WorldWideScience

Sample records for net growing stock

  1. Comparison of the behaviour of growing rabbits reared on wire net or combined floor at different stocking densities

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    Gábor Milisits

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of some behaviours of growing rabbits was studied in pens keeping the animals either on wire net or combined (half of the floor wire net, half of the floor straw litter floor at different stocking densities. The combined floor could be favourable by increasing the frequency of the social behaviour and decreasing the frequency of the stereotypes, but it decreases the comfort behaviours and the resting time. The decrease of stocking density from 16 to 12 or 8 rabbits/m² significantly increased the stereotypes.

  2. Developing Inventory Projection Models Using Empirical Net Forest Growth and Growing-Stock Density Relationships Across U.S. Regions and Species Group

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    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of empirical net forest growth models based on forest growing-stock density relationships for three U.S. regions (North, South, and West) and two species groups (softwoods and hardwoods) at the regional aggregate level. The growth models accurately predict historical U.S. timber inventory trends when we incorporate historical timber harvests...

  3. An Efficient Stock Recommendation Model Based on Big Order Net Inflow

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    Yang Yujun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, the stock trend is mainly driven by the big order transactions. Believing that the stock rise with a large volume is closely associated with the big order net inflow, we propose an efficient stock recommendation model based on big order net inflow in the paper. In order to compute the big order net inflow of stock, we use the M/G/1 queue system to measure all tick-by-tick transaction data. Based on an indicator of the big order net inflow of stock, we select some stocks with the higher value of the net inflow to constitute the prerecommended stock set for the target investor user. In order to recommend some stocks with which this style is familiar them to the target users, we divide lots of investors into several categories using fuzzy clustering method and we should do our best to choose stocks from the stock set once operated by those investors who are in the same category with the target user. The experiment results show that the recommended stocks have better gains during the several days after the recommended stock day and the proposed model can provide reliable investment guidance for the target investors and let them get more stock returns.

  4. EFFECTS OF FLOOR TYPE AND STOCKING DENSITY ON THE BEHAVIOUR MODES OF GROWING RABBITS

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    Gabriella Jekkel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with 120 Pannon White growing rabbits, which were reared from 5 to 11 weeks of age on four types of floor: 1. wire net floor from 5 to 11 weeks of age, 2. wire net floor from 5 to 7 weeks of age, and straw litter thereafter, 3. wire net floor from 5 to 9 weeks of age, and straw litter thereafter, 4. straw litter from 5 to 11 weeks of age. In each group three different stocking densities (8, 12 and 16 rabbits/m² were used. As for the rabbits 24-hours video recordings were made every week on the same day. The actual behavioral form of each rabbit was recorded in every 10 minutes. Based on the results it was found out, that the frequency of eating decreased, when wire net floor was changed to straw litter. The frequency of drinking was less than 0.5% in the 1st experimental group and mostly higher than 1% in the other three groups during the whole rearing period. The moving activity of the rabbits was higher on the straw litter, while resting was observed more often on the wire net floor.

  5. Temporal Assessment of Growing Stock, Biomass and Carbon Stock of Indian Forests

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    Manhas, R.K.; Negi, J.D.S.; Chauhan, P.S. [Forest Ecology and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, 248 006, Uttaranchal (India); Kumar, R. [Forest Survey of India, Dehradun, 248 001, Uttaranchal (India)

    2006-01-15

    The dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems depends on interactions between carbon, nutrient and hydrological cycles. Terrestrial ecosystems retain carbon in live biomass (aboveground and belowground), decomposing organic matter, and soil. Carbon is exchanged naturally between these systems and the atmosphere through photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and combustion. Human activities change carbon stock in these pools and exchanges between them and the atmosphere through land-use, land-use change, and forestry. In the present study we estimated the wood (stem) biomass, growing stock (GS) and carbon stock of Indian forests for 1984 and 1994. The forest area, wood biomass, GS, and carbon stock were 63.86 Mha, 4327.99 Mm{sup 3}, 2398.19 Mt and 1085.06 Mt respectively in 1984 and with the reduction in forest area, 63.34 Mha, in 1994, wood biomass (2395.12 Mt) and carbon stock (1083.69 Mt) also reduced subsequently. The Conifers, of temperate region, stocked maximum carbon in their woods, 28.88 to 65.21 t C/ha, followed by Mangrove forests, 28.24 t C/ha, Dipterocarp forests, 28.00 t C/ha, and Shorea robusta forests, 24.07 t C/ha. Boswellia serrata, with 0.22 Mha forest area, stocked only 3.91 t C/ha. To have an idea of rate of carbon loss the negative changes (loss of forest area) in forest area occurred during 1984-1994 (10yrs) and 1991-1994 (4yrs) were also estimated. In India, land-use changes and fuelwood requirements are the main cause of negative change. Total 24.75 Mt C was lost during 1984-1994 and 21.35 Mt C during 1991-94 at a rate of 2.48 Mt C/yr and 5.35 Mt C/yr respectively. While in other parts of India negative change is due to multiple reasons like fuelwood, extraction of non-wood forest products (NWFPs), illicit felling etc., but in the northeastern region of the country shifting cultivation is the only reason for deforestation. Decrease in forest area due to shifting cultivation accounts for 23.0% of the total deforestation in India, with an annual

  6. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts.

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    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Han, Gi Ppeum; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-09-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary net energy (NE) concentrations on growth performance and NE intake of growing gilts. Five diets were formulated to contain 9.6, 10.1, 10.6, 11.1, and 11.6 MJ NE/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial with 10 growing pigs (average body weight [BW] = 15.9±0.24 kg) was conducted to determine NE concentrations of 5 diets based on French and Dutch NE systems in a 5×5 replicated Latin square design. A growth trial also was performed with five dietary treatments and 12 replicates per treatment using 60 growing gilts (average BW = 15.9±0.55 kg) for 28 days. A regression analysis was performed to predict daily NE intake from the BW of growing gilts. Increasing NE concentrations of diets did not influence average daily gain and average daily feed intake of growing gilts. There was a quadratic relationship (p = 0.01) between dietary NE concentrations and feed efficiency (G:F), although the difference in G:F among treatment means was relatively small. Regression analysis revealed that daily NE intake was linearly associated with the BW of growing gilts. The prediction equations for NE intake with the BW of growing gilts were: NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.442+(0.562×BW, kg), R 2 = 0.796 when French NE system was used, whereas NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.533+(0.614×BW, kg), R 2 = 0.810 when Dutch NE system was used. Increasing NE concentrations of diets from 9.6 to 11.6 MJ NE/kg have little impacts on growth performance of growing gilts. Daily NE intake can be predicted from the BW between 15 and 40 kg in growing gilts.

  7. Water potential in ponderosa pine stands of different growing-stock levels

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    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; R. K. Watkins; M. R. Kaufmann

    1991-01-01

    Water potential was measured in five ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in each of four stands of different growing-stock levels at two locations in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Mean water potentials at dawn and midday varied significantly among growing-stock levels at one location, but differences were not consistent. Mean dawn and midday water potentials...

  8. Growing reforestation conifer stock: Utilizing peat/sawdust medium

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    Janice K. Schaefer

    2009-01-01

    Western Forest Systems, Incorporated (WFS) (Lewiston, ID) has been utilizing a peat/sawdust blended mix as our growing medium for the past 10 years. Our decision to change from a peat/vermiculite blend to a peat/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sawdust blend involved worker health and safety issues, seedling culture, seedling production, and...

  9. Urbanization has a positive net effect on soil carbon stocks: modelling outcomes for the Moscow region

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    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Leemans, Rik; Valentini, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is responsible for large environmental changes worldwide. Urbanization was traditionally related to negative environmental impacts, but recent research highlights the potential to store soil carbon (C) in urban areas. The net effect of urbanization on soil C is, however, poorly understood. Negative influences of construction and soil sealing can be compensated by establishing of green areas. We explored possible net effects of future urbanization on soil C-stocks in the Moscow Region. Urbanization was modelled as a function of environmental, socio-economic and neighbourhood factors. This yielded three alternative scenarios: i) including neighbourhood factors; ii) excluding neighbourhood factors and focusing on environmental drivers; and iii) considering the New Moscow Project, establishing 1500km2 of new urbanized area following governmental regulation. All three scenarios showed substantial urbanization on 500 to 2000km2 former forests and arable lands. Our analysis shows a positive net effect on SOC stocks of 5 to 11 TgC. The highest increase occurred on the less fertile Orthic Podzols and Eutric Podzoluvisols, whereas C-storage in Orthic Luvisols, Luvic Chernozems, Dystric Histosols and Eutric Fluvisols increased less. Subsoil C-stocks were much more affected with an extra 4 to 10 TgC than those in the topsoils. The highest increase of both topsoil and subsoil C stocks occurred in the New Moscow scenario with the highest urbanization. Even when the relatively high uncertainties of the absolute C-values are considered, a clear positive net effect of urbanization on C-stocks is apparent. This highlights the potential of cities to enhance C-storage. This will progressively become more important in the future following the increasing world-wide urbanization.

  10. Inference for lidar-assisted estimation of forest growing stock volume

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    Ronald E. McRoberts; Erik Næsset; Terje. Gobakken

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of growing stock volume are reported by the national forest inventories (NFI) of most countries and may serve as the basis for aboveground biomass and carbon estimates as required by an increasing number of international agreements. The probability-based (design-based) statistical estimators traditionally used by NFIs to calculate estimates are generally...

  11. Post-stratified estimation of forest area and growing stock volume using lidar-based stratifications

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    Ronald E. McRoberts; Terje Gobakken; Erik. Næsset

    2012-01-01

    National forest inventories report estimates of parameters related to forest area and growing stock volume for geographic areas ranging in size from municipalities to entire countries. Landsat imagery has been shown to be a source of auxiliary information that can be used with stratified estimation to increase the precision of estimates, although the increase is...

  12. Application of growing nested Petri nets for modeling robotic systems operating under risk

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    Sorokin, E. V.; Senkov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper studies the peculiarities of modeling robotic systems engaged in mining. Existing modeling mechanisms are considered, which are based on nested Petri nets, and a new formalism of growing Petri nets is presented that allows modeling robotic systems operating under risk. Modeling is provided both for the regular operation mode and for non-standard modes in which individual elements of the system can perform uncharacteristic functions. The example shows growing Petri nets that are used for modeling extraction of flat coal seams by a robotic system consisting of several different-type autonomous robots.

  13. SDI-Flex: a new technique of allocating growing stock for developing treatment prescriptions in uneven-aged forest stands

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    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2007-01-01

    One of the difficulties of apportioning growing stock across diameter classes in multi- or uneven-aged forests is estimating how closely the target stocking value compares to the maximum stocking that could occur in a particular forest type and eco-region. Although the BDQ method had been used to develop uneven-aged prescriptions, it is not inherently related to any...

  14. The west-wide ponderosa pine levels-of-growing-stock study at age 40

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    William W. Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In the 1960s a series of levels-of-growing-stock studies was established in young, even-aged stands throughout the range of ponderosa pine in the western United States. Using a common study plan, installations were begun in the Black Hills of South Dakota, eastern and central Oregon, the Coconino Plateau of Arizona and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in California...

  15. The growing stock of the Republic of Serbia: State and problems

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    Banković Staniša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of the National Forest Inventory, this paper presents the basic characteristics of forest ecosystems in Serbia by different qualitative and quantitative parameters. The following parameters were dealt with: land use, forest ownership, origin, naturalness, preservation status, mixture and structural form of forests, percentage of tree species, stand category, volume distribution by diameter degrees, as well as the quantity of dead wood and carbon stock in the forests of Ser­bia. The analysis of the presented state enables the definition of some of strategic problems which individually and acting together burden our forest ecosystems, and whose detailed elaboration, measures and methods of enhancement will be fully expressed in the highest planning document - National Forest Programme. A special section, but without being sufficiently analytical, presents the main data on the growing stock of the Autonomous Province Kosovo and Metohija taken from the Report of the Norwegian Forestry Group.

  16. Growing season net ecosystem CO2 exchange of two desert ecosystems with alkaline soils in Kazakhstan

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    Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; van der Tol, Christiaan; Luo, Geping; Su, Zhongbo

    2014-01-01

    Central Asia is covered by vast desert ecosystems, and the majority of these ecosystems have alkaline soils. Their contribution to global net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is of significance simply because of their immense spatial extent. Some of the latest research reported considerable abiotic CO2 absorption by alkaline soil, but the rate of CO2 absorption has been questioned by peer communities. To investigate the issue of carbon cycle in Central Asian desert ecosystems with alkaline soils, we have measured the NEE using eddy covariance (EC) method at two alkaline sites during growing season in Kazakhstan. The diurnal course of mean monthly NEE followed a clear sinusoidal pattern during growing season at both sites. Both sites showed significant net carbon uptake during daytime on sunny days with high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but net carbon loss at nighttime and on cloudy and rainy days. NEE has strong dependency on PAR and the response of NEE to precipitation resulted in an initial and significant carbon release to the atmosphere, similar to other ecosystems. These findings indicate that biotic processes dominated the carbon processes, and the contribution of abiotic carbon process to net ecosystem CO2 exchange may be trivial in alkaline soil desert ecosystems over Central Asia. PMID:24455157

  17. Effect of Stocking Density on Performance of Growing Rabbits in Semi-Humid Tropics

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    Iyeghe-Erakpotobor Grace, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the adoption possibility of Maize- Mucuna-Fertiliser (mineral System (MMFS, for soil fertilisation in the southern part of Togo, 52 farms from three representative villages of the region were analysed and classified into three types according to their adoption potential for the innovation: type A characterised by heads of farm being in majority land owners; type B whose head of farm are young, literate and in majority land tenants; and type C whose heads are old mainly land tenants. Participatory surveys, based on contingent ranking of the constraints, conducted with homogenous groups of farmers chosen according to three types of farm, helped to sort out the major constraints to the adoption of MMFS. These constraints, having a high degree of severity (≥ 45%, were in order of importance: the lack of money/loan, the land problem (lack of arable lands and insecurity on rented ones, the suppression of mixed cropping by the MMFS and the non availability of mucuna seed. For the farmers of type A, the non availability of mucuna seed and the lack of money/loan presented a degree of severity of 100% each. For those of type B and C, the land problem was the most important: it presented a degree of severity of 100% for the farmers of type B and 80% for those of type C. Sixty growing rabbits were housed at densities of 6.7, 10, 13.3, 16.7 and 20 rabbits/m2 in wood and poultry wire mesh cages for six weeks and fed a common diet of 22.6% CP and 2600 kcal/kg ME. Parameters measured were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body condition, fur condition and body bites. Stocking density significantly (P< 0.05 affected feed intake and weight gain but not feed conversion ratio of rabbits. Rabbits stocked at densities of 6.7, 10 and 13.3 rabbits/m2 had higher average daily gain than those stocked at higher densities. Feed intake was higher at higher densities. The trend shows a significant decrease in feed intake by individual

  18. STANDWISE CHANGE DETECTION FOR GROWING STOCK USING REPEAT-PASS ALOS PALSAR / PALSAR-2 DATA

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    M. –G. Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of detecting the changes of growing stocks in mountainous forest stands derived from ALOS PALSAR and PALSAR-2 images. The ALOS PALSAR were obtained over the Kwangneung Experiment Forest (KEF, Korea during the period of nineteen and a half months from the April 26, 2009 to December 12, 2010, whereas the PALSAR-2 data were acquired on the April 7, 2015. The KEF test site comprises 58 stands, which cover approximately 1,000ha and have steep slope topography. Owing to topographic effects of SAR data in mountainous areas, the DEM-assisted topographic normalized backscattering coefficient γ0 was applied to the evaluation of the relationships between the ALOS PALSAR / PALSAR-2 HV backscatter and the field inventory–based stand stock volume. The results indicate that: 1 the γ0 values for the volume obtained from ALOS PALSAR data on December 12, 2010 show a gradual increase higher than those computed from the data on April 26, 2009, here the γ0 value increases in accordance with an increase in the volume: 2 the γ0 values determined from the PALSAR-2 data increase with the same inventory-based volume, when compared with those computed from both ALOS PALSAR data. They also increase substantially as the values of the volume rise, with the exception of the volume interval from 130 m3 ha−1 to 160 m3 ha−1. This is understandable because the volume of the aforementioned interval has been reduced through clearing. Consequently, the γ0–based relationship between PALSAR-2 HV backscatter and growing stock can lead to detecting the stand growth changes in the KEF of Korea.

