dependent heat generation rate in individual carbon electrode of EDLCs under various charging conditions. First, the design, fabrication, and validation of an isothermal calorimeter are presented. The calorimeter consisted of two thermoelectric heat flux sensors connected to a data acquisition system, two identical and cold plates fed with a circulating coolant, and an electrochemical test section connected to a potentiostat/galvanostat system. The EDLC cells consisted of two identical activated carbon electrodes and a separator immersed in an electrolyte. Measurements were performed on three cells with different electrolytes under galvanostatic cycling for different current density and polarity. The measured time-averaged irreversible heat generation rate was in excellent agreement with predictions for Joule heating. The reversible heat generation rate in the positive electrode was exothermic during charging and endothermic during discharging. By contrast, the negative electrode featured both exothermic and endothermic heat generation during both charging and discharging. The results of this study can be used to validate existing thermal models, to develop thermal management strategies, and to gain insight into physicochemical phenomena taking place during operation.

  13. Heat dissipation of high rate Li-SOCl sub 2 primary cells (United States)

    Cho, Y. I.; Halpert, G.; Deligiannis, E.


    The heat dissipation problem occurring in the lithium thionyl chloride cells discharged at relatively high rates under normal discharge conditions is examined. Four heat flow paths were identified, and the thermal resistances of the relating cell components along each flow path were accordingly calculated. From the thermal resistance network analysis, it was demonstrated that about 90 percent of the total heat produced within the cell should be dissipated along the radial direction in a spirally wound cell. In addition, the threshold value of the heat generation rate at which cell internal temperature could be maintained below 100 C, was calculated from total thermal resistance and found to be 2.9 W. However, these calculations were made only at the cell components' level, and the transient nature of the heat accumulation and dissipation was not considered. A simple transient model based on the lumped-heat-capacity concept was developed to predict the time-dependent cell temperature at different discharge rates. The overall objective was to examine the influence of cell design variable from the heat removal point of view under normal discharge conditions and to make recommendations to build more efficient lithium cells.

  14. Heating capabilities of the Hotline and Autoline at low flow rates. (United States)

    Schnoor, Joerg; Weber, Ingo; Macko, Stephan; Heussen, Nicole; Rossaint, Rolf


    At low flow rates, fluid warmers using coaxial warming tubes are superior in preventing heat loss. This laboratory investigation was performed in order to compare the heating capabilities of two coaxial fluid warmers. The Hotline and the Autoline were investigated by using normal saline at various flow rates (10-99 ml x h(-1)). Final infusion temperatures were measured six times in a row at the end of the tubing by using a rapid-response thermometer. Final temperatures were compared with those of infusions, which passed through disposable i.v. tubing covered and warmed using an 'off label' convective air warming system (WarmTouch). Measurements were performed at two different room temperatures (20 and 24 degrees C). Each group was analyzed with respect to differences between various flow rates as well as differences between the groups at comparable flow rates by using a three-way anova with multiple comparisons according to Tukey's procedure. Significance was defined at P flow rates efficiently above 34 degrees C, with the Hotline being more effective than the Autoline (P flow rates (10-60 and 80 ml x h(-1)), the Autoline demonstrated lower infusion temperatures throughout elevated room temperature at flow rates between 20 and 90 ml x h(-1). Both devices heated infusions more efficiently compared with 'off label used' convective air warmer (each with P flow rates. However, the heating capability of the Hotline was superior and can further be increased at low flow rates by increasing the room temperature.

  15. A simple parameterization for the height of maximum ozone heating rate (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Hou, Can; Li, Jiangnan; Liu, Renqiang; Liu, Cuiping


    It is well-known that the height of the maximum ozone heating rate is much higher than the height of the maximum ozone concentration in the stratosphere. However, it lacks an analytical expression to explain it. A simple theoretical model has been proposed to calculate the height of maximum ozone heating rate and further understand this phenomenon. Strong absorption of ozone causes the incoming solar flux to be largely attenuated before reaching the location of the maximum ozone concentration. By comparing with the exact radiative transfer calculations, the heights of the maximum ozone heating rate produced by the theoretical model are generally very close to the true values. When the cosine of solar zenith angle μ0 = 1.0 , in US Standard atmosphere, the heights of the maximum ozone heating rate by the theoretical model are 41.4 km in the band 0.204-0.233 μm, 47.9 km in the band 0.233-0.270 μm, 44.5 km in the band 0.270-0.286 μm, 37.1 km in the band 0.286-0.303 μm, and 30.2 km in the band 0.303-0.323 μm, respectively. The location of the maximum ozone heating rate is sensitive to the solar spectral range. In band 1, the heights of the maximum ozone heating rate by the theoretical model are 52.3 km for μ0 = 0.1 , 47.1 km for μ0 = 0.3 , 44.6 km for μ0 = 0.5 , 43.1 km for μ0 = 0.7 , 41.9 km for μ0 = 0.9 , 41.4 km for μ0 = 1.0 in US Standard atmosphere, respectively. This model also illustrates that the location of the maximum ozone heating rate is sensitive to the solar zenith angle.

  16. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A, [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Adderley, Philip A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)


    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  17. Assessment of CFD Hypersonic Turbulent Heating Rates for Space Shuttle Orbiter (United States)

    Wood, William A.; Oliver, A. Brandon


    Turbulent CFD codes are assessed for the prediction of convective heat transfer rates at turbulent, hypersonic conditions. Algebraic turbulence models are used within the DPLR and LAURA CFD codes. The benchmark heat transfer rates are derived from thermocouple measurements of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery windward tiles during the STS-119 and STS-128 entries. The thermocouples were located underneath the reaction-cured glass coating on the thermal protection tiles. Boundary layer transition flight experiments conducted during both of those entries promoted turbulent flow at unusually high Mach numbers, with the present analysis considering Mach 10{15. Similar prior comparisons of CFD predictions directly to the flight temperature measurements were unsatisfactory, showing diverging trends between prediction and measurement for Mach numbers greater than 11. In the prior work, surface temperatures and convective heat transfer rates had been assumed to be in radiative equilibrium. The present work employs a one-dimensional time-accurate conduction analysis to relate measured temperatures to surface heat transfer rates, removing heat soak lag from the flight data, in order to better assess the predictive accuracy of the numerical models. The turbulent CFD shows good agreement for turbulent fuselage flow up to Mach 13. But on the wing in the wake of the boundary layer trip, the inclusion of tile conduction effects does not explain the prior observed discrepancy in trends between simulation and experiment; the flight heat transfer measurements are roughly constant over Mach 11-15, versus an increasing trend with Mach number from the CFD.


    Barker, H A


    1. The denaturation rate of partially dried crystallizable egg albumin is greatly decreased by decreasing its water content. 2. The temperature of denaturation, defined as the temperature at which half of the protein becomes insoluble in distilled water after a definite time of heating, is a linear function of the relative humidity with which the protein is in equilibrium. 3. By applying the Arrhenius equation it is shown that the rate of heat denaturation at a given temperature is an exponential function of the relative humidity. 4. The application of the observed relations to the analysis of the mechanism of thermal death of microorganisms is suggested. 5. The water content of native and heat-denatured egg albumin is determined as a function of the relative humidity of water vapor. It is shown that the heat-denatured modification takes up approximately 80 per cent as much water at all relative humidities as does native egg albumin.

  19. In situ filtering rate variability in egg and larval surveys off the Pacific coast of Japan: Do plankton nets clog or over-filter in the sea? (United States)

    Takasuka, Akinori; Tadokoro, Kazuaki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ichikawa, Tadafumi; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Oozeki, Yoshioki


    In situ filtering rate variability was examined for vertical tows of plankton nets in egg and larval surveys off the Pacific coast of Japan, based on a data set pooled over large spatial and temporal scales (76,444 sampling tows from 1978 to 2013). The filtering rate showed unimodal distributions and was highly variable for the four net types: Long NORPAC (LNP), NORPAC (NOR), Maru-toku B (MTB), and Maru-naka (MNK). Despite the high variability at the individual tow level, the median values of the filtering rate for the overall data approximated the theoretical value of 1.0, in particular, for LNP, although the median values differed among the net types. For LNP, the differences in the median values among the 26 years, the 12 months, and the 4 regions were small relative to the overall variability at the individual level. The present study quantified the extent of underestimation/overestimation when the theoretical value of 1.0 is used due to the lack of the actual filtering rate data. The filtering rate was almost on a balance of resistance effect of net and cod-end, clogging effect of collected organisms, and over-inflow effect of currents over large scales. The present analysis implies that the filtering rate is mainly influenced by small-scale transient variability of ocean conditions such as wind speed, current intensity, rolling, turbulence, and mixing rather than large-scale variability related to climate regime, seasonality, or water masses. The results will allow the utilization of historical data lacking flow-meter data for large-scale comparative analyses.

  20. Pyrolysis polygeneration of poplar wood: Effect of heating rate and pyrolysis temperature. (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Cen, Kehui; Luo, Min; Li, Hongyan; Lu, Bin


    The pyrolysis of poplar wood were comprehensively investigated at different pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550, and 600°C) and at different heating rates (10, 30, and 50°C/min). The results showed that BET surface area of biochar, the HHV of non-condensable gas and bio-oil reached the maximum values of 411.06m(2)/g, 14.56MJ/m(3), and 14.39MJ/kg, under the condition of 600°C and 30°C/min, 600°C and 50°C/min, and 550°C and 50°C/min, respectively. It was conducive to obtain high mass and energy yield of bio-oil at 500°C and higher heating rate, while lower pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed towards obtaining both higher mass yield and energy yield of biochar. However, higher pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed to obtain both higher mass yield and energy yield of the non-condensable gas. In general, compared to the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature had more effect on the product properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Baroreceptor unloading does not limit forearm sweat rate during severe passive heat stress. (United States)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Gagnon, Daniel; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G


    This study tested the hypothesis that sweat rate during passive heat stress is limited by baroreceptor unloading associated with heat stress. Two protocols were performed in which healthy subjects underwent passive heat stress that elicited an increase in intestinal temperature of ∼1.8°C. Upon attaining this level of hyperthermia, in protocol 1 (n = 10, 3 females) a bolus (19 ml/kg) of warm (∼38°C) isotonic saline was rapidly (5-10 min) infused intravenously to elevate central venous pressure (CVP), while in protocol 2 (n = 11, 5 females) phenylephrine was infused intravenously (60-120 μg/min) to return mean arterial pressure (MAP) to normothermic levels. In protocol 1, heat stress reduced CVP from 3.9 ± 1.9 mmHg (normothermia) to -0.6 ± 1.4 mmHg (P 0.999). Sweat rate was elevated by heat stress (1.21 ± 0.44 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)) but remained unchanged during rapid saline infusion (1.26 ± 0.47 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P = 0.5), whereas cutaneous vascular conductance increased from 77 ± 10 to 101 ± 20% of local heating max (P = 0.029). In protocol 2, MAP was reduced with heat stress from 85 ± 7 mmHg to 76 ± 8 mmHg (P = 0.048). Although phenylephrine infusion returned MAP to normothermic levels (88 ± 7 mmHg; P > 0.999), sweat rate remained unchanged during phenylephrine infusion (1.39 ± 0.22 vs. 1.41 ± 0.24 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P > 0.999). These data indicate that both cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptor unloading do not limit increases in sweat rate during passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  3. Shortwave radiative heating rate profiles in hazy and clear atmosphere: a sensitivity study (United States)

    Doppler, Lionel; Fischer, Jürgen; Ravetta, François; Pelon, Jacques; Preusker, René


    Aerosols have an impact on shortwave heating rate profiles (additional heating or cooling). In this survey, we quantify the impact of several key-parameters on the heating rate profiles of the atmosphere with and without aerosols. These key-parameters are: (1) the atmospheric model (tropical, midlatitude summer or winter, US Standard), (2) the integrated water vapor amount (IWV ), (3) the ground surface (flat and rough ocean, isotropic surface albedo for land), (4) the aerosol composition (dusts, soots or maritimes mixtures with respect to the OPAC-database classification), (5) the aerosol optical depth and (6) vertical postion, and (7) the single-scattering albedo (?o) of the aerosol mixture. This study enables us to evaluate which parameters are most important to take into account in a radiative energy budget of the atmosphere and will be useful for a future study: the retrieval of heating rates profiles from satellite data (CALIPSO, MODIS, MERIS) over the Mediterranean Sea. All the heating rates are computed by using the vector irradiances computed at each pressure level in the spectral interval 0.2 - 3.6μm (shortwave) by the 1D radiative transfer model for atmosphere and ocean: MOMO (Matrix-Operator MOdel) of the Institute for Space Science, FU Berlin 1

  4. Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and products properties of moso bamboo. (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng


    Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and products properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing heating rate. The heating rate has different effects on the pyrolysis products properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, heating value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.


    This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

  6. Thermal sensation, rate of temperature change, and the heat dissipation design for tablet computers. (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Hedge, Alan; Cosley, Daniel


    Past research has shown that the rate of change of skin surface temperature can affect thermal sensation. This study investigated users' thermal responses to a tablet heating surface with different heat pads and different temperature change rates. The test conditions included: A. keeping the surface at a constant 42 °C, B. increasing the surface temperature from 38 °C to 42 °C at a rate of 0.02 °C/s in progressive intervals, C. increasing the temperature at 0.15 °C/s in progressive intervals, and D. Heating two left and right side pads alternately from 38 °C to 42 °C at 0.15 °C/s in progressive intervals. Overall results showed the lowest temperature change rate of 0.02 °C/s was most preferred in terms of thermal comfort. The findings suggest a potential to improve user thermal experience by dissipating tablet computer heat at a lower temperature change rate, or by alternating the dissipation areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heat shock response in yeast involves changes in both transcription rates and mRNA stabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Castells-Roca

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the heat stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining mRNA levels and transcription rates for the whole transcriptome after a shift from 25 °C to 37 °C. Using an established mathematical algorithm, theoretical mRNA decay rates have also been calculated from the experimental data. We have verified the mathematical predictions for selected genes by determining their mRNA decay rates at different times during heat stress response using the regulatable tetO promoter. This study indicates that the yeast response to heat shock is not only due to changes in transcription rates, but also to changes in the mRNA stabilities. mRNA stability is affected in 62% of the yeast genes and it is particularly important in shaping the mRNA profile of the genes belonging to the environmental stress response. In most cases, changes in transcription rates and mRNA stabilities are homodirectional for both parameters, although some interesting cases of antagonist behavior are found. The statistical analysis of gene targets and sequence motifs within the clusters of genes with similar behaviors shows that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulons apparently contribute to the general heat stress response by means of transcriptional factors and RNA binding proteins.

  8. Study of the Al-Si-X system by different cooling rates and heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Suarez


    Full Text Available The solidification behavior of the Al-12.6% Si (A1, the hypereutectic Al-20%Si (A2 and the Al-20%Si-1.5% Fe-0.5%Mn (A3 (in wt. (% alloys, at different cooling rates is reported and discussed. The cooling rates ranged between 0.93 °C/s and 190 °C/s when cast in sand and copper wedge-shaped molds, respectively. A spheroidization heat treatment was carried out to the alloys in the as-cast condition at 540 °C for 11 hours and quench in water with a subsequent heat treatment at 170 °C for 5 hours with the purpose of improving the mechanical properties. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanically by tensile test, in order to evaluate the response of the heat treatment on the different starting microstructures and mechanical properties. It was found that alloys cooled at rates greater than 10.8 °C/s had a smaller particle size and better distribution, also showed a greater response to spheroidization heat treatment of all silicon (Si phases. The spheroidization heat treatment caused an increase in the ultimate tensile stress (UTS and elongation when compared with the alloys in the as-cast condition. The highest UTS value of 174 MPa was obtained for the (A1 alloy.

  9. Using the Synergy Between GERB/SEVIRI and Micrometeorological Data to Study the Relationship Between Surface Net Radiation and Soil Heat Flux at Local and Regional Scales (United States)

    Ferreira, A. G.; Velázquez Blázquez, A.; Soria, E.; Lopez-Baeza, E.


    The surface energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere can be described by the energy balance equation Rn - H - LE - G = 0, where Rn represents net radiation, H the sensible heat flux, LE, the latent heat flux and G the soil heat flux. In this work the relationship between Rn and G is studied over vineyard crops, a relative sparse vegetation cover crop where, according to the literature, it is expected that G consumes a significant proportion of Rn. In order to study this relationship at local and regional scales, micrometeorological observations and METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) satellite data have been used. MSG through the GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensors can provide estimates of net radiation and required land surface temperature (LST) information with a frequency of 15 min intervals. The necessary micrometeorological parameters, to compare with satellite data, were collected during the full vine growing season of 2007 (May to September) in a field experiment carried out at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) site area. The VAS is a robust reference meteorological station which is successfully used preferentially for validation of low spatial resolution satellite data and products. It is located on the natural region of the Utiel-Requena Plateau, at about 80 km west from the city of Valencia, Spain, and represents a reasonable homogeneous area of about 50 km x 50 km dedicated primarily to growing vines. The methodology utilized to study the relationship between Rn and G at local and regional scales, was that proposed by Santanello and Friedel (2002), where surface temperature can be obtained from SEVIRI that provides estimates of LST with unprecedented frequency of 15 min intervals with a spatial resolution of 3.1 km, thus totally covering its diurnal course. The preliminary results show that: 1- the correlation between the ground measurements and SEVIRI LST is

  10. Effect of surface catalytic activity on stagnation heat-transfer rates. (United States)

    Anderson, L. A.


    An experiment was made to determine the effect heterogeneous catalytic surface reactions have on heat-transfer rates in highly frozen low-density stagnation-point boundary layers. Data were obtained in arc-heated facilities that were capable of producing large percentages of chemical energy frozen in a supersonic freestream. The heat-transfer rate to a silicon-dioxide surface was reduced to a minimum value of only one-third of the value obtained on relatively active nickel and platinum surfaces. This is the result of its low catalytic efficiency. Ionization energy was recovered on both the active and the inactive surfaces, indicating that this energy either was released many times faster than the recombination energy or was not controlled by the surface composition.

  11. Evaluation of radiative heating rate profiles in eight GCMs using A-train satellite observations (United States)

    Cesana, Gregory; Waliser, D. E.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Jiang, X.; Li, J.-L.


    In this study, we take advantage of two modeling experiments and A-train satellite observations to characterize the impact of cloud biases in the vertical distribution of radiative heating rates in eight general circulation models General Circulation Models (GCMs). We compare the modeled vertical distribution of clouds against the GCM-Oriented Cloud-Aerosols Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations Cloud Product (CALIPSO-GOCCP) using a simulator approach. Although the overall pattern of modeled zonal cloud frequency profiles is relatively good (r=0.92 for the multi-model mean), we show two main systematic biases in the cloud frequency profiles: a positive bias above 7km (up to 10%), particularly in the tropics; and a negative bias below 3km (up to -10%), which reaches a maximum over the stratocumulus cloud regions. Using radiative heating rate profiles calculated with constraints from CloudSat, CALIPSO and other satellite observations, we show that the excess of clouds in the upper troposphere (>7km) results in excess infrared and solar heating in the vicinity of the clouds as well as more infrared heating for the entire column below the cloud. On the other hand, the lack of clouds in the lower troposphere reduces the infrared cooling near the missing cloud levels and increases the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor below. The global radiative heating rate between 50°S and 50°N is too warm in the models (-0.81K/day vs. -1.01K/day). The representation of clouds in GCMs remains challenging, but reducing the cloud biases would lead to an improvement of the heating rate profiles, which in turn would help in improving other aspects of models' simulations such as the dynamics, cloud feedbacks and surface-atmosphere interactions.

  12. Heat and mass transfer rates during flow of dissociated hydrogen gas over graphite surface (United States)

    Nema, V. K.; Sharma, O. P.


    To improve upon the performance of chemical rockets, the nuclear reactor has been applied to a rocket propulsion system using hydrogen gas as working fluid and a graphite-composite forming a part of the structure. Under the boundary layer approximation, theoretical predictions of skin friction coefficient, surface heat transfer rate and surface regression rate have been made for laminar/turbulent dissociated hydrogen gas flowing over a flat graphite surface. The external stream is assumed to be frozen. The analysis is restricted to Mach numbers low enough to deal with the situation of only surface-reaction between hydrogen and graphite. Empirical correlations of displacement thickness, local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local non-dimensional heat transfer rate have been obtained. The magnitude of the surface regression rate is found low enough to ensure the use of graphite as a linear or a component of the system over an extended period without loss of performance.

  13. Effect of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on radiata pine char structure and apparent gasification reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; R. Gupta; B. Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering


    The knowledge of biomass char gasification kinetics has considerable importance in the design of advanced biomass gasifiers, some of which operate at high pressure. The char gasification kinetics themselves are influenced by char structure. In this study, the effects of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the char structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, digital cinematography, and surface area analysis. Char samples were prepared at pressures between 1 and 20 bar, temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000{degree}C, and heating rates between 20 and 500{degree}C/s. Our results indicate that pyrolysis conditions have a notable impact on the biomass char morphology. Pyrolysis pressure, in particular, was found to influence the size and the shape of char particles while high heating rates led to plastic deformation of particles (i.e. melting) resulting in smooth surfaces and large cavities. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The influence of SPS heating rates on the synthesis reaction of tantalum diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Laszkiewicz-Łukasik


    Full Text Available TaB2 is a material from the Ultra High Temperature Ceramics group and is rather unexplored because it is difficult to procure the raw materials and to densify TaB2. Using SPS technique to realize reactive sintering processes of powders mixture according to the reaction Ta + 2B → TaB2 makes it possible to achieve TaB2 in one technological step. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of heating rates on the synthesis reaction and on the multistage densification mechanisms during SPS processes. The mixture was sintered at constant parameters of 2200 °C, 48 MPa for 5 min with the usage of heating rates from 50 °C/min up to 400 °C/min. The densification processes were studied through analyzing the shrinkage of powder compacts during SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering processes. The comparison of the densification curves indicates that the reactions do not proceed completely at slow heating rates. Namely, too low heating rates contribute to the sintering of tantalum before the synthesis reaction and demonstrate the presence of boron in liquid state. The best material obtained in this study has Young's modulus 571 GPa, Vickers hardness 20.7 GPa (HV1 and indentation fracture toughness KIC 4.7 MPa m1/2.

  15. Time dependent heat transfer rates in high Reynolds number hypersonic flowfields (United States)

    Flanagan, Michael J.


    Time dependent heat transfer rates have been calculated from time dependent temperature measurements in the vicinity of shock-wave boundary-layer interactions due to conical compression ramps on an axisymmetric body. The basic model is a cylindrical body with a 10 degree conical nose. Four conical ramps, 20, 25, 30, and 35 degrees serve as shock wave generators. Flowfield surveys have been made in the vicinity of the conical ramp vertex, the separation point, and the reattachment point. A significant effort was made to characterize the natural frequencies and relative powers of the resulting fluctuations in heat transfer rates. This research effort, sponsored jointly by NASA and the Air Force, was conducted in the Air Force Flight Dynamics Directorate High Reynolds Facility. The nominal freestream Mach number was 6, and the freestream Reynolds numbers ranged from 2.2 million/ft to 30.0 million/ft. Experimental results quantify temperature response and the resulting heat transfer rates as a function of ramp angle and Reynolds number. The temperature response within the flowfield appears to be steady-state for all compression ramp angles and all Reynolds numbers, and hence, the heat transfer rates appear to be steady-state.

  16. The influence of SPS heating rates on the synthesis reaction of tantalum diboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laszkiewicz-Lukasik, J.; Jaworska, L.; Putyra, P.; Klimczyk, P.; Garzel, G.


    TaB2 is a material from the Ultra High Temperature Ceramics group and is rather unexplored because it is difficult to procure the raw materials and to densify TaB2. Using SPS technique to realize reactive sintering processes of powders mixture according to the reaction Ta+2B→TaB2 makes it possible to achieve TaB2 in one technological step. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of heating rates on the synthesis reaction and on the multistage densification mechanisms during SPS processes. The mixture was sintered at constant parameters of 2200°C, 48MPa for 5min with the usage of heating rates from 50°C/min up to 400°C/min. The densification processes were studied through analyzing the shrinkage of powder compacts during SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) processes. The comparison of the densification curves indicates that the reactions do not proceed completely at slow heating rates. Namely, too low heating rates contribute to the sintering of tantalum before the synthesis reaction and demonstrate the presence of boron in liquid state. The best material obtained in this study has Young's modulus 571GPa, Vickers hardness 20.7GPa (HV1) and indentation fracture toughness KIC 4.7MPam1/2. (Author)

  17. Effect of low and high heating rates on reaction path of Ni(V)/Al multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, Łukasz, E-mail: [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Morgiel, Jerzy; Szlezynger, Maciej [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Bała, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, 30 Kawiory St., 30-055 Kraków (Poland)


    The effect of heating rates of Ni(V)/Al NanoFoils{sup ®} was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ni(V)/Al were subjected to heating by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in-situ TEM or electric pulse. Local chemical analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Phase analysis was done with X-ray diffractions (XRD) and selected area electron diffractions (SAED). The experiments showed that slow heating in DSC results in development of separate exothermic effects at ∼230 °C, ∼280 °C and ∼390 °C, corresponding to precipitation of Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and NiAl phases, respectively, i.e. like in vanadium free Ni/Al multilayers. Further heating to 700 °C allowed to obtain a single phase NiAl foil. The average grain size (g.s.) of NiAl phase produced in the DSC heat treated foil was comparable with the Ni(V)/Al multilayer period (∼50 nm), whereas in the case of reaction initiated with electric pulse the g.s. was in the micrometer range. Upon slow heating vanadium tends to segregate to zones parallel to the original multilayer internal interfaces, while in SHS process vanadium-rich phases precipitates at grain boundaries of the NiAl phase. - Highlights: • Peaks in DSC heating of Ni(V)/Al were explained by in-situ TEM observations. • Nucleation of Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and NiAl at slow heating of Ni(V)/Al was documented. • Near surface NiAl obtained from NanoFoil show Ag precipitates at grain boundaries.

  18. Influence of Heating Rate on Annealing and Reverse Transformation Behavior of TRIP Steels Having Martensite as Starting Microstructure (United States)

    Kim, Jeong In; Choi, Yong Hoon; Ryu, Joo Hyun; Lee, Sea Woong; Lee, Kyooyoung; Suh, Dong-Woo


    The influence of heating rate on the annealing and transformation behavior is investigated in TRIP steel having martensite as the starting microstructure. A higher heating rate preserves the hierarchical structure of the initial microstructure before starting the reverse transformation. As the heating rate increases, the reversely transformed austenite has a propensity to develop a fine lath morphology, a consequence of the retention of pre-existing austenite and its growth along the lath boundary.

  19. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters. (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei


    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from

  20. Smoke Movement in an Atrium with a Fire with Low Rate of Heat Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik; Petersen, A. J.


    Results from small-scale experiments on smoke movement in an atrium are given, both with and without a vertical temperature gradient, and expressions for the smoke movement are developed on the basis of these experiments. Comparisons with a general analytical expression used for calculating...... the height to the location of the smoke layer are given. Furthermore, the paper discusses the air movement in a typical atrium exposed to different internal and external heat loads to elaborate on the use of the "flow element" expressions developed for smoke movement from a fire with a low rate of heat...

  1. Evaluation of induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distribution after shutdown in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Koichi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Satoh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Koubun; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Iida, Hiromasa


    Induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distributions after shutdown were estimated for 1MWa/m{sup 2} operation in ITER. The activity in the inboard blanket one day after shutdown is 1.5x10{sup 11}Bq/cm{sup 3}, and the average decay heating rate 0.01w/cm{sup 3}. The dose rate outside the 120cm thick concrete biological shield is two order higher than the design criterion of 5{mu}Sv/h. This indicates that the biological shield thickness should be enhanced by 50cm in concrete, that is, total thickness 170cm for workers to enter the reactor room and to perform maintenance. (author)

  2. The Effect of Particle Concentration on the Heating Rate of Ferrofluids for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaescu I.


    Full Text Available The complex magnetic susceptibility χ(f = χ′(f - i χ″(f, of a ferrofluid sample with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene and stabilized with oleic acid, over the range 0.1 GHz to 6 GHz, was determined. The initial sample has been successively diluted with kerosene (with a dilution rate of 2/3, thus obtaining further three samples. Using the complex magnetic susceptibility measurements of each sample, the frequency field and particle concentration dependencies of the heating rate of the ferrofluid samples, were analyzed. The results show the possibility of using the heating rate of ferrofluid samples with different particle concentrations, in hyperthermia applications.

  3. Stagnation-point heat-transfer rate predictions at aeroassist flight conditions (United States)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Jones, Jim J.; Rochelle, William C.


    The results are presented for the stagnation-point heat-transfer rates used in the design process of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle over its entire aeropass trajectory. The prediction methods used in this investigation demonstrate the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to a wide range of flight conditions and their usefulness in a design process. The heating rates were computed by a viscous-shock-layer (VSL) code at the lower altitudes and by a Navier-Stokes (N-S) code for the higher altitude cases. For both methods, finite-rate chemically reacting gas was considered, and a temperature-dependent wall-catalysis model was used. The wall temperature for each case was assumed to be radiative equilibrium temperature, based on total heating. The radiative heating was estimated by using a correlation equation. Wall slip was included in the N-S calculation method, and this method implicitly accounts for shock slip. The N-S/VSL combination of projection methods was established by comparison with the published benchmark flow-field code LAURA results at lower altitudes, and the direct simulation Monte Carlo results at higher altitude cases. To obtain the design heating rate over the entire forward face of the vehicle, a boundary-layer method (BLIMP code) that employs reacting chemistry and surface catalysis was used. The ratio of the VSL or N-S method prediction to that obtained from the boundary-layer method code at the stagnation point is used to define an adjustment factor, which accounts for the errors involved in using the boundary-layer method.

  4. Study on heat transport rate of an osmotic heat pipe. Effects of the initial concentration on the heat transport limits; Shinto heat pipe no netsu yuso ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Shoki nodo no netsu yuso genkai ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipposhi, S.; Imura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes an experimental study on. the effects of an initial concentration on a maximum heat transport rate of an osmotic heat pipe operated under the atmospheric pressure. The working fluid was aqueous polyethylene glycol 600 solution and the 18 tubular-type osmosis membranes made of acetyl cellulose were used. The initial concentration was varied from 0.1 to 1.0 kmol/ m{sup 3} with 0.1 kmol/m{sup 3} step. As a result, it is shown that the optimum initial concentration exists for the maximum heat transport rate in the osmotic heat pipe. In addition, the concentrations in the solution riser and downcomer are related to the initial concentration. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Finite-Rate Ablation Boundary Conditions for Carbon-Phenolic Heat-Shield (United States)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, Frank S.