  19. A Net-Zero Energy Home Grows Up: Lessons and Puzzles from 10 Years of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Craig; Norton, Paul

    2016-08-26

    In 2005, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, with support from NREL and other partners, built one of the first homes in the US to achieve net-zero energy based on monitored data. A family of three moved into the house when it was completed and lives there still. The home has been monitored continuously for the past ten years. Although PV production has remained steady, net energy performance has varied each year. The home was a net producer of energy annually in each of the first three years and in the ninth year, but not in years four through eight. Over the years, the PV system provided between 124% and 64% of the home source energy use. Electricity use in the home increased steadily during the first eight years, even though no significant new appliance was introduced into the house, such as a window air conditioner. Miscellaneous electric loads and space heating, both strongly dependent on occupant behavior, appear to be primarily responsible for the observed increase in energy use. An interesting aspect of this case study is how, even within a single family, natural changes in occupant lifestyles over time (e.g., kids growing up, schedules changing) can substantially impact the overall energy intensity of a home. Data from the last ten years will be explored for lessons learned that can improve the way we design low-load homes without sacrificing comfort or convenience for the occupants, and how we can make realistic predictions of long-term energy performance.

  20. Net-Zero Energy Home Grows Up: Lessons and Puzzles from 10 Years of Data; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Craig; Norton, Paul

    2016-05-17

    In 2005, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, with support from NREL and other partners, built one of the first homes in the US to achieve net-zero energy based on monitored data. A family of three moved into the house when it was completed and lives there still. The home has been monitored continuously for the past ten years. Although PV production has remained steady, net energy performance has varied each year. The home was a net producer of energy annually in each of the first three years and in the ninth year, but not in years four through eight. Over the years, the PV system provided between 124% and 64% of the home source energy use. Electricity use in the home increased steadily during the first eight years, even though no significant new appliance was introduced into the house, such as a window air conditioner. Miscellaneous electric loads and space heating, both strongly dependent on occupant behavior, appear to be primarily responsible for the observed increase in energy use. An interesting aspect of this case study is how, even within a single family, natural changes in occupant lifestyles over time (e.g., kids growing up, schedules changing) can substantially impact the overall energy intensity of a home. Data from the last ten years will be explored for lessons learned that can improve the way we design low-load homes without sacrificing comfort or convenience for the occupants, and how we can make realistic predictions of long-term energy performance.

  1. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study on Douglas-fir: report no. 02—The Hoskins Study, 1963-1970.

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    John F. Bell; Alan B. Berg

    1972-01-01

    Public and private agencies are cooperating in a study of eight thinning regimes in young Douglas-fir stands. Regimes differ in the amount of basal area allowed to accrue in growing stock at each successive thinning. All regimes start with a common level-of-growing-stock which is established by a conditioning thinning. Thinning interval is...

  2. CMS: Forest Carbon Stocks, Emissions, and Net Flux for the Conterminous US: 2005-2010

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides maps of estimated carbon in forests of the 48 continental states of the US for the years 2005-2010. Carbon (termed committed carbon) stocks...

  3. Mapping growing stock at 1-km spatial resolution for Spanish forest areas from ground forest inventory data and GLAS canopy height

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    Sánchez-Ruiz, S.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Gilabert, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    National forest inventories provide measurements of forest variables (e.g. growing stock) that can be used for the estimation of above ground biomass (AGB). Mapping growing stock brings knowledge about spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of ABG, which is necessary for carbon cycle analysis. Several studies have been conducted on the integration of ground and optical remote sensing data to map forest biomass over Europe. Nevertheless, more direct information on forest biomass could be obtained by LiDAR techniques, which directly assess vertical forest structure by measuring the distance between the sensor and the scattering elements located inside the canopy volume. Thus, global 1-km maps of forest canopy height have been recently obtained from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The current study aims to produce a forest growing stock map in Spain. Five different forest type areas were identified in three provinces along a North - South gradient accounting for different ecosystems and climatic conditions. Growing stock ground data from the Third Spanish National Forest Inventory were assigned to each forest type and aggregated to 1-km spatial resolution. GLAS-derived canopy height was extracted for the locations of selected ground data. A relationship between inventory growing stock and satellite canopy height was found for each class. The obtained relationships were then extended all over Spain. The accuracy of the resulting growing stock map was assessed at province level against the Third Spanish National Forest Inventory growing stock estimations (R = 0.85, RMSE = 21 m3 ha-1).

  4. Mapping growing stock volume and forest live biomass: a case study of the Polissya region of Ukraine

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    Bilous, Andrii; Myroniuk, Viktor; Holiaka, Dmytrii; Bilous, Svitlana; See, Linda; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    Forest inventory and biomass mapping are important tasks that require inputs from multiple data sources. In this paper we implement two methods for the Ukrainian region of Polissya: random forest (RF) for tree species prediction and k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) for growing stock volume and biomass mapping. We examined the suitability of the five-band RapidEye satellite image to predict the distribution of six tree species. The accuracy of RF is quite high: ~99% for forest/non-forest mask and 89% for tree species prediction. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of elevation as a predictor variable in the RF model improved the performance of tree species classification. We evaluated different distance metrics for the k-NN method, including Euclidean or Mahalanobis distance, most similar neighbor (MSN), gradient nearest neighbor, and independent component analysis. The MSN with the four nearest neighbors (k = 4) is the most precise (according to the root-mean-square deviation) for predicting forest attributes across the study area. The k-NN method allowed us to estimate growing stock volume with an accuracy of 3 m3 ha-1 and for live biomass of about 2 t ha-1 over the study area.

  5. Surface Approximation using Growing Self-Organizing Nets and Gradient Information

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    Jorge Rivera-Rovelo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show how to improve the performance of two self-organizing neural networks used to approximate the shape of a 2D or 3D object by incorporating gradient information in the adaptation stage. The methods are based on the growing versions of the Kohonen's map and the neural gas network. Also, we show that in the adaptation stage the network utilizes efficient transformations, expressed as versors in the conformal geometric algebra framework, which build the shape of the object independent of its position in space (coordinate free. Our algorithms were tested with several images, including medical images (CT and MR images. We include also some examples for the case of 3D surface estimation.

  6. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 08—The LOGS Study, 20-year results.

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    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall

    1986-01-01

    This progress report reviews the history and status of the cooperative levels-of-growing-stock study in coast Douglas-fir, begun in 1961, in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. It presents new analyses, including comparisons among some installations. Data now available are primarily from the site II installations, which are approaching completion of the study....

  7. Regression analysis to predict growth performance from dietary net energy in growing-finishing pigs.

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    Nitikanchana, S; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; White, B J

    2015-06-01

    between predicted and observed values of ADG and G:F except for the low-energy diet containing the greatest fiber content (30% DDGS diet), where ADG and G:F were overpredicted by 3 to 6%. Therefore, the prediction equations provided a good estimation of the growth rate and feed efficiency of growing-finishing pigs fed different levels of dietary NE except for the pigs fed the low-energy diet containing the greatest fiber content.

  8. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

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    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  9. Estimating agro-ecosystem carbon balance of northern Japan, and comparing the change in carbon stock by soil inventory and net biome productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xi, E-mail: icy124@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Toma, Yo [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7, Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Ehime (Japan); Yeluripati, Jagadeesh [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Iwasaki, Shinya [Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Institute of Land Use Systems (Germany); Jones, Edward O. [Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hatano, Ryusuke [Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Soil C sequestration in croplands is deemed to be one of the most promising greenhouse gas mitigation options for agriculture. We have used crop-level yields, modeled heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and land use data to estimate spatio-temporal changes in regional scale net primary productivity (NPP), plant C inputs, and net biome productivity (NBP) in northern Japan's arable croplands and grasslands for the period of 1959–2011. We compared the changes in C stocks derived from estimated NBP and using repeated inventory datasets for each individual land use type from 2005 to 2011. For the entire study region of 2193 ha, overall annual plant C inputs to the soil constituted 37% of total region NPP. Plant C inputs in upland areas (excluding bush/fallow) could be predicted by climate variables. Overall NBP for all land use types increased from − 1.26 Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} in 1959–0.26 Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} in 2011. However, upland and paddy fields showed a decreased in NBP over the period of 1959–2011, under the current C input scenario. From 1988, an increase in agricultural abandonment (bush/fallow) and grassland cover caused a slow increase in the regional C pools. The comparison of carbon budgets using the NBP estimation method and the soil inventory method indicated no significant difference between the two methods. Our results showed C loss in upland crops, paddy fields and sites that underwent land use change from paddy field to upland sites. We also show C gain in grassland from 2005 to 2011. An underestimation of NBP or an overestimation of repeated C inventories cannot be excluded, but either method may be suitable for tracking absolute changes in soil C, considering the uncertainty associated with these methods. - Highlights: • We compared C stocks change by two methods: (i) net biome productivity (NBP) and (ii) soil inventory. • Variation in net primary productivity (NPP), plant C input, NBP can be predicted by climate

  10. Exploiting Growing Stock Volume Maps for Large Scale Forest Resource Assessment: Cross-Comparisons of ASAR- and PALSAR-Based GSV Estimates with Forest Inventory in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hüttich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing stock volume is an important biophysical parameter describing the state and dynamics of the Boreal zone. Validation of growing stock volume (GSV maps based on satellite remote sensing is challenging due to the lack of consistent ground reference data. The monitoring and assessment of the remote Russian forest resources of Siberia can only be done by integrating remote sensing techniques and interdisciplinary collaboration. In this paper, we assess the information content of GSV estimates in Central Siberian forests obtained at 25 m from ALOS-PALSAR and 1 km from ENVISAT-ASAR backscatter data. The estimates have been cross-compared with respect to forest inventory data showing 34% relative RMSE for the ASAR-based GSV retrievals and 39.4% for the PALSAR-based estimates of GSV. Fragmentation analyses using a MODIS-based land cover dataset revealed an increase of retrieval error with increasing fragmentation of the landscape. Cross-comparisons of multiple SAR-based GSV estimates helped to detect inconsistencies in the forest inventory data and can support an update of outdated forest inventory stands.

  11. Influence Analysis of Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE), Net Profit Margin (NPM), Debt To Equity Ratio (DER), and current ratio (CR), Against Corporate Profit Growth In Automotive In Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Heikal; Muammar Khaddafi; Ainatul Ummah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research to analyze the effect of Return On Asset, Return On Equity, Net Profit Margin, Debt To Equity Ratio and Current Ratio toward growth income either simultaneously or partially on automotive companies that were listed in Indonesia stock exchange. Independent variables used in this research were Return On Asset, Return On Equity, Net Profit Margin, Debt To Equity Ratio and Current Ratio and dependent variable in this research was growth incom. The data used in this re...

  12. COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN STOCK MARKETS (ROMANIA, GERMANY, FRANCE AND POLAND FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NET ASSETS INVESTMENT OF THE ROMANIAN MANDATORY PRIVATE PENSION FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Cristina PETRICA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate cointegration between Bucharest Stock Exchange and three European Stock Markets: Germany,France and Poland, respectively. The choice of the European markets is based on the net assets investment of the Romanian mandatory private pension funds. On June 30, 2016, according to the Romanian Financial Supervisory Authority 91.28% of all investments in shares of private pension funds have been performed in Romanian shares, while the rest of 8.72% (0.44 billion lei have been performed in shares issued by Germany (2.34%, France (2.23%, Poland (0.89% and other countries. Having the intention of achieving maximizing returns by managing risk, and also to capture the co-movements in the above markets,we perform the cointegration analysis to examine portfolio diversification of the Romanian mandatory private pension funds. The empirical analysis is based on daily closing prices of the BET Index, DAX 30 Index, CAC 40 Index and WIG 20 Index and covers the period from 30 January 2006 to 27 September 2016 (2713 observations.

  13. Growing season length as a key factor of cumulative net ecosystem exchange over the pine forest ecosystems in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Urbaniak, M.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-135 ISSN 0236-8722 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest * carbon dioxide * eddy covariance * growing season length Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2015

  14. Estimating agro-ecosystem carbon balance of northern Japan, and comparing the change in carbon stock by soil inventory and net biome productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Toma, Yo; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Iwasaki, Shinya; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D; Jones, Edward O; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Soil C sequestration in croplands is deemed to be one of the most promising greenhouse gas mitigation options for agriculture. We have used crop-level yields, modeled heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and land use data to estimate spatio-temporal changes in regional scale net primary productivity (NPP), plant C inputs, and net biome productivity (NBP) in northern Japan's arable croplands and grasslands for the period of 1959-2011. We compared the changes in C stocks derived from estimated NBP and using repeated inventory datasets for each individual land use type from 2005 to 2011. For the entire study region of 2193 ha, overall annual plant C inputs to the soil constituted 37% of total region NPP. Plant C inputs in upland areas (excluding bush/fallow) could be predicted by climate variables. Overall NBP for all land use types increased from -1.26MgCha(-1)yr(-1) in 1959-0.26 Mg Cha(-1)yr(-1) in 2011. However, upland and paddy fields showed a decreased in NBP over the period of 1959-2011, under the current C input scenario. From 1988, an increase in agricultural abandonment (bush/fallow) and grassland cover caused a slow increase in the regional C pools. The comparison of carbon budgets using the NBP estimation method and the soil inventory method indicated no significant difference between the two methods. Our results showed C loss in upland crops, paddy fields and sites that underwent land use change from paddy field to upland sites. We also show C gain in grassland from 2005 to 2011. An underestimation of NBP or an overestimation of repeated C inventories cannot be excluded, but either method may be suitable for tracking absolute changes in soil C, considering the uncertainty associated with these methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Large Area Mapping of Boreal Growing Stock Volume on an Annual and Multi-Temporal Level Using PALSAR L-Band Backscatter Mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wilhelm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The forests of the Russian Taiga can be described as an enormous biomass and carbon reservoir. Therefore, they are of utmost importance for the global carbon cycle. Large-area forest inventories in these mostly remote regions are associated with logistical problems and high financial efforts. Remotely-sensed data from satellite platforms may have the capability to provide such huge amounts of information. This study presents an application-oriented approach to derive aboveground growing stock volume (GSV maps using the annual large-area L-band backscatter mosaics provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA. Furthermore, a multi-temporal map has been created to improve GSV estimation accuracy. Based on information from Russian forest inventory data, the maps were generated using the machine learning algorithm, RandomForest. The results showed the high potential of this method for an operational, large-scale and high-resolution biomass estimation over boreal forests. An RMSE from 55.2 to 63.3 m3/ha could be obtained for the annual maps. Using the multi-temporal approach, the error could be slightly reduced to 54.4 m3/ha.

  16. Determination of the net energy content of canola meal from Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung Min; Adewole, Deborah; Nyachoti, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n=6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700 g/kg of the basal diet and 300 g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Effects of forest management and climate change on energy biomass and timber production with implications for carbon stocks and net CO{sub 2} exchange in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of forest management and climate change on energy biomass (wood) and timber production with implications for carbon stocks and net CO{sub 2} exchange in boreal forest ecosystems in Finland. First, the impacts of thinning on growth, timber production and carbon stocks under the current and changing climate were analysed by employing an ecosystem model for the whole of Finland over a 90-year period (Article 1). Concurrently, the potential of energy biomass production with implications for timber production and carbon stocks under varying thinning and climate scenarios was studied (Article 2). Thereafter, a life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for estimating net CO{sub 2} exchange of forest production was developed (Article 3), and it was applied in interaction with ecosystem model based simulations to study the impacts of different management regimes (initial stand density and thinning regimes) on energy biomass production and related CO{sub 2} emissions at a stand level with a rotation length of 80 years (Articles 3 and 4). The results showed that the climate change increased the production potential of energy biomass and timber, and carbon sequestration and stocks over the whole of Finland, but, in a relative sense more in northern than southern Finland (Articles 1 and 2). Decreasing basal area based thinning thresholds compared to the currently recommended ones, increased the harvesting of the annual average amount of timber compared to the annual average growth of stem wood, and reduced carbon stocks in the forest ecosystems (Article 1). On the other hand, the use of increased basal area thinning thresholds concurrently increased energy biomass and timber production, and carbon stocks in the forest ecosystem regardless of climate applied (Article 2). The development of the LCA tool made it also possible to estimate the net carbon exchange of the forest production (Article 3). Based on the use of the LCA tool with

  18. Effect of resistant starch on net portal-drained viscera flux of glucose, volatile fatty acids, urea, and ammonia in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Bakker, G.C.M.; Bakker, J.G.M.; Visser, de H.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Everts, H.

    1997-01-01

    Net portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of glucose, VFA, ammonia, and urea was determined in pigs fed diets with or without resistant starch. Diets consisted of 65% cornstarch (diet CS), 32.5% cornstarch and 32.5% raw potato starch (diet CPS), or 65% raw potato starch (diet PS); the remaining 35%

  19. EVALUATION OF FISH FAUNA STOCKS IN DAMS IN SOSSEGO MIME IN CANAÃ OF CARAJÁS (EASTERN AMAZON, CAPTURED WITH THE USE OF CAST NET BEFORE THE DEPOSIT OF TAILINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Furtado Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the biomass of fish stocks in the area of the dam formed by tailings of Sossego mine in Canaã dos Carajás, captured with the use of cast nets for fish. The prospecting work was carried out during the period from 29 February to 6 March 2004, 6 months after closing the dam and immediately before the disposal of waste. The average values estimated for the capture per unit area covered by cast nets (CPUA and biomass were 8.4 g m-² and 16,922.7 kg, respectively. The most representative groups of fish were minnows, with 67.7% and discus with 24.8% of the total estimated biomass. The species caught were: Moenkhausia cf. sanctaefilomenae (redeye tetra fish, Tetragonopterus cf. argenteus (white tetra fish, Tetragonopterus chalceus (red tetra fish, Aequidens viridis (cichlasoma bimaculatum Crenicichla cincta (jacunda Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (jeju Curimata inornata (branquinha and Hoplias malabaricus (trahira. Keywords: fishing survey; yield per unit area; biomass; tailings dam.

  20. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  1. Growing a professional network to over 3000 members in less than 4 years: evaluation of InspireNet, British Columbia's virtual nursing health services research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Noreen; Atherton, Pat; Borycki, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Grace; Cordeiro, Jennifer; Novak Lauscher, Helen; Black, Agnes

    2014-02-21

    Use of Web 2.0 and social media technologies has become a new area of research among health professionals. Much of this work has focused on the use of technologies for health self-management and the ways technologies support communication between care providers and consumers. This paper addresses a new use of technology in providing a platform for health professionals to support professional development, increase knowledge utilization, and promote formal/informal professional communication. Specifically, we report on factors necessary to attract and sustain health professionals' use of a network designed to increase nurses' interest in and use of health services research and to support knowledge utilization activities in British Columbia, Canada. "InspireNet", a virtual professional network for health professionals, is a living laboratory permitting documentation of when and how professionals take up Web 2.0 and social media. Ongoing evaluation documents our experiences in establishing, operating, and evaluating this network. Overall evaluation methods included (1) tracking website use, (2) conducting two member surveys, and (3) soliciting member feedback through focus groups and interviews with those who participated in electronic communities of practice (eCoPs) and other stakeholders. These data have been used to learn about the types of support that seem relevant to network growth. Network growth exceeded all expectations. Members engaged with varying aspects of the network's virtual technologies, such as teams of professionals sharing a common interest, research teams conducting their work, and instructional webinars open to network members. Members used wikis, blogs, and discussion groups to support professional work, as well as a members' database with contact information and areas of interest. The database is accessed approximately 10 times per day. InspireNet public blog posts are accessed roughly 500 times each. At the time of writing, 21 research teams

  2. GROW-OUT OF ABALONE Haliotis squamata IN FLOATING CAGES FED DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SEAWEED AND WITH REDUCTION OF STOCKING DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A; 80/20% (B; and 60/40% (C as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth.

  3. Growing a Professional Network to Over 3000 Members in Less Than 4 Years: Evaluation of InspireNet, British Columbia’s Virtual Nursing Health Services Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Pat; Borycki, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Grace; Cordeiro, Jennifer; Novak Lauscher, Helen; Black, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of Web 2.0 and social media technologies has become a new area of research among health professionals. Much of this work has focused on the use of technologies for health self-management and the ways technologies support communication between care providers and consumers. This paper addresses a new use of technology in providing a platform for health professionals to support professional development, increase knowledge utilization, and promote formal/informal professional communication. Specifically, we report on factors necessary to attract and sustain health professionals’ use of a network designed to increase nurses’ interest in and use of health services research and to support knowledge utilization activities in British Columbia, Canada. Objective “InspireNet”, a virtual professional network for health professionals, is a living laboratory permitting documentation of when and how professionals take up Web 2.0 and social media. Ongoing evaluation documents our experiences in establishing, operating, and evaluating this network. Methods Overall evaluation methods included (1) tracking website use, (2) conducting two member surveys, and (3) soliciting member feedback through focus groups and interviews with those who participated in electronic communities of practice (eCoPs) and other stakeholders. These data have been used to learn about the types of support that seem relevant to network growth. Results Network growth exceeded all expectations. Members engaged with varying aspects of the network’s virtual technologies, such as teams of professionals sharing a common interest, research teams conducting their work, and instructional webinars open to network members. Members used wikis, blogs, and discussion groups to support professional work, as well as a members’ database with contact information and areas of interest. The database is accessed approximately 10 times per day. InspireNet public blog posts are accessed roughly 500 times

  4. Net energy of hemp hulls and processed hemp hull products fed to growing pigs and the comparison of net energy determined via indirect calorimetry and calculated from prediction equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the NE of hemp hulls (HH), extruded HH (EHH), and a blended product of HH with pea (HHP) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC) and to determine effects of dietary fiber on heat production (HP) and fasting HP (FHP). Twenty-four growing barrows with an average initial BW of 22.9 ± 1.75 kg were individually housed in adjustable metabolism crates. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was prepared. Three additional diets were formulated to contain a constant ratio of corn and soybean meal and each of the test ingredients. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 16 d including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine to determine DE and ME of experimental diets. Pigs were then moved into IC chambers to determine HP and FHP. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM was greater ( < 0.01) in the HHP diet than in the HH and EHH diets but less ( < 0.01) than in the basal diet. Similarly, the ATTD of GE in the basal diet was greater ( < 0.01) compared with the HH, EHH, and HHP diets. The DE, ME, and NE of the basal diet were greater ( < 0.01) than those of the HH, EHH, and HHP diets. No significant differences were observed for the HP (on average, 1,904 kcal/kg DM) and FHP (on average, 1,320 kcal/kg DM) among treatments. However, the retained energy of pigs fed the basal diet (1,763 kcal/kg DM) was greater ( < 0.05) than for those fed the HH (1,501 kcal/kg DM) and HHP (1,482 kcal/kg DM) diets. The NE:ME ratio tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.10) for the basal diet (0.85) than for the HH (0.82), EHH (0.82), and HHP (0.83) diets. The NE of HH, EHH, and HHP determined by the IC method were 2,375, 2,320, and 2,399 kcal/kg DM, respectively, whereas values calculated using published prediction equations were 2,308, 2,161, and 2,278 kcal/kg DM, respectively. However there was no difference between determined and

  5. Stocking, growth, and yield of oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel F. Gingrich

    1971-01-01

    An appraisal of stocking in even-aged upland oak stands is a prerequisite for determining the cultural needs of a given stand. Most oak stands have sufficient stocking to utilize the site, but are deficient in high-quality trees. Thinning such stands offers a good opportunity to upgrade the relative quality of the growing stock and enhance the growth and yield...

  6. Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jerry Stuart

    1974-01-01

    Using play money, students buy and sell six types of stock certificates at prices determined periodically by tossing three dice; all students participate as investors, brokers, or banker. In addition to gaining practice on computational skills in a motivational game, students study the real stock market concurrently. (SD)

  7. Effect of Stocking Density on Production of Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Teugels) were reared at three different stocking densities in bamboo-net cages to evaluate the effects of stocking density on growth, survival rate and food conversion ratio. Three hundred (300) fish with a total weight of 1.8Kg were stocked at 25, 50 and 75 fish/ m3 cage with a mean ...

  8. Salmon stocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, C; Korman, J

    1999-01-01

    The PFRCC, in this first report, intends to provide a broad species-by-species overview of stock status and trends for BC as a whole, as well as an overview of the relevant fisheries management issues...

  9. Composição corporal e exigências líquidas proteicas de ovinos Santa Inês em crescimento Body composition and net protein requirements for growing Santa Inês sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Louzada Regadas Filho

    2011-06-01

    protein requirements of 24 Santa Inês non-castrated growing sheep at average age of 50 days and average body weight of 13.00 ± 0.56 kg. After a ten-day adaptation period, four animals were slaughtered to be used as a reference for estimates of empty body weight (EBW and initial body composition of the other animals. The remaining animals were assigned into a randomized block design with diets containg different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08; 2.28; 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal/kg of DM and crude protein (12.74; 14.36, 15.97 and 17.65% CP of DM with five replicates. The N daily excretion was estimated by extrapolating regression equations of N intake (g/kg BW0.75/day in function of retention (g/kg BW0.75/day for zero intake. The derivative regression of the logarithm of protein content in function of the logarithm of EBW enabled the estimation of net protein requirement for empty body weight gain (EBWG. Daily nitrogen excretion was 277 ± 0.05 mg/kg BW0.75/day and net protein requirement for maintenance was 1.73 g/kg BW0.75/day. Protein content of EBW of animals decreased from 157.83 to 144.33 g/kg of EBW when the BW of the animals increased from 15 to 30 kg, respectively. The amount of protein deposited in the gain decreased from 137.47 to 125.71 g/kg of EBWG with the increase of body weight of the animals from 15 to 30 kg, respectively. Nitrogen fecal excretion and protein net requirement for maintenance of Santa Inês growing lambs was lower than the values commonly cited by the main systems of feed evaluation and nutrient requirements for small ruminants.

  10. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  11. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  12. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  13. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009 : The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Dirk H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows,

  14. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  15. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  16. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  17. Grassland management impacts on soil carbon stocks: a new synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Richard T; Cerri, Carlos E P; Osborne, Brooke B; Paustian, Keith

    2017-03-01

    Grassland ecosystems cover a large portion of Earths' surface and contain substantial amounts of soil organic carbon. Previous work has established that these soil carbon stocks are sensitive to management and land use changes: grazing, species composition, and mineral nutrient availability can lead to losses or gains of soil carbon. Because of the large annual carbon fluxes into and out of grassland systems, there has been growing interest in how changes in management might shift the net balance of these flows, stemming losses from degrading grasslands or managing systems to increase soil carbon stocks (i.e., carbon sequestration). A synthesis published in 2001 assembled data from hundreds of studies to document soil carbon responses to changes in management. Here we present a new synthesis that has integrated data from the hundreds of studies published after our previous work. These new data largely confirm our earlier conclusions: improved grazing management, fertilization, sowing legumes and improved grass species, irrigation, and conversion from cultivation all tend to lead to increased soil C, at rates ranging from 0.105 to more than 1 Mg C·ha(-1) ·yr(-1) . The new data include assessment of three new management practices: fire, silvopastoralism, and reclamation, although these studies are limited in number. The main area in which the new data are contrary to our previous synthesis is in conversion from native vegetation to grassland, where we find that across the studies the average rate of soil carbon stock change is low and not significant. The data in this synthesis confirm that improving grassland management practices and conversion from cropland to grassland improve soil carbon stocks. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Effects of dietary soybean oil on pig growth performance, retention of protein, lipids, and energy, and the net energy of corn in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, D Y; Ji, F; Stewart, L L; Hinson, R B; Beaulieu, A D; Allee, G L; Patience, J F; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this experiment were 1) to determine if dietary soybean oil (SBO) affects the NE of corn when fed to growing or finishing pigs, 2) to determine if possible effects of dietary SBO on the NE of corn differ between growing and finishing pigs, and 3) to determine effects of SBO on pig growth performance and retention of energy, protein, and lipids. Forty-eight growing (initial BW: 27.3 ± 2.5 kg) and 48 finishing (initial BW: 86.0 ± 3.0 kg) barrows were used, and within each stage of growth, pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 groups. Two groups at each stage of growth served as an initial slaughter group. The remaining 4 groups were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments and pigs in these groups were harvested at the conclusion of the experiment. A low-lipid basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and no added SBO and a high-lipid basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 8% SBO were formulated at each stage of growth. Two additional diets at each stage of growth were formulated by mixing 25% corn and 75% of the low-lipid basal diet or 25% corn and 75% of the high-lipid basal diet. Results indicated that addition of SBO had no effects on growth performance, carcass composition, or retention of energy, protein, and lipids but increased (P growth performance and retention of energy, protein, and lipids than growing pigs. A greater (P < 0.05) DE and NE of diets was observed for finishing pigs than for growing pigs and the DE and NE of corn was also greater (P < 0.05) for finishing pigs than for growing pigs. In conclusion, addition of SBO increases the DE and NE of diets but has no impact on the DE and NE of corn. Diets fed to finishing pigs have greater DE and NE values than diets fed to growing pigs and the DE and NE of corn are greater for finishing pigs than for growing pigs.

  19. Stock Splits and Stock Dividends: Why, Who, and When.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakonishok, Josef; Lev, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This study investigates empirically why firms split their stock or distribute stock dividends and why the market reacts favorably to these distributions. The findings suggest that stock splits are mainly aimed at restoring stock prices to a "normal range." Some support can also be found for the oft-mentioned signaling motive of stock splits. Stock dividends are altogether different from stock splits and they appear to be a decreasing phenomenon. The clue to stock dividend distributions may li...

  20. Stock Market Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Brenda D.

    This project is designed to teach students the process of buying stocks and to tracking their investments over the course of a semester. The goals of the course are to teach students about the relationships between conditions in the economy and the stock market; to predict the effect of an economic event on a specific stock or industry; to relate…

  1. Predictability of Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predictability of stock returns has been shown by empirical studies over time. This article collects the most important theories on forecasting stock returns and investigates the factors that affecting behavior of the stocks’ prices and the market as a whole. Estimation of the factors and the way of estimation are the key issues of predictability of stock returns.

  2. Effects of net hapa on the survival of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of net hapa on the survival of fry from diffe rent brood stock sizes of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) was investigated in indoor aquaria for five weeks. Net hapa was incorporated to facilitate the separation of hatch lings from unhatched eggs and shells. The use of incubating net hapa with kakabans inside did ...

  3. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels are not h......We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels...... are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...

  4. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  5. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  6. Minimizing waste (off-cuts) using cutting stock model: The case of one dimensional cutting stock problem in wood working industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunranti, Gbemileke A.; Oluleye, Ayodeji E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study is to develop a model for solving the one dimensional cutting stock problem in the wood working industry, and develop a program for its implementation. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts the pattern oriented approach in the formulation of the cutting stock model. A pattern generation algorithm was developed and coded using Visual basic.NET language. The cutting stock model developed is a Linear Programming (LP) Model constrained by num...

  7. Effects of feeding diets containing distillers' dried grains with solubles and wheat middlings with equal predicted dietary net energy on growth performance and carcass composition of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Hilbrands, A M; Shurson, G C

    2016-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of feeding distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (WM) in diets with similar estimated NE content on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs ( = 384; 29.1 ± 3.6 kg initial BW) were blocked by initial BW, and within blocks, pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (8 pigs/pen and 12 replicates/treatment) in a 4-phase feeding program (29 to 50, 50 to 75, 75 to 100, and 100 to 120 kg BW). Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design and formulated to consist of: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON), 2) CON with 30% DDGS, 3) CON with 15% WM, and 4) CON with 30% DDGS and 15% WM. Diets met or exceeded nutrient requirements published by the and were formulated to contain the same concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys and meet or exceed minimum SID AA to Lys ratios within phases. No significant interactions for DDGS × WM × phase or DDGS × WM were observed for all growth performance criteria. Pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS had reduced ( diets with no DDGS in phase 1 but not in other phases. The G:F of pigs fed diets containing DDGS was not different during phase 1 to 3 but was greater ( diets with no DDGS. Pigs fed diets containing 15% WM had similar ADFI and G:F but reduced ( diets without WM in phase 1, but no difference in ADG was observed in phases 2 to 4. No DDGS × WM interaction was observed for carcass traits. Pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS had reduced ( diets with no DDGS. Pigs fed diets containing 15% WM had lower carcass yield (72.7 vs. 73.1%; diets with no addition of WM, but other carcass traits were not affected. In conclusion, overall ADG and G:F were not affected by feeding 30% DDGS or 15% WM when diets were formulated on the NE basis, but more accurate and dynamic estimation of NE content for DDGS sources is needed to optimize caloric efficiency at different physiological ages of pigs.