    A formulation of finite-rate ablation surface boundary conditions, including oxidation, nitridation, and sublimation of carbonaceous material with pyrolysis gas injection, has been developed based on surface species mass conservation. These surface boundary conditions are discretized and integrated with a Navier-Stokes solver. This numerical procedure can predict aerothermal heating, chemical species concentration, and carbonaceous material ablation rate over the heatshield surface of re-entry space vehicles. In this study, the gas-gas and gas-surface interactions are established for air flow over a carbon-phenolic heatshield. Two finite-rate gas-surface interaction models are considered in the present study. The first model is based on the work of Park, and the second model includes the kinetics suggested by Zhluktov and Abe. Nineteen gas phase chemical reactions and four gas-surface interactions are considered in the present model. There is a total of fourteen gas phase chemical species, including five species for air and nine species for ablation products. Three test cases are studied in this paper. The first case is a graphite test model in the arc-jet stream; the second is a light weight Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator at the Stardust re-entry peak heating conditions, and the third is a fully dense carbon-phenolic heatshield at the peak heating point of a proposed Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle. Predictions based on both finite-rate gas- surface interaction models are compared with those obtained using B' tables, which were created based on the chemical equilibrium assumption. Stagnation point convective heat fluxes predicted using Park's finite-rate model are far below those obtained from chemical equilibrium B' tables and Zhluktov's model. Recession predictions from Zhluktov's model are generally lower than those obtained from Park's model and chemical equilibrium B' tables. The effect of species mass diffusion on predicted ablation rate is also

  6. The effect of sampling rate on interpretation of the temporal characteristics of radiative and convective heating in wildland flames (United States)

    David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Michael Harrington


    Time-resolved radiative and convective heating measurements were collected on a prescribed burn in coniferous fuels at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. Evaluation of the data in the time and frequency domain indicate that this sampling rate was sufficient to capture the temporal fluctuations of radiative and convective heating. The convective heating signal contained...

  7. A dilatometric study of the phase transformations in 300 and 350 maraging steels during continuous heating rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Gomes de Carvalho


    Full Text Available The influences of the chemical composition and heating rate have been studied in 300 and 350 maraging steels using dilatometry. For these tests, heating was carried out with heating rates of 1, 10 and 28 °C/s. The results have shown that the precipitation mechanism for both materials in the studied range is by lattice diffusion. Furthermore, Co and Ti contents influence strongly the precipitation. The lattice diffusion mechanism in the martensite reversion is influenced by Ni and Co contents and heating rate. For small heating rates ( ~1 °C/s this mechanism prevails in the 300 maraging steel while for the 350 maraging steel has a minor importance. The mechanism of martensite reversion for 350 maraging steel in the studied range is mainly by shear mechanism. For higher heating rates (~28 ºC/s the shear mechanism prevails in both maraging steels.

  8. The effect of wind on the rate of heat loss from avian cup-shaped nests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragh B Heenan

    Full Text Available Forced convection can significantly influence the heat loss from birds and their offspring but effects may be reduced by using sheltered micro-sites such as cavities or constructing nests. The structural and thermal properties of the nests of two species, the spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis and yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula, were measured in relation to three wind speeds. Nest dimensions differ between the two species, despite the similar body mass of the incubating adults, however nest conductance is comparable. As wind speed increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the nests of both species, and further still during incubation recesses. The significance of forced convection through the nest is a near-doubling in heat production required by the parent, even when incubating at relatively low wind speeds. This provides confirmation that selecting a sheltered nest site is important for avian reproductive success.

  9. Torrefaction of invasive alien plants: Influence of heating rate and other conversion parameters on mass yield and higher heating value. (United States)

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F


    With the aim of controlling their proliferation, two invasive alien plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP), both widespread in Africa, were considered for torrefaction for renewable energy applications. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the influence of heating rate (HR: 2.18-19.82°Cmin(-1)) together with variable temperature and hold time on char yield and HHV (in a bomb calorimeter) were determined. Statistically significant effects of HR on HHV with optima at 10.5°Cmin(-1) for LC and 20°Cmin(-1) for MP were obtained. Increases of HHV up to 0.8MJkg(-1) or energy yield greater than 10%, together with a 3-fold reduction in torrefaction conversion time could be achieved by optimisation of HR. Analysis of the torrefaction volatiles by TG-MS showed that not only hemicelluloses, but also lignin conversion, could influence the optimum HR value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resistive polymer versus forced-air warming: comparable heat transfer and core rewarming rates in volunteers. (United States)

    Kimberger, Oliver; Held, Christine; Stadelmann, Karin; Mayer, Nikolaus; Hunkeler, Corinne; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea


    Mild perioperative hypothermia increases the risk of several severe complications. Perioperative patient warming to preserve normothermia has thus become routine, with forced-air warming being used most often. In previous studies, various resistive warming systems have shown mixed results in comparison with forced-air. Recently, a polymer-based resistive patient warming system has been developed. We compared the efficacy of a standard forced-air warming system with the resistive polymer system in volunteers. Eight healthy volunteers participated, each on two separate study days. Unanesthetized volunteers were cooled to a core temperature (tympanic membrane) of 34 degrees C by application of forced-air at 10 degrees C and a circulating-water mattress at 4 degrees C. Meperidine and buspirone were administered to prevent shivering. In a randomly designated order, volunteers were then rewarmed (until their core temperatures reached 36 degrees C) with one of the following active warming systems: (1) forced-air warming (Bair Hugger warming cover #300, blower #750, Arizant, Eden Prairie, MN); or (2) polymer fiber resistive warming (HotDog whole body blanket, HotDog standard controller, Augustine Biomedical, Eden Prairie, MN). The alternate system was used on the second study day. Metabolic heat production, cutaneous heat loss, and core temperature were measured. Metabolic heat production and cutaneous heat loss were similar with each system. After a 30-min delay, core temperature increased nearly linearly by 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.04) degrees C/h with forced-air and by 0.92 (0.85-1.00) degrees C/h with resistive heating (P = 0.4). Heating efficacy and core rewarming rates were similar with full-body forced-air and full-body resistive polymer heating in healthy volunteers.

  11. Effects of Adiabatic Heating on the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites (United States)

    Sorini, Chris; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.


    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are increasingly being used in aerospace structures that are expected to experience complex dynamic loading conditions throughout their lifetime. As such, a detailed understanding of the high strain rate behavior of the constituents, particularly the strain rate, temperature, and pressure dependent polymer matrix, is paramount. In this paper, preliminary efforts in modeling experimentally observed temperature rises due to plastic deformation in PMCs subjected to dynamic loading are presented. To this end, an existing isothermal viscoplastic polymer constitutive formulation is extended to model adiabatic conditions by incorporating temperature dependent elastic properties and modifying the components of the inelastic strain rate tensor to explicitly depend on temperature. It is demonstrated that the modified polymer constitutive model is capable of capturing strain rate and temperature dependent yield as well as thermal softening associated with the conversion of plastic work to heat at high rates of strain. The modified constitutive model is then embedded within a strength of materials based micromechanics framework to investigate the manifestation of matrix thermal softening, due to the conversion of plastic work to heat, on the high strain rate response of a T700Epon 862 (T700E862) unidirectional composite. Adiabatic model predictions for high strain rate composite longitudinal tensile, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear loading are presented. Results show a substantial deviation from isothermal conditions; significant thermal softening is observed for matrix dominated deformation modes (transverse tension and in-plane shear), highlighting the importance of accounting for the conversion of plastic work to heat in the polymer matrix in the high strain rate analysis of PMC structures.

  12. Genetic component of sensitivity to heat stress for nonreturn rate of Brazilian Holstein cattle. (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Stefani, G; El Faro, L


    The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate variation in the genetic component of heat stress for nonreturn rate at 56 days after first artificial insemination (NR56); 2) to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to heat stress for NR56 of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A linear random regression model (reaction norm model) was applied to 51,748 NR56 records of 28,595 heifers and multiparous cows. The decline in NR56 due to heat stress was more pronounced in milking cows compared to heifers. The age of females at first artificial insemination and temperature-humidity index (THI) exerted an important influence on the genetic parameters of NR56. Several evidence of G × E on NR56 were found as the high slope/intercept ratio and frequent intersection of reaction norms. Additionally, the genetic correlation between NR56 at opposite extremes of the THI scale reached estimates below zero, indicating that few of the same genes are responsible for NR56 under conditions of thermoneutrality and heat stress. The genetic evaluation and selection for NR56 in Holstein cattle reared under (sub)tropical conditions should therefore take into consideration the genetic variation on age at insemination and G × E due to heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ITER Generic Diagnostic Upper Port Plug Nuclear Heating and Personnel Dose Rate Assesment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell E. Feder and Mahmoud Z. Youssef


    Neutronics analysis to find nuclear heating rates and personnel dose rates were conducted in support of the integration of diagnostics in to the ITER Upper Port Plugs. Simplified shielding models of the Visible-Infrared diagnostic and of a large aperture diagnostic were incorporated in to the ITER global CAD model. Results for these systems are representative of typical designs with maximum shielding and a small aperture (Vis-IR) and minimal shielding with a large aperture. The neutronics discrete-ordinates code ATTILA® and SEVERIAN® (the ATTILA parallel processing version) was used. Material properties and the 500 MW D-T volume source were taken from the ITER “Brand Model” MCNP benchmark model. A biased quadrature set equivelant to Sn=32 and a scattering degree of Pn=3 were used along with a 46-neutron and 21-gamma FENDL energy subgrouping. Total nuclear heating (neutron plug gamma heating) in the upper port plugs ranged between 380 and 350 kW for the Vis-IR and Large Aperture cases. The Large Aperture model exhibited lower total heating but much higher peak volumetric heating on the upper port plug structure. Personnel dose rates are calculated in a three step process involving a neutron-only transport calculation, the generation of activation volume sources at pre-defined time steps and finally gamma transport analyses are run for selected time steps. ANSI-ANS 6.1.1 1977 Flux-to-Dose conversion factors were used. Dose rates were evaluated for 1 full year of 500 MW DT operation which is comprised of 3000 1800-second pulses. After one year the machine is shut down for maintenance and personnel are permitted to access the diagnostic interspace after 2-weeks if dose rates are below 100 μSv/hr. Dose rates in the Visible-IR diagnostic model after one day of shutdown were 130 μSv/hr but fell below the limit to 90 μSv/hr 2-weeks later. The Large Aperture style shielding model exhibited higher and more persistent dose rates. After 1-day the dose rate was 230

  14. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  15. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej


    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  16. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Pressure and Heat Rate Measurements (United States)

    vonEckroth, Wulf; Struchen, Leah; Trovillion, Tom; Perez, Ravael; Nereolich, Shaun; Parlier, Chris


    The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Main Flame Deflector (MFD) at Launch Complex 39A was instrumented with sensors to measure heat rates, pressures, and temperatures on the last three Space Shuttle launches. Because the SRB plume is hot and erosive, a robust Tungsten Piston Calorimeter was developed to compliment the measurements made by off-the-shelf sensors. Witness materials were installed and their melting and erosion response to the Mach 2 / 4500 F / 4-second duration plume was observed. The data show that the specification document used for the design of the MFD thermal protection system over-predicted heat rates by a factor of 3 and under-predicted pressures by a factor of 2. These findings will be used to baseline NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics models and develop innovative MFD designs for the Space Launch System (SLS) before this vehicle becomes operational in 2017.

  17. Reduction of Net Sulfide Production Rate by Nitrate in Wastewater Bioreactors. Kinetics and Changes in the Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villahermosa, Desiree; Corzo, Alfonso; Gonzalez, J M


    Nitrate addition stimulated sulfide oxidation by increasing the activity of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), decreasing the concentration of dissolved H2S in the water phase and, consequently, its release to the atmosphere of a pilot-scale anaerobic bioreactor. The effect...... of four different concentrations of nitrate (0.12, 0.24, 0.50, and 1.00 mM) was investigated for a period of 3 days in relation to sulfide concentration in two bioreactors set up at Guadalete wastewater treatment plant (Jerez de la Frontera, Spain). Physicochemical variables were measured in water and air......, and the activity of bacteria implicated in the sulfur and nitrogen cycles was analyzed in the biofilms and in the water phase of the bioreactors. Biofilms were a net source of sulfide for the water and gas phases (7.22 ± 5.3 μmol s−1) in the absence of nitrate dosing. Addition of nitrate resulted in a quick...

  18. The Calculation Methods of the Specific Fuel Rate in Combined Heat and Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chuchueva


    Full Text Available The paper discusses a specific fuel rate in combined heat and electricity production using CHP technology. There are two objectives for calculation of specific fuel rate: a CHP technical efficiency estimate, b increasing CHP competitiveness at electricity and district heat markets. Currently, development of a number of thermo-dynamical methods of calculation solves the first problem while to solve the second one there is a number of developed economical methods of calculation. In Russia despite a decade of the wholesale electricity market progress the CHP market offers are still tightly connected with technical efficiency rate. To estimate the technical efficiency rate is widely used the least effective thermo-dynamical method – so called “physical” method”. The paper formulates a problem statement that is the specific fuel rate calculation and reviews the most widely applied methods. The review consists of two parts: in the first the Russian methods are discussed, and in the second one the methods widely used in the countries with highly developed electricity and district heat markets. A new thermo-dynamical method to calculate the specific fuel rate is introduced, which uses the linear characteristic curves of a steam turbine. The developed method allows us to take into consideration the energy inequality of the CHP products. Another advantages of this new method are calculation simplicity and small number of input data. To compare the effectiveness of different methods were introduced comparison rules and also calculations were performed. The comparison of thermo-dynamical methods shows that the most effective methods are an exergy method and also the method that takes into consideration the reduced generation of electricity (work method. Calculation complexity and large number of input data are main disadvantages of these methods. The comparison of economical methods shows that the most effective from stated point of view are a

  19. Influence of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in cyclone heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothilal, T. [T. J. S. Engineering College, Gummidipoond (India); Pitchandi, K. [Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur (India)


    Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%.

  20. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  1. Pressures on safety net access: the level of managed care penetration and uninsurance rate in a community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, P J


    To examine the effects of managed care penetration and the uninsurance rate in an area on access to care of low-income uninsured persons and to compare differences in access between low-income insured...

  2. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio


    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity. An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to auroral arcs as a result of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, as discussed by Aikio et al. (2004 In

  3. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio


    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution.

    All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity.

    An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to

  4. The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas. (United States)

    Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A


    In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics

  5. Liquid-Phase Heat-Release Rates of the Systems Hydrazine-Nitric Acid and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine-Nitric Acid (United States)

    Somogyi, Dezso; Feiler, Charles E.


    The initial rates of heat release produced by the reactions of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine with nitric acid were determined in a bomb calorimeter under conditions of forced mixing. Fuel-oxidant weight ratio and injection velocity were varied. The rate of heat release apparently depended on the interfacial area between the propellants. Above a narrow range of injection velocities representing a critical amount of interfacial area, the rates reached a maximum and were almost constant with injection velocity. The maximum rate for hydrazine was about 70 percent greater than that for unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. The total heat released did not vary with mixture ratio over the range studied.

  6. Internal stress-induced melting below melting temperature at high-rate laser heating (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Seok; Levitas, Valery I.


    In this Letter, continuum thermodynamic and phase field approaches (PFAs) predicted internal stress-induced reduction in melting temperature for laser-irradiated heating of a nanolayer. Internal stresses appear due to thermal strain under constrained conditions and completely relax during melting, producing an additional thermodynamic driving force for melting. Thermodynamic melting temperature for Al reduces from 933.67 K for a stress-free condition down to 898.1 K for uniaxial strain and to 920.8 K for plane strain. Our PFA simulations demonstrated barrierless surface-induced melt nucleation below these temperatures and propagation of two solid-melt interfaces toward each other at the temperatures very close to the corresponding predicted thermodynamic equilibrium temperatures for the heating rate Q ≤1.51×1010K/s. At higher heating rates, kinetic superheating competes with a reduction in melting temperature and melting under uniaxial strain occurs at 902.1 K for Q = 1.51 × 1011 K/s and 936.9 K for Q = 1.46 × 1012 K/s.

  7. Internal stress-induced melting below melting temperature at high-rate laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Seok, E-mail: [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Levitas, Valery I., E-mail: [Departments of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Material Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)


    In this Letter, continuum thermodynamic and phase field approaches (PFAs) predicted internal stress-induced reduction in melting temperature for laser-irradiated heating of a nanolayer. Internal stresses appear due to thermal strain under constrained conditions and completely relax during melting, producing an additional thermodynamic driving force for melting. Thermodynamic melting temperature for Al reduces from 933.67 K for a stress-free condition down to 898.1 K for uniaxial strain and to 920.8 K for plane strain. Our PFA simulations demonstrated barrierless surface-induced melt nucleation below these temperatures and propagation of two solid-melt interfaces toward each other at the temperatures very close to the corresponding predicted thermodynamic equilibrium temperatures for the heating rate Q≤1.51×10{sup 10}K/s. At higher heating rates, kinetic superheating competes with a reduction in melting temperature and melting under uniaxial strain occurs at 902.1 K for Q = 1.51 × 10{sup 11 }K/s and 936.9 K for Q = 1.46 × 10{sup 12 }K/s.

  8. Effects of NaCl on metabolic heat evolution rates by barley roots (United States)

    Criddle, R. S.; Hansen, L. D.; Breidenbach, R. W.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.


    The effect of salinity stress on metabolic heat output of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root tips was measured by isothermal microcalorimetry. Several varieties differing in tolerance to salinity were compared and differences quantified. Two levels of inhibition by increasing salt were found. Following the transition from the initial rate of the first level, inhibition remained at about 50% with further increases in salt concentration up to 150 millimolar. The concentration of salt required to inhibit to this level was cultivar dependent. At highter concentrations (>150 millimolar) of salt, metabolism was further decreased. This decrease was not cultivar dependent. The decreased rate of metabolic heat output at the first transition could be correlated with decreases in uptake of NO3-, NH4+, and Pi that occurred as the salt concentration was increased. The high degree of dependence of the inhibition of metabolic heat output on NaCl concentration points to a highly cooperative reaction responsible for the general inhibition of metabolism and nutrient uptake. The time required to attain the first level of salt inhibition is less than 20 minutes. Inhibition of root tips was not reversible by washing with salt free solutions. In addition to revealing these features of salt inhibition, isothermal microcalorimetry is a promising method for convenient and rapid determination of varietal differences in response to increasing salinity.

  9. Additive Effects of Heating and Exercise on Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate in Healthy Males. (United States)

    Peçanha, Tiago; Forjaz, Claudia Lucia de Moraes; Low, David Andrew


    This study assessed the additive effects of passive heating and exercise on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve healthy young men (25±1 yrs, 23.8±0.5 kg/m(2)) randomly underwent two experimental sessions: heat stress (HS; whole-body heat stress using a tube-lined suit to increase core temperature by ~1°C) and normothermia (NT). Each session was composed of a: pre-intervention rest (REST1); HS or NT interventions; post-intervention rest (REST2); and 14 min of cycling exercise [7 min at 40%HRreserve (EX1) and 7 min at 60%HRreserve (EX2)]. Heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously recorded. cBRS was assessed using the sequence (cBRSSEQ) and transfer function (cBRSTF) methods. HRV was assessed using the indices SDNN (standard deviation of RR intervals) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR intervals). cBRS and HRV were not different between sessions during EX1 and EX2 (i.e. matched heart rate conditions: EX1=116±3 vs. 114±3, EX2=143±4 vs. 142±3 bpm; but different workloads: EX1=50±9 vs. 114±8, EX2=106±10 vs. 165±8 Watts; for HS and NT, respectively; Pheart rates), cBRS and HRV were significantly reduced in HS (cBRSSEQ = 1.6±0.3 vs. 0.6±0.1 ms/mmHg, P<0.01; SDNN = 2.3±0.1 vs. 1.3±0.2 ms, P<0.01). In conclusion, in conditions matched by HR, the addition of heat stress to exercise does not affect cBRS and HRV. Alternatively, in workload-matched conditions, the addition of heat to exercise results in reduced cBRS and HRV compared to exercise in normothermia. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  10. Devolatilization kinetics of woody biomass at short residence times and high heating rates and peak temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Joakim M.; Gadsbøll, Rasmus; Thomsen, Jesper


    This work combines experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results to derive global kinetics for biomass (pine wood) devolatilization during heating rates on the order of 105Ks-1, bulk flow peak temperatures between 1405 and 1667K, and particle residence times below 0.1s. Experiments ...... faster kinetics than found in the literature, leading to predicted residence times required for full conversion one order of magnitude lower than when compared to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) derived kinetics.......This work combines experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results to derive global kinetics for biomass (pine wood) devolatilization during heating rates on the order of 105Ks-1, bulk flow peak temperatures between 1405 and 1667K, and particle residence times below 0.1s. Experiments...... were conducted on a laboratory laminar entrained flow reactor (LFR) using solid fuel feed rates on the order of 10-20mgh-1. Employing a simple single step first order (SFOR) mechanism with an Arrhenius type rate expression, the best fit of the pyrolysis kinetics was found to be: A=18.9×103s-1, Ea=21305...

  11. Stage-specific heat effects: timing and duration of heat waves alter demographic rates of a global insect pest. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rudolf, Volker H W; Ma, Chun-Sen


    The frequency and duration of periods with high temperatures are expected to increase under global warming. Thus, even short-lived organisms are increasingly likely to experience periods of hot temperatures at some point of their life-cycle. Despite recent progress, it remains unclear how various temperature experiences during the life-cycle of organisms affect demographic traits. We simulated hot days (daily mean temperature of 30 °C) increasingly experienced under field conditions and investigated how the timing and duration of such hot days during the life cycle of Plutella xylostella affects adult traits. We show that hot days experienced during some life stages (but not all) altered adult lifespan, fecundity, and oviposition patterns. Importantly, the effects of hot days were contingent on which stage was affected, and these stage-specific effects were not always additive. Thus, adults that experience different temporal patterns of hot periods (i.e., changes in timing and duration) during their life-cycle often had different demographic rates and reproductive patterns. These results indicate that we cannot predict the effects of current and future climate on natural populations by simply focusing on changes in the mean temperature. Instead, we need to incorporate the temporal patterns of heat events relative to the life-cycle of organisms to describe population dynamics and how they will respond to future climate change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Macenić


    Full Text Available At three locations in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test (TRT was conducted on installed coaxial heat exchangers. With classic TR test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined at each location. It is seen that thermal conductivity of the ground varies, due to difference in geological profile of the sites. In addition, experimental research of steady-state thermal response step test (SSTRST was carried out to determine heat rejection rates for passive and active cooling in steady state regime. Results showed that heat rejection rate is only between 8-11 W/m, which indicates that coaxial system is not suitable for passive cooling demands. Furthermore, the heat pump in passive cooling mode uses additional plate heat exchanger where there is additional temperature drop of working fluid by approximately 1,5 °C. Therefore, steady-state rejection rate for passive cooling is even lower for a real case project. Coaxial heat exchanger should be always designed for an active cooling regime with an operation of a heat pump compressor in a classical vapour compression refrigeration cycle.

  13. Extreme learning machine: a new alternative for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Li, Hao; Tang, Xindong; Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Fan; Cheng, Kewei


    Heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial indicators for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, wasting too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we previously used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to develop precise knowledge-based models for predicting the heat collection rates and heat loss coefficients of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, setting the properties measured by "portable test instruments" as the independent variables. A robust software for determination was also developed. However, in previous results, the prediction accuracy of heat loss coefficients can still be improved compared to those of heat collection rates. Also, in practical applications, even a small reduction in root mean square errors (RMSEs) can sometimes significantly improve the evaluation and business processes. As a further study, in this short report, we show that using a novel and fast machine learning algorithm-extreme learning machine can generate better predicted results for heat loss coefficient, which reduces the average RMSEs to 0.67 in testing.

  14. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat-Transfer Rate Using a Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of heat transfer rate using a thermal capacitance-type calorimeter which assumes one-dimensional heat conduction into a cylindrical piece of material (slug) with known physical properties. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Note 1—For information see Test Methods E 285, E 422, E 458, E 459, and E 511.

  15. Technology and operational considerations for low-heat-rate trajectories. [of future winged earth reentry vehicles (United States)

    Wurster, K. E.; Eldred, C. H.


    A broad parametric study which examines several critical aspects of low-heat-rate entry trajectories is performed. Low planform loadings associated with future winged earth-entry vehicles coupled with the potential application of metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) suggest that such trajectories are of particular interest. Studied are three heating conditions - reference, stagnation, and windward centerline, for both laminar and turbulent flow; configuration-related factors including planform loading and hypersonic angle of attack; and mission-related factors such as cross-range and orbit inclination. Results indicate benefits in the design of TPS to be gained by utilizing moderate angles of attack as opposed to high-lift coefficient, high angles of attack, during entry. An assessment of design and technology implications is made.

  16. Heating rate profiles and radiative forcing due to a dust storm in the Western Mediterranean using satellite observations (United States)

    Peris-Ferrús, C.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Marcos, C.; Freile-Aranda, M. D.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.


    We analyze the vertically-resolved radiative impact due to a dust storm in the Western Mediterranean. The dust plume travels around 3-5 km altitude and the aerosol optical depth derived by MODIS at 550 nm ranges from 0.33 to 0.52 at the overpass time (13:05 UT). The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF), forcing efficiency (FE) and heating rate profile (AHR) are determined throughout the dust trajectory in shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) ranges. To do this, we integrate different satellite observations (CALIPSO and MODIS) and detailed radiative transfer modeling. The combined (SW + LW) effect of the dust event induces a net cooling in the studied region. On average, the FE at 22.4° solar zenith angle is -190.3 W m-2 and -38.1 W m-2, at surface and TOA, respectively. The corresponding LW/SW offset is 14% and 38% at surface and TOA, respectively. Our results at TOA are sensitive to the surface albedo in the SW and surface temperature in the LW. The absolute value of FE decrease (increase) in the SW (LW) with the surface albedo, resulting in an increasing LW/SW offset, up to 76%. The AHR profiles show a net warming within the dust layer, with a maximum value of 3.3 Kd-1. The ARF, FE and AHR are also highly sensitive to the dust optical properties in SW and LW. We evaluate this sensitivity by comparing the results obtained using two set of dust properties as input in our simulations: a) the prescribed dust model by Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and; b) the dust optical properties derived from measurements of the size distribution and refractive index. Experimentally derived dust properties present larger SSA and asymmetry parameter in the SW than OPAC dust. Conversely, OPAC dust presents higher AOD in the LW range. These parameters drive the FE and AHR sensitivities in the SW and LW ranges, respectively. Therefore, when measured dust properties are used in our simulations: the ARF in the LW substantially reduces at surface and TOA (up to 57%); the

  17. Design and simulation of heat exchangers using Aspen HYSYS, and Aspen exchanger design and rating for paddy drying application (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Kamin, N. H.; Wong, K. H.; Tham, H. J.; Kong, V. V.; Farajpourlar, M.


    Air heating unit is one of the most important parts in paddy drying to ensure the efficiency of a drying process. In addition, an optimized air heating unit does not only promise a good paddy quality, but also save more for the operating cost. This study determined the suitable and best specifications heating unit to heat air for paddy drying in the LAMB dryer. In this study, Aspen HYSYS v7.3 was used to obtain the minimum flow rate of hot water needed. The resulting data obtained from Aspen HYSYS v7.3 were used in Aspen Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR) to generate heat exchanger design and costs. The designs include shell and tubes and plate heat exchanger. The heat exchanger was designed in order to produce various drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C of air with different flow rate, 300, 2500 and 5000 LPM. The optimum condition for the heat exchanger were found to be plate heat exchanger with 0.6 mm plate thickness, 198.75 mm plate width, 554.8 mm plate length and 11 numbers of plates operating at 5000 LPM air flow rate.

  18. Calculations of Solar Shortwave Heating Rates due to Black Carbon and Ozone Absorption Using in Situ Measurements (United States)

    Gao, R. S.; Hall, S. R.; Swartz, W. H.; Spackman, J. R.; Watts, L. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Aikin, K. C.; Shetter, R. E.; Bui, T. P.


    Results for the solar heating rates in ambient air due to absorption by black-carbon (BC) containing particles and ozone are presented as calculated from airborne observations made in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) in January-February 2006. The method uses airborne in situ observations of BC particles, ozone and actinic flux. Total BC mass is obtained along the flight track by summing the masses of individually detected BC particles in the range 90 to 600-nm volume-equivalent diameter, which includes most of the BC mass. Ozone mixing ratios and upwelling and partial downwelling solar actinic fluxes were measured concurrently with BC mass. Two estimates used for the BC wavelength-dependent absorption cross section yielded similar heating rates. For mean altitudes of 16.5, 17.5, and 18.5 km (0.5 km) in the tropics, average BC heating rates were near 0.0002 K/d. Observed BC coatings on individual particles approximately double derived BC heating rates. Ozone heating rates exceeded BC heating rates by approximately a factor of 100 on average and at least a factor of 4, suggesting that BC heating rates in this region are negligible in comparison.

  19. Study on heat transport rate of an osmotic heat pipe. 2nd Report. Flow in a membrane module; Shinto heat pipe no netsuyuso ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Maku module nai no ryudo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipposhi, S.; Imura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    An osmotic heat pipe is a top beat mode heat pipe driven by an osmotic force. Therefore, a concentration and a solution flow rate in a membrane module of the osmotic heat pipe are especially of great importance for the heat transport. Thus, the flow in the membrane module is7investigated in detail. As a result, with a ratio of a concentration on the membrane wall to a mixed mean concentration derived semi-theoretically, correlations for the mixed mean concentration, the concentration on the wall and the solution flow rate along the channel in the membrane module were proposed, which can correlate the experimental data from reference (2) within {+-}20% errors. In addition, a method of increasing in the osmotic pumping rate and heat transport rate was proposed. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Numerical Studies on Heat Release Rate in Room Fire on Liquid Fuel under Different Ventilation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cai


    Full Text Available Heat release rate (HRR of the design fire is the most important parameter in assessing building fire hazards. However, HRR in room fire was only studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD in most of the projects determining fire safety provisions by performance-based design. In contrast to ten years ago, officers in the Far East are now having better knowledge of CFD. Two common questions are raised on CFD-predicted results on describing free boundaries; and on computing grid size. In this work, predicting HRR by the CFD model was justified with experimental room pool fire data reported earlier. The software fire dynamics simulator (FDS version 5 was selected as the CFD simulation tool. Prescribed input heating rate based on the experimental results was used with the liquid fuel model in FDS. Five different free boundary conditions were investigated to predict HRR. Grid sensitivity study was carried out using one stretched mesh and multiple uniform meshes with different grid sizes. As it is difficult to have the entire set of CFD predicted results agreed with experiments, macroscopic flow parameters on the mass flow rate through door opening predicted by CFD were also justified by another four conditions with different ventilation factors.

  1. The influence of temperature and heating rate on the slow pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Besler, Serpil [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy


    The slow pyrolysis of biomass in the form of pine wood was investigated in a static batch reactor at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 720{sup o}C and heating rates from 5 to 80 K min{sup -1}. The compositions and properties of the derived gases, pyrolytic oils and solid char were determined in relation to pyrolysis temperatures and heating rates. In addition, the wood and the major components of the wood - cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin - were pyrolysed in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) under the same experimental conditions as in the static batch reactor. The static batch reactor results showed that as the pyrolysis temperature was increased, the percentage mass of solid char decreased, while gas and oil products increased. There was a small effect of heating rate on product yield. The lower temperature regime of decomposition of wood showed that mainly H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO were evolved and at the higher temperature regime, the main decomposition products were oil, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, hydrocarbon gases and lower concentrations of CO and CO{sub 2}. Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy and elemental analysis of the oils showed they were highly oxygenated. The TGA results for wood showed two main regimes of weight loss, the lower temperature regime could be correlated with the decomposition of hemicellulose and the initial stages of cellulose decomposition whilst the upper temperature regime correlated mainly with the later stages of cellulose decomposition. Lignin thermal decomposition occurred throughout the temperature range of pyrolysis. (author)

  2. Aerobrake heating rate sensitivity study for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) (United States)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Ting, P. C.; Mueller, S. R.; Colovin, J. E.; Bouslog, S. A.; Curry, D. M.; Scott, C. D.


    The sensitivities associated with the prediction of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle's aerothermodynamic environment are presently evaluated in order to assess the heating-rate uncertainties of the AFE's aerobrake component, as a function of time in various trajectories, and as a function of distance around the aerobrake. Relative importance is evaluated by means of the Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure for such areas of uncertainty as the trajectory parameters, the catalycity of the thermal-protection tiles, the nose radius variation/surface pressure distribution, and viscous interaction effects.

  3. Conventional and microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass under different heating rates


    Wu, C; Budarin, VL; Gronnow, MJ; De Bruyn, M; Onwudili, JA; Clark, JH; Williams, PT


    Biomass was subjected to conventional and microwave pyrolysis, to determine the influence of each process on the yield and composition of the derived gas, oil and char products. The influence of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate for the conventional pyrolysis and the microwave power was investigated. Two major stages of gas release were observed during biomass pyrolysis, the first being CO/CO and the second one CH/H. This two-stage gas release was much more obvious for the conventional p...

  4. Simultaneous optimization of the cavity heat load and trip rates in linacs using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balša Terzić


    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based optimization is used to simultaneously minimize two competing objectives guiding the operation of the Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility linacs: cavity heat load and radio frequency cavity trip rates. The results represent a significant improvement to the standard linac energy management tool and thereby could lead to a more efficient Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility configuration. This study also serves as a proof of principle of how a genetic algorithm can be used for optimizing other linac-based machines.

  5. Thermal Analysis On The Kinetics Of Magnesium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides In Different Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Y.


    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs was investigated by thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods in argon environment. The influence of heating rates (including 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20K/min on the thermal behavior of LDHs was revealed. By the methods of Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, the thermal kinetic parameters of activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the exothermic processes under non-isothermal conditions were calculated using the analysis of corresponding DSC curves.

  6. Effect of heating rate on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Soriano, J. A.; Kosola, K. L.


    The effect of heating rate on the toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers was investigate, using a screening test method. The synthetic polymers were polyethylene, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, ABS, polyaryl sulfone, polyether sulfone, and polyphenylene sulfide. The toxicants from the sulfur-containing polymers appeared to act more rapidly than the toxicants from the other polymers. It is not known whether this effect is due primarily to differences in concentration or in the nature of the toxicants. The carbon monoxide concentrations found do not account for the observed results.

  7. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on nonreturn rate of Italian Holstein cows. (United States)

    Biffani, S; Bernabucci, U; Vitali, A; Lacetera, N; Nardone, A


    The data set consisted of 1,016,856 inseminations of 191,012 first, second, and third parity Holstein cows from 484 farms. Data were collected from year 2001 through 2007 and included meteorological data from 35 weather stations. Nonreturn rate at 56 d after first insemination (NR56) was considered. A logit model was used to estimate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) on reproduction across parities. Then, least squares means were used to detect the THI breakpoints using a 2-phase linear regression procedure. Finally, a multiple-trait threshold model was used to estimate variance components for NR56 in first and second parity cows. A dummy regression variable (t) was used to estimate NR56 decline due to heat stress. The NR56, both for first and second parity cows, was significantly (unfavorable) affected by THI from 4 d before 5 d after the insemination date. Additive genetic variances for NR56 increased from first to second parity both for general and heat stress effect. Genetic correlations between general and heat stress effects were -0.31 for first parity and -0.45 for second parity cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon


    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  9. A new method to estimate photosynthetic parameters through net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. (United States)

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany P; Chen, Tsu-Wei; Stützel, Hartmut


    Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set. These may result in significant bias in estimating photosynthetic parameters. To avoid the above-mentioned hypotheses, we present a new method for fitting A-Ci curves and CF data simultaneously. This method was applied to a data set obtained from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves of various leaf ages and grown under eight different light conditions. The new method had significantly lower root mean square error and a lower rate of failures compared with previously published methods (6.72% versus 24.1%, respectively) and the effect of light conditions on Vcmax and J was better observed. Furthermore, the new method allows the estimation of a new parameter, the fraction of incoming irradiance harvested by photosystem II, and the dependence of gm on Ci . © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R


    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  11. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  12. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  13. Experimental investigation on heat transfer rate of Co–Mn ferrofluids in external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margabandhu M.


    Full Text Available Manganese substituted cobalt ferrite (Co1–xMnxFe2O4 with x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were investigated by various characterization techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA. The XRD results confirmed the presence of cubic spinel structure of the prepared powders and the average crystallite size of magnetic particles ranging from 23 to 45 nm. The VSM results showed that the magnetic properties varied with an increase in substituted manganese while SEM analysis showed the change in the morphology of obtained magnetic nanoparticles. The TG/DTA analysis indicated the formation of crystalline structure of the synthesized samples. The heat transfer rate was measured in specially prepared magnetic nanofluids (nanoparticles dispersed in carrier fluid transformer oil as a function of time and temperature in presence of external magnetic fields. The experimental analysis indicated enhanced heat transfer rate of the magnetic nanofluids which depended upon the strength of external magnetic field and chemical composition.

  14. The influence of annealing temperature and heating rate on thermoluminescence properties of nanocrystalline calcium borate powder (United States)

    Tengku Kamarnl Bahri, T. N. H.; Hussin, R.; Ahmad, N. E.


    We have reported the influence of annealing temperature and heating rate on thermoluminescence (TL) properties of nanocrystalline calcium borate, CaB2O4, powder synthesized by solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out on CaB2O4 to get the crystal phase and size. The samples were annealed using the TLD oven and exposed to cobalt-60 source. TL glow curves were measured and recorded using a Harshaw model 3500 TLD reader. The crystal phase confirmed one major phase of CaB2O4 with 27 nm in size. CaB2O4 has a simple glow curve with only one and a well defined peak at around 150 °C. TL intensity was higher after annealing the material before irradiation which indicated the importance of annealing. It was found that an annealing temperature at 300 °C for one hour and the heating rate of 10 °C s-1 was the best procedure to produce high TL intensity.

  15. Measurement uncertainties when determining heat rate, isentropic efficiency and swallowing capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snygg, U.


    The objective of the project was to determine the uncertainties when calculating heat rate, isentropic efficiencies and swallowing capacities of power plants. Normally when a power plant is constructed, the supplier also guarantee some performance values, e.g. heat rate. When the plant is built and running under normal conditions, an evaluation is done and the guarantee values are checked. Different measured parameters influence the calculated value differently, and therefore a sensitivity factor can be defined as the sensitivity of a calculated value when the measured value is changing. The product of this factor and the uncertainty of the measured parameter gives an error of the calculated value. For every measured parameter, the above given factor has to be determined and then the root square sum gives the overall uncertainty of the calculated parameter. To receive acceptable data during the evaluation of the plant, a test code is to be followed. The test code also gives guidelines how big the errors of the measurements are. In this study, ASME PTC6 and DIN 1943 were used. The results show that not only the test code was of vital importance, but also the distribution of the power output of the HP-IP turbines contra LP turbines. A higher inlet pressure of the LP turbine gives a smaller uncertainty of the isentropic efficiency. An increase from 6 to 13 bar will lower the uncertainty 1.5 times. 10 refs, 24 figs, 23 tabs, 5 appendixes

  16. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen


    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  17. Effects of nitrogen application rates on net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in double-rice cropping systems of the Southern China. (United States)

    Chen, Zhongdu; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Shengli


    The net global warming potential (NGWP) and net greenhouse gas intensity (NGHGI) of double-rice cropping systems are not well documented. We measured the NGWP and NGHGI including soil organic carbon (SOC) change and indirect emissions (IE) from double-crop rice fields with fertilizing systems in Southern China. These experiments with three different nitrogen (N) application rates since 2012 are as follows: 165 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 225 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N1), which was the local N application rates as the control; 135 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 180 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N2, 20 % reduction); and 105 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 135 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N3, 40 % reduction). Results showed that yields increased with the increase of N application rate, but without significant difference between N1 and N2 plots. Annual SOC sequestration rate under N1 was estimated to be 1.15 MgC ha -1  year -1 , which was higher than those under other fertilizing systems. Higher N application tended to increase CH 4 emissions during the flooded rice season and significantly increased N 2 O emissions from drained soils during the nonrice season, ranking as N1 > N2 > N3 with significant difference (P < 0.05). Two-year average IE has a huge contribution to GHG emissions mainly coming from the higher N inputs in the double-rice cropping system. Reducing N fertilizer usage can effectively decrease the NGWP and NGHGI in the double-rice cropping system, with the lowest NGHGI obtained in the N2 plot (0.99 kg CO 2 -eq kg -1 yield year -1 ). The results suggested that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be simultaneously achieved by properly reducing N fertilizer application in double-rice cropping systems.

  18. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood. (United States)

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles


    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High heating rate decomposition dynamics of copper oxide by nanocalorimetry-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (United States)

    Yi, Feng; DeLisio, Jeffery B.; Nguyen, Nam; Zachariah, Michael R.; LaVan, David A.


    The thermodynamics and evolved gases were measured during the rapid decomposition of copper oxide (CuO) thin film at rates exceeding 100,000 K/s. CuO decomposes to release oxygen when heated and serves as an oxidizer in reactive composites and chemical looping combustion. Other instruments have shown either one or two decomposition steps during heating. We have confirmed that CuO decomposes by two steps at both slower and higher heating rates. The decomposition path influences the reaction course in reactive Al/CuO/Al composites, and full understanding is important in designing reactive mixtures and other new reactive materials.

  20. Effect of Heating Rate on Accelerated Carbide Spheroidisation (ASR in 100CrMnSi6-4 Bearing Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauserova D.


    Full Text Available Typical processing routes for bearing steels include a soft annealing stage, the purpose of which is to obtain a microstructure containing globular carbides in ferritic matrix. A newly developed process called ASR cuts the carbide spheroidisation times several fold, producing considerably finer globular carbides than conventional soft annealing. The present paper explores the effect of the heating rate and temperature on the accelerated carbide spheroidisation process and on the resulting hardness. Accelerated spheroidisation was achieved by thermal cycling for several minutes around various temperatures close to the transformation temperature at various heating rates applied by induction heating.

  1. Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Eutectoid Steel Under Cyclic Heat Treatment (United States)

    Maji, Soma; Subhani, Amir Raza; Show, Bijay Kumar; Maity, Joydeep


    A systematic study has been carried out to ascertain the effect of cooling rate on structure and mechanical properties of eutectoid steel subjected to a novel incomplete austenitization-based cyclic heat treatment process up to 4 cycles. Each cycle consists of a short-duration holding (6 min) at 775 °C (above A1) followed by cooling at different rates (furnace cooling, forced air cooling and ice-brine quenching). Microstructure and properties are found to be strongly dependent on cooling rate. In pearlitic transformation regime, lamellar disintegration completes in 61 h and 48 min for cyclic furnace cooling. This leads to a spheroidized structure possessing a lower hardness and strength than that obtained in as-received annealed condition. On contrary, lamellar disintegration does not occur for cyclic forced air cooling with high air flow rate (78 m3 h-1). Rather, a novel microstructure consisting of submicroscopic cementite particles in a `interweaved pearlite' matrix is developed after 4 cycles. This provides an enhancement in hardness (395 HV), yield strength (473 MPa) and UTS (830 MPa) along with retention of a reasonable ductility (%Elongation = 19) as compared to as-received annealed condition (hardness = 222 HV, YS = 358 MPa, UTS = 740 MPa, %Elongation = 21).

  2. Gamma ray heating rates due to chromium isotopes in stellar core during late stages of high mass stars (>10M⊙

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Jameel-Un


    Full Text Available Gamma ray heating rates are thought to play a crucial role during the pre-supernova stage of high mass stars. Gamma ray heating rates, due to β±-decay and electron (positron capture on chromium isotopes, are calculated using proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation theory. The electron capture significantly affects the lepton fraction (Ye and accelerates the core contraction. The gamma rays emitted as a result of weak processes heat the core and tend to hinder the cooling and contraction due to electron capture and neutrino emission. The emitted gamma rays tend to produce enormous entropy and set the convection to play its role at this stage. The gamma heating rates, on 50-60Cr, are calculated for the density range 10 < ρ ( < 1011 and temperature range 107 < T (K < 3.0×1010.

  3. Development of a water boil-off spent-fuel calorimeter system. [To measure decay heat generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creer, J.M.; Shupe, J.W. Jr.


    A calorimeter system was developed to measure decay heat generation rates of unmodified spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear reactors. The system was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested using the following specifications: capacity of one BWR or PWR spent fuel assembly; decay heat generation range 0.1 to 2.5 kW; measurement time of < 12 h; and an accuracy of +-10% or better. The system was acceptance tested using a dc reference heater to simulate spent fuel assembly heat generation rates. Results of these tests indicated that the system could be used to measure heat generation rates between 0.5 and 2.5 kW within +- 5%. Measurements of heat generation rates of approx. 0.1 kW were obtained within +- 15%. The calorimeter system has the potential to permit measurements of heat generation rates of spent fuel assemblies and other devices in the 12- to 14-kW range. Results of calorimetry of a Turkey Point spent fuel assembly indicated that the assembly was generating approx. 1.55 kW.

  4. Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.


    A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

  5. Empirical correction of XBT fall rate and its impact on heat content analysis (United States)

    Hamon, M.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Reverdin, G.


    We used a collocation method between XBT and CTD/OSD (Ocean Station Data including bottle cast and low resolution CTD) from WOD05 (1°×2°×15 days) to statistically correct the XBT fall rate. An analysis of the annual median bias on depth showed that it is necessary to apply a thermal correction linked to probe calibration error, a second order correction on the depth as well as a depth offset representing measurement errors during XBT deployment. We had to separate data in several categories: shallow and deep XBT and deployment sea temperatures (below or above 10 °C). We also processed separately XBT measurements close to Japan between 1968 and 1985 due to large regional biases. Once the corrections have been applied, the analysis of heat content signal is derived from corrected XBT. From this analysis, we confirm that the maximum heat content in the top 700 m found during the 70's in early papers can be explained by the XBT biases. In addition, a trend of 0.32.1022 J/year is observed between the period 1970 and 2008.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  7. Diabatic heating rate estimates from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses (United States)

    Christy, John R.


    Vertically integrated diabatic heating rate estimates (H) calculated from 32 months of European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts daily analyses (May 1985-December 1987) are determined as residuals of the thermodynamic equation in pressure coordinates. Values for global, hemispheric, zonal, and grid point H are given as they vary over the time period examined. The distribution of H is compared with previous results and with outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements. The most significant negative correlations between H and OLR occur for (1) tropical and Northern-Hemisphere mid-latitude oceanic areas and (2) zonal and hemispheric mean values for periods less than 90 days. Largest positive correlations are seen in periods greater than 90 days for the Northern Hemispheric mean and continental areas of North Africa, North America, northern Asia, and Antarctica. The physical basis for these relationships is discussed. An interyear comparison between 1986 and 1987 reveals the ENSO signal.

  8. Prediction and measurement of heat transfer rates for the shock-induced unsteady laminar boundary layer on a flat plate (United States)

    Cook, W. J.


    The unsteady laminar boundary layer induced by the flow-initiating shock wave passing over a flat plate mounted in a shock tube was theoretically and experimentally studied in terms of heat transfer rates to the plate for shock speeds ranging from 1.695 to 7.34 km/sec. The theory presented by Cook and Chapman for the shock-induced unsteady boundary layer on a plate is reviewed with emphasis on unsteady heat transfer. A method of measuring time-dependent heat-transfer rates using thin-film heat-flux gages and an associated data reduction technique are outlined in detail. Particular consideration is given to heat-flux measurement in short-duration ionized shocktube flows. Experimental unsteady plate heat transfer rates obtained in both air and nitrogen using thin-film heat-flux gages generally agree well with theoretical predictions. The experimental results indicate that the theory continues to predict the unsteady boundary layer behavior after the shock wave leaves the trailing edge of the plate even though the theory is strictly applicable only for the time interval in which the shock remains on the plate.

  9. Temperature and Heat Flow Rate Calibration of a Calvet Calorimeter from 0 {°}C to 190 {°}C (United States)

    Kim, Daeho; Lee, Joohyun; Kwon, Suyong


    This study describes the temperature and heat flow rate calibrations of a Calvet calorimeter (SETARAM, BT2.15) in the temperature range of 0-190 {°}C. Temperature calibration is carried out using three reference materials, namely water, gallium, and indium, as specified in the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The sample temperature of the Calvet calorimeter is corrected by the obtained mean value, -0.489 {°}C, of the measured extrapolated peak onset temperature (Te) when the heating rate (β) is zero (Δ T_corr (β = 0)). The heat flow rate is calibrated using a reference material with a known heat capacity, namely SRM 720 α -Al2O3 (synthetic sapphire), which is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. From the heat flow rate measurements of the blank baseline and SRM 720, the proportional calibration factor, K_{Φ }, in the 0-190 {°}C temperature range was determined. The specific heat capacity of copper was measured with the obtained calibration values, and the measured data show consistency with the reference value.

  10. Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting surimi as affected by nano-scaled fish bone and heating rates. (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W


    Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting (PW) surimi were investigated at various heating rates with the use of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) and calcium chloride. Addition of NFB and slow heating improved gel strength significantly. Activity of endogenous transglutaminase (ETGase) from PW surimi was markedly induced by both NFB calcium and calcium chloride, showing an optimal temperature at 30°C. Initial storage modulus increased as NFB calcium concentration increased and the same trend was maintained throughout the temperature sweep. Rheograms with temperature sweep at slow heating rate (1°C/min) exhibited two peaks at ∼ 35°C and ∼ 70°C. However, no peak was observed during temperature sweep from 20 to 90°C at fast heating rate (20°C/min). Protein patterns of surimi gels were affected by both heating rate and NFB calcium concentration. Under slow heating, myosin heavy chain intensity decreased with NFB calcium concentration, indicating formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links by ETGase and NFB calcium ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. III. Sweating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo


    Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1

  12. [Calculation of thermal protein changes in food with heat conduction. Determination of reaction rate and activation heat]. (United States)

    Herrmann, J; Brennig, K; Nour, S


    The velocity constant k of protein changes is commonly determined by heating as abruptly as possible to a given temperature for various periods. Its dependence on temperature or activation heat is deduced from the k value determinations at different temperatures, using the ARRHENIUS diagram. In contrast to this, the authors determined the k and E values in a temperature field for a constant reaction time. This is done directly in the foodstuff which is introduced (in ball form) into a bath of constant temperature. In case of foodstuffs with mere heat conduction, there are in the interior innumerable spherical shells subjected to the same thermal stress which increases from within towards the exterior. Thermal protein changes (such as the thermal coagulation of egg white and muscle proteins and the formation of metmyochromogen) which can be visualized directly or, in case of enzymatic denaturation, indirectly by colour reactions, using the presence-absence method, may be observed if the ball is cut in half. This procedure (termed "change-over method" by the authors) permits to calculate the unknown k and E values from the radius of the visible inner circle. (This applied also to cylindrical forms.) Since this method allows to estimate approximately these reaction kinetic constants directly in the foodstuff under conditions encountered in practice, it is in many cases better suited for simulating, calculating, or optimizing desirable or undesirable protein changes occurring during thermal processing than the mere model experiment with abrupt heating which does not reproduce the changes in the reaction medium occuring during the slow increase or decrease in temperature.

  13. Heat stress effects on farrowing rate in sows: genetic parameter estimation using within-line and crossbred models. (United States)

    Bloemhof, S; Kause, A; Knol, E F; Van Arendonk, J A M; Misztal, I


    The pork supply chain values steady and undisturbed piglet production. Fertilization and maintaining gestation in warm and hot climates is a challenge that can be potentially improved by selection. The objective of this study was to estimate 1) genetic variation for farrowing rate of sows in 2 dam lines and their reciprocal cross; 2) genetic variation for farrowing rate heat tolerance, which can be defined as the random regression slope of farrowing rate against increasing temperature at day of insemination, and the genetic correlation between farrowing rate and heat tolerance; 3) genetic correlation between farrowing rate in purebreds and crossbreds; and 4) genetic correlation between heat tolerance in purebreds and crossbreds. The estimates were based on 93,969 first insemination records per cycle from 24,456 sows inseminated between January 2003 and July 2008. These sows originated from a Dutch purebred Yorkshire dam line (D), an International purebred Large White dam line (ILW), and from their reciprocal crosses (RC) raised in Spain and Portugal. Within-line and crossbred models were used for variance component estimation. Heritability estimates for farrowing rate were 0.06, 0.07, and 0.02 using within-line models for D, ILW, and RC, respectively, and 0.07, 0.07, and 0.10 using the crossbred model, respectively. For farrowing rate, purebred-crossbred genetic correlations were 0.57 between D and RC and 0.50 between ILW and RC. When including heat tolerance in the within-line model, heritability estimates for farrowing rate were 0.05, 0.08, and 0.03 for D, ILW, and RC, respectively. Heritability for heat tolerance at 29.3°C was 0.04, 0.02, and 0.05 for D, ILW, and RC, respectively. Genetic correlations between farrowing rate and heat tolerance tended to be negative in crossbreds and ILW-line sows, implying selection for increased levels of production traits, such as growth and reproductive output, is likely to increase environmental sensitivity. This study shows

  14. Coolant-side heat-transfer rates for a hydrogen-oxygen rocket and a new technique for data correlation (United States)

    Schacht, R. L.; Quentmeyer, R. J.


    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the coolant-side, heat transfer coefficients for a liquid cooled, hydrogen-oxygen rocket thrust chamber. Heat transfer rates were determined from measurements of local hot gas wall temperature, local coolant temperature, and local coolant pressure. A correlation incorporating an integration technique for the transport properties needed near the pseudocritical temperature of liquid hydrogen gives a satisfactory prediction of hot gas wall temperatures.

  15. Uncertainties in the estimation of specific absorption rate during radiofrequency alternating magnetic field induced non-adiabatic heating of ferrofluids (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John


    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ~25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and the

  16. Direct chemical measurement of DNA synthesis and net rates of differentiation of rat lens epithelial cells in vivo: applied to the selenium cataract. (United States)

    Cenedella, R J


    This report describes a direct chemical method for rapidly estimating DNA synthesis and net rates of epithelial cell differentiation in the ocular lens in vivo. DNA synthesis in the lens of control and selenium-treated rats (12- or 13 days of age) was estimated by chemically isolating and measuring trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-insoluble 3H from the lens following injection of [3H]thymidine. Labeled substrate for DNA synthesis peaked in the lens at 1 hr after injection, decreased markedly by the third hour and was essentially gone by hour 12. Synthesis of labeled DNA in the lens was largely complete by about 3 hr. The [3H]DNA content of the whole lens, measured as TCA-insoluble 3H, remained constant for at least 4 months. The distribution of labeled epithelial cells between the epithelial-cell layer and fiber-cell mass was followed for up to 1 month after injection by measuring the ratio of [3H]DNA in the capsule (epithelial-cell layer) to lens body. Between days 2-3 and day 14 after injection, the ratio of [3H]DNA in the epithelial-cell layer to lens fiber cells decreased linearly in a semilogarithmic plot of the ratio vs. time; i.e. the rate of change of the ratio followed first-order kinetics. Thus, the rate constant (k) for the rate of change in the ratio of [3H]DNA in the capsule layer to lens body can provide an estimate of the percentage of the labeled epithelial cells which leave the capsule per day through differentiation into fiber cells. An apparent rate constant of 0.27 day-1 was estimated from the mean of five experiments; i.e. 27% of labeled epithelial cells were differentiating into cortical fiber cells per day. Therefore, about 70% of the germinative epithelial cells would be replaced every 4 days in these rats. This value is in good agreement with results of studies using autoradiographic technics. The selenium cataract is reported to involve rapid damage to lens epithelial cells. Incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA was decreased by at least 60

  17. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.


    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  18. Parametric analysis of air–water heat recovery concept applied to HVAC systems: Effect of mass flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ramadan


    Full Text Available In the last three decades, the world has experienced enormous increases in energy and fuel consumption as a consequence of the economic and population growth. This causes renewable energy and energy recovery to become a requirement in building designs rather than option. The present work concerns a coupling between energy recovery and Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC domains and aims to apply heat recovery concepts to HVAC applications working on refrigeration cycles. It particularly uses the waste energy of the condenser hot air to heat/preheat domestic water. The heat exchanger considered in the recovery system is concentric tube heat exchanger. A thermal modeling of the complete system as well as a corresponding iterative code are developed and presented. Calculations with the code are performed and give pertinent magnitude orders of energy saving and management in HVAC applications. A parametric analysis based on several water and air flow rates is carried out. It was shown that water can be heated from 25 to 70 °C depending on the mass flow rates and cooling loads of the HVAC system. The most efficient configurations are obtained by lowering the air flow rate of the condenser fan.

  19. Parametric Net Influx Rate Images of68Ga-DOTATOC and68Ga-DOTATATE: Quantitative Accuracy and Improved Image Contrast. (United States)

    Ilan, Ezgi; Sandström, Mattias; Velikyan, Irina; Sundin, Anders; Eriksson, Barbro; Lubberink, Mark


    68 Ga-DOTATOC and 68 Ga-DOTATATE are radiolabeled somatostatin analogs used for the diagnosis of somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and SUV measurements are suggested for treatment monitoring. However, changes in net influx rate ( K i ) may better reflect treatment effects than those of the SUV, and accordingly there is a need to compute parametric images showing K i at the voxel level. The aim of this study was to evaluate parametric methods for computation of parametric K i images by comparison to volume of interest (VOI)-based methods and to assess image contrast in terms of tumor-to-liver ratio. Methods: Ten patients with metastatic NETs underwent a 45-min dynamic PET examination followed by whole-body PET/CT at 1 h after injection of 68 Ga-DOTATOC and 68 Ga-DOTATATE on consecutive days. Parametric K i images were computed using a basis function method (BFM) implementation of the 2-tissue-irreversible-compartment model and the Patlak method using a descending aorta image-derived input function, and mean tumor K i values were determined for 50% isocontour VOIs and compared with K i values based on nonlinear regression (NLR) of the whole-VOI time-activity curve. A subsample of healthy liver was delineated in the whole-body and K i images, and tumor-to-liver ratios were calculated to evaluate image contrast. Correlation ( R 2 ) and agreement between VOI-based and parametric K i values were assessed using regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The R 2 between NLR-based and parametric image-based (BFM) tumor K i values was 0.98 (slope, 0.81) and 0.97 (slope, 0.88) for 68 Ga-DOTATOC and 68 Ga-DOTATATE, respectively. For Patlak analysis, the R 2 between NLR-based and parametric-based (Patlak) tumor K i was 0.95 (slope, 0.71) and 0.92 (slope, 0.74) for 68 Ga-DOTATOC and 68 Ga-DOTATATE, respectively. There was no bias between NLR and parametric-based K i values. Tumor-to-liver contrast was 1.6 and 2.0 times higher in the parametric

  20. Mixing state of aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Radiative forcing and heating rate (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Ramachandran, S.


    ratio is calculated from the geometry of core-shell particles, which depends on the mass and density of the core and shell. The size distribution parameters and refractive indices of different aerosol species are taken from OPAC database [3]. Different fractions of black carbon, water soluble and mineral dust aerosols involved in core-shell mixing emerge as the most probable mixing states over the IGP. Aerosol forcing for external mixing shows higher deviations from those for probable mixing cases during winter and pre-monsoon. The heating rate over Kanpur and Gandhi College in the lower troposphere is similar during pre-monsoon (March-May) ( 0.75 K day^{-1}) and monsoon (June-September) ( 0.5 K day^{-1}), while differences occur in other seasons [4]. Aerosol heating rate profiles exhibit primary and secondary peaks over the IGP and exhibit seasonal variations. Details on the calculations of aerosol mixing states over IGP, the impact of aerosol mixing state on aerosol forcing and heating rate will be discussed. References: [1] Intergovernmental panel on climate change (2007), Solomon S. et al. (eds.), Cambridge Univ. Press, NewYork. [2] Holben B. N., et al. (2001), J. Geophys. Res., 106(D11), 12067-12097. [3] Hess M., P. Koepke, I. Schult (1998), Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 831-844. [4] Srivastava R., S. Ramachandran (2012), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 138, doi:10.1002/qj.1958.