  8. Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Waldo, Staffan; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2013-01-01

    elements. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) frequently occurs in spatially segregated populations, some of which exhibit fine-scaled stock structuring within current management boundaries. Here we use the locally spawning cod stock in the Sound (“Öresund”) as a case study, and perform a sub......Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock......-term net benefits to the local gill-net fishery. Furthermore, our study emphasizes the need for developing sub-stock-specific management recommendations in order to ensure the maintenance of fisheries resources in general, and the persistence of sub-stock structuring in particular....

  9. A Local Net Volume Equation for Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    As a part of the 1974 Forest Survey of Iowa, the Station''s Forst Resources Evaluatioin Research Staff developed a merchantable tree volume equation and tables of coefficients for Iowa. They were developed for both board-foot (International ?-inch rule) and cubic foot volumes, for several species and species groups of growing-stock trees. The equation and...

  10. CONTAGIOUS EFFECTS OF OIL PRICES ON ASIAN STOCK MARKETS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jok-Tong Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the stock markets’ shock due to the effect of the price of oil in the East Asia Region. Particularly, this study examines if there is stock market interdependence during global oil price shocks (sudden changes for a sample of five total oil importers (the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, four net oil importers (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and China, and one net oil exporter (Malaysia between 1999 and 2014. From the result, an oil price change is collectively found to have a small but significant positive impact on the stock markets, in particular where a sudden decrease in oil prices tends to cause a stock market downturn and volatility. The world economy’s spending, financial investments in oil futures and foreign investment by oil rich nations are some underlying motives for inducing this oil-stock positive relation. The same direction of time-varying conditional correlations is found across East Asian stock markets during negative oil price shocks. The integration among East Asian stock markets is inducing the oil shock contagion to be transmitted from direct oil-affected countries (South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore to non-direct oil affected countries’ (Japan and Taiwan stock markets. In spite of a long practiced ASEAN+3 macroeconomics surveillance process and Early Warning System (EWS which can be customized for stock markets to prevent or detect the oil risk, hedging against initial oil-affected stock markets and a stronger influence by the East Asian countries in the global world of oil and capital investment are strongly suggested.

  11. The Effect of Stocking Density on the Performance of the Seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweed biofilter Ulva reticulata was grown at two stocking densities (1 and 3 kg m-2) in a low cost integrated system in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The seaweed was stocked in 2 m2 cages made of 1 inch netting material placed at the outflow of fish ponds. Control seaweed was grown at the fish pond inflow channel.

  12. Using an experimental manipulation to determine the effectiveness of a stock enhancement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We used an experimental manipulation to determine the impact of stocking 178 mm channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in six impoundments. The study design consisted of equal numbers (two) of control, ceased-stock, and stocked treatments that were sampled one year before and two years after stocking. Relative abundance, growth, size structure, and average weight significantly changed over time based on samples collected with hoop nets. Catch rates decreased at both ceased-stock lakes and increased for one stocked lake, while growth rates changed for at least one ceased-stock and stocked lake. The average weight of channel catfish in the ceased-stock treatment increased by 6% and 25%, whereas weight decreased by 28% and 78% in both stocked lakes. The variability in observed responses between lakes in both ceased-stock and stocked treatments indicates that a one-size-fits-all stocking agenda is impractical, suggesting lake specific and density-dependent mechanisms affect channel catfish population dynamics.

  13. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  14. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  15. effect of stocking density on production of clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    bamboo-net cages to evaluate the effects of stocking density on growth, survival rate and food conversion ratio. .... Where Wt1 = initial mean weight of fish at time T1 ..... Mohanty, R. K. (2004): Density-dependent growth performance of Indian major carps in rain water reservoirs. Journal of Applied. Ichthyology 20: 123-127.

  16. Factors Affecting the Return Stock Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX LQ45 in Years 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangki A. Sorongan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of partially and jointly independent variable of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM against the dependent variable on the stock return. Objects of this research were companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI LQ45 continuously for four years in the period 2012-2015. Companies that qualify for this research were 28 companies. Based on this research, the conclusions indicate that all four independent variables; Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM, either jointly or partially give the significant effect on return stock.

  17. DLA Forward Stocking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flory, John

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the feasibility of forward stocking in terms of DoD savings. The performance of DLA's criteria is evaluated and a new criteria using a cost and demand threshold is proposed...

  18. In-use product stocks link manufactured capital to natural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T E

    2015-05-19

    In-use stock of a product is the amount of the product in active use. In-use product stocks provide various functions or services on which we rely in our daily work and lives, and the concept of in-use product stock for industrial ecologists is similar to the concept of net manufactured capital stock for economists. This study estimates historical physical in-use stocks of 91 products and 9 product groups and uses monetary data on net capital stocks of 56 products to either approximate or compare with in-use stocks of the corresponding products in the United States. Findings include the following: (i) The development of new products and the buildup of their in-use stocks result in the increase in variety of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; (ii) substitution among products providing similar or identical functions reflects the improvement in quality of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; and (iii) the historical evolution of stocks of the 156 products or product groups in absolute, per capita, or per-household terms shows that stocks of most products have reached or are approaching an upper limit. Because the buildup, renewal, renovation, maintenance, and operation of in-use product stocks drive the anthropogenic cycles of materials that are used to produce products and that originate from natural capital, the determination of in-use product stocks together with modeling of anthropogenic material cycles provides an analytic perspective on the material linkage between manufactured capital and natural capital.

  19. The Effect of Company Fundamentals on Stock Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Ozlen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The influencing factors of stock values change with respect to the changes on economic factors depended on the selected time interval. These factors can be considered under two main categories (microeconomic and macroeconomic. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of selected microeconomic factors (Total Asset Turnover Ratio, Debt Ratio, Current Ratio, Price to Earnings Ratio, Net Profit Margin, and Book Value on stock values between the second quarter of 2000 and the third quarter of 2012. This study is among the few researches which consider sector level performances of the stock values.The selected sectors for the analyses are electric, food, communication, paper, chemistry, metal-product, metal-main, stone, textile, commerce and transportation. The results indicate that Book value is highly significant positive impact on the stock prices of all the sectors. The effects of remaining factors are found to be different for each sector.

  20. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  1. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  2. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory.

    We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils.

    The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the

  3. The Effects of Accounting Treatment and Financial Crisis on the Stock Option Plans of Italian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Avallone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies state that favourable accounting treatment has been one of the main reasons behind employee stock options. In addition, stock options have recently been the target of growing criticism with a possible influence on incentive effectiveness and outrage costs. In such a perspective, the main purpose of the paper is to explore the impact of IFRS 2 and of the recent financial crisis on stock option compensation. Empirical evidence suggests that: (i IFRS 2 did not have a significant effect on stock option granting, (ii the issue of stock options is less likely to occur during the financial crisis.

  4. Traditional Nets Interfere with the Uptake of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in the Peruvian Amazon: The Relevance of Net Preference for Achieving High Coverage and Use

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Peeters Grietens; Joan Muela Ribera; Veronica Soto; Alex Tenorio; Sarah Hoibak; Angel Rosas Aguirre; Elizabeth Toomer; Hugo Rodriguez; Alejandro Llanos Cuentas; Umberto D'Alessandro; Dionicia Gamboa; Annette Erhart

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset(R) LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. METHODS: The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil a...

  5. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  6. 26 CFR 1.408-11 - Net income calculation for returned or recharacterized IRA contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income calculation for returned or... Internal Revenue Code section that the return of a contribution be accompanied by the amount of net income... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus...

  7. Reconciling catch differences from multiple fishery independent gill net surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Rogers, Mark W.; Cook, H. Andrew; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    Fishery independent gill net surveys provide valuable demographic information for population assessment and resource management, but relative to net construction, the effects of ancillary species, and environmental variables on focal species catch rates are poorly understood. In response, we conducted comparative deployments with three unique, inter-agency, survey gill nets used to assess walleye Sander vitreus in Lake Erie. We used an information-theoretic approach with Akaike’s second-order information criterion (AICc) to evaluate linear mixed models of walleye catch as a function of net type (multifilament and two types of monofilament netting), mesh size (categorical), Secchi depth, temperature, water depth, catch of ancillary species, and interactions among selected variables. The model with the greatest weight of evidence showed that walleye catches were positively associated with potential prey and intra-guild predators and negatively associated with water depth and temperature. In addition, the multifilament net had higher average walleye catches than either of the two monofilament nets. Results from this study both help inform decisions about proposed gear changes to stock assessment surveys in Lake Erie, and advance our understanding of how multispecies associations explain variation in gill net catches. Of broader interest to fishery-independent gill net studies, effects of abiotic variables and ancillary species on focal specie’s catch rates were small in comparison with net characteristics of mesh size or twine type.

  8. Long-Run Determinants of the Real Exchange Rate; A Stock-Flow Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Faruqee

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run determinants of the real exchange rate from a stock-flow perspective. The empirical analysis estimates a long-run relationship between the real exchange rate, net foreign assets, and other factors affecting trade flows. Using postwar data for the United States and Japan, cointegration analysis supports the finding that the structural factors underlying each country's net trade and net foreign asset positions determine the long-run path for the real value of th...

  9. Spatial–Temporal Analysis of the Heat and Electricity Demand of the Swiss Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schneider

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, space heating and domestic hot water production accounted for around 40% of the Swiss final energy consumption. Reaching the goals of the 2050 energy strategy will require significantly reducing this share despite the growing building stock. Renewables are numerous but subject to spatial–temporal constraints. Territorial planning of energy distribution systems enabling the integration of renewables requires having a spatial–temporal characterization of the energy demand. This paper presents two bottom-up statistical extrapolation models for the estimation of the geo-dependent heat and electricity demand of the Swiss building stock. The heat demand is estimated by means of a statistical bottom-up model applied at the building level. At the municipality level, the electricity load curve is estimated by combining socio-economic indicators with average consumption per activity and/or electric device. This approach also allows to break down the estimated electricity demand according to activity type (e.g., households, various industry, and service activities and appliance type (e.g., lighting, motor force, fridges. The total estimated aggregated demand is 94 TWh for heat and 58 TWh for electricity, which represent a deviation of 2.9 and 0.5%, respectively compared to the national energy consumption statistics. In addition, comparisons between estimated and measured electric load curves are done to validate the proposed approach. Finally, these models are used to build a geo-referred database of heat and electricity demand for the entire Swiss territory. As an application of the heat demand model, a realistic saving potential is estimated for the existing building stock; this potential could be achieved through by a deep retrofit program. One advantage of the statistical bottom-up model approach is that it allows to simulate a building stock that replicates the diversity of building demand. This point is important in order to

  10. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  11. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  13. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  14. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  15. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  16. The Effects of Stock Dividend on Stock Return in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at identifying the relationship between stock dividend issue and return rate of share of 100 firms from Tehran Stock Exchange during years 2007-2011 tending to issue stock dividend. Pearson correlation test was used to examine the relationship between stock dividend issues and return rate of share and results showed that there is no significant relationship between share return rate and the amount of stock dividend and also between stock dividend issue percentage and return rate of share.

  17. Stock Assessment Supplementary Information (SASINF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the interest of efficiency, clarity and standardization of stock assessment materials, the stock assessment reports for the 2015 Groundfish update have been...

  18. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  19. The Body Stocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Louise Ravnløkke Munk; Bang, Anne Louise

    2016-01-01

    of the Repertory Grid technique and Wardrobe Studies to frame a tangible dialogue enabling the parents to elaborate on personal preferences of design aesthetics and materials in baby clothing. In the analysis we use the body stocking as a common reference point for learning about reasons for high use frequency...

  20. Stock Market Savvy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okula, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Keying In, the newsletter of the National Business Education Association, focuses upon teaching young adults how to develop both investment strategies and an understanding of the stock market. The first article, "Sound Investing Know-How: A Must for Today's Young Adults," describes how young adults can plan for their own…

  1. fertilizer and stocking rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in this case the best economic response was achieved at a lower stocking rate than needed for ... The trial was conducted at two sites, the Bathurst Research Station (33°30'S; 26°50'E) (1986-1994) and ... Rainfall and evaporation at the Bathurst Research Station and rainfall at the Boslaagte homestead were measured ...

  2. The Stock Market and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Barro, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in stock prices have substantial explanatory power for U.S. investment, especially for long-term samples, and even in the presence of cash flow variables. The stock market dramatically out-performs a standard q-variable because the market-equity component of this variable is only a rough proxy for stock market value. Although the stock market did not predict accurately after the crash of October 1987, the errors were not statistically significant. Parallel relationships for Canada rai...

  3. Stock prices and business investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2007-01-01

    Is there a link between the stock market and business investment? Empirical evidence indicates that there is. A firm tends to invest more when its stock price increases, and it tends to invest less when the price falls. In “Stock Prices and Business Investment,” Yaron Leitner discusses existing research that explains this relationship. One question under consideration is whether the stock market actually improves investment decisions.

  4. Stock Liquidity and Investment Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    HEIDI HOOI KHUAN QUAH

    2017-01-01

    This PhD study investigates the implications of stock liquidity on firm investments efficiency. The study finds that high stock liquidity has a positive impact on investment efficiency and shows that the beneficial effect of stock liquidity on investment efficiency is stronger among firms with higher information asymmetry and higher monitoring institutional investors. These findings suggest that high stock liquidity plays important informational and governance roles in mitigating information ...

  5. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  6. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  7. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  8. The role of composition, invasives, and maintenance emissions on urban forest carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Josh; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hinkle, Ross; Hostetler, Mark; Timilsina, Nilesh

    2015-02-01

    There are few field-based, empirical studies quantifying the effect of invasive trees and palms and maintenance-related carbon emissions on changes in urban forest carbon stocks. We estimated carbon (C) stock changes and tree maintenance-related C emissions in a subtropical urban forest by re-measuring a subsample of residential permanent plots during 2009 and 2011, using regional allometric biomass equations, and surveying residential homeowners near Orlando, FL, USA. The effect of native, non-native, invasive tree species and palms on C stocks and sequestration was also quantified. Findings show 17.8 tC/ha in stocks and 1.2 tC/ha/year of net sequestration. The most important species both by frequency of C stocks and sequestration were Quercus laurifolia Michx. and Quercus virginiana Mill., accounting for 20% of all the trees measured; 60% of carbon stocks and over 75% of net C sequestration. Palms contributed to less than 1% of the total C stocks. Natives comprised two-thirds of the tree population and sequestered 90% of all C, while invasive trees and palms accounted for 5 % of net C sequestration. Overall, invasive and exotic trees had a limited contribution to total C stocks and sequestration. Annual tree-related maintenance C emissions were 0.1% of total gross C sequestration. Plot-level tree, palm, and litter cover were correlated to C stocks and net sequestration. Findings can be used to complement existing urban forest C offset accounting and monitoring protocols and to better understand the role of invasive woody plants on urban ecosystem service provision.

  9. The Role of Composition, Invasives, and Maintenance Emissions on Urban Forest Carbon Stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Josh; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hinkle, Ross; Hostetler, Mark; Timilsina, Nilesh

    2015-02-01

    There are few field-based, empirical studies quantifying the effect of invasive trees and palms and maintenance-related carbon emissions on changes in urban forest carbon stocks. We estimated carbon (C) stock changes and tree maintenance-related C emissions in a subtropical urban forest by re-measuring a subsample of residential permanent plots during 2009 and 2011, using regional allometric biomass equations, and surveying residential homeowners near Orlando, FL, USA. The effect of native, non-native, invasive tree species and palms on C stocks and sequestration was also quantified. Findings show 17.8 tC/ha in stocks and 1.2 tC/ha/year of net sequestration. The most important species both by frequency of C stocks and sequestration were Quercus laurifolia Michx. and Quercus virginiana Mill., accounting for 20 % of all the trees measured; 60 % of carbon stocks and over 75 % of net C sequestration. Palms contributed to less than 1 % of the total C stocks. Natives comprised two-thirds of the tree population and sequestered 90 % of all C, while invasive trees and palms accounted for 5 % of net C sequestration. Overall, invasive and exotic trees had a limited contribution to total C stocks and sequestration. Annual tree-related maintenance C emissions were 0.1 % of total gross C sequestration. Plot-level tree, palm, and litter cover were correlated to C stocks and net sequestration. Findings can be used to complement existing urban forest C offset accounting and monitoring protocols and to better understand the role of invasive woody plants on urban ecosystem service provision.

  10. ---Stock Market Devpt in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jetu_E_Ch

    accommodates stock market in Ethiopia is a timely issue to catch up with the global trend, given the ... designed to trade stocks except for the fragmented and unregulated stock trading in a dealer market. ..... Monetary Policy Instruments in Ethiopia (Economic Research Department, National. Bank of Ethiopia) pp. 1-18. 39.

  11. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  12. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    and planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references...... problem is put forward. The main contributions of the thesis are contained in four papers included as appendices. The papers deal with respectively an analysis of robustness in timetables, the mathematical model behind a decision support tool for reinsertion of a train line, a survey on the dispatching......Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network...

  13. Changes in productivity and profitability of wool-growing farms that follow recommendations from agricultural and veterinary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, G R; Vizard, A L; Ware, J K

    1997-10-01

    To estimate the changes in productivity and profitability in a group of wool-growing farms as they adopted major recommendations from agricultural and veterinary studies. FARMS: Four wool-growing farms in south western Victoria were selected from the clients of the Mackinnon Project, a farm consultancy service run from the University of Melbourne. Each farm had closely followed recommended procedures, kept comprehensive financial and physical records and had been clients for at least 5 years. The comparison group was the South Western Victoria Monitor Farm Project (SWVMFP), about 45 farms in the same region as the study farms that were monitored annually by Agriculture Victoria. For a 7-year period, the financial and physical performance of both groups of farms was estimated. Stocking rate, wool production, gross farm income, farm operating costs, net farm income and return on assets were compared. Mean gross farm income of the four study farms steadily rose from 86% of the average SWVMFP farm before the adoption of recommendations to an average of 155%. During the same period, net farm income rose from 70% to 207% of the average of the SWVMFP. Return on asset of the four farms rose irregularly from 26% to 145% of the average of the SWVMFP. Farm operating costs on the four farms were higher than for the SWVMFP group, but the ratio of costs remained relatively constant. The adoption of proven research results was associated with large increases in net farm income. An increase in gross income, rather than a reduction in costs was the main reason for this. Research results offer a way to increase the financial viability of wool-growing farmers, many of whom are currently unable to maintain their lifestyle, resources and infrastructure.

  14. Minimizing waste (off-cuts using cutting stock model: The case of one dimensional cutting stock problem in wood working industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbemileke A. Ogunranti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this study is to develop a model for solving the one dimensional cutting stock problem in the wood working industry, and develop a program for its implementation. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts the pattern oriented approach in the formulation of the cutting stock model. A pattern generation algorithm was developed and coded using Visual basic.NET language. The cutting stock model developed is a Linear Programming (LP Model constrained by numerous feasible patterns. A LP solver was integrated with the pattern generation algorithm program to develop a one - dimensional cutting stock model application named GB Cutting Stock Program. Findings and Originality/value: Applying the model to a real life optimization problem significantly reduces material waste (off-cuts and minimizes the total stock used. The result yielded about 30.7% cost savings for company-I when the total stock materials used is compared with the former cutting plan. Also, to evaluate the efficiency of the application, Case I problem was solved using two top commercial 1D-cutting stock software.  The results show that the GB program performs better when related results were compared. Research limitations/implications: This study round up the linear programming solution for the number of pattern to cut. Practical implications: From Managerial perspective, implementing optimized cutting plans increases productivity by eliminating calculating errors and drastically reducing operator mistakes. Also, financial benefits that can annually amount to millions in cost savings can be achieved through significant material waste reduction. Originality/value: This paper developed a linear programming one dimensional cutting stock model based on a pattern generation algorithm to minimize waste in the wood working industry. To implement the model, the algorithm was coded using VisualBasic.net and linear programming solver called lpsolvedll (dynamic

  15. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  16. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  17. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  18. Global 1-degree Maps of Forest Area, Carbon Stocks, and Biomass, 1950-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides global forest area, forest growing stock, and forest biomass data at 1-degree resolution for the period 1950-2010. The data set is based on a...

  19. Effect of stocking rate and floor types on performance, skin temperature and leukogram in pigs raising

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diovani Paiano; Ivan Moreira; Arley R.B. Quadros; Natalia Cristina Milani; Maria Luisa A. Nunes Z; Gustavo Machado; Aleksandro S. Da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, thermoregulatory characteristics and the leukogram of growing finishing pigs reared in different stocking rates kept on compact floor pens...

  20. Rainy Day Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormsen, Niels Joachim; Greenwood, Robin

    We study the good- and bad-times performance of equity portfolios formed on characteristics. Many characteristics associated with good performance during bad times—value, profitability, small size, safety, and total volatility—also perform well during good times. Stocks with characteristics signi...... generated during good times. We also show how an investor can build a “rainy day” portfolio that minimizes underperformance during bad times...

  1. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  2. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  3. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  4. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  5. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  6. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  7. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  8. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  9. Testing Benjamin Graham’s net current asset value model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsoo An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically test one of Graham’s investment methods based on the net current asset value (NCAV. The NCAV is truly unique, and conservative, and commonly known as the net-net method.  The ratio of the net current asset value to market value (NCAV/MV was employed in this study to test a stock’s performance comparing to the performance of S&P 500 as the market index. We used all stocks in Portfolio123 whose raw data were supplied by Compustat, Standard & Poors, Capital IQ, and Reuters for the period of January 2, 1999 to August 31, 2012. The overall results show that the firms with high net current asset values outperform the market. These results are strong in the up market. It can be argued that the firms with a high NCAV/MV ratio are likely to move toward their fundamental value and generate high excess return because its stock prices are now undervalued. The implications of the study are: (a a positive NCAV/MV ratio may be a good indicator of the underpriced security; (b investing in the growth period and avoiding the downturn period leads investors to earn much higher returns from the firms with a high NCAV/MV ratio; and (c The NCAV/MV strategy requires a longer holding period of the portfolio in order to generate excess returns.

  10. Are Public Investment Efficient in Creating Capital Stock in Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Arestoff, Florence; Hurlin, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In many poor countries, the problem is not that governments do not invest, but that these investments do not create productive capital. So, the cost of public investments does not correspond to the value of the capital stocks. In this paper, we propose an original non parametric approach to evaluate the efficiency function that links variations (net of depreciation) of stocks to public investments. We consider four sectors (electricity, telecommunications, roads and railways) of two Latin Ame...

  11. Are Public Investment Efficient in Creating Capital Stocks in Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Hurlin; Florence Arestoff

    2010-01-01

    In many poor countries, the problem is not that governments do not invest, but that these investments do not create productive capital. So, the cost of public investments does not correspond to the value of the capital stocks. In this paper, we propose an original non parametric approach to evaluate the efficiency function that links variations (net of depreciation) of stocks to public investments. We consider four sectors (electricity, telecommunications, roads and railways) of two Latin Ame...

  12. Relações treonina:lisina digestíveis e níveis de energia líquida para suínos em crescimento e terminação Digestible threonine:lysine ratios and net energy levels in growing/finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovani Paiano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para estudar o efeito de cinco relações treonina:lisina digestíveis (TL sobre o balanço de nitrogênio em suínos em crescimento e de cinco níveis de energia líquida (EL sobre o desempenho de suínos em crescimento-terminação. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 15 suínos machos castrados com peso inicial de 37,0 ± 2,6 kg, híbridos comerciais de média a alta deposição de tecido magro, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (relações treonina:lisina digestíveis de 0,574; 0,624; 0,673; 0,722 e 0,772 em rações formuladas com baixo nível de proteína, 14,7% e três repetições. A TL influenciou de forma quadrática a proteína bruta absorvida (PBA e o nitrogênio da uréia plasmática (NUP, os quais apresentaram melhores resultados com a TL de 0,658 (média do PBA e NUP. No segundo experimento, foram estudados cinco níveis de EL em rações com a relação TL de 0,658. Utilizaram-se 40 suínos (20 machos castrados e 20 fêmeas com 30,2 ± 1,3 kg, de características semelhantes às dos utilizados no experimento para balanço de nitrogênio, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 × 2, composto de cinco níveis de energia líquida (2.410; 2.450; 2.490; 2.530 ou 2.570 kcal/kg e dois sexos, com um animal por baia. Na fase de terminação e no período total, o aumento nos níveis de EL ocasionou redução do consumo diário de ração (CDR, melhora da conversão alimentar (CA e acréscimo na deposição de gordura. A relação TL de 0,658 melhora a retenção de nitrogênio e níveis crescentes de energia líquida diminuem o CDR e melhoram a CA, mas podem aumentar a deposição de gordura em suínos.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of five digestible threonine:lysine ratios (TL on the nitrogen balance of growing pigs and five levels of net energy (NE on growing-finishing pigs performance. In

  13. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The worthiness of investments in eucalyptus growing has been determined using the net present value (NPV) criterion. It has been proved that investments in eucalyptus growing in perpetuity (forever) and being harvested on a four (4) year rotation period can earn a present value of a perpetual periodic annuity of Ug. shs ...

  14. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  15. Contingent Claim-Based Expected Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Zhiyao Chen; Strebulaev, Ilya A.

    2013-01-01

    We develop and test a parsimonious contingent claims model for cross-sectional returns of stock portfolios formed on market leverage, book-to-market equity, asset growth rate, and equity size. Since stocks are residual claims on firms' assets that generate operating cash flows, stock returns are cash flow rates scaled by the sensitivities of stocks to cash flows. Our model performs well because the stock-cash flow sensitivities contain economic information. Value stocks, high-leverage stocks ...

  16. Evolutionary model of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents an evolutionary economic model for the price evolution of stocks. Treating a stock market as a self-organized system governed by a fast purchase process and slow variations of demand and supply the model suggests that the short term price distribution has the form a logistic (Laplace) distribution. The long term return can be described by Laplace-Gaussian mixture distributions. The long term mean price evolution is governed by a Walrus equation, which can be transformed into a replicator equation. This allows quantifying the evolutionary price competition between stocks. The theory suggests that stock prices scaled by the price over all stocks can be used to investigate long-term trends in a Fisher-Pry plot. The price competition that follows from the model is illustrated by examining the empirical long-term price trends of two stocks.

  17. A causality between fund performance and stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Yong; Kwon, Okyu; Oh, Gabjin

    2016-02-01

    We investigate whether the characteristic fund performance indicators (FPI), such as the fund return, the Net asset value (NAV) and the cash flow, are correlated with the asset price movement using information flows estimated by the Granger causality test. First, we find that the information flow of FPI is most sensitive to extreme events of the Korean stock market, which include negative events such as the sub-prime crisis and the impact of QE (quantitative easing) by the US subprime and Europe financial crisis as well as the positive events of the golden period of Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI), except for the fund cash flow. Second, both the fund return and the NAV exhibit significant correlations with the KOSPI, whereas the cash flow is not correlated with the stock market. This result suggests that the information resulting from the ability of the fund manager should influence stock market. Finally, during market crisis period, information flows between FPI and the Korean stock market are significantly positively correlated with the market volatility.

  18. Investment Plans and Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Owen Lamont

    1999-01-01

    Capital expenditure plans at the beginning of the year, from a US government survey of firms, explain more than three quarters of the variation in real annual aggregate investment growth between 1948 and 1993. The negative correlation of contemporaneous investment and stock returns is explained by the negative correlation of planned investment and subsequent stock returns. Unexpected revisions to aggregate investment (actual minus plan) within a year are essentially unrelated to current stock...

  19. Optimization of stocking weight in carp polyculture ponds under drought prone Barind area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Sarowar Talukder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Fisheries Journal of Fisheries Keywords Clarias gariepinus India Macrobrachium rosenbergii Maharashtra Padma River Penaeus monodon Production condition factor conservation feed fish diversity fishing methods growth growth performance oxbow lake population trend production proximate composition survival threatened fish water quality About The Authors Mohammad Golam Sarowar Talukder Department of Fisheries Bangladesh ABM Mohsin University of Rajshahi Bangladesh Md. Akhtar Hossain University of Rajshahi Bangladesh Md. Rafiqual Islam Khan University of Rajshahi Bangladesh Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals Article Tools Print this article Indexing metadata How to cite item Email this article Email the author Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians User You are logged in as... jfish My Journals My Profile Log Out Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements Indexing Submissions Home > Vol 5, No 3 (2017 > Talukder Optimization of stocking weight in carp polyculture ponds under drought prone Barind area of Bangladesh Mohammad Golam Sarowar Talukder, ABM Mohsin, Md. Akhtar Hossain, Md. Rafiqual Islam Khan Abstract Increased temperature, decreased water level and reduced culture period of the ponds are considered as major problems for aquaculture promotion in drought prone Barind area of Bangladesh. In order to address these problems, an experiment was conducted to optimize the stocking weight for carp polyculture ponds in Tanore upazila of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. Three different stocking weights were tested under three treatments (T1: 25±0.12g; T2: 50± 0.15g; and T3: 100±0.19g, each with three replications. Fish growing period (July-December, carp species (C. catla, H. molitrix, A. nobilis, L. rohita and C. mrigala, stocking density (7,410 fishes/ha, lime and ash treatment, fertilization and feeding were same for all the treatments. Water quality (water

  20. Role Of Stock Market Development In Relationship Between Foreign Ownership And Profitability Of Asean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Agri Putra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine effect of stock market development on relationship between foreign ownership and profitability in ASEAN. Research samples are 491 manufacture firms listed in stock market of Thailand Singapore Philippines Indonesia and Malaysia from 2012-2013. With regression analysis this research find that stock market development have effect on relationship between foreign ownership and profitability in ASEAN. Stock market development as a function of indicator of investor mood legal and policy making and management practices support foreign shareholder role in profits increasing. This research shows new evidence of role of macro economics level factor which is stock market development in ASEAN countries as foreign owners role supporting in profits increasing. Stock market development is important factor to answer inconsistencies of role of foreign owner since foreign ownership will be more growing up in open market between countries in profits increasing.

  1. Stocks and fluxes of organic carbon in the ecosystem of mature bilberry pine forest of the middle taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Osipov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data on carbon stock and its distribution on the main pools in the ecosystem are presented for mature pine forest bilberry type in the middle taiga. The ecosystem of mature pine forest bilberry type concentrates 158.2 t C ha–1. Upper 1 m soil layer contribute 53 %, phytomass – 44, coarse woody debris – 3 % to total carbon stock. Net primary production is determined. Input of stand is 70 %, ground cover – 30 %. It is found active accumulation of wood. It forms about 36 % of biomass production. Litter fall and it distribution on separate fraction are characterized. Litter fall ranged from 1.13 to 1.53 t C ha–1. It is equal 3–5 % of forest floor mass. The tree plants are generating the most part of litter weight. Needless and leaves play the key role in litter of stand. Inactive fraction (branches, cones are characterized by big inter-annual variation in litter fall production due to changing weather conditions during study period. Dynamic soil temperature is described on lower boundary of forest floor. We estimate that during growing season carbon flux from soil surface is 2.28–3.21 t С ha–1.

  2. Cluster fusion-fission dynamics in the Singapore stock exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the cross-correlations between stocks in the Singapore stock exchange (SGX) evolve over 2008 and 2009 within overlapping one-month time windows. In particular, we examine how these cross-correlations change before, during, and after the Sep-Oct 2008 Lehman Brothers Crisis. To do this, we extend the complete-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm, to obtain robust clusters of stocks with stronger intracluster correlations, and weaker intercluster correlations. After we identify the robust clusters in all time windows, we visualize how these change in the form of a fusion-fission diagram. Such a diagram depicts graphically how the cluster sizes evolve, the exchange of stocks between clusters, as well as how strongly the clusters mix. From the fusion-fission diagram, we see a giant cluster growing and disintegrating in the SGX, up till the Lehman Brothers Crisis in September 2008 and the market crashes of October 2008. After the Lehman Brothers Crisis, clusters in the SGX remain small for few months before giant clusters emerge once again. In the aftermath of the crisis, we also find strong mixing of component stocks between clusters. As a result, the correlation between initially strongly-correlated pairs of stocks decay exponentially with average life time of about a month. These observations impact strongly how portfolios and trading strategies should be formulated.