  1. Heart rate variability and heat sensation during CT coronary angiography: Low-osmolar versus iso-osmolar contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Anders; Ripsweden, Jonaz; Aspelin, Peter; Cederlund, Kerstin; Brismar, B. Torkel (Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology and Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail:; Rueck, Andreas (Div. of Cardiology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Background: During computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) unexpected changes in heart rate while scanning may affect image quality. Purpose: To evaluate whether an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM, iodixanol) and a low-osmolar contrast medium (LOCM, iomeprol) affect heart rate and experienced heat sensation differently. Material and Methods: One hundred patients scheduled for CTCA were randomized to receive either iodixanol 320 mgI/ml or iomeprol 400 mgI/ml. Depending on their heart rate, the patients were assigned to one of five scanning protocols, each optimized for different heart rate ranges. During scanning the time between each heart beat (hb) was recorded, and the corresponding heart rate was calculated. For each contrast medium (CM) the average heart rate, the variation in heart rate from individual mean heart rate, and the mean deviation from the predefined scanning protocol were calculated. Experience of heat was obtained immediately after scanning by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Examination quality was rated by two radiologists on a three-point scale. Results: The mean variation in heart rate after IOCM was 1.4 hb/min and after LOCM it was 4.4 hb/min (NS). The mean deviations in heart rate from that in the predefined scanning protocol were 2.0 hb/min and 4.7 hb/min, respectively (NS). A greater number of arrhythmic hb were observed after LOCM compared with IOCM (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in image quality. The LOCM group reported a stronger heat sensation after CM injection than the IOCM group (VAS =36 mm and 18 mm, P<0.05). Conclusion: At clinically used concentrations the IOCM, iodixanol 320 mgI/ml, does not increase the heart rate during CTCA and causes less heart arrhythmia and less heat sensation than the LOCM, iomeprol 400 mgI/ml

  2. Low effective activation energies for oxygen release from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates. (United States)

    Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R


    Oxygen release from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-energy values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of heating rate and plant species on the size and uniformity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aromatic plant extracts (United States)

    Hernández-Pinero, Jorge Luis; Terrón-Rebolledo, Manuel; Foroughbakhch, Rahim; Moreno-Limón, Sergio; Melendrez, M. F.; Solís-Pomar, Francisco; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo


    Mixing aqueous silver solutions with aqueous leaf aromatic plant extracts from basil, mint, marjoram and peppermint resulted in the synthesis of quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles in a range of size between 2 and 80 nm in diameter as analyzed by analytical high-resolution electron microscopy. The average size could be controlled by applying heat to the initial reaction system at different rates of heating, and by the specific botanical species employed for the reaction. Increasing the rate of heating resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the size of the nanoparticles produced, regardless of the species employed. This fact was more evident in the case of marjoram, which decreased the average diameter from 27 nm at a slow rate of heating to 8 nm at a high rate of heating. With regard to the species, minimum sizes of mint yielded an average size between 10 and 25 nm. The results indicate that aromatic plant extracts can be used to achieve the controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles.

  4. Density of states, specific heat and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in PrOs4Sb12 (United States)

    Abu Alrub, Tayseer; Curnoe, Stephanie


    We present a theoretical study of the density of states, specific heat and nuclear spin-relaxation rate in the unconventional superconductor PrOs4Sb12. In this material, superconductivity is best described by a three component order parameter in the triplet channel. Instead of nodes, deep dips appear in the gap function producing power law temperature dependencies at higher temperatures and exponential suppression at low temperatures of the specific heat and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate. Various experimental observations will be discussed in this context.

  5. Effects of heat stress on production, somatic cell score and conception rate in Holsteins. (United States)

    Hagiya, Koichi; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Shirai, Tatsuo; Osawa, Takefumi; Terawaki, Yoshinori; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Masuda, Yutaka; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi


    We examined the effects of heat stress (HS) on production traits, somatic cell score (SCS) and conception rate at first insemination (CR) in Holsteins in Japan. We used a total of 228 242 records of milk, fat and protein yields, and SCS for the first three lactations, as well as of CR in heifers and in first- and second-lactation cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2012. Records from 47 prefectural weather stations throughout Japan were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI); areas were categorized into three regional groups: no HS (THI < 72), mild HS (72 ≤ THI < 79), and moderate HS (THI ≥ 79). Trait records from the three HS-region groups were treated as three different traits and trivariate animal models were used. The genetic correlations between milk yields from different HS groups were very high (0.91 to 0.99). Summer calving caused the greatest increase in SCS, and in the first and second lactations this increase became greater as THI increased. In cows, CR was affected by the interaction between HS group and insemination month: with summer and early autumn insemination, there was a reduction in CR, and it was much larger in the mild- and moderate-HS groups than in the no-HS group. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. How do rain drops affect atmospheric radiative fluxes and heating rates? (United States)

    Hill, Peter; Chiu, Christine; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Allan, Richard; Hill, Adrian


    General circulation model (GCM) radiation schemes are becoming increasingly sophisticated; the treatment of clouds has become more refined while the number of gases and aerosol species that are represented continues to rise. However, all GCMs continue to ignore the radiative effect of precipitating liquid water (rain). The resulting biases are expected to be small, but they have yet to be quantified. This study aims to provide a first estimate of how rain affects the atmospheric radiation budget at a range of temporal and spatial scales. This is a necessary first step towards determining whether GCM radiation schemes should include rain. We define the rain radiative effect here as the difference between radiative fluxes calculated with and without rain. We perform calculations using the SOCRATES (Suite Of Community Radiative Transfer codes based on Edwards-Slingo) radiative tranfser scheme. Input atmospheric profiles are taken from two weeks (one week during boreal winter and the other during boreal summer) of a Goddard multiscale modelling framework (MMF) simulation. Based on these calculations, we shall quantify and explain how rain affects the transfer of radiation through the atmosphere and thus radiative heating rates and fluxes at both the surface and top of atmosphere.

  7. Shut-down dose rate analyses for the ITER electron cyclotron-heating upper launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhorst, Bastian; Serikov, Arkady; Fischer, Ulrich; Lu, Lei [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology INR (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany); Spaeh, Peter; Strauss, Dirk [Institute for Applied Materials IAM (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)


    The electron cyclotron resonance heating upper launcher (ECHUL) is going to be installed in the upper port of the ITER tokamak thermonuclear fusion reactor for plasma mode stabilization (neoclassical tearing modes and the sawtooth instability). The paper reports the latest neutronic modeling and analyses which have been performed for the ITER reference front steering launcher design. It focuses on the port accessibility after reactor shut-down for which dose rate (SDDR) distributions on a fine regular mesh grid were calculated. The results are compared to those obtained for the ITER Dummy Upper Port. The calculations showed that the heterogeneous ECHUL design gives rise to enhanced radiation streaming as compared to the homogenous dummy upper port. Therefore the used launcher geometry was upgraded to a more recent development stage. The inter-comparison shows a significant improvement of the launchers shielding properties but also the necessity to further upgrade the shielding performance. Furthermore, the analysis for the homogenous dummy upper port, which represents optimal shielding inside the launcher, demonstrates that the shielding upgrade also needs to include the launcher's environment.

  8. Hardening by cooling rate control and post-firing heat treatment in Pd-Ag-Sn alloy for bonding porcelain. (United States)

    Yu, Young-Jun; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon


    The aim of this study was to determine the hardening effect by controlling the cooling rate during the porcelain firing process and performing an additional post-firing heat treatment in a Pd-Ag-Sn alloy. The most effective cooling rate for alloy hardening was determined by cooling the specimens at various cooling rates after oxidation treatment. A subsequent porcelain firing simulation followed by cooling at the selected cooling rate was performed. A post-firing heat treatment was then done at 600°C in a porcelain furnace. The hardening mechanism was characterized by a hardness test, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Alloy softening occurred during the porcelain firing process followed by cooling at a controlled cooling rate. A post-firing heat treatment allowed apparent precipitation hardening. It is advisable to perform a postfiring heat treatment at 600°C in a porcelain furnace by annealing metal substructure after porcelain fusing.

  9. Evaluation of reusable surface insulation for space shuttle over a range of heat-transfer rate and surface temperature (United States)

    Chapman, A. J.


    Reusable surface insulation materials, which were developed as heat shields for the space shuttle, were tested over a range of conditions including heat-transfer rates between 160 and 620 kW/sq m. The lowest of these heating rates was in a range predicted for the space shuttle during reentry, and the highest was more than twice the predicted entry heating on shuttle areas where reusable surface insulation would be used. Individual specimens were tested repeatedly at increasingly severe conditions to determine the maximum heating rate and temperature capability. A silica-base material experienced only minimal degradation during repeated tests which included conditions twice as severe as predicted shuttle entry and withstood cumulative exposures three times longer than the best mullite material. Mullite-base materials cracked and experienced incipient melting at conditions within the range predicted for shuttle entry. Neither silica nor mullite materials consistently survived the test series with unbroken waterproof surfaces. Surface temperatures for a silica and a mullite material followed a trend expected for noncatalytic surfaces, whereas surface temperatures for a second mullite material appeared to follow a trend expected for a catalytic surface.

  10. Critical Analysis of Moving Heat Source Shape for ARC Welding Process of High Deposition Rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghosh, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Chattopadhyaya, S.


    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 95-98 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Gaussian heat distribution * oval heat source shape * Submerged Arc Welding Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2014

  11. Influence of heating rate on sorbitic transformation temperature of tempering C45 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kulawik


    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of speed heating influence on sorbitic transormation temperature of tempering C45 steel is presented. On thebasis of dilatometric research, functions associating heating time with initial and final temperature of sorbitic transformation have beendetermined as well as the size structural (γ and thermal (α expansion coefficients of quenching and tempering structures have beenestimated.

  12. Experimental study of the influence of varying ceiling height on the heat release rate of a pool fire (United States)

    Liu, Jiahao; Wang, Jian; Richard, Yuen


    To investigate the influence of ceiling height on the combustion process of a pool fire whose flame impinges the ceiling, a sequence of pool fires with varying ceiling heights was performed using a scaled-down cone calorimeter. N-heptane and jet-A were employed as fuels to conducted the tests. Experimental findings reveal that with the decreasing ceiling height, the maximum and average heat release rates will initially increase due to the enhanced heat feedback, and then decrease as a result of the restriction of air entrainment caused by the extremely small ceiling height. In addition, the dimensionless ceiling height is found to have a linear relationship with the logarithm value of the dimensionless averaged heat release rate for the two given fuels with the similar slope of -2/3.

  13. Hall Effects on Unsteady MHD Reactive Flow Through a Porous Channel with Convective Heating at the Arrhenius Reaction Rate (United States)

    Das, S.; Patra, R. R.; Jana, R. N.; Makinde, O. D.


    This paper deals with the study of an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer of a reactive, viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid between two infinitely long parallel porous plates where one of the plates is set into impulsive/uniformly accelerated motion in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field at the Arrhenius reaction rate, with the Hall currents taken into account. The transient momentum equations are solved analytically with the use of the Laplace transform technique, and the velocity field and shear stresses are obtained in a unified closed form. The energy equation is tackled numerically using Matlab. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, shear stresses, and the heat transfer rate at the plates are investigated. The results reveal that the combined effects of magnetic field, suction/injection, exothermic reaction, and variable thermal conductivity have a significant impact on the hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer.

  14. Impact of heating rate and solvent on Ni-based catalysts prepared by solution combustion method for syngas methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Yan


    Full Text Available Ni-Al2O3 catalysts prepared by solution combustion method for syngas methanation were enhanced by employing various heating rate and different solvent. The catalytic properties were tested in syngas methanation. The result indicates that both of heating rate and solvent remarkably affect Ni particle size, which is a key factor to the catalytic activity of Ni-Al2O3 catalysts for syngas methanation. Moreover, the relationship between Ni particle size and the production rate of methane per unit mass was correlated. The optimal Ni-Al2O3 catalyst prepared in ethanol at 2°C/min, achieves a maximum production rate of methane at the mean size of 20.8 nm.

  15. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman


    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  16. Effects of calcination temperature and heating rate on the photocatalytic properties of ZnO prepared by pyrolysis. (United States)

    He, Lingling; Tong, Zhifang; Wang, Zhonghua; Chen, Ming; Huang, Ni; Zhang, Wei


    A series of ZnO nanorods were prepared by pyrolysis of zinc acetate at different calcination temperatures and heating rates under ambient atmosphere. The as-prepared ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performances of the ZnO nanorods were evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The morphology, optical property, surface composition, and photocatalytic performance of the ZnO samples were affected by both calcination temperature and heating rate. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO sample was obviously decreased with increased heating rate, which might be ascribed to the simultaneous decrease of oxygen vacancies and surface adsorption oxygen species. The ZnO nanorods prepared at 300°C with a heating rate of 1°C/min exhibited good photocatalytic activity and photochemical stability, allowing good potential practical application in environmental remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct Radiative Effect and Heating Rate of black carbon aerosol: high time resolution measurements and source-identified forcing effects (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Cogliati, Sergio; Comi, Alberto; Degni, Francesca; Di Mauro, Biagio; Colombo, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio


    Black carbon (BC) absorbs sunlight in the atmosphere heating it. However, up to now, heating rate (HR) calculations from the divergence of the net radiative flux with altitude or from the modelling activity are too sparse. This work fills the aforementioned gap presenting a new methodology based on a full set of physical equations to experimentally determine both the radiative power density absorbed into a ground-based atmospheric layer (ADRE), and the consequent HR induced by the absorptive component of aerosol. In urban context, it is essentially related to the BC. The methodology is also applicable to natural components (i.e. dust) and is obtained solving the first derivative of the main radiative transfer equations. The ADRE and the consequent HR can be determined coupling spectral aerosol absorption measurements with the spectrally resolved measurements of the direct, diffuse downward radiation and the surface reflected radiance components. Moreover, the spectral absorption of BC aerosol allows its source apportionment (traffic and biomass burning (BB)) allowing the same apportionment on HR. This work reports one year of high-time resolution measurements (5 min) of sunlight absorption and HR induced by BC aerosol over Milan. A unique sampling site was set up from March 2015 with: 1) Aethalometer (AE-31, Magee Scientific, 7-λ), 2) the Multiplexer-Radiometer-Irradiometer which detects downward and reflected radiance (350-1000 nm in 3648 spectral bands) coupled with a rotating shadow-band to measure spectrally-resolved global and diffuse radiation (thus direct), 3) a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem) equipped with 3 pyranometers (global, diffuse and refrected radiation; 300-3000 nm), a thermohygrometer, a barometer, an anemometer, 4) condensation and optical particle counters (TSI 3775 and Grimm 1.107), 5) low volume sampler (FAI Hydra dual sampler, PM2.5 and PM10) for sample collection and chemistry determination. Results concerning the radiative power

  18. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    %) in malaria disease rates following introduction of ITNs. The results of standard clinical trials (randomized, controlled, and using sufficiently large samples) that measured impact on malaria disease in Africa are shown in Table 1. Other studies ...

  19. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Phase II field results and design recommendations (United States)

    Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design ...

  20. Optimized Heating Rate and Soot-catalyst Ratio for Soot Oxidation over MoO3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congwei Mei


    Full Text Available MoO3 is now utilized as a promising catalyst due to its high activity and favorable mobility at low temperature. Its spectral data and surface microstructures were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. Thermo-analysis of the carbon black was performed over nano-MoO3 catalyst in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA at various heating rates and soot-catalyst ratios. Through the analysis of kinetic parameters, we found that the heat transfer effect and diffusion effect can be removed by setting lower heating rates and soot-catalyst ratios. Therefore, a strategy for selecting proper thermogravimetric parameters were established, which can contribute to the better understanding of thermo-analytical process. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 4th December 2016; Revised: 13rd June 2017; Accepted: 9th April 2017; Available online: 27th October 2017; Published regularly: December 2017 How to Cite: Mei, C., Mei, D., Yue, S, Chen, Z., Yuan, Y. (2017. Optimized Heating Rate and Soot-catalyst Ratio for Soot Oxidation over MoO3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 408-414 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.845.408-414

  1. SISGR - In situ characterization and modeling of formation reactions under extreme heating rates in nanostructured multilayer foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufnagel, Todd C.


    Materials subjected to extreme conditions, such as very rapid heating, behave differently than materials under more ordinary conditions. In this program we examined the effect of rapid heating on solid-state chemical reactions in metallic materials. One primary goal was to develop experimental techniques capable of observing these reactions, which can occur at heating rates in excess of one million degrees Celsius per second. One approach that we used is x-ray diffraction performed using microfocused x-ray beams and very fast x-ray detectors. A second approach is the use of a pulsed electron source for dynamic transmission electron microscopy. With these techniques we were able to observe how the heating rate affects the chemical reaction, from which we were able to discern general principles about how these reactions proceed. A second thrust of this program was to develop computational tools to help us understand and predict the reactions. From atomic-scale simulations were learned about the interdiffusion between different metals at high heating rates, and about how new crystalline phases form. A second class of computational models allow us to predict the shape of the reaction front that occurs in these materials, and to connect our understanding of interdiffusion from the atomistic simulations to measurements made in the laboratory. Both the experimental and computational techniques developed in this program are expected to be broadly applicable to a wider range of scientific problems than the intermetallic solid-state reactions studied here. For example, we have already begun using the x-ray techniques to study how materials respond to mechanical deformation at very high rates.

  2. Application of multivariate adaptive regression spine-assisted objective function on optimization of heat transfer rate around a cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Prasenjit; Dad, Ajoy K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala (India)


    The present study aims to predict the heat transfer characteristics around a square cylinder with different corner radii using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). Further, the MARS-generated objective function is optimized by particle swarm optimization. The data for the prediction are taken from the recently published article by the present authors [P. Dey, A. Sarkar, A.K. Das, Development of GEP and ANN model to predict the unsteady forced convection over a cylinder, Neural Comput. Appl. (2015). Further, the MARS model is compared with artificial neural network and gene expression programming. It has been found that the MARS model is very efficient in predicting the heat transfer characteristics. It has also been found that MARS is more efficient than artificial neural network and gene expression programming in predicting the forced convection data, and also particle swarm optimization can efficiently optimize the heat transfer rate.

  3. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall (United States)

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.


    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  4. The effect of ultrasound irradiation on the convective heat transfer rate during immersion cooling of a stationary sphere. (United States)

    Kiani, Hossein; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhang, Zhihang


    It has been proven that ultrasound irradiation can enhance the rate of heat transfer processes. The objective of this work was to study the heat transfer phenomenon, mainly the heat exchange at the surface, as affected by ultrasound irradiation around a stationary copper sphere (k=386W m(-1)K(-1), C(p)=384J kg(-1)K(-1), ρ=8660kg m(-3)) during cooling. The sphere (0.01m in diameter) was immersed in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (-10°C) in an ultrasonic cooling system that included a refrigerated circulator, a flow meter, an ultrasound generator and an ultrasonic bath. The temperature of the sphere was recorded using a data logger equipped with a T-type thermocouple in the center of the sphere. The temperature of the cooling medium was also monitored by four thermocouples situated at different places in the bath. The sphere was located at different positions (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06m) above the transducer surface of the bath calculated considering the center of the sphere as the center of the reference system and was exposed to different intensities of ultrasound (0, 120, 190, 450, 890, 1800, 2800, 3400 and 4100W m(-2)) during cooling. The frequency of the ultrasound was 25kHz. It was demonstrated that ultrasound irradiation can increase the rate of heat transfer significantly, resulting in considerably shorter cooling times. Higher intensities caused higher cooling rates, and Nu values were increased from about 23-27 to 25-108 depending on the intensity of ultrasound and the position of the sphere. However, high intensities of ultrasound led to the generation of heat at the surface of the sphere, thus limiting the lowest final temperature achieved. An analytical solution was developed considering the heat generation and was fitted to the experimental data with R(2) values in the range of 0.910-0.998. Visual observations revealed that both cavitation and acoustic streaming were important for heat transfer phenomenon. Cavitation clouds at the surface of the sphere

  5. Thermal Disk Winds in X-Ray Binaries: Realistic Heating and Cooling Rates Give Rise to Slow, but Massive, Outflows (United States)

    Higginbottom, N.; Proga, D.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.


    A number of X-ray binaries exhibit clear evidence for the presence of disk winds in the high/soft state. A promising driving mechanism for these outflows is mass loss driven by the thermal expansion of X-ray heated material in the outer disk atmosphere. Higginbottom & Proga recently demonstrated that the properties of thermally driven winds depend critically on the shape of the thermal equilibrium curve, since this determines the thermal stability of the irradiated material. For a given spectral energy distribution, the thermal equilibrium curve depends on an exact balance between the various heating and cooling mechanisms at work. Most previous work on thermally driven disk winds relied on an analytical approximation to these rates. Here, we use the photoionization code cloudy to generate realistic heating and cooling rates which we then use in a 2.5D hydrodynamic model computed in ZEUS to simulate thermal winds in a typical black hole X-ray binary. We find that these heating and cooling rates produce a significantly more complex thermal equilibrium curve, with dramatically different stability properties. The resulting flow, calculated in the optically thin limit, is qualitatively different from flows calculated using approximate analytical rates. Specifically, our thermal disk wind is much denser and slower, with a mass-loss rate that is a factor of two higher and characteristic velocities that are a factor of three lower. The low velocity of the flow—{v}\\max ≃ 200 km s-1—may be difficult to reconcile with observations. However, the high mass-loss rate—15 × the accretion rate—is promising, since it has the potential to destabilize the disk. Thermally driven disk winds may therefore provide a mechanism for state changes.

  6. Investigation of char strength and expansion properties of an intumescent coating exposed to rapid heating rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere


    , char properties, measured at room temperature, were dependent on the preceding storage conditions (in air or in a desiccator). The char was found to have the highest mechanical strength against compression in the outer crust facing the heat source. For thin (147μm) free coating films, a tendency...... with respect to the mechanical resistance against compression, degree of expansion, and residual mass fraction. Experimental results show that when using this type of shock heating, the mechanical resistance of the char against compression cannot meaningfully be correlated to the expansion factor. In addition...

  7. Optimal Management of Geothermal Heat Extraction (United States)

    Patel, I. H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.


    Geothermal energy technologies use the constant heat flux from the subsurface in order to produce heat or electricity for societal use. As such, a geothermal energy system is not inherently variable, like systems based on wind and solar resources, and an operator can conceivably control the rate at which heat is extracted and used directly, or converted into a commodity that is used. Although geothermal heat is a renewable resource, this heat can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal (Rybach, 2003). For heat extraction used for commodities that are sold on the market, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into profit, on a net present value basis. We present a model that couples natural resource economic approaches for managing renewable resources with simulations of geothermal reservoir performance in order to develop an optimal heat mining strategy that balances economic gain with the performance and renewability of the reservoir. Similar optimal control approaches have been extensively studied for renewable natural resource management of fisheries and forests (Bonfil, 2005; Gordon, 1954; Weitzman, 2003). Those models determine an optimal path of extraction of fish or timber, by balancing the regeneration of stocks of fish or timber that are not harvested with the profit from the sale of the fish or timber that is harvested. Our model balances the regeneration of reservoir temperature with the net proceeds from extracting heat and converting it to electricity that is sold to consumers. We used the Non-isothermal Unconfined-confined Flow and Transport (NUFT) model (Hao, Sun, & Nitao, 2011) to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are incorporated into the natural resource economics model to determine production strategies that

  8. Heat stress of two tropical seagrass species during low tides - impact on underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration and diel in situ internal aeration. (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D; Borum, Jens; Zavala-Perez, Andrea; Kendrick, Gary A


    Seagrasses grow submerged in aerated seawater but often in low O2 sediments. Elevated temperatures and low O2 are stress factors. Internal aeration was measured in two tropical seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides, growing with extreme tides and diel temperature amplitudes. Temperature effects on net photosynthesis (PN ) and dark respiration (RD ) of leaves were evaluated. Daytime low tide was characterized by high pO2 (54 kPa), pH (8.8) and temperature (38°C) in shallow pools. As PN was maximum at 33°C (9.1 and 7.2 μmol O2  m(-2) s(-1) in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively), the high temperatures and reduced CO2 would have diminished PN , whereas RD increased (Q10 of 2.0-2.7) above that at 33°C (0.45 and 0.33 μmol O2  m(-2)  s(-1) , respectively). During night-time low tides, O2 declined resulting in shoot base anoxia in both species, but incoming water containing c. 20 kPa O2 relieved the anoxia. Shoots exposed to 40°C for 4 h showed recovery of PN and RD , whereas 45°C resulted in leaf damage. These seagrasses are 'living near the edge', tolerant of current diel O2 and temperature extremes, but if temperatures rise both species may be threatened in this habitat. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Interaction of heat production, strain rate and stress power in a plastically deforming body under tensile test (United States)

    Paglietti, A.


    At high strain rates the heat produced by plastic deformation can give rise to a rate dependent response even if the material has rate independent constitutive equations. This effect has to be evaluated when interpreting a material test, or else it could erroneously be ascribed to viscosity. A general thermodynamic theory of tensile testing of elastic-plastic materials is given in this paper; it is valid for large strain at finite strain rates. It enables discovery of the parameters governing the thermodynamic strain rate effect, provides a method for proper interpretation of the results of the tests of dynamic plasticity, and suggests a way of planning experiments in order to detect the real contribution of viscosity.

  10. Prediction of heating rate controlled viscous flow activation energy during spark plasma sintering of amorphous alloy powders (United States)

    Paul, Tanaji; Harimkar, Sandip P.


    The viscous flow behavior of Fe-based amorphous alloy powder during isochronal spark plasma sintering was analyzed under the integrated theoretical background of the Arrhenius and directional structural relaxation models. A relationship between viscous flow activation energy and heating rate was derived. An extension of the pertinent analysis to Ti-based amorphous alloys confirmed the broad applicability of such a relationship for predicting the activation energy for sintering below the glass transition temperature (T g) of the amorphous alloy powders.

  11. The effects of concentration and heating-cooling rate on rheological properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesarinejad, Mohammad Ali; Sami Jokandan, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin


    In this study, the effect of concentration (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%) and heating-cooling rate (1, 5 and 10 °C min−1) on the rheological properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage (PLSM) solutions were investigated. It was observed that the gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties under...... information. The results revealed that PLSM had high total sugar content (87.35%), and it is likely an arabinoxylomannan-type polysaccharide....

  12. Influence of Heating Rate on Ferrite Recrystallization and Austenite Formation in Cold-Rolled Microalloyed Dual-Phase Steels (United States)

    Philippot, C.; Bellavoine, M.; Dumont, M.; Hoummada, K.; Drillet, J.; Hebert, V.; Maugis, P.


    Compared with other dual-phase (DP) steels, initial microstructures of cold-rolled martensite-ferrite have scarcely been investigated, even though they represent a promising industrial alternative to conventional ferrite-pearlite cold-rolled microstructures. In this study, the influence of the heating rate (over the range of 1 to 10 K/s) on the development of microstructures in a microalloyed DP steel is investigated; this includes the tempering of martensite, precipitation of microalloying elements, recrystallization, and austenite formation. This study points out the influence of the degree of ferrite recrystallization prior to the austenite formation, as well as the importance of the cementite distribution. A low heating rate giving a high degree of recrystallization, leads to the formation of coarse austenite grains that are homogenously distributed in the ferrite matrix. However, a high heating rate leading to a low recrystallization degree, results in a banded-like structure with small austenite grains surrounded by large ferrite grains. A combined approach, involving relevant multiscale microstructural characterization and modeling to rationalize the effect of the coupled processes, highlights the role of the cold-worked initial microstructure, here a martensite-ferrite mixture: recrystallization and austenite formation commence in the former martensite islands before extending in the rest of the material.

  13. Effect of heating rate and kinetic model selection on activation energy of nonisothermal crystallization of amorphous felodipine. (United States)

    Chattoraj, Sayantan; Bhugra, Chandan; Li, Zheng Jane; Sun, Changquan Calvin


    The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of amorphous materials is routinely analyzed by statistically fitting the crystallization data to kinetic models. In this work, we systematically evaluate how the model-dependent crystallization kinetics is impacted by variations in the heating rate and the selection of the kinetic model, two key factors that can lead to significant differences in the crystallization activation energy (Ea ) of an amorphous material. Using amorphous felodipine, we show that the Ea decreases with increase in the heating rate, irrespective of the kinetic model evaluated in this work. The model that best describes the crystallization phenomenon cannot be identified readily through the statistical fitting approach because several kinetic models yield comparable R(2) . Here, we propose an alternate paired model-fitting model-free (PMFMF) approach for identifying the most suitable kinetic model, where Ea obtained from model-dependent kinetics is compared with those obtained from model-free kinetics. The most suitable kinetic model is identified as the one that yields Ea values comparable with the model-free kinetics. Through this PMFMF approach, nucleation and growth is identified as the main mechanism that controls the crystallization kinetics of felodipine. Using this PMFMF approach, we further demonstrate that crystallization mechanism from amorphous phase varies with heating rate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of shuttle lee-side heat transfer rates (United States)

    Mruk, G. K.; Bertin, J.; Lamb, J. P.


    The experimental program which was conducted in the Calspan 96-inch hypersonic shock tunnel to investigate what effect the windward surface temperature had on the heat transfer to the leeward surface of the space shuttle orbiter is discussed. Heat-transfer distributions, surface-pressure distributions, and schlieren photographs were obtained for an 0.01-scale model of the 139 configuration space shuttle orbiter at angles-of-attack of 30 and 40 deg. Similar data were obtained for an 0.01 scale wingless model of the 139 configuration at angles-of-attack of 30 and 90 deg. Data were obtained for Mach numbers from Reynolds numbers, and surface temperatures and compared with theoretical results.

  15. The effect of heat developed during high strain rate deformation on the constitutive modeling of amorphous polymers (United States)

    Safari, Keivan H.; Zamani, Jamal; Guedes, Rui M.; Ferreira, Fernando J.


    An adiabatic constitutive model is proposed for large strain deformation of polycarbonate (PC) at high strain rates. When the strain rate is sufficiently high such that the heat generated does not have time to transfer to the surroundings, temperature of material rises. The high strain rate deformation behavior of polymers is significantly affected by temperature-dependent constants and thermal softening. Based on the isothermal model which first was introduced by Mulliken and Boyce et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 43:1331-1356, 2006), an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the yield and post-yield behavior of glassy polymers at high strain rates. When calculating the heat generated and the temperature changes during the step by step simulation of the deformation, temperature-dependent elastic constants are incorporated to the constitutive equations. Moreover, better prediction of softening phenomena is achieved by the new definition for softening parameters of the proposed model. The constitutive model has been implemented numerically into a commercial finite element code through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). The experimental results, obtained using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, are supported by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Decompose/Shift/Reconstruct (DSR) method. Comparison of adiabatic model predictions with experimental data demonstrates the ability of the model to capture the characteristic features of stress-strain curve of the material at very high strain rates.

  16. Smoke over haze: Aircraft observations of chemical and optical properties and the effects on heating rates and stability (United States)

    Taubman, Brett F.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Vant-Hull, Brian L.; Piety, Charles A.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Li, Zhanqing


    Airborne observations made on 8 July 2002 over five locations in Virginia and Maryland revealed the presence of two discrete layers of air pollution, one of a smoke plume between ˜2 and 3 km above mean sea level advected from Quebec forest fires and another, underlying plume from fossil fuel combustion. Within the smoke layer, large increases were observed in submicrometer particle numbers, scattering, and absorption as well as ozone (O3) and CO (but not SO2) mixing ratios. The single-scattering albedos (ω0) in the layer between ˜2 and 3 km (mean value at 550 nm = 0.93 ± 0.02) were consistently smaller than those below (mean value at 550 nm = 0.95 ± 0.01). Aerosol optical depth in the lower 3 km of the atmosphere was determined at each of the five locations, and the value at 550 nm varied between 0.42 ± 0.06 and 1.53 ± 0.21. Calculations of clear-sky aerosol direct radiative forcing by the smoke plume using an atmospheric radiative transfer code indicated that the forcing at the top of the atmosphere was small relative to the forcing at the surface. Thus atmospheric absorption of solar radiation was nearly equal to the attenuation at the surface. The net effect was to cool the surface and heat the air aloft. A morning subsidence inversion positioned the smoke in a dense enough layer above the planetary boundary layer that solar heating of the layer maintained the temperature inversion through the afternoon. This created a positive feedback loop that prevented vertical mixing and dilution of the smoke plume, thereby increasing the regional radiative impact.

  17. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu


    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  18. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas


    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  19. Correlation of Heating Rates, Crystal Structures, and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Li2ZnTi3O8 Ceramics (United States)

    Lu, Xuepeng; Zheng, Yong; Huang, Qi; Xiong, Weihao


    The correlation of heating rates, crystal structures, and microwave dielectric properties of Li2ZnTi3O8 ceramics was thoroughly investigated. Ionic polarizability, atomic packing fractions, bond strengths, and octahedral distortion of Li2ZnTi3O8 ceramics were calculated on the basis of structure refinement data. The "black core" phenomenon resulting from reduction of Ti4+ ions was observed for Li2ZnTi3O8 ceramic sintered at 1°/min; reduction of Ti4+ ions could be limited by heating more rapidly. For heating rates from 1 to 7°/min, the dielectric constants ( ɛ r) of Li2ZnTi3O8 ceramics were mainly determined by ionic polarizability. The temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency ( τ f ) of Li2ZnTi3O8 ceramics was determined by bond strengths. Li2ZnTi3O8 ceramic sintered at 1°/min had the lowest quality factor ( Q × f); this was related to the high dielectric loss as a result of oxygen vacancies formed by reduction of Ti4+ ions. Q × f values of Li2ZnTi3O8 ceramics also decreased with increasing heating rate from 3 to 7°/min, owing to reduced packing fractions and average grain sizes. Li2ZnTi3O8 ceramic sintered at 3°/min had the optimum microwave dielectric properties of ɛ r = 26.6, Q × f = 83,563 GHz, and τ f = -12.4 ppm/°C.

  20. Rheology and microstructure of binary mixed gel of rice bran protein-whey: effect of heating rate and whey addition. (United States)

    Rafe, Ali; Vahedi, Elnaz; Hasan-Sarei, Azadeh Ghorbani


    Rice bran protein (RBP) is a valuable plant protein which has unique nutritional and hypoallergenic properties. Whey proteins have wide applications in the food industry, such as in dairy, meat and bakery products. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), RBP and their mixtures at different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 w/w) were heated from 20 to 90 °C at different heating rates (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 °C min(-1) ). The storage modulus (G') and gelling point (Tgel ) of WPC were higher than those of RBP, indicating the good ability of WPC to develop stiffer networks. By increasing the proportion of WPC in mixed systems, G' was increased and Tgel was reduced. Nevertheless, the elasticity of all binary mixtures was lower than that of WPC alone. Tgel and the final G' of RBP-WPC blends were increased by raising the heating rate. The RBP-WPC mixtures developed more elastic gels than RBP alone at different heating rates. RBP had a fibrillar and lentil-like structure whose fibril assembly had smaller structures than those of WPC. The gelling structure of the mixed gel of WPC-RBP was improved by adding WPC. Indeed, by adding WPC, gels tended to show syneresis and had lower water-holding capacity. Furthermore, the gel structure was produced by adding WPC to the non-gelling RBP, which is compatible with whey and can be applied as a functional food for infants and/or adults. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Occurrence Rates and Heating Effects of Tangential and Rotational Discontinuities as Obtained from Three-dimensional Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Yang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua


    MHD discontinuities are ubiquitous in the solar wind and are often found at the origin of turbulence intermittency. They may also play a key role in the turbulence dissipation and heating of the solar wind. The tangential discontinuities (TDs) and rotational discontinuities (RDs) are the two most important types of discontinuities. Recently, the connection between turbulence intermittency and proton thermodynamics has been observationally investigated. Here, we present numerical results from a three-dimensional MHD simulation with pressure anisotropy and we define new methods for identifying and distinguishing TDs and RDs. Three statistical results obtained for the relative occurrence rates and heating effects are highlighted: (1) RDs tend to take up the majority of the discontinuities along with time; (2) the thermal states embedding TDs tend to be associated with extreme plasma parameters or instabilities while RDs do not; (3) TDs have a higher average T as well as perpendicular temperature {{T}\\bot }. The simulation shows that TDs and RDs evolve and contribute to solar wind heating differently. These results will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that generate discontinuities and cause plasma heating.

  2. Impact of the High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU to LEU Fuel Conversion on Cold Source Nuclear Heat Generation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, staff members at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducting studies to determine whether the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) can be converted from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. As part of these ongoing studies, an assessment of the impact that the HEU to LEU fuel conversion has on the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source system and its moderator vessel was performed and is documented in this report. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions and few-group neutron fluxes in the cold source moderator were also estimated. Neutronics calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code to determine the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source and its vessel for the HEU core operating at a full reactor power (FP) of 85 MW(t) and the reference LEU core operating at an FP of 100 MW(t). Calculations were performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) conditions to bound typical irradiation conditions. Average specific BOC heat generation rates of 12.76 and 12.92 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the hemispherical region of the cold source liquid hydrogen (LH2) for the HEU and LEU cores, and EOC heat generation rates of 13.25 and 12.86 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the HEU and LEU cores. Thus, the greatest heat generation rates were calculated for the EOC HEU core, and it is concluded that the conversion from HEU to LEU fuel and the resulting increase of FP from 85 MW to 100 MW will not impact the ability of the heat removal equipment to remove the heat deposited in the cold source system. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions are estimated to be about 12.0% greater at BOC and 2.7% greater at EOC for the LEU core in comparison to the HEU core. Silicon is aluminum s major transmutation product and

  3. Development of a silicone ablator for high-heat-flux and high-shear-rate condition (United States)

    Campbell, R. A.; Ramseyer, J. A.; Huntress, A.


    A silicone material was developed which gives suitable ablative protection in the high heat flux, high shear environments encountered in severe reentry applications, such as nose cones for ballistic vehicles and protection of leading edges or other critical areas of a vehicle. In addition, the ease of handling, low application cost, and room temperature cure make such a silicon material suitable nozzles for the large rockets necessary for vehicle launching. The development of this product is traced from the selection of suitable polymers through the choice of fillers and the finalization of filler loadings.

  4. Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material (United States)

    Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo


    The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate υ and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative υ represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

  5. Physiological and performance adaptations to an in-season soccer camp in the heat: Associations with heart rate and heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchheit, M; Voss, S C; Nybo, Lars


    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between adaptive responses to an in-season soccer training camp in the heat and changes in submaximal exercising heart rate (HRex, 5-min run at 9 ¿km/h), postexercise HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV). Fifteen well-trained...... but non-heat-acclimatized male adult players performed a training week in Qatar (34.6¿±¿1.9°C wet bulb globe temperature). HRex, HRR, HRV (i.e. the standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability measured from Poincaré plots SD1, a vagal-related index), creatine kinase (CK......) activity, plasma volume (PV) changes, and post-5-min run rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected at six occasions in temperate environmental conditions (22°C). Players also performed the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) in the same environmental conditions (22°C), both...

  6. Heat dissipation does not suppress an immune response in laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR). (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek


    The capacity for heat dissipation is considered to be one of the most important constraints on rates of energy expenditure in mammals. To date, the significance of this constraint has been tested exclusively under peak metabolic demands, such as during lactation. Here, we used a different set of metabolic stressors, which do not induce maximum energy expenditures and yet are likely to expose the potential constraining effect of heat dissipation. We compared the physiological responses of mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low basal metabolic rate (L-BMR) to simultaneous exposure to the keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) antigen and high ambient temperature (Ta). At 34°C (and at 23°C, used as a control), KLH challenge resulted in a transient increase in core body temperature (Tb) in mice of both line types (by approximately 0.4°C). Warm exposure did not produce line-type-dependent differences in Tb (which was consistently higher by ca. 0.6°C in H-BMR mice across both Ta values), nor did it result in the suppression of antibody synthesis. These findings were also supported by the lack of between-line-type differences in the mass of the thymus, spleen or lymph nodes. Warm exposure induced the downsizing of heat-generating internal organs (small intestine, liver and kidneys) and an increase in intrascapular brown adipose tissue mass. However, these changes were similar in scope in both line types. Mounting a humoral immune response in selected mice was therefore not affected by ambient temperature. Thus, a combined metabolic challenge of high Ta and an immune response did not appreciably compromise the capacity to dissipate heat, even in the H-BMR mice. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. A pilot study of traditional indoor biomass cooking and heating in rural Bhutan: gas and particle concentrations and emission rates. (United States)

    Wangchuk, T; He, C; Knibbs, L D; Mazaheri, M; Morawska, L


    Although many studies have reported the health effects of biomass fuels in developing countries, relatively few have quantitatively characterized emissions from biomass stoves during cooking and heating. The aim of this pilot study was to characterize the emission characteristics of different biomass stoves in four rural houses in Bhutan during heating (metal chimney stove), rice cooking (traditional mud stove), fodder preparation (stone tripod stove), and liquor distillation (traditional mud stove). Three stage measurements (before, during, and after the activity had ceased) were conducted for PM2.5 , particle number (PN), CO, and CO2 . When stoves were operated, the pollutant concentrations were significantly elevated above background levels, by an average of 40 and 18 times for PM2.5 and CO, respectively. Emission rates (mg/min) ranged from 1.07 × 102 (PM2.5 ) and 3.50 × 102 (CO) for the stone tripod stove during fodder preparation to 6.20 × 102 (PM2.5 ) and 2.22 × 103 (CO) for the traditional mud stove during liquor distillation. Usable PN data were only available for one house, during heating using a metal chimney stove, which presented an emission rate of 3.24 × 1013 particles/min. Interventions to control household air pollution in Bhutan, in order to reduce the health risks associated with cooking and heating, are recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ```` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  9. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  10. Thermal performance analysis of a solar heating plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Andersen, Ola Lie

    Detailed measurements were carried out on a large scale solar heating plant located in southern Denmark in order to evaluate thermal performances of the plant. Based on the measurements, energy flows of the plant were evaluated. A modified Trnsys model of the Marstal solar heating plant...... was developed to calculate thermal performances of the plant. In the Trnsys model, three solar collector fields with a total solar collector area of 33,300 m2, a seasonal water pit heat storage of 75,000 m3, a simplified CO2 HP, a simplified ORC unit and a simplified wood chip boiler were included. The energy...... consumption of the district heating net was modeled by volume flow rate and given forward and return temperatures of the district heating net. Weather data from a weather station at the site of the plant were used in the calculations. The Trnsys calculated yearly thermal performance of the solar heating plant...

  11. Deformation behaviour in advanced heat resistant materials during slow strain rate testing at elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Calmunger


    Full Text Available In this study, slow strain rate tensile testing at elevated temperature is used to evaluate the influence of temperature and strain rate on deformation behaviour in two different austenitic alloys. One austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L and one nickel-base alloy (Alloy 617 have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy related techniques as electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattering diffraction have been used to study the damage and fracture micromechanisms. For both alloys the dominante damage micromechanisms are slip bands and planar slip interacting with grain bounderies or precipitates causing strain concentrations. The dominante fracture micromechanism when using a slow strain rate at elevated temperature, is microcracks at grain bounderies due to grain boundery embrittlement caused by precipitates. The decrease in strain rate seems to have a small influence on dynamic strain ageing at 650°C.

  12. Net Gain: A New Method for Preventing Malaria Deaths | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa, reports IDRC's new publication, Net Gain. Studies conducted in Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age by up to 63 percent. Net Gain reviews and ...

  13. Optimization of the RF cavity heat load and trip rates for CEBAF at 12 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Freyberger, Arne P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Terzic, Balsa P. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)


    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at JLab has 200 RF cavities in the north linac and the south linac respectively after the 12 GeV upgrade. The purpose of this work is to simultaneously optimize the heat load and the trip rate for the cavities and to reconstruct the pareto-optimal front in a timely manner when some of the cavities are turned down. By choosing an efficient optimizer and strategically creating the initial gradients, the pareto-optimal front for no more than 15 cavities down can be re-established within 20 seconds.

  14. Theoretical prediction of the effect of heat transfer parameters on cooling rates of liquid-filled plastic straws used for cryopreservation of spermatozoa. (United States)

    Sansinen, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Baez, R; Chirife, J


    Heat transfer plays a key role in cryopreservation of liquid semen in plastic straws. The effect of several parameters on the cooling rate of a liquid-filled polypropylene straw when plunged into liquid nitrogen was investigated using a theoretical model. The geometry of the straw containing the liquid was assimilated as two concentric finite cylinders of different materials: the fluid and the straw; the unsteady-state heat conduction equation for concentric cylinders was numerically solved. Parameters studied include external (convection) heat transfer coefficient (h), the thermal properties of straw manufacturing material and wall thickness. It was concluded that the single most important parameter affecting the cooling rate of a liquid column contained in a straw is the external heat transfer coefficient in LN2. Consequently, in order to attain maximum cooling rates, conditions have to be designed to obtain the highest possible heat transfer coefficient when the plastic straw is plunged in liquid nitrogen.

  15. Heat Production and Storage Are Positively Correlated with Measures of Body Size/Composition and Heart Rate Drift during Vigorous Running (United States)

    Buresh, Robert; Berg, Kris; Noble, John


    The purposes of this study were to determine the relationships between: (a) measures of body size/composition and heat production/storage, and (b) heat production/storage and heart rate (HR) drift during running at 95 % of the velocity that elicited lactate threshold, which was determined for 20 healthy recreational male runners. Subsequently,…

  16. Effects of heating and cooling rate on transformation behaviors in weld heat affected zone of low carbon steel; Teitanso koban no yosetsu netsu eikyobu no hentai kyodo ni oyobosu kanetsu reikyaku sokudo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanetsuki, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    Discussions were given on effects of welding heat cycles on transformation behaviors in a weld heat affected zone (HAZ). Test pieces are low-carbon fine ferrite pearlite organization steel sheets, which have been treated with a thermomechanical control process (TMCP). The heat cycling was experimented at a maximum temperature of 1350 degC by using a high-frequency heating coil, heating rates from 0.15 to 200 degC/s, cooling rates from 10 to 80 degC/s at an elevated temperature region (higher than 900 degC), and transformation regions (lower than 900 degC) from 0.5 to 6 degC. A transformation curve in actual welding heat cycling was interpreted from these results. Shear-type inverse transformation (from ferrite to austenite) occurs in a rate region corresponding to the heating rate realized during welding. Austenite containing internal stress and a lower structure formed by this inverse transformation accelerates transformation into grain boundary ferrite (GBF) and acerous ferrite (AF). On the other hand, slow cooling in the elevated temperature region releases the internal stress, restores the lower structure, and suppresses the GBF and AF transformation. The GBF tends to precipitate pearlite in adjacent regions and deteriorates the HAZ tenacity. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Flat rate accounting in district heat supply; Pauschalabrechnung in der Fernwaermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, V. [Veba Kraftwerke AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)


    In the form of laws and decrees of recent years, the energy political fundamentals in Germany have resulted in a substantial reduction in energy input as well as in environment relative emissions. For example, the `Thermal Protection Law` was revised and came into effect in 1995. Its objective is to cut the energy input for new buildings by at least 30% over the old regulation. A further 30% reduction for new buildings is planned for 1999 by a new energy conservation decree. In addition to the anticipated drop in consumption, the deregulation of the energy market will lead to pressure on costs and prices and consequently to a further depletion of the competitiveness of district heat. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die verstaerkten Anforderungen an den Gebaeudewaermeschutz sowie die anstehende Liberalisierung des Energiemarktes machen den Anschluss von Gebaeuden im kleineren Leistungsbereich wirtschaftlich immer schwieriger. Fernwaermeversorger, die Waerme aus Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung bereitstellen und daher mit hohen Festkosten belastet sind, muessen alle sich bietenden Moeglichkeiten zur Kostenreduzierung ausschoepfen, um wettbewerbsfaehig zu bleiben. Der Autor stellt die Wiedereinfuehrung der Pauschalabrechnung als eine preisgestalterische Variante zur Kostenreduzierung vor. Dabei geht er auf die rechtlichen Voraussetzungen und die Umsetzung bei neugebauten und bereits versorgten Einfamilienhaeuser ein. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of heat stress response in crossbred dairy cows under tropical climate by analysis of heart rate variability. (United States)

    Bun, Chan; Watanabe, Youki; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Naoko; Ieda, Nahoko; Matsuda, Fuko; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Ohkura, Satoshi; Pheng, Vutha


    The present study aims to examine the effect of tropical temperatures on autonomic nervous activity in Cambodian dairy cattle by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Holter-type electrocardiograms were recorded in adult crossbred cows (Cambodian native × Holstein) either in a sheltered area or under direct sunlight. Rectal temperatures and heart rates increased in animals under direct sunlight as compared to those in the shelter. The power spectral analysis of HRV revealed that three out of the five cows studied underwent a decrease in parasympathetic nervous activity under direct sunlight with the remaining two cows showing no apparent change. The HRV analysis would prove to be a useful tool to reveal information about heat tolerance in dairy cows.

  19. Fluence rate as a determinant of synergistic interaction under simultaneous action of UV light and mild heat in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Petin, V G; Zhurakovskaya, G P; Komarova, L N


    In experiments with wild-type diploid yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synergistic lethal action of a simultaneous application of ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength, 254 nm) and mild heat (45-57.5 degrees C) was studied. It was shown that, at any fixed UV light intensity, the synergistic effect occurred within the given temperature interval. The optimal temperature to achieve the greatest synergistic effect may be shown for every fluence rate examined. The correlation between the optimal temperature that maximized the synergy and UV light intensity was estimated: this temperature shifted towards higher temperature values with an increasing fluence rate. A possible interpretation of this effect is based on the supposition that the mechanism of the synergistic effect is related to additional lethal damage produced by the interaction of sublesions induced by each agent. These sublesions are supposed to be non-lethal when each agent is applied separately.

  20. Consistency between Sweat Rate and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature for the Assessment of Heat Stress of People Working Outdoor in Arid and Semi-arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Heidari


    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is common among workers in arid and semi-arid areas. In order to take every preventive measure to protect exposed workers against heat-related disorders, it is crucial to choose an appropriate index that accurately relates environmental parameters to physiological responses. Objective: To investigate the consistency between 2 heat stress and strain indices, ie, sweat rate and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, for the assessment of heat stress of people working outdoor in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. Methods: During spring and summer, 136 randomly selected outdoor workers were enrolled in this study. Using a defined protocol, the sweat rate of these workers was measured 3 times a day. Simultaneously, the environmental parameters including WBGT index were recorded for each working station. Results: The level of agreement between sweat rate and WBGT was poor (κ<0.2. Based on sweat rate, no case exceeding the reference value was observed during the study. WBGT overestimated the heat stress in outdoor workers compared to sweat rate. Conclusion: It seems that the sweat rate standards may need some modifications related to real condition of work in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. Moreover, it seems that judging workers solely based on monitoring their sweat rate in such regions, can probably result in underestimation of heat stress.

  1. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong


    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  2. Multiplatform analysis of the radiative effects and heating rates for an intense dust storm on 21 June 2007 (United States)

    Naeger, Aaron R.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Johnson, Ben T.


    Dust radiative effects and atmospheric heating rates are investigated for a Saharan dust storm on 21 June 2007 using a combination of multiple satellite data sets and ground and aircraft observations as input into a delta-four stream radiative transfer model (RTM). This combines the strengths of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations and CloudSat satellites and in situ aircraft data to characterize the vertical structure of the dust layers (5 km in height with optical depths between 1.5 and 2.0) and underlying low-level water clouds. These observations were used, along with Aerosol Robotic Network retrievals of aerosol optical properties, as input to the RTM to assess the surface, atmosphere, and top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave aerosol radiative effects (SWAREs). Our results show that the dust TOA SWARE per unit aerosol optical depth was -56 W m-2 in cloud-free conditions over ocean and +74 W m-2 where the dust overlay low-level clouds, and show heating rates greater than 10 K/d. Additional case studies also confirm the results of the 21 June case. This study shows the importance of identifying clouds beneath dust as they can have a significant impact on the radiative effects of dust, and hence assessments of the role of dust aerosol on the energy budget and climate.

  3. A stock-flow consistent input-output model with applications to energy price shocks, interest rates, and heat emissions (United States)

    Berg, Matthew; Hartley, Brian; Richters, Oliver


    By synthesizing stock-flow consistent models, input-output models, and aspects of ecological macroeconomics, a method is developed to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. This paper highlights the linkages between the physical environment and the economic system by emphasizing the role of the energy industry. A conceptual model is developed in general form with an arbitrary number of sectors, while emphasizing connections with the agent-based, econophysics, and complexity economics literature. First, we use the model to challenge claims that 0% interest rates are a necessary condition for a stationary economy and conduct a stability analysis within the parameter space of interest rates and consumption parameters of an economy in stock-flow equilibrium. Second, we analyze the role of energy price shocks in contributing to recessions, incorporating several propagation and amplification mechanisms. Third, implied heat emissions from energy conversion and the effect of anthropogenic heat flux on climate change are considered in light of a minimal single-layer atmosphere climate model, although the model is only implicitly, not explicitly, linked to the economic model.

  4. Comparison of heat transfer in liquid and slush nitrogen by numerical simulation of cooling rates for French straws used for sperm cryopreservation. (United States)

    Sansinena, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J


    Slush nitrogen (SN(2)) is a mixture of solid nitrogen and liquid nitrogen, with an average temperature of -207 °C. To investigate whether plunging a French plastic straw (commonly used for sperm cryopreservation) in SN(2) substantially increases cooling rates with respect to liquid nitrogen (LN(2)), a numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was used to predict cooling rates. Calculations performed using heat transfer coefficients in the range of film boiling confirmed the main benefit of plunging a straw in slush over LN(2) did not arise from their temperature difference (-207 vs. -196 °C), but rather from an increase in the external heat transfer coefficient. Numerical simulations using high heat transfer (h) coefficients (assumed to prevail in SN(2)) suggested that plunging in SN(2) would increase cooling rates of French straw. This increase of cooling rates was attributed to a less or null film boiling responsible for low heat transfer coefficients in liquid nitrogen when the straw is placed in the solid-liquid mixture or slush. In addition, predicted cooling rates of French straws in SN(2) tended to level-off for high h values, suggesting heat transfer was dictated by heat conduction within the liquid filled plastic straw. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.


    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  6. Enhanced specific absorption rate of bi-magnetic nanoparticles for heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammad, Mohaned; Hempelmann, Rolf, E-mail:


    Truncated octahedron bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles of Zn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Zn{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with different size distributions have been synthesized, and their structural and magnetic properties have been studied. The structure and morphology of the core/shell nanostructures were established by using X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Dark field-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The Curie temperature increases with the increase of particle size from 360 K to 394 K. The experimental results showed that core/shell nanoparticles have a higher specific absorption rate compared to the core ones. These nanoparticles are interfacial exchange coupled between hard and soft magnetic phases. We demonstrated that the specific absorption rate could be tuned by the concentration of precursor and the synthesis time. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Zn{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by seed-mediated growth method. • Exchange-coupling between magnetic hard and soft phase of the magnetic nanoparticles affects the specific absorption rate. • The specific absorption rate could be tuned by the concentration of precursor and the synthesis time. • An increase of the core/shell magnetic nanoparticles size resulted in the increase of Curie temperature.

  7. Pyrolysis behavior of tire-derived fuels at different temperatures and heating rates. (United States)

    Unapumnuk, Kessinee; Keener, Tim C; Lu, Mingming; Khang, Soon-Jai


    Pyrolytic product distribution rates and pyrolysis behavior of tire-derived fuels (TDF) were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) techniques. A TGA was designed and built to investigate the behavior and products of pyrolysis of typical TDF specimens. The fundamental knowledge of TGA analysis and principal fuel analysis are applied in this study. Thermogravimetry of the degradation temperature of the TDF confirms the overall decomposition rate of the volatile products during the depolymerization reaction. The principal fuel analysis (proximate and ultimate analysis) of the pyrolytic char products show the correlation of volatilization into the gas and liquid phases and the existence of fixed carbon and other compounds that remain as a solid char. The kinetic parameters were calculated using least square with minimizing sum of error square technique. The results show that the average kinetic parameters of TDF are the activation energy, E = 1322 +/- 244 kJ/mol, a pre-exponential constant of A = 2.06 +/- 3.47 x 10(10) min(-1), and a reaction order n = 1.62 +/- 0.31. The model-predicted rate equations agree with the experimental data. The overall TDF weight conversion represents the carbon weight conversion in the sample.

  8. Estimation of diurnal and seasonal variations of LTE radiative heating rates based on MGS/TES nadir temperature measurements (United States)

    Meister, C.-V.

    Recently, even the description of the radiation transport in the martian atmosphere at lower altitudes below 50 km, where non-LTE effects are not so important, demands for a further development. The up to now existing LTE radiation transport models have two main foundations. On the one hand, there exists the semiempirical theory basing on laboratory experiments. This theory may be used very effectively, but in case of the mainly carbon-dioxide atmosphere of the mars, the results are rather uncertain. In general circulation models like the model MART-ACC, the corresponding radiative heating coefficients are thus multiplied by correction factors varying with the daytime, latitude, altitude and season by at least two orders. On the other hand, there exists the time-consuming method of solving the radiation transport problem using the more exact line-by-line algorithm for the multilevel and multi-molecular rotational-vibrational non-LTE problem (e.g. the ALIRET numerical programme by Kutepov and Feofilov, or the code developed by López-Valverde et al.). The accuracy of newly developed accelerated line-by-line codes increases with the altitude above the planetary surface. Remains again the problem of the calculation of the LTE-heating rates at lower altitudes. Thus, in the present work an analysis of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) nadir temperature tables of the Mars Global Surveyor Data Archives distributed by the NASA planetary data system (http;// is performed for the four seasons. On the basis of the observed altitudinal and latitudinal temperature profiles, the heating rates of the martian atmosphere in an altitudinal range between 1.4 km and 42 km above the surface of the planet are calculated separately for daytime and nighttime using an LTE line-by-line code (equal to the description of the initial state of the ALIRET programme by Feofilov and Kutepov (2002)). The results for the heating coefficients are compared with

  9. Effects of Heating and Cooling Rates on Phase Transformations in 10 Wt Pct Ni Steel and Their Application to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (United States)

    Barrick, Erin J.; Jain, Divya; DuPont, John N.; Seidman, David N.


    10 wt pct Ni steel is a high-strength steel that possesses good ballistic resistance from the deformation induced transformation of austenite to martensite, known as the transformation-induced-plasticity effect. The effects of rapid heating and cooling rates associated with welding thermal cycles on the phase transformations and microstructures, specifically in the heat-affected zone, were determined using dilatometry, microhardness, and microstructural characterization. Heating rate experiments demonstrate that the Ac3 temperature is dependent on heating rate, varying from 1094 K (821 °C) at a heating rate of 1 °C/s to 1324 K (1051 °C) at a heating rate of 1830 °C/s. A continuous cooling transformation diagram produced for 10 wt pct Ni steel reveals that martensite will form over a wide range of cooling rates, which reflects a very high hardenability of this alloy. These results were applied to a single pass, autogenous, gas tungsten arc weld. The diffusion of nickel from regions of austenite to martensite during the welding thermal cycle manifests itself in a muddled, rod-like lath martensitic microstructure. The results of these studies show that the nickel enrichment of the austenite in 10 wt pct Ni steel plays a critical role in phase transformations during welding.

  10. Effects of Heating and Cooling Rates on Phase Transformations in 10 Wt Pct Ni Steel and Their Application to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (United States)

    Barrick, Erin J.; Jain, Divya; DuPont, John N.; Seidman, David N.


    10 wt pct Ni steel is a high-strength steel that possesses good ballistic resistance from the deformation induced transformation of austenite to martensite, known as the transformation-induced-plasticity effect. The effects of rapid heating and cooling rates associated with welding thermal cycles on the phase transformations and microstructures, specifically in the heat-affected zone, were determined using dilatometry, microhardness, and microstructural characterization. Heating rate experiments demonstrate that the Ac3 temperature is dependent on heating rate, varying from 1094 K (821 °C) at a heating rate of 1 °C/s to 1324 K (1051 °C) at a heating rate of 1830 °C/s. A continuous cooling transformation diagram produced for 10 wt pct Ni steel reveals that martensite will form over a wide range of cooling rates, which reflects a very high hardenability of this alloy. These results were applied to a single pass, autogenous, gas tungsten arc weld. The diffusion of nickel from regions of austenite to martensite during the welding thermal cycle manifests itself in a muddled, rod-like lath martensitic microstructure. The results of these studies show that the nickel enrichment of the austenite in 10 wt pct Ni steel plays a critical role in phase transformations during welding.

  11. Research of Heat Rates Effect on the Process Of Fuel-Bed Gasification Of “Balakhtinskoe”, “Osinnikovskoe”, “Krasnogorskoe” and “Borodinskoe” Coal Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey


    Full Text Available Experimental research of fuel-bed gasification at different heating rates was conducted. Release of four gases (CO, NO, H2O, CO2 was determined. Optimal heating rate mode for this method of gasification was established.

  12. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon


    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  13. The fluence rate determines the synergistic interaction of UV radiation and heat for mitotic recombination and cell inactivation in yeasts. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Komarova, Ludmila N; Zhurakovskaya, Galina P; Petin, Vladislav G


    The significance of the UV fluence rate for the synergistic interaction of UV light (254 nm) and heat was demonstrated for the frequency of mitotic recombination in a wild-type diploid yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain T1) and for cell inactivation of two wild-type diploid yeast of S. cerevisiae (strains T1, XS800). It was shown for mitotic recombination that a decrease in the intensity of UV exposure results in the necessity of decreasing the temperature at which UV irradiation occurs to provide the same value of the synergistic enhancement ratio. For cell inactivation, there was a specific temperature maximizing the synergistic effect for any constant fluence rate and the temperature range, synergistically increasing the inactivation effect of UV radiation, should be shifted to lower temperatures with a decrease in the fluence rate. To interpret the results observed, a simple mathematical model of the synergistic interaction was applied. The model suggests that the synergistic interaction of UV light and hyperthermia is expected to result from some additional effective damages arising from the interaction of some sublesions induced by both agents. On the basis of data obtained, it was supposed that the synergistic interaction of these factors might take place at small intensities of UV light and temperatures existing in the biosphere. In other words, for a long duration of interaction, which is important for problems of UV light protection and health effects, one can expect a synergistic interaction of this factor with environmental heat or physiological temperatures and thereby an increase in their inactivating and genetic consequences.

  14. Heating rate effect on the evolution of texture in (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 Ag-sheathed tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, J.C.; Raittila, J.; Xu, G.J.