  3. What Drives Stock Exchange Integration?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina Dorodnykh

    2013-01-01

    .... After a broad discussion of the existent literature, the investigation combines a large number of potentially relevant determinants for the explanation of whether stock exchanges are participating...

  4. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by the...

  5. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  6. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  7. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  8. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  10. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  11. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  13. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education...

  14. Modelling energy demand in the Norwegian building stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-15

    Energy demand in the building stock in Norway represents about 40% of the final energy consumption, of which 22% goes to the residential sector and 18% to the service sector. In Norway there is a strong dependency on electricity for heating purposes, with electricity covering about 80% of the energy demand in buildings. The building sector can play an important role in the achievement of a more sustainable energy system. The work performed in the articles presented in this thesis investigates various aspects related to the energy demand in the building sector, both in singular cases and in the stock as a whole. The work performed in the first part of this thesis on development and survey of case studies provided background knowledge that was then used in the second part, on modelling the entire stock. In the first part, a literature survey of case studies showed that, in a life cycle perspective, the energy used in the operating phase of buildings is the single most important factor. Design of low-energy buildings is then beneficial and should be pursued, even though it implies a somewhat higher embodied energy. A case study was performed on a school building. First, a methodology using a Monte Carlo method in the calibration process was explored. Then, the calibrated model of the school was used to investigate measures for the achievement of high energy efficiency standard through renovation work. In the second part, a model was developed to study the energy demand in a scenario analysis. The results showed the robustness of policies that included conservation measures against the conflicting effects of the other policies. Adopting conservation measures on a large scale showed the potential to reduce both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlighted the inertia to change of the building stock, due to low activity levels compared to the stock size. It also became clear that a deeper

  15. Essays on Stock Issuance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    Firms which issue new equity subsequently have lower returns than other firms, but does the strength of the issuance effect vary in the cross section of firms? The essay shows, that US firms with characteristics that makes them “hard to value” have returns which are strongly related to their past...... issuance activity, while the return of “easy to value” firms are less related to their past issuance activity. In most cases the difference between “hard to value” and “easy to value” firms are signiffcant. As proxies for “hard to value”, I use three different types of firm characteristics. First, I...... consider firms for which relatively little information is available as “hard to value”. Examples are firms covered by few analysts and small firms. Second, I consider firms with high levels of analyst disagreement on stock price target, next quarter earnings per share and share recommendation as “hard...

  16. Distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiawen; Chen, Langnan; Liu, Hao

    2013-12-01

    We examine the distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity by employing the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) model and three-minute frequency data from Chinese stock markets. We find that the BCPE distribution within the GAMLSS framework fits the distributions of stock market liquidity well with the diagnosis test. We also find that the stock market index exhibits a significant impact on the distributions of stock market liquidity. The stock market liquidity usually exhibits a positive skewness, but a normal distribution at a low level of stock market index and a high-peak and fat-tail shape at a high level of stock market index.

  17. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  18. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  19. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  20. Make to stock or make to order: the decoupling point in the food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Food processing industries experience growing logistical demands, growing variety in products and intense competition. As a reaction companies try to produce more on order. Often managers find it difficult to decide which products to make to order and which products to stock. This paper develops a

  1. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  2. 78 FR 17023 - Certain Outbound Property Transfers by Domestic Corporations; Certain Stock Distributions by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... benefit for such liability but the liability reduces the value of the stock received. Accordingly, under... that other tax attributes of the U.S. transferor should also be taken into account in computing inside gain (in particular, net operating losses and foreign tax credits) because those other tax attributes...

  3. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth and Survival of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1882) fry were cultured at three different stocking densities in net hapas (submerged volume 0.75 m3) suspended in an outdoor concrete tank of the Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Catfish fry (mean weight 0.12 ± 0.10 g) were ...

  4. Decadal change of forest biomass carbon stocks and tree demography in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Xu; Yude Pan; Alain F. Plante; Arthur Johnson; Jason Cole; Richard Birdsey

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying forest biomass carbon (C) stock change is important for understanding forest dynamics and their feedbacks with climate change. Forests in the northeastern U.S. have been a net carbon sink in recent decades, but C accumulation in some northern hardwood forests has been halted due to the impact of emerging stresses such as invasive pests, land use change and...

  5. Soil carbon stock change in the forests of Denmark between 1990 and 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Stupak, Inge; Georgiadis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    may also reflect net C mineralization as an adaptation to the current more aerobic drainage regime of soils that were frequently water saturated in previous centuries. Plots afforested after 1954 and ranging in stand age from 7 to 42 years had accumulated forest floors with an average stock of 0.3 ± 0...

  6. Northern peatland carbon stocks and dynamics: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Yu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands contain a large belowground carbon (C stock in the biosphere, and their dynamics have important implications for the global carbon cycle. However, there are still large uncertainties in C stock estimates and poor understanding of C dynamics across timescales. Here I review different approaches and associated uncertainties of C stock estimates in the literature, and on the basis of the literature review my best estimate of C stocks and uncertainty is 500 ± 100 (approximate range gigatons of C (Gt C in northern peatlands. The greatest source of uncertainty for all the approaches is the lack or insufficient representation of data, including depth, bulk density and carbon accumulation data, especially from the world's large peatlands. Several ways to improve estimates of peat carbon stocks are also discussed in this paper, including the estimates of C stocks by regions and further utilizations of widely available basal peat ages.

    Changes in peatland carbon stocks over time, estimated using Sphagnum (peat moss spore data and down-core peat accumulation records, show different patterns during the Holocene, and I argue that spore-based approach underestimates the abundance of peatlands in their early histories. Considering long-term peat decomposition using peat accumulation data allows estimates of net carbon sequestration rates by peatlands, or net (ecosystem carbon balance (NECB, which indicates more than half of peat carbon (> 270 Gt C was sequestrated before 7000 yr ago during the Holocene. Contemporary carbon flux studies at 5 peatland sites show much larger NECB during the last decade (32 ± 7.8 (S.E. g C m−2 yr–1 than during the last 7000 yr (∼ 11 g C m−2 yr–1, as modeled from peat records across northern peatlands. This discrepancy highlights the urgent need for carbon accumulation data and process understanding, especially at decadal and centennial timescales

  7. Stock Market Liquidity: A Case Study of Karachi Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Ali Kanasro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A market is to be considered as liquid when large transactions are executed with a small impact on price. This paper identifies the position of stock market liquidity at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE during the period from 1985 to 2006. The analysis is based on using annual data of the listed firms at KSE and the data available on economic survey of the Government of Pakistan and other sources. For measurements of liquidity at KSE we have used three measuring tools as; Liquidity Analysis, Turnover Ratio and Size of Market to determine the liquidity issues at KSE. We provide the evidences of less stock market liquidity or to say illiquidity at Karachi Stock Exchange during the sample period. Consequently, market is still for behind in its efficiency, especially in liquidity hence it fails to attract new investors. We find that less liquidity causes less synchronicity in prices attracting less inventors and results is low size of market.

  8. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  9. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  10. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  11. Changes In Stock Returns And Trading Volume Of American Depositary Receipts Around Their U.S. Stock Exchange Listing Switches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kam C Chan; Annie Wong

    2012-01-01

    .... stock exchange to a more prestigious U.S. stock exchange; namely from the NASDAQ or American Stock Exchange to the New York Stock Exchange or from the American Stock Exchange to the NASDAQ since year 2000...

  12. Stocks low, marketers confident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantho, M. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This has been a nerve wracking season as we looked at inadequate inventory spurring prices ever upward. We have watched the American Petroleum Association`s figures on refiner stocks with considerable dismay as they consistantly fell behind year ago inventory. The anxiety extended to how much oil was in marketers` bulkplants and finally in customer tanks. And so, we asked our reporting panel to help us get a fix on how much oil was available for our customers. We asked the questions in early November and so all our figures are for that month. First we asked the capacity of their bulk tanks. And then how many gallons they had on hand November 1, 1996 and the same date of 1995. From these figures, we were able to get estimates of oil inventories. Marketers bulk tanks were 47.5% filled on November 1 which meant that there was on hand at this level, 36 gallons of heating oil for each customer. At that point in the season, customer tanks were 58% filled which translated into 218 gallons.

  13. Disagreement and the Stock Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Harrison; Stein, Jeremy C

    2007-01-01

    ...); we also see longer-run fundamental reversion—the tendency for "glamour" stocks with high ratios of market value to earnings, cashflows, or book value to deliver weak returns over the subsequent several years...

  14. Based on BP Neural Network Stock Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The stock market has a high profit and high risk features, on the stock market analysis and prediction research has been paid attention to by people. Stock price trend is a complex nonlinear function, so the price has certain predictability. This article mainly with improved BP neural network (BPNN) to set up the stock market prediction model, and…

  15. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§ 725.3...

  16. Global socioeconomic material stocks rise 23-fold over the 20th century and require half of annual resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lauk, Christian; Haas, Willi; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Fishman, Tomer; Miatto, Alessio; Schandl, Heinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2017-02-21

    Human-made material stocks accumulating in buildings, infrastructure, and machinery play a crucial but underappreciated role in shaping the use of material and energy resources. Building, maintaining, and in particular operating in-use stocks of materials require raw materials and energy. Material stocks create long-term path-dependencies because of their longevity. Fostering a transition toward environmentally sustainable patterns of resource use requires a more complete understanding of stock-flow relations. Here we show that about half of all materials extracted globally by humans each year are used to build up or renew in-use stocks of materials. Based on a dynamic stock-flow model, we analyze stocks, inflows, and outflows of all materials and their relation to economic growth, energy use, and CO2 emissions from 1900 to 2010. Over this period, global material stocks increased 23-fold, reaching 792 Pg (±5%) in 2010. Despite efforts to improve recycling rates, continuous stock growth precludes closing material loops; recycling still only contributes 12% of inflows to stocks. Stocks are likely to continue to grow, driven by large infrastructure and building requirements in emerging economies. A convergence of material stocks at the level of industrial countries would lead to a fourfold increase in global stocks, and CO2 emissions exceeding climate change goals. Reducing expected future increases of material and energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions will require decoupling of services from the stocks and flows of materials through, for example, more intensive utilization of existing stocks, longer service lifetimes, and more efficient design.

  17. Contagion and REIT Stock Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Chinmoy Ghosh; Randall S. Guttery; C. F. Sirmans

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates the contagious movement of real estate investment trust (REIT) stock prices in response to real estate news related to financial institutions' real estate portfolios. The basic hypothesis is that because real estate assets are traded infrequently, the market has incomplete information about their true value; thus, REIT stock prices react negatively to announcements of poorly performing real estate portfolios of financial institutions. Consistent with the hypothesis, ...

  18. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  19. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  20. Attribution of Net Carbon Change by Disturbance Type across Forest Lands of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.; Domke, G. M.; Woodall, C. W.; Pearson, T.

    2016-12-01

    We generated spatially comprehensive maps of carbon stocks and net carbon changes from US forestlands between 2005 and 2010 and attributed the changes to natural and anthropogenic processes. The prototype system created to produce these maps is designed to assist with national GHG inventories and support decisions associated with land management. Here, we present the results and methodological framework of our analysis. In summary, combining estimates of net C losses and gains results in net carbon change of 269±49 Tg C yr-1 (sink) in the coterminous US forest land, with carbon loss from harvest acting as the predominent source process.

  1. Stock Analysis of S.C. ROPHARMA S.A. the Example of Romanian Pharmaceutical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina ONICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stock performance analysis can not find a better place than after presentation of earnings per share, the latter being one of the indicators on the performance of companies listed on capital markets. Exchange rates are considered final term market performance of listed companies since they incorporate information concerning stock, but also financial and accounting data on the net result for the year, sales per share, dividend per share, book value per share, etc. Stock rate of action is the barometer of a company's overall performance, officially recognized by the public through the capital market. But changes in stock price is determined by the evolution of economic and financial results of the enterprise, but also investors' expectations about the possibilities of its development, progress and prospects the industry in which company operates, and national and international economic trends.

  2. Estimating uncertainty of data limited stock assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkalis, Alexandros; Eikeset, Anne Maria; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2017-01-01

    Many methods exist to assess the fishing status of data-limited stocks; however, little is known about the accuracy or the uncertainty of such assessments. Here we evaluate a new size-based data-limited stock assessment method by applying it to well-assessed, data-rich fish stocks treated as data......-limited. Particular emphasis is put on providing uncertainty estimates of the data-limited assessment. We assess four cod stocks in the North-East Atlantic and compare our estimates of stock status (F/Fmsy) with the official assessments. The estimated stock status of all four cod stocks followed the established stock...... assessments remarkably well and the official assessments fell well within the uncertainty bounds. The estimation of spawning stock biomass followed the same trends as the official assessment, but not the same levels. We conclude that the data-limited assessment method can be used for stock assessment...

  3. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  4. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  5. Gold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Surya Mulyadi; Yunita Anwar

    2012-01-01

    It is important to have a portfolio in investment to diversify the investment to different kinds of instruments. Based on previous research, it is concluded that gold is a good portfolio diversifier, a hedge against stock and safe haven in extreme stock market condition. As an investment instrument, stock is exposed to macroeconomic risks and global stock market risks. In this research, we conduct a comparison between the stock investment and gold investment by using the probit econometric mo...

  6. Implications of land-use change on forest carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlick, Joshua; Woodall, Christopher; Weiskittel, Aaron

    2017-02-01

    Given the substantial role that forests play in removing CO2 from the atmosphere, there has been a growing need to evaluate the carbon (C) implications of various forest management and land-use decisions. Although assessment of land-use change is central to national-level greenhouse gas monitoring guidelines, it is rarely incorporated into forest stand-level evaluations of C dynamics and trajectories. To better inform the assessment of forest stand C dynamics in the context of potential land-use change, we used a region-wide repeated forest inventory (n = 71 444 plots) across the eastern United States to assess forest land-use conversion and associated changes in forest C stocks. Specifically, the probability of forest area reduction between 2002-2006 and 2007-2012 on these plots was related to key driving factors such as proportion of the landscape in forest land use, distance to roads, and initial forest C. Additional factors influencing the actual reduction in forest area were then used to assess the risk of forest land-use conversion to agriculture, settlement, and water. Plots in forests along the Great Plains had the highest periodic (approximately 5 years) probability of land-use change (0.160 ± 0.075; mean ± SD) with forest conversion to agricultural uses accounting for 70.5% of the observed land-use change. Aboveground forest C stock change for plots with a reduction in forest area was -4.2 ± 17.7 Mg ha-1 (mean ± SD). The finding that poorly stocked stands and/or those with small diameter trees had the highest probability of conversion to non-forest land uses suggests that forest management strategies can maintain the US terrestrial C sink not only in terms of increased net forest growth but also retention of forest area to avoid conversion. This study highlights the importance of considering land-use change in planning and policy decisions that seek to maintain or enhance regional C sinks.

  7. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  8. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  9. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  10. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  11. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  12. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  13. Stock price forecasting for companies listed on Tehran stock exchange using multivariate adaptive regression splines model and semi-parametric splines technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Reza; Arashi, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important topics of interest to investors is stock price changes. Investors whose goals are long term are sensitive to stock price and its changes and react to them. In this regard, we used multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model and semi-parametric splines technique for predicting stock price in this study. The MARS model as a nonparametric method is an adaptive method for regression and it fits for problems with high dimensions and several variables. semi-parametric splines technique was used in this study. Smoothing splines is a nonparametric regression method. In this study, we used 40 variables (30 accounting variables and 10 economic variables) for predicting stock price using the MARS model and using semi-parametric splines technique. After investigating the models, we select 4 accounting variables (book value per share, predicted earnings per share, P/E ratio and risk) as influencing variables on predicting stock price using the MARS model. After fitting the semi-parametric splines technique, only 4 accounting variables (dividends, net EPS, EPS Forecast and P/E Ratio) were selected as variables effective in forecasting stock prices.