    Bi2223/Ag tapes have been produced by the powder-in-tube technique. The evolution of texture during the first heat treatment has been studied by means of in situ synchrotron radiation diffraction. Using various heating rates (1, 2 and 4 degrees C min(-1)), it wag found that the kinetics of prefer......Bi2223/Ag tapes have been produced by the powder-in-tube technique. The evolution of texture during the first heat treatment has been studied by means of in situ synchrotron radiation diffraction. Using various heating rates (1, 2 and 4 degrees C min(-1)), it wag found that the kinetics...... in a faster disappearance of the Bi2212 phase, which in turn is supposed to induce a faster rate of liquid phase formation at the beginning of the reaction process leading to the development of the Bi2223 phase. This feature is also believed to play a role in the texturing kinetics....

  15. Fuel-disruption experiments under high-ramp-rate heating conditions. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, S.A.; Worledge, D.H.; Cano, G.L.; Mast, P.K.; Briscoe, F.


    This topical report presents the preliminary results and analysis of the High Ramp Rate fuel-disruption experiment series. These experiments were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the timing and mode of fuel disruption during the prompt-burst phase of a loss-of-flow accident. High-speed cinematography was used to observe the timing and mode of the fuel disruption in a stack of five fuel pellets. Of the four experiments discussed, one used fresh mixed-oxide fuel, and three used irradiated mixed-oxide fuel. Analysis of the experiments indicates that in all cases, the observed disruption occurred well before fuel-vapor pressure was high enough to cause the disruption. The disruption appeared as a rapid spray-like expansion and occurred near the onset of fuel melting in the irradiated-fuel experiments and near the time of complete fuel melting in the fresh-fuel experiment. This early occurrence of fuel disruption is significant because it can potentially lower the work-energy release resulting from a prompt-burst disassembly accident.

  16. A design method of axially grooved heat pipes embedded in equipment panel for communication satellite (United States)

    Miyasaka, Akihiro; Nakajima, Katsuhiko

    A calculation method of the maximum heat load for an axially grooved heat pipe which is embedded in a honeycomb sandwich panel with multipoint heating is developed by considering the estimation of heat flux rate along the heat pipe. A thermal mathematical model for the panel is also used to estimate the net heat input to the heat pipe. The maximum heat loads predicted for the heat pipe embedded in the panel show good agreement with the data obtained from tests which has been performed in a vacuum chamber. A minimum weight design method for rectangular grooved heat pipes which satisfied heat transport capabilities required are also proposed as a result of this study.

  17. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak


    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  18. Turbulent Density Fluctuations and Proton Heating Rate in the Solar Wind from 9–20 R ⊙ (United States)

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Subramanian, Prasad; Ramesh, R.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Ingale, Madhusudan


    We obtain scatter-broadened images of the Crab Nebula at 80 MHz as it transits through the inner solar wind in 2017 and 2016 June. These images are anisotropic, with the major axis oriented perpendicular to the radially outward coronal magnetic field. Using these data, we deduce that the density modulation index (δ {N}e/{N}e) caused by turbulent density fluctuations in the solar wind ranges from 1.9× {10}-3 to 7.7× {10}-3 between 9 and 20 R ⊙. We also find that the heating rate of solar wind protons at these distances ranges from 2.2× {10}-13 to 1.0× {10}-11 {erg} {{cm}}-3 {{{s}}}-1. On two occasions, the line of sight intercepted a coronal streamer. We find that the presence of the streamer approximately doubles the thickness of the scattering screen.

  19. Estimation of the dust production rate from the tungsten armour after repetitive ELM-like heat loads (United States)

    Pestchanyi, S.; Garkusha, I.; Makhlaj, V.; Landman, I.


    Experimental simulations for the erosion rate of tungsten targets under ITER edge-localized mode (ELM)-like surface heat loads of 0.75 MJ m-2 causing surface melting and of 0.45 MJ m-2 without melting have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 plasma accelerator. Analytical considerations allow us to conclude that for both energy deposition values the erosion mechanism is solid dust ejection during surface cracking under the action of thermo-stress. Tungsten influx into the ITER containment of NW~5×1018 W per medium size ELM of 0.75 MJ m-2 and 0.25 ms time duration has been estimated. The radiation cooling power of Prad=150-300 MW due to such influx of tungsten is intolerable: it should cool the ITER core to 1 keV within a few seconds.

  20. Flow and heat transfer of nanofluids over a rotating disk with uniform stretching rate in the radial direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Yin


    Full Text Available This paper studies flow and heat transfer of nanofluids over a rotating disk with uniform stretching rate. Three types of nanoparticles-Cu, Al2O3 and CuO-with water-based nanofluids are considered. The governing equations are reduced by Von Karman transformation and then solved by the homotopy analysis method (HAM, which is in close agreement with numerical results. Results indicate that with increasing in stretching strength parameter, the skin friction and the local Nusselt number, the velocity in radial and axial directions increase, whereas the velocity in tangential direction and the thermal boundary layer thickness decrease, respectively. Moreover, the effects of volume fraction and types of nanofluids on velocity and temperature fields are also analyzed.

  1. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Passalacqua


    Full Text Available Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF, which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice–bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km  ×  130 km area, with a N–S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m−2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  2. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling (United States)

    Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Parrenin, Frédéric; Urbini, Stefano; Frezzotti, Massimo


    Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF), which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice-bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km × 130 km area, with a N-S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m-2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  3. Impact of heat stress on conception rate of dairy cows in the moderate climate considering different temperature-humidity index thresholds, periods relative to breeding, and heat load indices. (United States)

    Schüller, L K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W


    The objectives of this retrospective study were to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and conception rate (CR) of lactating dairy cows, to estimate a threshold for this relationship, and to identify periods of exposure to heat stress relative to breeding in an area of moderate climate. In addition, we compared three different heat load indices related to CR: mean THI, maximum THI, and number of hours above the mean THI threshold. The THI threshold for the influence of heat stress on CR was 73. It was statistically chosen based on the observed relationship between the mean THI at the day of breeding and the resulting CR. Negative effects of heat stress, however, were already apparent at lower levels of THI, and 1 hour of mean THI of 73 or more decreased the CR significantly. The CR of lactating dairy cows was negatively affected by heat stress both before and after the day of breeding. The greatest negative impact of heat stress on CR was observed 21 to 1 day before breeding. When the mean THI was 73 or more in this period, CR decreased from 31% to 12%. Compared with the average maximum THI and the total number of hours above a threshold of more than or 9 hours, the mean THI was the most sensitive heat load index relating to CR. These results indicate that the CR of dairy cows raised in the moderate climates is highly affected by heat stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sweating rate and sweat composition during exercise and recovery in ambient heat and humidity. (United States)

    McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J; Hare, M J; Ecker, G L; Lindinger, M I


    The objective of this study was to determine the composition and extent of sweat losses during submaximal exercise under hot and humid conditions and to compare these findings with the same exercise protocol conducted under cool, dry and hot, dry conditions. Five Thoroughbred horses (age 3 to 6) completed exercise tests under each of 3 environmental conditions in random order: cool, dry (CD), room temperature (T) = 20 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) = 45-55%; hot, dry (HD), T = 32-34 degrees C, RH = 45-55%; and hot, humid (HH), T = 32-34 degrees C, RH = 80-85%. Horses exercised at 50% of their predetermined VO2max on a treadmill set at a 10% slope until attainment of a pulmonary artery blood temperature of 41.5 degrees C followed by a 60 min recovery. Sweat was collected from a sealed polyethylene pouch enclosing a 150 cm2 area on the lateral thorax. During exercise and the first 30 min of recovery, sweat fluid losses were 7.9 +/- 0.7 litres, 9.9 +/- 0.5 litres and 6.6 +/- 1.2 litres (mean +/- s.e.m.) for CD, HD and HH, respectively. Sweating rate (SR), calculated from sweat volume per unit area of enclosed skin, was lowest in CD and similar in HD and HH during exercise such that at end of exercise in HH (16.5 min) calculated sweat losses were approximately 5% and 32% higher than in HD and CD, respectively. In recovery, SR declined in all conditions but was significantly lower in CD (P Sweating was detectable until 30 min recovery in CD, 45 min recovery in HD and 60 min recovery in HH. Sweat composition and osmolality was different under the 3 environmental conditions and changed gradually during exercise and recovery in all conditions. Osmolality and [Na] was highest in HD and lowest in CD. During exercise, [Na] increased with increasing SR. Although exercise duration was significantly decreased in HH (16.5 +/- 1 min) when compared to HD (28 +/- 2 min) and CD (37 +/- 2 min), fluid and ion losses in HH were comparable to those in HD as a result of a high SR and

  5. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles. (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G


    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  6. A study of nuclear plant heat rate optimization using nonlinear artificial intelligence and linear statistical analysis models (United States)

    Irvine, Claude A.

    The emphasis of this dissertation is on developing methods by which a combination of multivariate analysis techniques (MAT) and artificial intelligence (AI) procedures can be adapted to on-line, real time monitoring systems for improving nuclear plant thermal efficiency. Present-day first principle models involve performing a heat balance of plant systems and the reactor coolant system. Typical variables involved in the plant data acquisition system usually number one-to-two thousand. The goal of the current work is twofold. First, simulate the heat rate with MAT and AI computer models. The second objective is to selectively reduce the number of predictors to only the most important variables, induce small perturbations around normal operating levels, and evaluate changes in the magnitude of plant efficiency. It is anticipated that making small changes will improve the thermal efficiency of the plant and lead to supplementary cost savings. Conclusions of this report are several. A sensitivity analysis showed the reduction of input variables by dimensionality reduction, i.e., principal component analysis or factor analysis, removes valuable information. Predictors can simply be eliminated from the input space, but dimensionality reduction of the input matrix is not an alternative option. However, perturbation modeling does require data to be standardized and collinear variables removed. Filtering of input data is not recommended except to remove outliers. It's ascertained that perturbation or sensitivity analysis differs from prediction modeling in that two additional requirements are necessary besides the criterion prediction. One is the magnitude of the criterion result given an input perturbation, and second, is the directionality of the model. Directionality is defined as the positive or negative movement of the heat rate (criterion) given a predetermined increase/decrease in predictor value, or input perturbation. While the criterion prediction is still

  7. A qualitative study on caretakers' perceived need of bed-nets after reduced malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Netta


    heat barrier by using nets with larger mesh sizes and ensuring high bed-net ownership rates through sustainable and affordable delivery mechanisms.

  8. Effect of higher heating rate during continuous annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-rolled 590 MPa dual-phase steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Yonggang


    Full Text Available In this presentation, the effect of higher heating rate in continuous annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a cold-rolled 590 MPa ferrite-martensite dual-phase steel were investigated by using microstructural observation and mechanical property measurement. The results show that compared with the conventional continuous annealed steels heated at a rate of 5 ∘C/s (CA, the average ferrite grain sizes heated at a higher rate (300 ∘C/s, HRA was obviously refined from 15.6 μm to 5.3 μm. The morphology of martensite is observed to shift from network along ferrite grain boundaries to uniformly dispersed in the final DP590 microstructure. Twinned substructure of martensite can be found when heated at a higher heating rate in continuous annealing. EBSD orientation maps show that the fraction of low angle grain boundary is increased in HRA sample compared to CA sample. The HRA sample has excellent mechanical properties when compared to the CA sample. The variations of strength, elongation, strain hardening behavior and fracture mechanism of the this DP590 steel with different heating routine were further discussed in relation to microstructural features.

  9. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine


    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. WaveNet (United States)


    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt


    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  12. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael


    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  13. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex


    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  14. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie


    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  15. Factorial design for the evaluation of the interaction effect between particle size and heating rate in the kinetic energy of coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ivonete; Silva, Eugenio A.G.; Mortari, Daniela A.; Crnkovic, Paula M.; Milioli, Fernando E. [University of Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Engineering School. Group of Thermal and Fluids Engineering], Emails:,,,


    This paper evaluates the behavior of kinetic energy for different heating rates ({alpha}) and particle sizes of the material in the study of the coal combustion process. It aims to obtain a response surface in a large range of particle size, using heating rates between the minimum and maximum values allowed by the equipment. Therefore it searches for a model to evaluate the interaction effect between particle size and the heating rate and to predict the activation energy of the process studied. The activation energy of the process was determined using the isoconversional model Model Free Kinetics. In this model, the activation energy (E{sub {alpha}}) is obtained as a function of the reaction extent ({alpha}). The subscript in E{sub {alpha}} designates the values related to a given value of conversion ({alpha}). All experiments were conducted in thermogravimetric balance using samples of a Brazilian coal (EC4500) witch average particle size between 163 to 650 {mu}m and heating rates between 10 and 40 deg C min{sup -1} in dynamic atmosphere of air. A central rotatable composite design was applied for the 2{sup 2} factorial design including 4 tests under the axial conditions and 3 repetitions in the central point. As expected, the results show that both the particle size and the heating rate affected significantly the values of activation energy of the coal combustion process obtained by the model used. (author)

  16. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva


    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes...... in the NPQ determined the PSII operating efficiency, with no major change in the fraction of open PSII centres (qL) (indicating a QA redox state). We conclude that 1) chrysanthemum plants cope with excess irradiance by non-radiative dissipation or a reversible stress response, with the effect on the Pn...

  17. Orbital heat rate package (United States)

    Lovin, J. K.; Spradley, L. W.


    Package consisting of three separate programs used to accurately predict temperature distribution of spacecraft in planetary orbit is invaluable tool for design and analysis of other structures that must function in complex thermal environment.

  18. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M


    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  19. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette


    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  20. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)


    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.

  1. Net neutrality towards a co-regulatory solution

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Christopher T


    In considering market developments and policy responses to some of the most heated net-neutrality debates in Europe and the United States, Net Neutrality is the first, fully comprehensive overview of the subject. This book is also unique in providing readers with a supplementary outline of recommended policy prescriptives.

  2. The development and initial validation of a virtual dripping sweat rate and a clothing wetness ratio for use in predictive heat strain models. (United States)

    Kubota, H; Kuwabara, K; Hamada, Y


    This paper applies the heat balance equation (HBE) for clothed subjects as a linear function of mean skin temperature (t sk ) by a new sweating efficiency (η sw ) and an approximation for the thermoregulatory sweat rate. The equation predicting t sk in steady state conditions was derived as the solution of the HBE and used for a predictive heat strain scale. The heat loss from the wet clothing (WCL) area was identified with a new variable of 'virtual dripping sweat rate VDSR' (S wdr ). This is a subject's un-evaporated sweat rate in dry clothing from the regional sweat rate exceeding the maximum evaporative capacity, and adds the moisture to the clothing, reducing the intrinsic clothing insulation. The S wdr allowed a mass balance analysis of the wet clothing area identified as clothing wetness (w cl ). The w cl was derived by combining the HBE at the WCL surface from which the evaporation rate and skin heat loss from WCL region are given. Experimental results on eight young male subjects wearing typical summer clothing, T-shirt and trousers verified the model for predicting t sk with WCL thermal resistance (R cl,w ) identified as 25 % of dry clothing (R cl,d ).

  3. The development and initial validation of a virtual dripping sweat rate and a clothing wetness ratio for use in predictive heat strain models (United States)

    Kubota, H.; Kuwabara, K.; Hamada, Y.


    This paper applies the heat balance equation (HBE) for clothed subjects as a linear function of mean skin temperature ( t sk ) by a new sweating efficiency ( η sw ) and an approximation for the thermoregulatory sweat rate. The equation predicting t sk in steady state conditions was derived as the solution of the HBE and used for a predictive heat strain scale. The heat loss from the wet clothing (WCL) area was identified with a new variable of `virtual dripping sweat rate VDSR' ( S wdr ). This is a subject's un-evaporated sweat rate in dry clothing from the regional sweat rate exceeding the maximum evaporative capacity, and adds the moisture to the clothing, reducing the intrinsic clothing insulation. The S wdr allowed a mass balance analysis of the wet clothing area identified as clothing wetness ( w cl ). The w cl was derived by combining the HBE at the WCL surface from which the evaporation rate and skin heat loss from WCL region are given. Experimental results on eight young male subjects wearing typical summer clothing, T-shirt and trousers verified the model for predicting t sk with WCL thermal resistance ( R cl,w ) identified as 25 % of dry clothing ( R cl,d ).

  4. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D


    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  5. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  6. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  7. Modelling the effect of sub(lethal) heat treatment of Bacillus subtilis spores on germination rate and outgrowth to exponentially growing vegetative cells. (United States)

    Smelt, J P P M; Bos, A P; Kort, R; Brul, S


    those of optical density measurements, but there was a difference in quantitative terms. The results have shown that germination rate of spores is dependent on previous heating conditions both in the first stage when phase darkening occurs and also during the later stages of outgrowth when the phase dark spore develops to the vegetative cell.

  8. Thermal protection system gap heating rates of the Rockwell International flat plate heat transfer model (OH2A/OH2B) (United States)

    Foster, T. F.; Lockman, W. K.; Grifall, W. J.


    Heat transfer data for the Rockwell International Flat Plate Thermocouple Model are presented. The model simulated the Space Shuttle Vehicle Thermal Protection System. Data were recorded for locations in and around various size gaps for various gap orientation configurations. The test was conducted at Mach 5.1 for free-stream Reynolds number per foot values from 500,000 to 1,500,000.

  9. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike


    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  10. PhysioNet (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  11. TideNet (United States)


    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  12. Building Neural Net Software


    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix


    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  13. Interaction Nets in Russian


    Salikhmetov, Anton


    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  14. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse


    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  15. Limit cycle relations between the heat production rate and key intermediate concentrations in the oscillating belousov-zhabotinskii and briggs-rauscher reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, W.K.; Miltenburg, J.C. van; Verlaan, M.C.; Schuijff, A.


    Limit cycle relations between heat production rates and oscillating intermediate concentrations are obtained after deconvolution of the calorimetric signal. In the case of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction, the area of the power signal coincides for 60% with the fast, autocatalytic part of the

  16. Role of heat accumulation in the multi-shot damage of silicon irradiated with femtosecond XUV pulses at a 1 Mhz repetition rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajski, R.; Jacyna, I.; Dluzewski, P.; Klepka, M.; Klinger, D.; Pelka, J.B.; Burian, T.; Hajkova, V.; Juha, L.; Saksl, K.; Vozda, V.; Makhotkin, Igor Alexandrovich; Louis, Eric; Faatz, B.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Enkisch, H.; Hermann, M.; Strobel, S.; Loch, R.A.; Chalupsky, J.


    The role played by heat accumulation in multi-shot damage of silicon was studied. Bulk silicon samples were exposed to intense XUV monochromatic radiation of a 13.5 nm wavelength in a series of 400 femtosecond pulses, repeated with a 1 MHz rate (pulse trains) at the FLASH facility in Hamburg. The

  17. Efficient ground-state cooling of an ion in a large room-temperature linear Paul trap with a sub-Hertz heating rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Gregers; Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Drewsen, Michael


    We demonstrate efficient resolved sideband laser cooling (99±1% ground-state population) of a single 40Ca+ ion in a large linear Paul trap (electrode spacing of 7 mm) operated at an rf drive frequency of just 3.7 MHz. For ion oscillation frequencies in the range 280–585 kHz, heating rates below o...

  18. Thermoluminescent response of LiF before variation of the heating rate; Respuesta termoluminiscente de LiF ante variacion de la tasa de calentamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, R. [Facultad de Quimica, UAEM, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Avila, O. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Comparisons of glow curves of lithium fluoride dosemeters TLD-100 measured to two heating rates with the purpose of quantifying the change in the temperature of the peaks 5 and 7 for the thermoluminescent reader equipment Harshaw 4000 of the thermoluminescence laboratory of the ININ were carried out. (Author)

  19. The effect of nonlinearity in CO2 heating rates on the attribution of stratospheric ozone and temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Shepherd


    Full Text Available An analysis of the attribution of past and future changes in stratospheric ozone and temperature to anthropogenic forcings is presented. The analysis is an extension of the study of Shepherd and Jonsson (2008 who analyzed chemistry-climate simulations from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM and attributed both past and future changes to changes in the external forcings, i.e. the abundances of ozone-depleting substances (ODS and well-mixed greenhouse gases. The current study is based on a new CMAM dataset and includes two important changes. First, we account for the nonlinear radiative response to changes in CO2. It is shown that over centennial time scales the radiative response in the upper stratosphere to CO2 changes is significantly nonlinear and that failure to account for this effect leads to a significant error in the attribution. To our knowledge this nonlinearity has not been considered before in attribution analysis, including multiple linear regression studies. For the regression analysis presented here the nonlinearity was taken into account by using CO2 heating rate, rather than CO2 abundance, as the explanatory variable. This approach yields considerable corrections to the results of the previous study and can be recommended to other researchers. Second, an error in the way the CO2 forcing changes are implemented in the CMAM was corrected, which significantly affects the results for the recent past. As the radiation scheme, based on Fomichev et al. (1998, is used in several other models we provide some description of the problem and how it was fixed.

  20. Convective heat-transfer rate distributions over a 140 deg blunt cone at hypersonic speeds in different gas environments (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Chen, Y. K.


    Experiments were conducted in air, CO2, and CO2-argon gas mixtures to obtain heating distribution data over a 140 deg blunt cone with various corner radii. The effect of corner radius on the heating distribution over the forebody of the cone was included in the investigation. These experiments provide data for validation of two-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solutions. Heating distribution data and measured bow shock wave stand-off distances for 0 deg angle of attack were compared with predicted values using a two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code.

  1. The characterization of neural tissue ablation rate and corresponding heat affected zone of a 2 micron Tm3+ doped fiber laser(Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Marques, Andrew J.; Jivraj, Jamil; Reyes, Robnier; Ramjist, Joel; Gu, Xijia J.; Yang, Victor X. D.


    Tissue removal using electrocautery is standard practice in neurosurgery since tissue can be cut and cauterized simultaneously. Thermally mediated tissue ablation using lasers can potentially possess the same benefits but with increased precision. However, given the critical nature of the spine, brain, and nerves, the effects of direct photo-thermal interaction on neural tissue needs to be known, yielding not only high precision of tissue removal but also increased control of peripheral heat damage. The proposed use of lasers as a neurosurgical tool requires that a common ground is found between ablation rates and resulting peripheral heat damage. Most surgical laser systems rely on the conversion of light energy into heat resulting in both desirable and undesirable thermal damage to the targeted tissue. Classifying the distribution of thermal energy in neural tissue, and thus characterizing the extent of undesirable thermal damage, can prove to be exceptionally challenging considering its highly inhomogenous composition when compared to other tissues such as muscle and bone. Here we present the characterization of neural tissue ablation rate and heat affected zone of a 1.94 micron thulium doped fiber laser for neural tissue ablation. In-Vivo ablation of porcine cerebral cortex is performed. Ablation volumes are studied in association with laser parameters. Histological samples are taken and examined to characterize the extent of peripheral heat damage.

  2. Assessment of external heat transfer coefficient during oocyte vitrification in liquid and slush nitrogen using numerical simulations to determine cooling rates. (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J


    In oocyte vitrification, plunging directly into liquid nitrogen favor film boiling and strong nitrogen vaporization. A survey of literature values of heat transfer coefficients (h) for film boiling of small metal objects with different geometries plunged in liquid nitrogen revealed values between 125 to 1000 W per per square m per K. These h values were used in a numerical simulation of cooling rates of two oocyte vitrification devices (open-pulled straw and Cryotop), plunged in liquid and slush nitrogen conditions. Heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was considered a linear mathematical problem and was solved using the finite element method applying the variational formulation. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the cooling process of the systems. Predicted cooling rates for OPS and Cryotop when cooled at -196 degree C (liquid nitrogen) or -207 degree C (average for slush nitrogen) for heat transfer coefficients estimated to be representative of film boiling, indicated lowering the cooling temperature produces only a maximum 10 percent increase in cooling rates; confirming the main benefit of plunging in slush over liquid nitrogen does not arise from their temperature difference. Numerical simulations also demonstrated that a hypothetical four-fold increase in the cooling rate of vitrification devices when plunging in slush nitrogen would be explained by an increase in heat transfer coefficient. This improvement in heat transfer (i.e., high cooling rates) in slush nitrogen is attributed to less or null film boiling when a sample is placed in slush (mixture of liquid and solid nitrogen) because it first melts the solid nitrogen before causing the liquid to boil and form a film.

  3. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus


    improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found....... In both scenarios, the estimated melt rates are larger in HIRHAM than in the driving model....

  4. Taxa alimentar no desempenho de juvenis de robalo-peva em tanque-rede=Feeding rate in the performance of juveniles of fat-snook Centropomus parallelus in net cage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ronzani Cerqueira


    Full Text Available O conhecimento da taxa ótima de alimentação para uma determinada espécie não só é importante para promover o maior crescimento e a melhor eficiência na alimentação, mas também para prevenir a deterioração de qualidade de água como resultado do excesso de alimento. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho do robalo-peva, Centropomus parallelus cultivado em tanques-rede flutuantes sob o efeito de diferentes taxas alimentares (1; 1,5; 2 e 2,5% da biomassa ao dia e a taxa controle que foi até a saciedade, em condições de cultivo no ambiente natural. Durante 40 dias, cada tratamento foi avaliado em triplicatas e foram verificados os parâmetros biológicos (sobrevivência, taxa de crescimento específico, peso e comprimentos médios finais e nutricionais (taxa de conversão alimentar aparente. A análise de regressão polinomial da taxa de crescimento específico sugere que em temperaturas médias de 25°C a taxa alimentar que resulta em melhor crescimento para juvenis de robalo-peva é de 1,7% da biomassa viva por dia.Knowing the optimal feeding rate for a given species is important not only to promote higher growth and greater feeding efficiency, but also to prevent the deterioration of water quality resulting from excess food. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the fat-snook Centropomus parallelus cultivated in net cages under the effect of different feeding rates (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% live biomass daily and control rate up to apparent satiation in natural environment conditions. For 40 days, each treatment was evaluated in triplicate, in which the biological parameters (survival, specific growth rate, final average weight and length and nutritional parameters (feed conversion ratio were assessed. A polynomial regression analysis of specific growth rate suggests that in average temperatures of 25°C, the feeding rate which results in best growth for juvenile fat-snook is 1.7% of live biomass per day.

  5. ITER Generic Diagnostic Upper Port Plug Nuclear Heating and Personnel Dose Rate Assesment Neutronics Analysis using the ATTILA Discrete Ordinates Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell Feder and Mahmoud Z. Yousef


    Neutronics analysis to find nuclear heating rates and personnel dose rates were conducted in support of the integration of diagnostics in to the ITER Upper Port Plugs. Simplified shielding models of the Visible-Infrared diagnostic and of the ECH heating system were incorporated in to the ITER global CAD model. Results for these systems are representative of typical designs with maximum shielding and a small aperture (Vis-IR) and minimal shielding with a large aperture (ECH). The neutronics discrete-ordinates code ATTILA® and SEVERIAN® (the ATTILA parallel processing version) was used. Material properties and the 500 MW D-T volume source were taken from the ITER “Brand Model” MCNP benchmark model. A biased quadrature set equivelant to Sn=32 and a scattering degree of Pn=3 were used along with a 46-neutron and 21-gamma FENDL energy subgrouping. Total nuclear heating (neutron plug gamma heating) in the upper port plugs ranged between 380 and 350 kW for the Vis-IR and ECH cases. The ECH or Large Aperture model exhibited lower total heating but much higher peak volumetric heating on the upper port plug structure. Personnel dose rates are calculated in a three step process involving a neutron-only transport calculation, the generation of activation volume sources at pre-defined time steps and finally gamma transport analyses are run for selected time steps. ANSI-ANS 6.1.1 1977 Flux-to-Dose conversion factors were used. Dose rates were evaluated for 1 full year of 500 MW DT operation which is comprised of 3000 1800-second pulses. After one year the machine is shut down for maintenance and personnel are permitted to access the diagnostic interspace after 2-weeks if dose rates are below 100 μSv/hr. Dose rates in the Visible-IR diagnostic model after one day of shutdown were 130 μSv/hr but fell below the limit to 90 μSv/hr 2-weeks later. The Large Aperture or ECH style shielding model exhibited higher and more persistent dose rates. After 1-day the dose rate was 230

  6. Space shuttle: Heat transfer rate measurements on Convair booster (B-15B-2) at nominal Mach number of 8 (United States)

    Warmbrod, J. D.; Martindale, W. R.; Matthews, R. K.


    Plotted and tabulated data on heat transfer from a thin-skin thermocouple are presented. The data is representative of the reentry event of the booster alone configuration. The data were generated during wind tunnel tests of the B-15B-2 delta wing booster at Mach 8. Thermocouple measurements are reduced to heat transfer coefficient ratio and the data are presented as plotted variations versus longitudinal, lateral, and vertical local model positions.

  7. Skin temperature and heart rate can be used to estimate physiological strain during exercise in the heat in a cohort of fit and unfit males. (United States)

    Cuddy, John S; Buller, Mark; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C


    To evaluate the previously developed physiological strain index (PSI) model using heart rate and skin temperature to provide further insight into the detection and estimation of thermal and physiological heat strain indices. A secondary aim was to characterize individuals who excel in their performance in the heat. 56 male participants completed 2 walking trials (3.5 miles per hour, 5% grade) in controlled environments of 43.3 °C and 15.5 °C (40% humidity). Core and skin temperature, along with heart rate and PSI, were continually monitored during exercise. Participants completed a physical fitness test. The logistic regression model exhibited 4 false positives and 1 false negative at the 40% decision boundary. The "Not at Risk" group (N = 33) had higher body weight (84 ± 13 vs. 77 ± 10 kg, respectively) compared to the "At Risk" (N = 23) group, p Heat Trial, the "At Risk" group had a higher rating of perceived exertion at 60 and 90 minutes compared to the "Not at Risk" group (13.5 ± 2.8 vs. 11.5 ± 1.8 and 14.8 ± 3.2 vs. 12.2 ± 2.0 for "At Risk" vs. "Not at Risk" at 60 and 90 minutes, respectively), p rate and skin temperature to PSI is highly accurate at assessing heat risk status. Participants classified as "At Risk" had lower physical performance scores and different body weights compared to the "Not at Risk" group and perceived themselves as working harder during exercise in the heat. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Heat transfer rate distribution on North American Rockwell delta wing orbiter determined by phase change paint technique at a Mach number of 8, volume 1 (United States)

    Matthews, R. K.; Martindale, W. R.; Warmbrod, J. D.


    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine aerodynamic heat transfer distributions on an orbiter configuration are presented. Heat-transfer rates were determined by the phase change paint technique on 0.013-scale Stycast models using Tempilaq as the surface temperature indicator. The nominal test conditions were; Mach 8, length Reynolds numbers of 6.0 x 1 million and 8.9 x 1 million, and angles of attack from 10 to 50 deg in 10-deg increments. At the higher Reynolds number, data were obtained with and without boundary layer trips. Model details, test conditions, and reduced heat-transfer data are presented. Data reduction of the phase-change paint photographs was performed by utilizing a new technique which is described in the data presentation section.