  14. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  15. Growing Bacteriophage M13 in Liquid Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael R; Sambrook, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Stocks of bacteriophage M13 are usually grown in liquid culture. The infected bacteria do not lyse but, instead, grow at a slower than normal rate to form a dilute suspension. The inoculum of bacteriophage is almost always a freshly picked plaque or a suspension of bacteriophage particles obtained from a single plaque, as described here. Infected cells contain up to 200 copies of double-stranded, replicative-form DNA and extrude several hundred bacteriophage particles per generation. Thus, a 1-mL culture of infected cells can produce enough double-stranded viral DNA (1-2 mg) for restriction mapping and recovery of cloned DNA inserts and sufficient single-stranded DNA (∼5-10 mg) for site-directed mutagenesis, DNA sequencing, or synthesis of radiolabeled probes. The titer of bacteriophages in the supernatant from infected cells is so high (∼10(12) pfu/mL) that a small aliquot serves as a permanent stock of the starting plaque. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. The Predictability of Aggregate Stock Market Returns: Evidence Based on Glamour Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Venkat R. Eleswarapu

    2004-01-01

    We find that annual excess returns on the stock market index are negatively related to the returns of glamour stocks in the previous 36-month period. In contrast, neither returns of value stocks nor aggregate stock market returns, purged of glamour stock effects, have any predictive power. In addition, the excess returns on the aggregate market are negatively skewed when the prior returns of glamour stocks are high. Finally, the inclusion of term premium, default premium, aggregate dividend y...

  17. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  18. Carbon stocks and fluxes in managed peatlands in northern Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arn Teh, Yit; Manning, Frances; Cook, Sarah; Zin Zawawi, Norliyana; Sii, Longwin; Hill, Timothy; Page, Susan; Whelan, Mick; Evans, Chris; Gauci, Vincent; Chocholek, Melanie; Khoon Kho, Lip

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is the largest agricultural crop in the tropics and accounts for 13 % of current tropical land area. Patterns of land-atmosphere exchange from oil palm ecosystems therefore have potentially important implications for regional and global C budgets due to the large scale of land conversion. This is particularly true for oil palm plantations on peat because of the large C stocks held by tropical peat soils that are potential sensitivity to human disturbance. Here we report preliminary findings on C stocks and fluxes from a long-term, multi-scale project in Sarawak, Malaysia that aims to quantify the impacts of oil palm conversion on C and greenhouse gas fluxes from oil palm recently established on peat. Land-atmosphere fluxes were determined using a combination of top-down and bottom-up methods (eddy covariance, canopy/stem and soil flux measurements, net primary productivity). Fluvial fluxes were determined by quantifying rates of dissolved and particulate organic C export. Ecosystem C dynamics were determined using the intensive C plot method, which quantified all major C stocks and fluxes, including plant and soil stocks, leaf litterfall, aboveground biomass production, root production, stem/canopy respiration, root-rhizosphere respiration, and heterotrophic soil respiration. Preliminary analysis indicates that vegetative aboveground biomass in these 7 year old plantations was 8.9-11.9 Mg C ha-1, or approximately one-quarter of adjacent secondary forest. Belowground biomass was 5.6-6.5 Mg C ha-1; on par with secondary forests. Soil C stocks in the 0-30 cm depth was 233.1-240.8 Mg C ha-1, or 32-36% greater than soil C stocks in secondary forests at the same depth (176.8 Mg C ha-1). Estimates of vegetative aboveground and belowground net primary productivity were 1.3-1.7 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.8-0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Fruit brunch production was approximately 67 Mg C ha-1over 7 yearsor 9.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Total soil respiration rates were 18 Mg C ha

  19. Carbon sequestration in croplands is mainly driven by management leading to increased net primary production - evidence from long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin Anders; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger; Poeplau, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    carbon stocks not always lead to net sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and that C sequestration not always leads to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of different land use and management are discussed, taking into account two critical boundaries - the limited area of agricultural land on Earth and requirements to produce sufficient food, fibres and energy for a growing population.

  20. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    investment expenditures: one eliminates the capital stock by direct substitution, while the other employs generalized differences of detrended data and the Malmquist index. In short samples, these measures can exhibit consistently lower root mean squared errors than the Solow–Törnqvist counterpart. Capital......We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  1. Stocking Density Optimization for Enhanced Bioconversion of Fly Ash Enriched Vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu A; Mnkeni, Pearson N S

    2016-05-01

    Although it is widely agreed that stocking density critically affects the rate of vermicomposting, there is no established stocking density for mixtures of fly ash and other waste materials. This study sought to optimize (Savigny, 1826) stocking density for effective biodegradation and nutrient release in a fly ash-cow dung-waste paper (FCP) mixture. Four stocking densities of 0, 12.5, 25, and 37.5 g worms kg were evaluated. Although the 12.5, 25, and 37.5 g worms kg treatments all resulted in a mature vermicompost, stocking densities of 25 and 37.5 g worms kg resulted in faster maturity, higher humification parameters, and a significantly lower final C/N ratio (range 11.1-10.4). The activity of β-glucosidase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis enzymes showed faster stabilization at stocking densities of 25 and 37.5 g worms kg, indicating compost stability and maturity. Similarly, a stocking density of 25 g worms kg resulted in the highest release of Olsen-extractable P and (NO + NO)-N contents. The 0-, 12.5-, 25-, and 37.5-g treatments resulted in net Olsen P increases of 16.3, 38.9, 61.0, and 53.0%, respectively, after 10 wk. Although compost maturity could be attained at stocking densities of 12.5 g worms kg, for faster production of humified and nutrient-rich FCP vermicompost, a stocking density of 25 g worms kg seems most appropriate. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Evaluating and optimizing stock enhancement of natural flatfish stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrevohn, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to evaluate and optimize a stock enhancement program of natural population of flatfish in which artificially reared fish are released in coastal areas using turbot (Psetta maxima) as model. Biological and ecological criteria are developed to evaluate the

  3. Chronic stress due to high stocking density in open sea cage farming induces variation in biochemical and immunological functions in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Narasimhulu; Sharma, S R Krupesha; Joseph, Shoji; Dube, Praveen; Philipose, K K

    2014-08-01

    Stocking density is an important factor in cage aquaculture of finfish. Effects of high stocking density (35 fish cubic m(-1)) on a range of biochemical and immunological parameters in Asian seabass reared in open sea floating net cages were compared to fish held in relatively low density (15 fish cubic m(-1)). The results revealed that chronic stress due to high stocking density induced variations in most of the parameters studied as evidenced by increased cortisol and glucose levels and decreased activity of lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and complement. Production of reactive oxygen species, total leucocyte count and total serum protein were also decreased, whereas anti-protease, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities were increased in high stocking-density group when compared to low stocking-density group. Effects of chronic stress due to high stocking density were discussed in relation to variations in these parameters.

  4. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  5. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  6. Stock Return Synchronicity and Analysts’ Forecast Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Seok Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using stock return synchronicity as a measure of a firm’s information environment, our research investigates how the firms’ stock return synchronicity affects analysts’ forecast properties for the accuracy and optimism of the analysts’ annual earnings forecasts. Stock return synchronicity represents the degree to which market and industry information explains firm-level stock return variations. A higher stock return synchronicity indicates the higher quality of a firm’s information environment, because a firm’s stock price reflects more market-level and industry-level information relative to firm-specific information. Our study shows that stock return synchronicity positively affects the forecast properties. Our finding shows that when stock return synchronicity is high, analysts’ annual earnings forecasts are more accurate and less optimistically biased.

  7. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  8. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  9. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  10. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  11. The liquidity of energy stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sklavos, Konstantinos; Dam, Lammertjan; Scholtens, Bert

    This study investigates the dynamics of stock market liquidity in the energy industry in the US for 130 firms for the period 2006-2011. We use a (structural) vector autoregression approach to model the simultaneous relationships between three liquidity measures, namely turnover, price impact and

  12. TRACEABILITY IN STOCK MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents traceability of a product if we are using a stock management system which uses FIFO or LIFO discharging methods. In the first part there is a little presentation regarding the four types of inputs and outputs and the side effect to the

  13. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  14. Stock Market Prediction using Social Media Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bahceci, Oktay; Alsing, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Stock Forecasting is commonly used in different forms everyday in order to predict stock prices. Sentiment Analysis (SA), Machine Learning (ML) and Data Mining (DM) are techniques that have recently become popular in analyzing public emotion in order to predict future stock prices. The algorithms need data in big sets to detect patterns, and the data has been collected through a live stream for the tweet data, together with web scraping for the stock data. This study examined how three organi...

  15. Stock-market efficiency in thin-trading markets : the case of the Vietnamese stock market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong Dong Loc, [No Value; Lanjouw, Ger; Lensink, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews developments in the Stock Trading Centre (STC) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the main stock market in the country, since its start in 2000. It presents information about developments in the number of stocks traded, trading activity and stock-price developments. This article

  16. Stock Market Efficiency in Thin Trading Markets: The Case of the Vietnamese Stock Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong Loc, T.; Lanjouw, G.; Lensink, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews developments in the Stock Trading Centre (STC) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the main stock market in the country, since its start in 2000. It presents information about developments in the number of stocks traded, trading activity and stock-price developments. This article

  17. Enhanced top soil carbon stocks under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattinger, Andreas; Muller, Adrian; Haeni, Matthias; Skinner, Colin; Fliessbach, Andreas; Buchmann, Nina; Mäder, Paul; Stolze, Matthias; Smith, Pete; Scialabba, Nadia El-Hage; Niggli, Urs

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that conversion to organic farming contributes to soil carbon sequestration, but until now a comprehensive quantitative assessment has been lacking. Therefore, datasets from 74 studies from pairwise comparisons of organic vs. nonorganic farming systems were subjected to metaanalysis to identify differences in soil organic carbon (SOC). We found significant differences and higher values for organically farmed soils of 0.18 ± 0.06% points (mean ± 95% confidence interval) for SOC concentrations, 3.50 ± 1.08 Mg C ha−1 for stocks, and 0.45 ± 0.21 Mg C ha−1 y−1 for sequestration rates compared with nonorganic management. Metaregression did not deliver clear results on drivers, but differences in external C inputs and crop rotations seemed important. Restricting the analysis to zero net input organic systems and retaining only the datasets with highest data quality (measured soil bulk densities and external C and N inputs), the mean difference in SOC stocks between the farming systems was still significant (1.98 ± 1.50 Mg C ha−1), whereas the difference in sequestration rates became insignificant (0.07 ± 0.08 Mg C ha−1 y−1). Analyzing zero net input systems for all data without this quality requirement revealed significant, positive differences in SOC concentrations and stocks (0.13 ± 0.09% points and 2.16 ± 1.65 Mg C ha−1, respectively) and insignificant differences for sequestration rates (0.27 ± 0.37 Mg C ha−1 y−1). The data mainly cover top soil and temperate zones, whereas only few data from tropical regions and subsoil horizons exist. Summarizing, this study shows that organic farming has the potential to accumulate soil carbon. PMID:23071312

  18. Enhanced top soil carbon stocks under organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattinger, Andreas; Muller, Adrian; Haeni, Matthias; Skinner, Colin; Fliessbach, Andreas; Buchmann, Nina; Mäder, Paul; Stolze, Matthias; Smith, Pete; Scialabba, Nadia El-Hage; Niggli, Urs

    2012-10-30

    It has been suggested that conversion to organic farming contributes to soil carbon sequestration, but until now a comprehensive quantitative assessment has been lacking. Therefore, datasets from 74 studies from pairwise comparisons of organic vs. nonorganic farming systems were subjected to metaanalysis to identify differences in soil organic carbon (SOC). We found significant differences and higher values for organically farmed soils of 0.18 ± 0.06% points (mean ± 95% confidence interval) for SOC concentrations, 3.50 ± 1.08 Mg C ha(-1) for stocks, and 0.45 ± 0.21 Mg C ha(-1) y(-1) for sequestration rates compared with nonorganic management. Metaregression did not deliver clear results on drivers, but differences in external C inputs and crop rotations seemed important. Restricting the analysis to zero net input organic systems and retaining only the datasets with highest data quality (measured soil bulk densities and external C and N inputs), the mean difference in SOC stocks between the farming systems was still significant (1.98 ± 1.50 Mg C ha(-1)), whereas the difference in sequestration rates became insignificant (0.07 ± 0.08 Mg C ha(-1) y(-1)). Analyzing zero net input systems for all data without this quality requirement revealed significant, positive differences in SOC concentrations and stocks (0.13 ± 0.09% points and 2.16 ± 1.65 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) and insignificant differences for sequestration rates (0.27 ± 0.37 Mg C ha(-1) y(-1)). The data mainly cover top soil and temperate zones, whereas only few data from tropical regions and subsoil horizons exist. Summarizing, this study shows that organic farming has the potential to accumulate soil carbon.

  19. 27 CFR 24.217 - Vinegar stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinegar stock. 24.217... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.217 Vinegar stock. Vinegar stock may be produced on bonded wine premises with the addition of any quantity of water desired to meet...

  20. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the amount...

  1. 47 CFR 32.4530 - Treasury stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treasury stock. 32.4530 Section 32.4530... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4530 Treasury stock. This account shall include the cost of the company's own capital stock which has been issued and...

  2. The Difference Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends - Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, Johannes; Bechmann, Ken L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates stock dividends and stock splits on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE), which is of interest because several of the more recent explanations for a stock market reaction can be ruled out. The main findings are that the announcement effect of stock dividends as well as stock...... a retained earnings/signaling hypothesis. For stock splits, no separate announcement effect was found when a firm's payout policy was controlled for. This lends support to the idea that a stock split per se is a cosmetic event on the CSE and is also consistent with the fact that making a stock split...... to a significant announcement effect of 4.23%. Firms announcing a stock dividend with a split factor of two or more also increase total cash dividends permanently, but less than proportionally to the increase in share capital. This leads to an insignificant announcement effect of 0.08%. These findings support...

  3. Centennial evolution of aluminum in-use stocks on our aluminized planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Müller, Daniel B

    2013-05-07

    A dynamic material flow model was developed to simulate the evolution of global aluminum stocks in geological reserve and anthropogenic reservoir from 1900 to 2010 on a country level. The contemporary global aluminum stock in use (0.6 Gt or 90 kg/capita) has reached about 10% of that in known bauxite reserves and represents an embodied energy amount that is equivalent to three-quarters of the present global annual electricity consumption. The largest proportions of in-use stock are located in the U.S. (28%), China (15%), Japan (7%), and Germany (6%) and in sectors of building and construction (40%) and transportation (27%). Industrialized countries have shown similar patterns of aluminum in-use stock growth: once the per-capita stocks have reached a threshold level of 50 kg, they kept a near linear annual growth of 5-10 kg/capita; no clear signs of saturation can yet be observed. The present aluminum in-use stocks vary widely across countries: approximately 100-600 kg/capita in industrialized countries and below 100 kg/capita in developing countries. The growing global aluminum in-use stock has significant implications on future aluminum demand and provides important recycling opportunities that will be critical for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in the aluminum industry in the coming decades.

  4. Determinants of Stock Price Movements: Evidence from Chittagong Stock Exchange, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Syedul Islam; Evana Nusrat Dooty

    2015-01-01

    Stock market plays a vital role in the economic development of an economy. It bridges up between savers and real manufacturers by raising funds from investors to companies. This process was broken down due to the 2010-2011 stock market crash in Bangladesh. Though the determinants of stock price have been settled empirically, the current paper aims to reexamine the relationship between stock price, dividend and retained earnings of 29 listed banks of Chittagong Stock Exchange, in the post-cras...

  5. 26 CFR 1.306-3 - Section 306 stock defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in business in the United States. (i) Section 306 shall be inapplicable to stock received before June... a stock dividend, or the stock is received in exchange for section 306 stock. If, in a transaction to which section 356 is applicable, a shareholder exchanges section 306 stock for stock and money or...

  6. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  7. 77 FR 70857 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change With Respect to INAV Pegged Orders for ETFs November 21... 4751(f)(4) to include a new Intraday Net Asset Value (``INAV'') Pegged Order for Exchange-Traded Funds... NASDAQ Rule 4751(f)(4) to create a new INAV Pegged Order type for U.S. Component Stock ETFs. Accordingly...