  9. Heat transfer rate distributions on McDonnell-Douglas booster determined by phase change technique for nominal Mach number of 8 (United States)

    Matthews, R. K.; Martindale, W. R.; Warmbrod, J. D.


    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine aerodynamic heat transfer distributions on the McDonnell Douglas Booster configuration are presented. Heat-transfer rates were determined by the phase-change paint technique on 0.009-scale Stycast models using Tempilaq as the surface temperature indicator. The nominal test conditions were; Mach 8, length Reynolds numbers 5 million and 7.3 million, and angles of attack of 40, 50, and 60 deg. At the higher Reynolds number, data were obtained with and without boundary layer trips. Model details, test conditions, and reduced heat-transfer data are presented. Data reduction of the phase-change paint photographs was performed by utilizing a new technique which is described.

  10. Ascent heat transfer rate distribution on the North American Rockwell delta wing orbiter and the General Dynamics/Convair booster at a Mach number of 8 (mated) (United States)

    Matthews, R. K.; Martindale, W. R.; Warmbrod, J. D.


    A wind tunnel test program to determine aerodynamic interference heating on the North American Rockwell orbiter mated with the General Dynamics Convair booster is discussed. The tests were conducted at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tunnel B of the von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility (VKF). The test period was June 1971. Heat-transfer rates were determined by the phase-change paint technique on 0.013-scale Stycast models using Tempilaq as the surface temperature indicator. The nominal test conditions were: Mach 8, free-stream unit length Reynolds numbers of 1.25 x one million and 2.55 x one million angles of attack of -5, 0, +5 deg. Model details, test conditions, phase-change paint photographs and reduced heat-transfer coefficients are presented.

  11. Heat sink effects on weld bead: VPPA process (United States)

    Steranka, Paul O., Jr.


    An investigation into the heat sink effects due to weldment irregularities and fixtures used in the variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA) process was conducted. A basic two-dimensional model was created to represent the net heat sink effect of surplus material using Duhamel's theorem to superpose the effects of an infinite number of line heat sinks of variable strength. Parameters were identified that influence the importance of heat sink effects. A characteristic length, proportional to the thermal diffusivity of the weldment material divided by the weld torch travel rate, correlated with heat sinking observations. Four tests were performed on 2219-T87 aluminum plates to which blocks of excess material were mounted in order to demonstrate heat sink effects. Although the basic model overpredicted these effects, it correctly indicated the trends shown in the experimental study and is judged worth further refinement.

  12. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.


    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  13. Estimation and monitoring heat discharge rates using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data: a case study in Unzen geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan (United States)

    Mia, Md. B.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Bromely, Chris J.


    The Unzen geothermal field, our study area is active fumaroles, situated in Shimabara Peninsula of Kyushu Island in Japan. Our prime objectives were (1) to estimate radiative heat flux (RHF), (2) to calculate approximately heat discharge rate (HDR) using the relationship of radiative heat flux with the total heat loss derived from two geothermal field studies and (3) finally, to monitor RHF as well as HDR in our study area using seven sets of Landsat 7 ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We used the NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) method for spectral emissivity estimation, the mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation analyzing those satellite TIR images for RHF. We obtained a desired strong correlation of LST above ambient with RHF using random samples. We estimated that the maximum RHF was about 251 W/m2 in 2005 and minimum was about 27 W/m2 in 2001. The highest total RHF was about 39.1 MW in 2005 and lowest was about 12 MW in 2001 in our study region. We discovered that the estimated RHF was about 15.7 % of HDR from our studies. We applied this percentage to estimate heat discharge rate in Unzen geothermal area. The monitoring results showed a single fold trend of HDR from 2000 to 2009 with highest about 252 MW in 2005 and lowest about 78 MW in 2001. In conclusion, TIR remote sensing is thought as the best option for monitoring heat losses from fumaroles with high efficiency and low cost.

  14. La plataforma .NET


    Fornas Estrada, Miquel


    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  15. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E


    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  16. Calculation Tool for Determining the Net Energy Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend


    for windows are presented. Based on these methods a program has been developed that determines the heat loss coefficient, U, and the total solar energy transmittance, g, for windows compounded of specific window components selected from a database. The program calculates the net energy gain for specific....... A proper and direct way to describe the energy performance of windows is by the net energy gain, E, which expresses the energy balance for the window. It is defined as the solar heat gain transmitted in minus the heat loss transmitted out through the window during the heating season. The net energy gain...... is dependent on both the U-values and the g-values. Beyond this it is dependent on the orientation of the windows and the climate and the actual period. This makes it difficult to choose the glazings and windows that are optimal with regard to energy performance in a given case. These facts have aroused a need...

  17. Standard Test Method for Measuring Extreme Heat-Transfer Rates from High-Energy Environments Using a Transient, Null-Point Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...

  18. Modest net autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith


    The metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical ocean has long been debated. Net community production (NCP) represents the balance of autotrophic carbon fixation with heterotrophic respiration. Many in vitro NCP estimates based on oxygen incubation methods and the corresponding scaling relationships used to predict the ecosystem metabolic balance have suggested the ocean gyres to be net heterotrophic; however, all in situ NCP methods find net autotrophy. Reconciling net heterotrophy requires significant allochthonous inputs of organic carbon to the oligotrophic gyres to sustain a preponderance of respiration over in situ production. Here we use the first global ecosystem-ocean circulation model that contains representation of the three allochthonous carbon sources to the open ocean, to show that the five oligotrophic gyres exhibit modest net autotrophy throughout the seasonal cycle. Annually integrated rates of NCP vary in the range 1.5-2.2 mol O2 m-2 yr-1 across the five gyre systems; however, seasonal NCP rates are as low as 1 ± 0.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 for the North Atlantic. Volumetric NCP rates are heterotrophic below the 10% light level; however, they become net autotrophic when integrated over the euphotic zone. Observational uncertainties when measuring these modest autotrophic NCP rates as well as the metabolic diversity encountered across space and time complicate the scaling up of in vitro measurements to the ecosystem scale and may partially explain the previous reports of net heterotrophy. The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic at present; however, it could shift toward seasonal heterotrophy in the future as rising temperatures stimulate respiration.

  19. On the potential for RF heating in MRI to affect metabolic rates and 18 FDG signal in PET/MR: simulations of long-duration, maximum normal mode heating. (United States)

    Carluccio, Giuseppe; Ding, Yu-Shin; Logan, Jean; Collins, Christopher M


    To examine the possibility that MR-induced RF power deposition (SAR) and the resulting effects on temperature-dependent metabolic rates or perfusion rates might affect observed 18FDG signal in PET/MR. Using numerical simulations of the SAR, consequent temperature increase, effect on rates of metabolism or perfusion, and [18FDG] throughout the body, we simulated the potential effect of maximum-allowable whole-body SAR for the entire duration of an hour-long PET/MR scan on observed PET signal for two different 18FDG injection times: one hour before onset of imaging and concurrent with the beginning of imaging. This was all repeated three times with the head, the heart, and the abdomen (kidneys) at the center of the RF coil. Qualitatively, little effect of MR-induced heating is observed on simulated PET images. Maximum relative increases in PET signal (26% and 31% increase, respectively, for the uptake models based on metabolism and the perfusion) occur in regions of low baseline metabolic rate (also associated with low perfusion and, thus, greater potential temperature increase due to high local SAR), such that PET signal in these areas remains comparatively low. Maximum relative increases in regions of high metabolic rate (and also high perfusion: heart, thyroid, brain, etc.) are affected mostly by the relatively small increase in core body temperature and thus are not affected greatly (10% maximum increase). Even for worst-case heating, little effect of MR-induced heating is expected on 18FDG PET images during PET/MR for many clinically relevant applications. For quantitative, dynamic MR/PET studies requiring high SAR for extended periods, it is hoped that methods like those introduced here can help account for such potential effects in design of a given study, including selection of reference locations that should not experience notable increase in temperature. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. The Variations of Thermal Contact Resistance and Heat Transfer Rate of the AlN Film Compositing with PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Ming Chou


    Full Text Available The electrical industries have been fast developing over the past decades. Moreover, the trend of microelements and packed division multiplex is obviously for the electrical industry. Hence, the high heat dissipative and the electrical insulating device have been popular and necessary. The thermal conduct coefficient of aluminum nitride (i.e., AlN is many times larger than the other materials. Moreover, the green technology of composite with phase change materials (i.e., PCMs is worked as a constant temperature cooler. Therefore, PCMs have been used frequently for saving energy and the green environment. Based on the above statements, it does show great potential in heat dissipative for the AlN film compositing with PCM. Therefore, this paper is focused on the research of thermal contact resistance and heat transfer between the AlN/PCM pairs. According to the experimental results, the heat transfer decreases and the thermal contact resistance increases under the melting process of PCM. However, the suitable parameters such as contact pressures can be used to improve the above defects.

  1. High-rate continuous hydrogen production by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum PSU-2 immobilized on heat-pretreated methanogenic granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Prasertsan, P.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov


    Biohydrogen production from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum strain PSU-2 was examined in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and carrier-free upflow anaerobic reactor (UA), both fed with sucrose and operating at 60 degrees C. Heat-pretreated methanogenic granules were used...

  2. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  3. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna


    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt


    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  5. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian


    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  6. Game Theory .net. (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael


    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  7. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Heat-Transfer Rate to a Series of 20 deg Cones of Various Surface Finishes at a Mach Number of 4.95 (United States)

    Jones, Jim J.


    The heat-transfer rates were measured on a series of cones of various surface finishes at a Mach number of 4.95 and Reynolds numbers per foot varying from 20 x 10(exp 6) to 100 x 10(exp 6). The range of surface finish was from a very smooth polish to smooth machining with no polish (65 micro inches rms). Some laminar boundary-layer data were obtained, since transition was not artificially tripped. Emphasis, however, is centered on the turbulent boundary layer. The results indicated that the turbulent heat-transfer rate for the highest roughness tested was only slightly greater than that for the smoothest surface. The laminar-sublayer thickness was calculated to be about half the roughness height for the roughest model at the highest value of unit Reynolds number tested.

  9. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice (United States)

    Bates, N. R.; Garley, R.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Mathis, J. T.


    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea ice covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea ice as "melt ponds" and below sea ice as "interface waters") and mixed layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At nineteen stations, the salinity (~ 0.5 to 1500 μatm) with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7) to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (8 to 10.7). All of observed melt ponds had very low (pH/Ωaragonite than the co-located mixed layer beneath. Sea-ice melt thus contributed to the suppression of mixed layer pCO2 enhancing the surface ocean's capacity to uptake CO2 from the atmosphere. Meltwater contributions to changes in mixed-layer DIC were also used to estimate net community production rates (mean of 46.9 ±29.8 g C m-2 for the early-season period) under sea-ice cover. Although sea-ice melt is a transient seasonal feature, above-ice melt pond coverage can be substantial (10 to > 50%) and under-ice interface melt water is ubiquitous during this spring/summer sea-ice retreat. Our observations contribute to growing evidence that sea-ice CO2-carbonate chemistry is highly variable and its contribution to the complex factors that influence the balance of CO2 sinks and sources (and thereby ocean acidification) is difficult to predict in an era of rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Results from a convective heat transfer rate distribution test on a 0.0175 scale model (22-0) of the Rockwell International vehicle 4 space shuttle configuration in the AEDC-VKF tunnel B (OH49B), volume 1 (United States)

    Herrera, B. J.


    The tests were conducted in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach number 8 to investigate reentry mode convective heat--transfer rates to the vehicle 4 shuttle orbiter. The thin skin thermocouple technique was used to obtain the heat transfer rate measurements. A complete set of tabulated data is presented.

  11. A laboratory study examining the impact of linen use on low-air-loss support surface heat and water vapor transmission rates. (United States)

    Williamson, Rachel; Lachenbruch, Charlie; VanGilder, Catherine


    Layers of linens are frequently placed under patients to manage moisture and/or assist with positioning immobile patients, including persons placed on a therapeutic surface because they are at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Because skin microclimate is believed to affect pressure ulcer risk, some therapeutic surfaces are designed to manage skin temperature and humidity (microclimate management). The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of linens and underpads on a low-air-loss (LAL) surface's ability to disperse heat and evaporate moisture. Underpads and transfer sheet combinations (grouped by three common linen functions: immobility, moisture management, and immobility and moisture management) were tested using the sweating guarded hot plate method, which allows for the measurement of the evaporative capacity (g H2O/m2*hour) and the total rate of heat withdrawal (Watts/m2) associated with nine different linen configurations placed on the support surface. Total heat withdrawal and evaporative capacity of the LAL surface with a fitted sheet only was used for comparison (P heat withdrawal was significantly reduced by five of eight combinations, and evaporative moisture reduction was significantly reduced by six of eight linen combinations (P surface's ability to dissipate heat and evaporate moisture, and use of the maximum number of layers (nine) reduced heat withdrawal to the level of a static, nonLAL surface. The results of this study suggest that putting additional linens or underpads on LAL surfaces may adversely affect skin temperature and moisture, thereby reducing the pressure ulcer prevention potential of these surfaces. Additional studies to examine the effect of linens and underpads as well as microclimate management strategies on pressure ulcer risk are needed.

  12. Influence of heating time and metal ions on the amount of free fatty acids and formation rates of selected carbonyl compounds during the thermal oxidation of canola oil. (United States)

    Bastos, Luciane Conceição Silva; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula


    Canola oil was heated continuously for 8 h at a typical frying temperature (180 °C) in the presence of various concentrations of the metal ions Fe(III), Cu(II), and Al(III) (9.2, 27.5, and 46.0 μg L(-1) of oil) to evaluate changes occurring in the amount of free fatty acids, expressed as acidity index, and in the formation rates of aldehydes. The aldehydes were collected and derivatized in silica cartridges functionalized with C18 and impregnated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, after which they were eluted with acetonitrile and analyzed by LC-DAD-MS. Among the substances emitted, the following were identified and quantified: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propanal, butanal, hexanal, (E)-2-heptenal, and octanal. During heating of the oil, the compounds presenting the highest mean formation rates were acrolein, hexanal, and acetaldehyde. In the study of the metal ions, the addition of ions to the samples generally led to a corresponding increase in the formation rates of the eight substances. The compounds showing the highest relative increases in formation rates were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, and heptenal. In terms of catalytic effect, copper proved to be the most efficient in promoting increased formation rates, followed by iron and aluminum.

  13. Comparative Study for Evaluation of Mass Flow Rate for Simple Solar Still and Active with Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidouri Khaoula


    Full Text Available In isolated and arid areas, especially in the almost Maghreb regions, the abundant solar radiation intensity along the year and the available brackish water resources are the two favorable conditions for using solar desalination technology to produce fresh water. The present study is based on the use of three groups of correlation, for evaluating mass transfer. Theoretical results are compared with those obtained experimentally for a Simple Solar Distiller (SSD and a Simple Solar Distiller Hybrid with a Heat Pump (SSDHP stills. Experimental results and those calculated by Lewis number correlation show good agreements. Results obtained by Dunkle, Kumar and Tiwari correlations are not satisfactory with the experimental ones. Theoretical results, as well as statistical analysis, are presented. The model with heat pump ( for two configurations (111 and (001 give more output compared with the model without heat pump ((000 and (110. This results where agree for the use of the statistic results, the error it less with Lewis number as compared with the different correlation.

  14. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck


    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  15. Food Safety Nets:


    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane


    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  16. Net technical assessment


    Wegmann, David G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  17. Profitability of heating entrepreneurship from the viewpoint of heating energy buyer, heating energy seller and energy wood seller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvula-Seppaelae, T.; Ulander, E. (Seinaejoki Univ. of Applied Sciences, Ahtari (Finland), School of Agriculture and Forestry), e-mail:, e-mail:


    The focus of this research was to study the profitability of heating entrepreneurships from the viewpoint of heating energy buyer, seller as well as energy wood seller. The average costs of heat production were Eur 44,8 / MWh and incomes Eur 43,4 /MWh. Energy wood purchase, comminution and long distance transportation formed slightly over a half of the heat production costs. Average net income in the group of the largest heating plants (>1000 kW) was Eur 29000 per year and in the group of the smallest (<200 kW) average net income was slightly over Eur 4000 per year. The net income from selling heat represents only a part of the income a heating entrepreneur receives from heat production. Other, significant parts are formed by income from selling energy wood to the plant as well as compensation for supervision and maintenance of the plant. The average net income of a forest owner from selling energy wood to heating entrepreneurs was Eur 18 / m3. Without state subsidies the net income would have been Eur 4 / m3. The price of the heating energy sold by heating entrepreneurs was very competitive. In 2006 it was Eur 30 / MWh cheaper than oil heat, Eur 34 / MWh cheaper than electric heat and Eur 3 / MWh cheaper than district heating. (orig.)

  18. Sirio.NET: A new tool for managing results in eddy current inspection of steam generators and heat exchangers; Sirio.NET: Una nueva herramienta para la gestion de resultados en las inspecciones por Corrientes Inducidas de los Generadores de Vapor y Cambiadores de Calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, M.; Marquez, A.; Rodriguez, A. L.


    The results management and control of the inspections by currents induced of tube bundles of components such as steam generators, heat exchangers, etc., by the large volume of data generated, requires the use of highly specialized tools of information management, based on database structures. (Author)

  19. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German


    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  20. Space shuttle: Heat transfer rate measurements of North American Rockwell orbiter (161B) at nominal Mach number of 8 (United States)

    Warmbrod, J. D.; Martindale, W. R.; Matthews, R. K.


    Plots and tables which determine detailed heat transfer distributions on phase B space shuttle configurations are presented. A thin-skinned thermocouple was used to measure the reentry events of the delta wing orbiter. Data was obtained at a nominal Mach number of 8 and free stream Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.83 x 10 to the 6th power to 3.76 x 10 to the 6th power per foot. Angle of attack was varied from -5 to 50 degrees.

  1. Reconciling catch differences from multiple fishery independent gill net surveys (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Rogers, Mark W.; Cook, H. Andrew; Brenden, Travis O.


    Fishery independent gill net surveys provide valuable demographic information for population assessment and resource management, but relative to net construction, the effects of ancillary species, and environmental variables on focal species catch rates are poorly understood. In response, we conducted comparative deployments with three unique, inter-agency, survey gill nets used to assess walleye Sander vitreus in Lake Erie. We used an information-theoretic approach with Akaike’s second-order information criterion (AICc) to evaluate linear mixed models of walleye catch as a function of net type (multifilament and two types of monofilament netting), mesh size (categorical), Secchi depth, temperature, water depth, catch of ancillary species, and interactions among selected variables. The model with the greatest weight of evidence showed that walleye catches were positively associated with potential prey and intra-guild predators and negatively associated with water depth and temperature. In addition, the multifilament net had higher average walleye catches than either of the two monofilament nets. Results from this study both help inform decisions about proposed gear changes to stock assessment surveys in Lake Erie, and advance our understanding of how multispecies associations explain variation in gill net catches. Of broader interest to fishery-independent gill net studies, effects of abiotic variables and ancillary species on focal specie’s catch rates were small in comparison with net characteristics of mesh size or twine type.

  2. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.


    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  3. Teaching Tennis for Net Success. (United States)

    Young, Bryce


    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  4. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten


    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  5. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation with Silk Net Spacers (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Frank, D. J.; Nast, T. C.; Fesmire, J. E.


    Early comprehensive testing of cryogenic multilayer insulation focused on the use of silk netting as a spacer material. Silk netting was used for multiple test campaigns that were designed to provide baseline thermal performance estimates for cryogenic insulation systems. As more focus was put on larger systems, the cost of silk netting became a deterrent and most aerospace insulation firms were using Dacron (or polyester) netting spacers by the early 1970s. In the midst of the switch away from silk netting there was no attempt to understand the difference between silk and polyester netting, though it was widely believed that the silk netting provided slightly better performance. Without any better reference for thermal performance data, the silk netting performance correlations continued to be used. In order to attempt to quantify the difference between the silk netting and polyester netting, a brief test program was developed. The silk netting material was obtained from Lockheed Martin and was tested on the Cryostat-100 instrument in three different configurations, 20 layers with both single and double netting and 10 layers with single netting only. The data show agreement within 15 - 30% with the historical silk netting based correlations and show a substantial performance improvement when compared to previous testing performed using polyester netting and aluminum foil/fiberglass paper multilayer insulation. Additionally, the data further reinforce a recently observed trend that the heat flux is not directly proportional to the number of layers installed on a system.

  6. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov


    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  7. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne


    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  8. Steady and dynamic shear rheological behavior of semi dilute Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum solutions: influence of concentration, temperature and heating-cooling rate. (United States)

    Alaeddini, Behzad; Koocheki, Arash; Mohammadzadeh Milani, Jafar; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak


    Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) solution exhibits high viscosity at low shear rates and has anionic features. However there is no information regarding the flow and dynamic properties of this gum in semi-dilute solutions. The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic and steady shear behavior of AHSG in the semi-dilute region. The viscosity profile demonestrated a shear thinning behavior at all temperatures and concentrations. An increase in the AHSG concentration was acompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity degree, whereas, by increasing the temperature, the pseudoplasticity of AHSG decreased. At low gum concentration, solutions had more viscosity dependence on temperature. The mechanical spectra obtained from the frequency sweep experiment demonstrated viscoelastic properties for gum solutions. AHSG solutions showed typical weak gel-like behavior, revealing G' greater than G' within the experimental range of frequency (Hz), with slight frequency dependency. The influence of temperature on viscoelastic properties of AHSG solutions was studied during both heating (5-85 °C) and cooling (85-5 °C) processes. The complex viscosity of AHSG was greater compared to the apparent viscosity, indicating the disruption of AHSG network structure under continuous shear rates and deviation from the Cox-Merz rule. During the initial heating, the storage modulus showed a decreasing trend and, with a further increase in temperature, the magnitude of storage modulus increased. The influence of temperature on the storage modulus was considerable when a higher heating rate was applied. AHSG can be applied as a thickening and stabilizing agents in food products that require good stability against temperature. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. expansions to and an introduction to (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01 ( is the new moniker for a collection of databases: and Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site ( In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. is an independent component of and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, PMID:25392426

  10. Effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of Ghungroo piglets in Indian sub-tropical climate (United States)

    Nath, Hemanta; Hazorika, Mousumi; Rajkhowa, Dipjyoti; Datta, Mrinmoy; Haldar, Avijit


    Aim: The present study was conducted to explore the effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of indigenous Ghungroo piglets in sub-tropical cold and humid climatic conditions of Tripura, a state of the north eastern hill (NEH) region of India. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 38 indigenous Ghungroo piglets from birth up to 60 days of age. Among the 38 piglets, 19 piglets were provided with supplemental heat ranging between 17.0°C and 21.1°C for the period of the first 30 days and thereafter between 24.1°C and 29.9°C for the next 30 days. The other 19 piglets were exposed to natural environmental minimum temperatures ranging between 7.2°C and 15.0°C during the first 30 days and then between 18.5°C and 25.5°C for the next 30 days. Results: The supplemental heat resulted in 10.6% reduction of piglet mortality from the 2nd till the 7th day of age. These beneficial effects could be related with the lower (pheat supplemented group compared to control group. Plasma AP, GPT, glucose, triiodothyronine, and luteinizing hormone concentrations decreased (pheat treated piglets. Conclusion: Supplemental heat could be beneficial since it is related to a reduction of piglet mortality during the first week of life under farm management system in the sub-tropical climate of NEH region of India. PMID:27182136

  11. Utilization of insecticide treated nets in Arbaminch Town and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    using structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data entry and analysis was performed using SPSS. 11.0 for windows. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Results: The coverage for any net and ITN was 75.1% and 58.8% respectively; the utilization rate for any net and ITN.

  12. Molecular heat pump


    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham


    We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the...

  13. Heat stress effects on farrowing rate in sows: Genetic parameter estimation using within-line and crossbred models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, S.; Kause, A.; Knol, E.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Misztal, I.


    The pork supply chain values steady and undisturbed piglet production. Fertilization and maintaining gestation in warm and hot climates is a challenge that can be potentially improved by selection. The objective of this study was to estimate 1) genetic variation for farrowing rate of sows in 2 dam

  14. Regional Disparities in Apprentice Attrition Rates: Heat and Quarter Four's Significance in Northern Australia (United States)

    Zoellner, Don; Brearley, Matt; Oppermann, Elspeth


    Apprenticeship completion rates have remained persistently low for decades in spite of broad agreement over the causes of non-completions. A possible factor missing from these explanations is climate, particularly in northern Australia where traditional trade apprentices are exposed to extreme conditions and exert themselves. We hypothesize that:…

  15. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue


    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  16. Serotonin transporter binding in the hypothalamus correlates negatively with tonic heat pain ratings in healthy subjects: A [11C]DASB PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David


    ) tonic noxious heat stimulus. PET data were analyzed using both volume-of-interest (VOI) and voxel-based approaches. VOI analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between tonic pain ratings and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = −0.59; p = 0.008), a finding confirmed by the parametric...... analysis revealed a positive correlation between pain tolerance and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = 0.53; p = 0.02) although this was not seen in the parametric analysis. These data extend our earlier observation that cortical 5-HT receptors co-determine responses to tonic but not to phasic pain....... The negative correlation between SERT binding in the hypothalamus and insula with tonic pain ratings suggests a possible serotonergic control of the role of these areas in the modulation or in the affective appreciation of pain....

  17. Regeneration of a Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst: influence of heating rate, temperature and time of regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, J.C.; Aranda, D.A.G.; Schmal, M.; Frety, R. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    The authors report a study on the influence of heating rate (2-15{degree}C) min{sup -1}, temperature (coke oxidation, 350-600{degree}C) and time (2-15 h) on the catalytic and structural properties of a regenerated Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (pretreated with H{sub 2} at 350{degree}C). The catalyst was deactivated under industrial conditions (dehydrogenation of linear alkanes to mono-olefins). Compressed air was used as the oxidant agent. Samples were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction, textural properties, C and Cl contents and catalytic activity on n-heptane hydrogenation. After treatment for 8 h under an oxidant atmosphere, the relevant properties of regenerated catalysts reached a final state. Slow heating rates have increased the catalytic activity of regenerated samples and the best regeneration temperature was 450{degree}C. At higher temperatures, Pt crystallites were observed. It is suggested that the effect of Sn on Pt is of a geometrical nature. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  19. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.


    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  20. Mars MetNet Mission Status (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri


    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  1. Autohydrolysis pretreatment of Arundo donax: a comparison between microwave-assisted batch and fast heating rate flow-through reaction systems. (United States)

    Galia, Alessandro; Schiavo, Benedetto; Antonetti, Claudia; Galletti, Anna Maria Raspolli; Interrante, Leonardo; Lessi, Marco; Scialdone, Onofrio; Valenti, Maria Grazia


    Autohydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in liquid hot water has been widely studied owing to its high efficiency and relatively low cost. In the perspective of industrial applications, continuous or semi-continuous processes are more interesting than batch systems. Moreover, microwave heating of pretreatment systems has been proposed to intensify the kinetics of the process. In this study, the autohydrolysis of Arundo donax was performed in pure liquid hot water using a microwave-heated batch reactor and a semi-continuous flow-through reaction system with fast heating rate at the same operating conditions with the aim of performing a systematic comparison between the two different experimental apparatuses. The effect of process temperature and time, biomass to water mass to volume ratio and water flow rate on the concentration and yield of hydrolysis products was investigated. The flow-through set-up allowed us to reach biomass solubilization up to 44.5 wt% on dry basis, while the batch system stopped at 34.5 wt% suggesting that the mass transfer could be the rate-determining step in the solubilization of the constituting biopolymers. For example, in the flow-through layout, using a flow rate of 3.5 mL/min at 200 °C with 20 min of processing time, quantitative recovery of hemicellulose was obtained with limited formation of degradation products. Interestingly, higher cellulose/hemicellulose extraction ratios were found using the microwave-assisted batch reactor. FTIR analyses of the solid residues recovered after the pretreatment offered independent information on the fractions of liquefied biopolymers complementary to those derived from HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Collected experimental results indicated that the flow-through system can be adopted to obtain complete solubilization of the hemicellulose fraction of Arundo donax addressing the product distribution in soluble compounds towards fermentable sugars with limited formation of sugar degradation

  2. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma. (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G


    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar


    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  4. Net neutrality and the value chain for video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, P.A.; Leurdijk, A.; Eijk, N. van


    Purpose: Video distribution over the internet leads to heated net-neutrality related debates between network operators and over-the-top application providers. The purpose of this paper is to analyze this debate from a new perspective that takes into account all of the assets that companies try to

  5. Genetic Basis of Differential Heat Resistance between Two Species of Congeneric Freshwater Snails: Insights from Quantitative Proteomics and Base Substitution Rate Analysis. (United States)

    Mu, Huawei; Sun, Jin; Fang, Ling; Luan, Tiangang; Williams, Gray A; Cheung, Siu Gin; Wong, Chris K C; Qiu, Jian-Wen


    We compared the heat tolerance, proteomic responses to heat stress, and adaptive sequence divergence in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata and its noninvasive congener Pomacea diffusa. The LT50 of P. canaliculata was significantly higher than that of P. diffusa. More than 3350 proteins were identified from the hepatopancreas of the snails exposed to acute and chronic thermal stress using iTRAQ-coupled mass spectrometry. Acute exposure (3 h exposure at 37 °C with 25 °C as control) resulted in similar numbers (27 in P. canaliculata and 23 in P. diffusa) of differentially expressed proteins in the two species. Chronic exposure (3 weeks of exposure at 35 °C with 25 °C as control) caused differential expression of more proteins (58 in P. canaliculata and 118 in P. diffusa), with many of them related to restoration of damaged molecules, ubiquitinating dysfunctional molecules, and utilization of energy reserves in both species; but only in P. diffusa was there a shift from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism. Analysis of orthologous genes encoding the differentially expressed proteins revealed two genes having clear evidence of positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1) and seven candidates for more detailed analysis of positive selection (Ka/Ks between 0.5 and 1). These nine genes are related to energy metabolism, cellular oxidative homeostasis, signaling, and binding processes. Overall, the proteomic and base substitution rate analyses indicate genetic basis of differential resistance to heat stress between the two species, and such differences could affect their further range expansion in a warming climate.

  6. Genetic and epigenetic drivers of neuroendocrine tumours (NET). (United States)

    Di Domenico, Annunziata; Wiedmer, Tabea; Marinoni, Ilaria; Perren, Aurel


    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of the gastrointestinal tract and the lung are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumours. The molecular characterization and the clinical classification of these tumours have been evolving slowly and show differences according to organs of origin. Novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing revealed new molecular aspects of NET over the last years. Notably, whole-exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) approaches underlined the very low mutation rate of well-differentiated NET of all organs compared to other malignancies, while the engagement of epigenetic changes in driving NET evolution is emerging. Indeed, mutations in genes encoding for proteins directly involved in chromatin remodelling, such as DAXX and ATRX are a frequent event in NET. Epigenetic changes are reversible and targetable; therefore, an attractive target for treatment. The discovery of the mechanisms underlying the epigenetic changes and the implication on gene and miRNA expression in the different subgroups of NET may represent a crucial change in the diagnosis of this disease, reveal new therapy targets and identify predictive markers. Molecular profiles derived from omics data including DNA mutation, methylation, gene and miRNA expression have already shown promising results in distinguishing clinically and molecularly different subtypes of NET. In this review, we recapitulate the major genetic and epigenetic characteristics of pancreatic, lung and small intestinal NET and the affected pathways. We also discuss potential epigenetic mechanisms leading to NET development. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Molecular heat pump. (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham


    We propose a molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation wave forms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  8. Influence of composition and rate heating on formation of black core in bodies obtained with red ceramic; Influencia da composicao e da taxa de aquecimento na formacao do coracao negro em pecas obtidas com massas da ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, L.N.L.; Goncalves, W.P.; Silva, B.J. da; Macedo, R.S.; Santos, R.C.; Lisboa, D., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)


    In the heating of pieces of red pottery can the defect known as black core, this may deteriorate the technical and aesthetic characteristics of the final product. This study evaluated the influence of chemical composition and heating rate on the formation of black core in bodies red ceramic. The masses were treated and samples were extruded, dried, sintered at 900 °C, with heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 °C / min. and determined the following properties: water absorption, linear shrinkage and flexural strength. The pieces made with the mass containing lower content of iron oxide showed better resistance to bending when subjected to rapid heating. The presence of the black core was identified through visual analysis of the pieces after the break, being more apparent in parts subject to rates above 5 °C / min. (author)

  9. Fishing with bed nets on Lake Tanganyika: a randomized survey. (United States)

    McLean, Kate A; Byanaku, Aisha; Kubikonse, Augustine; Tshowe, Vincent; Katensi, Said; Lehman, Amy G


    Malaria is among the most common causes of death along Lake Tanganyika, a problem which many aid organizations have attempted to combat through the distribution of free mosquito bed nets to high-risk communities. The Lake Tanganyika Floating Health Clinic (LTFHC), a health-based non-governmental organization (NGO), has observed residents of the Lake Tanganyika basin using bed nets to fish small fry near the shoreline, despite a series of laws that prohibit bed net use and other fine-gauge nets for fishing, implemented to protect the near-shore fish ecology. The LTFHC sought to quantify the sources of bed nets and whether they were being used for fishing. The LTFHC conducted a survey of seven lakeside villages in Lagosa Ward, Tanzania. The government has divided each village into two to six pre-existing geographic sub-villages depending on population size. Seven households per sub-village were chosen at random for survey administration. The survey consisted of 23 questions regarding mosquito bed net practices, including the use of bed nets for fishing, as well as questions pertaining to any perceived changes to the fish supply. A total of 196 surveys were administered over a four-week period with a 100% response rate. Over 87% of households surveyed have used a mosquito bed net for fishing at some point. The majority of respondents reported receiving their bed net for free (96.4%), observing "many" residents of their village using bed nets for fishing (97.4%), and noticing a subjective decrease in the fish supply over time (64.9%). The findings of this study raise concerns that the use of free malaria bed nets for fishing is widespread along Lake Tanganyika, and that this dynamic will have an adverse effect on fish ecology. Further studies are indicated to fully define the scope of bed net misuse and the effects of alternative vector control strategies in water-based communities.

  10. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server



    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  11. Effects of Cooling Fluid Flow Rate on the Critical Heat Flux and Flow Stability in the Plate Fuel Type 2 MW TRIGA Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Rahardjo


    Full Text Available The conversion program of the 2 MW TRIGA reactor in Bandung consisted of the replacement of cylindrical fuel (produced by General Atomic with plate fuel (produced by BATAN. The replacement led into the change of core cooling process from upward natural convection type to downward forced convection type, and resulted in different thermohydraulic safety criteria, such as critical heat flux (CHF limit, boiling limit, and cooling fluid flow stability. In this paper, a thermohydraulic safety analysis of the converted TRIGA reactor is presented by considering the Dynamic Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR criterion, Onset Nucleate Boiling Ratio (ONBR limit, and cooling fluid flow stability at various cooling fluid flow rate.The numerical analyses were performed using the HEATHYD program on the hottest channels of reactor core.The combination of heat transfer and fluid flow analysis were conducted for reactor operation at 2 MW with 20 fuel element bundles and four control rod bundles. Incoming fluid flow to the cooling channel was fixed at 44.5 °C temperature and 1.9970 bar pressure, and its flow rate was varied from 1.25 to 3.5 m3/h. By inputting these values, as well as the total power of fuel elements per bundle, the wall temperature distribution of the plate fuel element, cooling fluid temperature distribution, and pressure losses in the channels were obtained for the analysis of CHF limit, boiling limit, and flow stability. It was shown that no boiling occurred for the cooling fluid flow rate range of 2.4 to 3.5 m3/h, and even at the cooling fluid flow rate of 1.25 m3/h where some bubbles occurred, the DNBR was higher than the critical limit (more than 23 while the flow stability criterion in some channels were slightly less than 1 (unstable. At the cooling fluid flow rate of 1.4 m3/h, however, the flow became stable in all channel. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  12. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD


    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  13. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.


    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  14. Thermoluminescence glow curve for UV induced ZrO2:Ti phosphor with variable concentration of dopant and various heating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Tiwari


    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis and characterization of Ti doped ZrO2 nanophosphors. The effects of variable concentration of titanium on thermoluminescence (TL behaviour are studied. The samples were prepared by combustion a synthesis technique which is suitable for less time taking techniques also for large scale production for nano phosphors. The starting material used for sample preparation are Zr(NO33 and Ti(NO33 and urea used as a fuel. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD with variable concentration of Ti (0.05–0.5 mol% there is no any phase change found with increase the concentration of Ti. Sample shows cubic structure and the particle size calculated by Scherer's formula. The surface morphology of prepared phosphor was determined by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM technique for optimized concentration of dopant. The good connectivity with grains and the semi-sphere like structure was found by FEGSEM. The functional group analysis was determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The prepared phosphor examined by thermoluminescence technique. For recording TL glow curve every time 2 mg phosphor was irradiated by UV 254 nm source and fixed the heating rate at 5 °C s−1. Sample shows well resolved peak at 167 °C with a shoulder peak at 376 °C. The higher temperature peak shows the well stability and less fading in prepared phosphor. Also the effect of Ti concentration at fixed UV exposure time was studied. The effect of UV exposure time and dose versus intensity plot was studied. Sample shows linear response with dose and broaden peak with high temperature shows the more stability and less fading in TL glow curve. The linear dose response, high stability and less fading phenomenon shows the sample may be useful for thermoluminescence dosimetry application. Trapping parameters are calculated for every recorded glow curve. The

  15. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Magniez


    Full Text Available The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%.

  16. Installation problems on flow rate sensors of heat meters. Avoidance of installation errors; Einbauprobleme bei Durchflusssensoren von Waermezaehlern. Vermeidung von Einbaufehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adunka, F. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Vienna (Austria); Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria); Utz, M. [Fachverband der Gas- und Waermeversorgungsunternehmungen, Vienna (Austria); Fernwaerme Wien GmbH (Austria)


    Contents: Installation regulations for piping; ten rules for heat metering; cases of installation for different internal diameters; diagrams of a ball valve influencing a flow rate sensor in front of the valve with different distances; error shifting due to the distance from noise source to the counter. (GL) [German] Im Vergleich der Messgeraete fuer die Kundenabrechnung bei Energieversorgungsunternehmen handelt es sich bei den Geraeten fuer das Medium Waerme mit Sicherheit um ein besonders anspruchsvolles Messverfahren. Zwar hat es seit dem Beginn der Eichpflicht im Jahr 1980 deutliche Weiterentwicklungen gegeben, dennoch werden einige Punkte oft unterschaetzt. Aktuelle Untersuchungen zeigen aber auch, dass die Entwicklung bzw. Verbesserung von Waermezaehlern - speziell die der Durchflusssensoren - noch nicht abgeschlossen ist. (orig.)

  17. Characterization of free radicals by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in biochars from pyrolysis at high heating rates and at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn


    The concentration and type of free radicals from the decay (termination stage) of pyrolysis at slow and fast heating rates and at high temperatures (above 1000°C) in biomass char have been studied. A room temperature electron spin resonance spectroscopy study was conducted on original wood......, herbaceous biomass, holocelluloses, lignin and their chars, prepared at high temperatures in a wire mesh reactor, an entrained flow reactor, and a tubular reactor. The radical concentrations in the chars from the decay stage range up between 7·1016 and 1.5·1018 spins g -1. The results indicated....... The results show that at high temperatures, mostly aliphatic radicals (g = 2.0026-2.0028) and PAH radicals (g = 2.0027e2.0031) were formed....

  18. Deformation and rupture behavior of Argentine Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in the temperature range from 700 to 1200deg C at different heating rates in inert atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiewicz, M.E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Erbacher, F.J.


    In the tube burst apparatus TUBA burst tests were performed at CNEA/CAC-Buenos Aires in short Zircaloy-4 tube specimens. The main objective was to investigate the deformation and burst behavior of Argentine cladding tubes and to compare it with data obtained by others. It was found that the burst data e.g. burst temperature and circumferential burst strain and the influence of different heating rates are in good agreement with those from other origin. (orig.). [Deutsch] In der Rohrberstversuchsanlage TUBA (Tube Burst Apparatus) wurden bei CNEA/CAC-Buenos Aires Berstversuche an kurzen Zircaloy-4-Rohrabschnitten durchgefuehrt. Die wesentliche Zielsetzung war die Untersuchung des Verformungs- und Berstverhaltens von Huellrohren aus argentinischer Herstellung und sein Vergleich mit dem aus anderen Laendern. Ein Vergleich der ermittelten Berstdaten wie z.B. Bersttemperatur und Berstdehnung sowie deren Beeinflussung durch unterschiedliche Aufheizraten ergab eine gute Uebereinstimmung mit den Berstdaten von Zircaloy-4 Huellrohren aus anderer Herstellung. (orig.).

  19. HMI Data Driven Magnetohydrodynamic Model Predicted Active Region Photospheric Heating Rates: Their Scale Invariant, Flare Like Power Law Distributions, and Their Possible Association With Flares (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L.; Kwan, Chiman; Ayhan, Bulent; Shang, Eric L.


    A data driven, near photospheric, 3 D, non-force free magnetohydrodynamic model predicts time series of the complete current density, and the resistive heating rate Q at the photosphere in neutral line regions (NLRs) of 14 active regions (ARs). The model is driven by time series of the magnetic field B observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. Spurious Doppler periods due to SDO orbital motion are filtered out of the time series for B in every AR pixel. Errors in B due to these periods can be significant. The number of occurrences N(q) of values of Q > or = q for each AR time series is found to be a scale invariant power law distribution, N(Q) / Q-s, above an AR dependent threshold value of Q, where 0.3952 or = E obeys the same type of distribution, N(E) / E-S, above an AR dependent threshold value of E, with 0.38 < or approx. S < or approx. 0.60, also with little variation among ARs. Within error margins the ranges of s and S are nearly identical. This strong similarity between N(Q) and N(E) suggests a fundamental connection between the process that drives coronal flares and the process that drives photospheric NLR heating rates in ARs. In addition, results suggest it is plausible that spikes in Q, several orders of magnitude above background values, are correlated with times of the subsequent occurrence of M or X flares.

  1. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev


    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  2. Alongshore wind stress and heat flux divergence off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, D.P.

    Annual variation of heat flux divergence (Qv) was computed for the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam. The mean values of net heat exchange (Qn) and heat flux divergence (Qv) were found to be 114 and 115 W.m/2 respectively on annual scale. The net heat...

  3. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  4. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  5. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge


    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  6. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André


    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  7. Experimental investigation of thermoelectric power generation versus coolant pumping power in a microchannel heat sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse; Andreasen, Søren Juhl


    The coolant heat sinks in thermoelectric generators (TEG) play an important role in order to power generation in the energy systems. This paper explores the effective pumping power required for the TEGs cooling at five temperature difference of the hot and cold sides of the TEG. In addition......, the temperature distribution and the pressure drop in sample microchannels are considered at four sample coolant flow rates. The heat sink contains twenty plate-fin microchannels with hydraulic diameter equal to 0.93 mm. The experimental results show that there is a unique flow rate that gives maximum net...

  8. Pump Assisted Heat Pipe


    Miyazaki, Yoshiro; OSHIMA, Shigeto


    A labortory model of a pump assisted heat pipe has been fablicated and tested. An arterial heat pipe with axial grooves and a gear pump with a magnetic coupling have been developed for the model. The test has been carried out successfully. The reasonable thermal conductance has been obtained so far as the necessary working fluid flow rate is supplied. The necessary flow rate exceeds the theoretical one and the excess flow rate increases as the heat load increases.

  9. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits


    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  10. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José


    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  11. PolicyNet Publication System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  12. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  13. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A


    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  14. Relationships Between Base-Catalyzed Hydrolysis Rates or Glutathione Reactivity for Acrylates and Methacrylates and Their NMR Spectra or Heat of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kadoma


    Full Text Available The NMR chemical shift, i.e., the π-electron density of the double bond, of acrylates and methacrylates is related to the reactivity of their monomers. We investigated quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs between the base-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants (k1 or the rate constant with glutathione (GSH (log kGSH for acrylates and methacrylates and the 13C NMR chemical shifts of their α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups (δCα and δCβ or heat of formation (Hf calculated by the semi-empirical MO method. Reported data for the independent variables were employed. A significant linear relationship between k1 and δCβ, but not δCα, was obtained for methacrylates (r2 = 0.93, but not for acrylates. Also, a significant relationship between k1 and Hf was obtained for both acrylates and methacrylates (r2 = 0.89. By contrast, log kGSH for acrylates and methacrylates was linearly related to their δCβ (r2 = 0.99, but not to Hf. These findings indicate that the 13C NMR chemical shifts and calculated Hf values for acrylates and methacrylates could be valuable for estimating the hydrolysis rate constants and GSH reactivity of these compounds. Also, these data for monomers may be an important tool for examining mechanisms of reactivity.

  15. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn


    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  16. The Economics of Net Neutrality


    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott


    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry of Six Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers Used as Heat Transfer Fluid Replacement Compounds: Measured OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Atmospheric Lifetimes, and Global Warming Potentials (United States)

    Jubb, A. M.; Gierczak, T.; Baasandorj, M.; Waterland, R. L.; Burkholder, J. B.


    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (C7F13OCH3, MPHEs) are currently in use as a replacement for perfluorinated alkane (PFC) and polyether mixtures (both persistent greenhouse gases with atmospheric lifetimes >1000 years) used as heat transfer fluids. Currently, the atmospheric fate of the MPHE isomers are not well characterized, however, reaction with the OH radical is expected to be a dominant tropospheric loss process for these compounds. In order to assess the atmospheric lifetimes and environmental implications of MPHE use, rate coefficients for MPHE isomers' reaction with OH radicals are desired. In the work presented here, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six MPHEs commonly used in commercial mixtures (isomers and stereoisomers) and their deuterated analogs (d3-MPHE) were determined at 296 K using a relative rate method with combined gas-chromatography/IR spectroscopy detection. A range of OH rate coefficient values was observed, up to a factor of 20× different, between the MPHE isomers with the (E)-stereoisomers exhibiting the greatest reactivity. The measured OH reaction rate coefficients for the d3-MPHE isomers were lower than the observed MPHE values although a large range of k values between isomers was still observed. The reduction in reactivity with deuteration signifies that the MPHE + OH reaction proceeds via both addition to the olefinic C=C bond and H-abstraction from the methyl ester group. OH addition to the C=C bond was determined to be the primary reaction channel. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to the OH reaction for the six MPHE isomers were found to be in the range of days to months. The short lifetimes indicate that MPHE use will primarily impact tropospheric local and regional air quality. A MPHE atmospheric degradation mechanism will be presented. As part of this work, radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWPs) for the MPHE isomers were estimated based on measured

  18. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  19. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  20. QCD phase diagram : heating or compressing ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Maire, Antonin


    The sketch tries to address the question of the difference between heating and compressing the baryonic matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, i.e. how one can reach in the laboratory "high" temperature at "low" net baryon density (baryon chemical potential) or "low" temperature at "high" net baryon density.

  1. Combined effects of solutes and food preservatives on rates of inactivation of and colony formation by heated spores and vegetative cells of molds.


    Beuchat, L R


    The combined and independent effects of sucrose, sodium chloride, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate on heat inactivation of conidia of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium puberulum, ascospores of Byssochlamys nivea, and vegetative cells of Geotrichum candidum were studied. In addition, the effects of solutes and preservatives on colony formation by unheated and heated conidia of A. flavus were evaluated. Increased concentrations of sucrose were accompanied by increased tolerance to heat b...

  2. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania. (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Kramer, Karen; Msengwa, Amina; Mandike, Renata; Lengeler, Christian


    To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007-2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.

  3. Net-Zero Energy Technical Shelter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund


    Technical shelters are the basic structures for storing electronic and technical equipment, and commonly used for telecommunication base station, windmill, gas station, etc. Due to their high internal heat load density and special operation schedule, they consume more energy than normal residential...... or commercial buildings. On the other hand, it is a big challenge to power the technical shelter in remote area where the grids are either not available or the expansion of grid is expensive. In order to minimize the energy consumption and obtain a reliable and cost-efficient power solution for technical...... shelter, this study will apply the net-zero energy concept into the technical shelter design. The energy conservation can be achieved by proper design of building envelop and optimization of the cooling strategies. Both experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the indoor...

  4. [Searching Radiation Countermeasures using the Model of Prolonged Irradiation of Mice with Low Dose Rate and Evaluation of Their Influence on Heat Shock Protein Genes Expression]. (United States)

    Rozhdestvensky, L M; Mikhailov, V F; Schlyakova, T G; Shagirova, J M; Shchegoleva, R A; Raeva, N F; Lisina, N I; Shulenina, L V; Zorin, V V; Pchelka, A V; Trubitsina, K Y


    Different radiomodificators (cytokine betaleukine, antioxidant phenoxan, antigipoksant limontar and nucleoside riboxin) were investigated on mice for evaluating their radiation protective capacity against prolonged (21 h) exposure at a dose of 12.6 Gy at a low dose rate of 10 mGy/min. Bone marrow cellularity and endogenic CFUs were used as evaluation criteria 9 days after exposure. Simultaneously, expression of the heat shock proteins of 25, 70 and 90 kDa in unexposed mice bone marrow was studied 2, 24 and 48 h after injections. Betaleukine only had a positive significant effect in both tests in the variants of 50 mcg/kg and 3 mcg/kg when administered 2 h and 22 h before exposure, correspondingly. Effects of betaleukine HSPs on expression were both stimulating and inhibiting, that was in contradiction with a constant positive effect in 5 experiments on exposed mice for each betaleukine variant. It argues against the vital role of HSPs in the betaleukine antiradiation effect. In 2 experiments with high temperatures betaleukine administered at a dose of 50 mcg/kg evoked a very high HSP-70 gene expression after 24 h, and mice exposed to irradiation at that time in a parallel experiment showed an increased radiation effect. It corresponds to the idea that HSPs serve a stress indicator.

  5. HMI Data Driven Magnetohydrodynamic Model Predicted Active Region Photospheric Heating Rates: Their Scale Invariant, Flare Like Power Law Distributions, and Their Possible Association With Flares (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L.; Kwan, Chiman; Ayhan, Bulent; Shang, Eric L.


    There are many flare forecasting models. For an excellent review and comparison of some of them see Barnes et al. (2016). All these models are successful to some degree, but there is a need for better models. We claim the most successful models explicitly or implicitly base their forecasts on various estimates of components of the photospheric current density J, based on observations of the photospheric magnetic field B. However, none of the models we are aware of compute the complete J. We seek to develop a better model based on computing the complete photospheric J. Initial results from this model are presented in this talk. We present a data driven, near photospheric, 3 D, non-force free magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that computes time series of the total J, and associated resistive heating rate in each pixel at the photosphere in the neutral line regions (NLRs) of 14 active regions (ARs). The model is driven by time series of B measured by the Helioseismic & Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. Spurious Doppler periods due to SDO orbital motion are filtered out of the time series of B in every AR pixel. Errors in B due to these periods can be significant.

  6. Effect of residual stress relaxation by means of local rapid induction heating on stress corrosion cracking behavior and electrochemical characterization of welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy under slow strain rate test (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Tang, Shawei; Liu, Guangyi; Sun, Yue; Hu, Jin


    In this study, a welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy was treated by means of local rapid induction heating in order to relax the residual stress existed in the weldment. The welded samples were heat treated at the different temperatures. The stress corrosion cracking behavior and electrochemical characterization of the as-welded samples before and after the post weld heat treatment as a function of residual stress were investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of the samples under slow strain rate test were performed in a LiCl-methanol solution. The results demonstrated that the residual stress in the as-welded sample was dramatically reduced after the post weld heat treatment, and the residual stress decreased with the increase in the heat treatment temperature. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility and electrochemical activity of the as-welded sample were significantly reduced after the heat treatment due to the relaxation of the residual stress, which gradually decreased with the decreasing value of the residual stress distributed in the heat treated samples.

  7. Carotid baroreflex control of heart rate is enhanced, while control of mean arterial pressure is preserved during whole body heat stress in young healthy men. (United States)

    Krnjajic, Davor; Allen, Dustin R; Butts, Cory L; Keller, David M


    Whole body heat stress (WBH) results in numerous cardiovascular alterations that ultimately reduce orthostatic tolerance. While impaired carotid baroreflex (CBR) function during WBH has been reported as a potential reason for this decrement, study design considerations may limit interpretation of previous findings. We sought to test the hypothesis that CBR function is unaltered during WBH. CBR function was assessed in 10 healthy male subjects (age: 26 ± 3; height: 185 ± 7 cm; weight: 82 ± 10 kg; BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m(2); means ± SD) using 5-s trials of neck pressure (+45, +30, and +15 Torr) and neck suction (-20, -40, -60, and -80 Torr) during normothermia (NT) and passive WBH (Δ core temp ∼1°C). Analyses of stimulus response curves (four-parameter logistic model) for CBR control of heart rate (CBR-HR) and mean arterial pressure (CBR-MAP), as well as separate two-way ANOVA of the hypotensive and hypertensive stimuli (factor 1: thermal condition, factor 2: chamber pressure), were performed. For CBR-HR, maximal gain was increased during WBH (-0.73 ± 0.11) compared with NT (-0.39 ± 0.04, mean ± SE, P = 0.03). In addition, the CBR-HR responding range was increased during WBH (33 ± 5) compared with NT (19 ± 2 bpm, P = 0.03). Separate analysis of hypertensive stimulation revealed enhanced HR responses during WBH at -40, -60, and -80 Torr (condition × chamber pressure interaction, P = 0.049) compared with NT. For CBR-MAP, both logistic analysis and separate two-way ANOVA revealed no differences during WBH. Therefore, in response to passive WBH, CBR control of heart rate (enhanced) and arterial pressure (no change) is well preserved. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effects of Channel Geometry and Coolant Fluid on Thermoelectric Net Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sørensen, Kim


    generation in TEG for different size of hydraulic diameter of plate-fin heat sink and over a wide range of Reynolds number. The particular focus of this study is to find optimal Reynolds number in each considered channel hydraulic diameter and to explore optimal channel hydraulic diameter for maximum TEG net......, and the maximum net power output occurs at smaller Reynolds number when the channel hydraulic diameter reduces.......Channel geometry has a strong influence on the heat transfer coefficient and cooling energy input in a heat sink. The net power output in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be defined as power generation minus the required cooling energy in TEG. This study aims to evaluate the net power...

  9. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Phase II field ... (United States)

    Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design and operating experience are extremely limited. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the second phase of operation of an advanced oxidation-based NZW pilot system designed, constructed, and operated for a period of two years, serving an occupied four-person apartment. System water was monitored, either continuously or thrice daily, for routine water quality parameters, minerals, and MicroTox® in-vitro toxicity, and intermittently for somatic and male-specific coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, emerging organic constituents (non-quantitative), and the Florida drinking water standards. All 115 drinking water standards with the exception of bromate were met in this phase. Neither virus nor protozoa were detected in the treated water, with the exception of measurement of adenovirus genome copies attributed to accumulation of inactive genetic material in hydraulic dead zones. Chemical oxygen demand was mineralized to 90% in treatment. Total dissolved solids were maintained at ∼500 mg/L at steady state, partially through aerated aluminum electrocoagulation. Bromate accumulation is projected to be controlled by aluminum electrocoagulation with separate dispo

  10. An energy and mortality impact assessment of the urban heat island in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Scott A., E-mail:


    Increased summer energy use and increased summer heat related mortality are the two most cited detrimental impacts of the urban heat island (UHI). An assessment of these impacts was made that considered the annual impact of the UHI, not just the summer impact. It was found that in north of the US there was a net decrease in energy use from the UHI, as heating energy reductions were larger than the increase in cooling energy. In the south there was a net energy increase from the UHI. The impact of the UHI on heat related deaths was an estimated increase of 1.1 deaths per million people. The impact of the UHI on cold related deaths was an estimated decrease of 4.0 deaths per million people. These estimates are caveated by the acknowledgement that compounding factors influence mortality. Hypothermia related death rates were three times higher in rural areas than urban areas. This is surprising as the homeless population is usually considered the most at risk, yet they mostly live in urban areas. - Highlights: • The urban heat island (UHI) may actually be beneficial in colder cities in the US in terms of energy use • The UHI may cause an increase in heat related mortality of ~ 1 deaths per million • In winter the UHI may decrease cold related mortality by ~ 4 deaths per million • Cold related death rates were 3 times higher in rural areas although the homeless population live mainly in urban areas.

  11. Nonadiabatic electron heat pump


    Rey, Miguel; Strass, Michael; Kohler, Sigmund; Hänggi, Peter; Sols, Fernando


    We investigate a mechanism for extracting heat from metallic conductors based on the energy-selective transmission of electrons through a spatially asymmetric resonant structure subject to ac driving. This quantum refrigerator can operate at zero net electronic current as it replaces hot by cold electrons through two energetically symmetric inelastic channels. We present numerical results for a specific heterostructure and discuss general trends. We also explore the conditions under which the...

  12. Quantum heat engine with continuum working medium


    Li, S.; Wang, H.; Sun, Y. D.; Yi, X. X.


    We introduce a new quantum heat engine, in which the working medium is a quantum system with a discrete level and a continuum. Net work done by this engine is calculated and discussed. The results show that this quantum heat engine behaves like the two-level quantum heat engine in both the high-temperature and the low-temperature limits, but it operates differently in temperatures between them. The efficiency of this quantum heat engine is also presented and discussed.

  13. Electron heat flux instability (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.


    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  14. Combined effects of solutes and food preservatives on rates of inactivation of and colony formation by heated spores and vegetative cells of molds. (United States)

    Beuchat, L R


    The combined and independent effects of sucrose, sodium chloride, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate on heat inactivation of conidia of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium puberulum, ascospores of Byssochlamys nivea, and vegetative cells of Geotrichum candidum were studied. In addition, the effects of solutes and preservatives on colony formation by unheated and heated conidia of A. flavus were evaluated. Increased concentrations of sucrose were accompanied by increased tolerance to heat by A. flavus, B. nivea, and G. candidum. Low concentrations (3 and 6%) of sodium chloride protected A. flavus and G. candidum, whereas up to 12% sodium chloride protected B. nivea, but had little effect on the heat stability of P. puberulum. Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate acted synergistically with heat to inactivate all four molds. At the same concentration, the two preservatives had varied degrees of effectiveness on molds and were influenced by the type of solute in the heating menstrua. Heated conidia of A. flavus had increased sensitivity to preservatives and reduced water activity, whether achieved by the presence of sucrose or sodium chloride, thus demonstrating heat-induced injury. At the same concentration, potassium sorbate was clearly more inhibitory than was sodium benzoate to colony formation by A. flavus, and the presence of sucrose and sodium chloride enhanced this inhibition.

  15. Space shuttle: Heat transfer rate distributions on McDonnell-Douglas delta wing orbiter determined by phase-change paint technique for nominal Mach number of 8 (United States)

    Matthews, R. K.; Martindale, W. R.; Warmbrod, J. D.


    The results are reported of the phase-change paint tests conducted at Mach 8, to determine the aerodynamic heat transfer distributions on the McDonnell Douglas delta wing orbiter. Model details, test conditions, and reduced heat transfer data are presented.

  16. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv/Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto


    (1 week at 36/30∘C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stresswas positively correlated to Fv/Fm. The high Fv/Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN...... variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40∘C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv/Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits undermoderate heat stress......-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv/Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified...

  17. An Integrated Model to Compare Net Electricity Generation for Carbon Dioxide- and Water-Based Geothermal Systems (United States)

    Agarwal, Vikas

    Utilization of supercritical CO2 as a geothermal fluid instead of water has been proposed by Brown in 2000 and its advantages have been discussed by him and other researchers such as Karsten Pruess and Fouillac. This work assesses the net electricity that could be generated by using supercritical CO2 as a geothermal working fluid and compares it with water under the same temperature and pressure reservoir conditions. This procedure provides a method of direct comparison of water and CO2 as geothermal working fluids, in terms of net electricity generation over time given a constant geothermal fluid flow rate. An integrated three-part model has been developed to determine net electricity generation for CO2- and water-based geothermal reservoirs. This model consists of a wellbore model, reservoir simulation, and surface plant simulation. To determine the bottomhole pressure and temperature of the geothermal fluid (either water or CO2) in the injection well, a wellbore model was developed using fluid-phase, thermodynamic equations of state, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer models. A computer program was developed that solves for the temperature and pressure of the working fluid (either water or CO 2) down the wellbore by simultaneously solving for the fluid thermophysical properties, heat transfer, and frictional losses. For the reservoir simulation, TOUGH2, a general purpose numerical simulator has been used to model the temperature and pressure characteristics of the working fluid in the reservoir. The EOS1 module of TOUGH2 has been used for the water system and the EOS2 module of the TOUGH2 code has been employed for the CO2 case. The surface plant is simulated using CHEMCAD, a chemical process simulator, to determine the net electricity generated. A binary organic (iso-pentane) Rankine cycle is simulated. The calculated net electricity generated for the optimized water and CO2 systems are compared over the working time of the reservoir. Based on the theoretical

  18. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein


    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  19. Heat Islands (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  20. Heat Waves (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...