  8. Stock Market Manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to empirically examine stock market manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The dataset contains 40 cases of market manipulation from 1996 to 2009 that were successfully prosecuted by the Hong Kong Securities & Futures Commission. Manipulation is found to negatively impact market efficiency measures such as the bid-ask spread and volatility. Markets appear incapable of efficiently responding to the presence of manipulators and are characterised by information asymmetry. Manipulators were successfully able to raise prices and exit the market. This finding contradicts views that trade-based manipulation is entirely unprofitable and self-deterring. The victimisation of information-seeking investors and the market as a whole provides a strong rationale for all jurisdictions, including Australia, to have effective laws that prohibit manipulation and for robust enforcement of those laws to further deter market manipulation.

  9. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  10. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  11. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  12. CARBON STOCKS AND STOCK CHANGES IN AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Agevi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trees on farmlands and agricultural lands play a crucial role in small holder farmers’ livelihoods in addition to carbon regulation through carbon sequestration. These trees have received much attention recently due to their contribution to climate change mitigation through carbon storage. Quantification of carbon stocks in these trees has always proven difficult due to the spatial extent of these trees and methodological difficulties encountered during measurement. This paper reviews a number of studies done in quantification of biomass and soil carbon stocks in agroforestry within tropics. Most appropriate method employed in determination of carbon stock changes is through use of allometric equations. The equations use parameters like diameter at breast height (DBH, height, crown area which can be measured during field inventory. DBH has always proven to be the best parameter to be used in the equation since it is easy to measure and it does not need expensive equipments.  Apart from trees, soils in agricultural lands have the capacity to store carbon and help mitigate effects of climate change. It then identifies the gap that future research can be done for accurate carbon quantification.

  13. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. What stock market returns to expect for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, P A

    2000-01-01

    . But lower savings as growth slows should partially or fully offset that effect. The present high stock prices, together with projected slow economic growth, are not consistent with a 7.0 percent return. With a plausible level of adjusted dividends (dividends plus net share repurchases), the ratio of stock value to gross domestic product (GDP) would rise more than 20-fold over 75 years. Similarly, the steady-state Gordon formula--that stock returns equal the adjusted dividend yield plus the growth rate of stock prices (equal to that of GDP)--suggests a return of roughly 4.0 percent to 4.5 percent. Moreover, when relative stock values have been high, returns over the following decade have tended to be low. To eliminate the inconsistency posed by the assumed 7.0 percent return, one could assume higher GDP growth, a lower long-run stock return, or a lower short-run stock return with a 7.0 percent return on a lower base thereafter. For example, with an adjusted dividend yield of 2.5 percent to 3.0 percent, the market would have to decline about 35 percent to 45 percent in real terms over the next decade to reach steady state. In short, either the stock market is overvalued and requires a correction to justify a 7.0 percent return thereafter, or it is correctly valued and the long-run return is substantially lower than 7.0 percent (or some combination). This article argues that the "overvalued" view is more convincing, since the "correctly valued" hypothesis implies an implausibly small equity premium. Although OCACT could adopt a lower rate for the entire 75-year period, a better approach would be to assume lower returns over the next decade and a 7.0 percent return thereafter.

  15. Does Employee Stock Ownership Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Miyajima, Hideaki; Owan, Hideo

    studies, we focus on the effects of changes in varying attributes of existing ESO—the effects on the intensive margin. Our fixed effect estimates show that an increase in the strength of the existing ESO plans measured by stake per employee results in statistically significant productivity gains......This paper provides novel evidence on the effects of employee stock ownership (ESO), using new panel data on Japanese ESO plans for a highly representative sample of publicly-traded firms in Japan (covering more than 75% of all firms listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange) over 1989-2013. Unlike most prior....... Furthermore, such productivity gains are found to lead to profitability gains since wage gains from ESO plans are statistically significant yet rather modest. Our analysis of Tobin's Q suggests that the market tends to view such gains from ESO plans as permanent. We further find that increasing the stake...

  16. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  17. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  18. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  19. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  20. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  1. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  2. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  3. Is the stock market efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, B G

    1989-03-10

    A stock market is said to be efficient if it accurately reflects all relevant information in determining security prices. Critics have asserted that share prices are far too volatile to be explained by changes in objective economic events-the October 1987 crash being a case in point. Although the evidence is not unambiguous, reports of the death of the efficient market hypothesis appear premature.

  4. Statistical modelling of fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine

    1999-01-01

    for modelling the dynamics of a fish population is suggested. A new approach is introduced to analyse the sources of variation in age composition data, which is one of the most important sources of information in the cohort based models for estimation of stock abundancies and mortalities. The approach combines...... and it is argued that an approach utilising stochastic differential equations might be advantagous in fish stoch assessments....

  5. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  6. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  7. Observations on the status of bass Dicentrarchus Labrax stocks in Ireland in the late 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E.; Forrest, N.; Shaw, U.; Green, P.

    2000-01-01

    Investigative work was undertaken in 1996 to ascertain the strength of sea bass stocks following the introduction of a range of conservation measures which effectively extinguished the legitimate commercial fishery for the species. Information was sought from two sources: estimation of the age composition of the samples and the growth of bass by examining scales from exploited fish. An estimate of the density of juvenile pre-recruit bass was made from a seine net survey undertaken in various ...

  8. Customer satisfaction as a buffer against sentimental stock-price corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrin, R.P.; Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has shown that customer satisfaction is a market-based asset that can contribute to a firm’s value by increasing its stock-market returns, while simultaneously reducing the riskiness of these returns. This study contributes to the growing literature on the

  9. Factors of formation of the dividend policy of joint stock companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohov Heorhii K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to justification of factors of formation of the dividend policy of Ukrainian public joint stock companies (PJSC at the modern stage of development of corporate relations. It analyses specific features of the dividend policy of Ukrainian PJSC, which, in particular, shows that their financial results practically do not influence the practice of net profit distribution. It identifies main factors of formation of the corporate dividend policy and provides theoretical justification of the governing practice of net profit distribution by Ukrainian PJSC under the modern state of the stock market. It justifies that the unrepresentative listing of stock exchanges, extremely high concentration of capital and rather limited influence of institutes of joint investment are key factors that cause a very weak reaction of the Ukrainian securities market on payment of dividends, which, in its turn, is the main reason of rejection of expediency of development and realisation of the consistent dividend policy by overwhelming majority of joint stock companies. The article draws a conclusion that the basis of evolution changes in the corporate vision of the dividend policy should be creation of the institutional environment, which would be adequate to the needs of sustainable development. The article offers to fix, at the legislative level and while being at the transitional stage, the right of minor shareholders to get income from owning ordinary shares of companies, which aggregate joint participation of co-owners is more than 75%.

  10. A weighted least squares analysis of globalization and the Nigerian stock market performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenoghena Osi Raymond

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study empirically investigates the impact of globalization on the performance of the Nigerian Stock market. The study seeks the verification of the existence of a linking mechanism between globalization through trade openness, net inflow of capital, participation in international capital market and financial development on Stock Market performance over the period of 1981 to 2011. The methodology adopted examines the stochastic characteristics of each time series by testing their stationarity using the Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat test. The weighted least squares regression method was employed to ascertain the different level of impacts on the above subject matter. The findings were reinforced by the presence of a long-term equilibrium relationship, as evidenced by the cointegrating equation of the VECM. The Model ascertained that globalization variables actually positively impacted on stock market performance. However, the findings reveal that while net capital inflows and participation in international capital market have greater impact on the Nigerian Stock market performance during the period under review. Accordingly, it is advised that in formulating foreign policy, policy makers should take strategic views on the international economy and make new creative policies that will foster economic integration between Nigeria and its existing trade allies. These creative policies will also assist to create avenues for the making new trade agreements with other nations of the world, which hitherto were not trade partners with Nigeria.

  11. Whole Farm Net Greenhouse Gas Abatement from Establishing Kikuyu-Based Perennial Pastures in South-Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Masters

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On-farm activities that reduce GHG emissions or sequester carbon from the atmosphere to compensate for anthropogenic emissions are currently being evaluated by the Australian Government as carbon offset opportunities. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of establishing and grazing Kikuyu pastures, integrated as part of a mixed Merino sheep and cropping system, as a carbon offset mechanism. For the assessment of changes in net greenhouse gas emissions, results from a combination of whole farm economic and livestock models were used (MIDAS and GrassGro. Net GHG emissions were determined by deducting increased emissions from introducing this practice change (increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to higher stocking rates from the soil carbon sequestered from growing the Kikuyu pasture. Our results indicate that livestock systems using perennial pastures may have substantially lower net GHG emissions, and reduced GHG intensity of production, compared with annual plant-based production systems. Soil carbon accumulation by converting 45% of arable land within a farm enterprise to Kikuyu-based pasture was determined to be 0.80 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1 and increased GHG emissions (leakage was 0.19 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1. The net benefit of this practice change was 0.61 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1 while the rate of soil carbon accumulation remains constant. The use of perennial pastures improved the efficiency of animal production almost eight fold when expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per unit of animal product. The strategy of using perennial pasture to improve production levels and store additional carbon in the soil demonstrates how livestock should be considered in farming systems as both sources and sinks for GHG abatement.

  12. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  13. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  14. The synchronicity between the stock and the stock index via information in market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hai-Ling; Li, Jiang-Cheng; Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    The synchronicity between the stock and the stock-index in a market system is investigated. The results show that: (i) the synchronicity between the stock and the stock-index increases with the rising degree of market information capitalized into stock prices in certain range; (ii) the synchronicity decreases for large firm-specific information; (iii) the stock return synchronicity is small compared to the big noise trading, however the variance noise facilitates the synchronization within the tailored realms. These findings may be helpful in understanding the effect of market information on synchronicity, especially for the response of firm-specific information and noise trading to synchronicity.

  15. Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liknes Greg C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coarse and fine woody debris are substantial forest ecosystem carbon stocks; however, there is a lack of understanding how these detrital carbon stocks vary across forested landscapes. Because forest woody detritus production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. This study used a nationwide inventory of coarse and fine woody debris in the United States to examine how these carbon stocks vary by climatic regions and variables. Results Mean coarse and fine woody debris forest carbon stocks vary by Köppen's climatic regions across the United States. The highest carbon stocks were found in regions with cool summers while the lowest carbon stocks were found in arid desert/steppes or temperate humid regions. Coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks were found to be positively correlated with available moisture and negatively correlated with maximum temperature. Conclusion It was concluded with only medium confidence that coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks may be at risk of becoming net emitter of carbon under a global climate warming scenario as increases in coarse or fine woody debris production (sinks may be more than offset by increases in forest woody detritus decay rates (emission. Given the preliminary results of this study and the rather tenuous status of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks as either a source or sink of CO2, further research is suggested in the areas of forest detritus decay and production.

  16. A MODEL OF SUPPLY RESPONSE IN THE AUSTRALIAN ORANGE GROWING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Freebairn, John W.; Quilkey, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A model of the Australian orange growing industry to explain changes in plantings, removals, the number and age composition of trees and orange production is developed and estimated. Most of the variation in plantings is explained by the expected profitability of growing oranges, the current stocks of bearing and nonbearing trees, and removals of trees last year. Estimates of the elasticities of response of plantings and production to price changes are low and there are long time lags. An ill...

  17. Geospatial assessment of long-term changes in carbon stocks and fluxes in forests of India (1930-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Rakesh, F.; Jha, C. S.; Athira, K.; Singh, Sonali; Alekhya, V. V. L. Padma; Rajashekar, G.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present study has estimated spatial distribution of biomass carbon density from satellite remote sensing data, historical archives and collateral data from 1930 to 2013. The spatial forest canopy density datasets for 1930, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 were analysed to obtain biomass carbon pools at 5 km grid level. The overall loss of forest cover was 28% from 1930 to 2013. Analysis of change in the forest canopy density indicates that the dense forest cover reduced from 419,175 km2 in 1975 to 390,966 km2 in 2013. The total above ground biomass carbon stock of Indian forest was calculated as 3070.27 Tg C in 2013. Standing biomass carbon stocks varied significantly during different steps of time periods. There are a total 67,184 grid cells with loss of carbon stocks during 1930-1975 followed by 55,742 cells during 1975-1985. The annual carbon loss in the above ground biomass showed the highest decrease during the period of 1930 to 1975 and estimated as 2168.50 Tg C while the net annual loss of carbon is 48.19 Tg C. The maximum observed net annual loss of carbon stocks was 53.97 Tg C during 2005 to 2013. Carbon content for various states shows that maximum carbon stocks were stored in the forests of Arunachal Pradesh (11.27%) in 2013. State-wise change analysis indicates the highest loss of carbon stocks in Tripura (80.99%) from 1930 to 2013. Overall reduction in carbon stock in Indian forests has been estimated as 3079.98 Tg C (50.08%) from 1930 to 2013. The spatial characterization of distribution and changes in carbon stocks can provide useful information for planning and strategic management of resources and fulfilling global initiatives to conserve forest biodiversity.

  18. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  19. Analysis of Right Issue Announcement Effect toward Stock Price Movement and Stock Trading Volume within Issuer in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Yaputra Yakup

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to identify and analyze the rights issue effect to the stock price, the effect of the rights issue on stock trading volume, the correlation between stock prices before and after the right issue, as well as the correlation between volume of trading activity before the right issue and after that event. The objects of the study are the companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (JSX. The hypothesis stated that right issues have a significant effect on stock price on companies listed on the JSX, rights issues have a significant effect on the stock trading volume on companies listed on the JSX, there is a significant correlation between stock price before and after the rights issue on companies listed in JSX, there is a significant correlation between volume of the stock trading before the rights issue and after that event. Data analysis used were descriptive statistics, simple linear regression analysis and paired t-test. Hypothesis testing was performed by using the Pearson correlation test with significance level of 5%. The results show that the right issue has a positive effect but not significant toward stock prices of companies listed in JSX, right issue has a negative effect and not significant toward the trading volume activity (TVA on companies listed in JSX.

  20. EFFECT OF STOCKING DENSITY ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTICATED BARB (Barbonymus balleroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otong Zenal Arifin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Barb (Barbonymus balleroides considerably has economic potential as aquaculture commodity. However, there was still lack of development on aquaculture for this species. This study was conducted to observe the effect of different stocking density on growth of barb. The fish (body weight: 14.89 ± 0.13 g were stocked in nine floating nets (dimension: 2 m x 2 m x 1 m inside the concrete ponds with three stocking density treatments (10, 15, and 20 fish/m3. Each treatment consisted of three replications. Fish were fed on commercial pellet (30% of crude protein as much as 3% of the biomass per day with twice a day of feeding frequency. Data of growth performances (body weight, specific growth rate, average daily growth, biomass, food conversion ratio, and survival rate were collected every 30 days during 90 days of rearing period. Water quality variables (temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were observed during experiment. The results showed that the optimal stocking density for the growth of barb was 10 fish/m3. Best value of food conversion ratio was found 10 fish/m3 compared with 15 and 20 fish/m3 (P<0.05. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences on survival rate between treatments. These results also showed the potential of rearing barb on culture ponds with appropriate stocking density.

  1. Stock selection using a hybrid MCDM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Poklepović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of selecting the right stocks to invest in is of immense interest for investors on both emerging and developed capital markets. Moreover, an investor should take into account all available data regarding stocks on the particular market. This includes fundamental and stock market indicators. The decision making process includes several stocks to invest in and more than one criterion. Therefore, the task of selecting the stocks to invest in can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM problem. Using several MCDM methods often leads to divergent rankings. The goal of this paper is to resolve these possible divergent results obtained from different MCDM methods using a hybrid MCDM approach based on Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Five MCDM methods are selected: COPRAS, linear assignment, PROMETHEE, SAW and TOPSIS. The weights for all criteria are obtained by using the AHP method. Data for this study includes information on stock returns and traded volumes from March 2012 to March 2014 for 19 stocks on the Croatian capital market. It also includes the most important fundamental and stock market indicators for selected stocks. Rankings using five selected MCDM methods in the stock selection problem yield divergent results. However, after applying the proposed approach the final hybrid rankings are obtained. The results show that the worse stocks to invest in happen to be the same when the industry is taken into consideration or when not. However, when the industry is taken into account, the best stocks to invest in are slightly different, because some industries are more profitable than the others.

  2. Weather dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Stock Return

    OpenAIRE

    Bukit, Inka Natasya Hagaina; Riorini, Sri Vandayuli

    2012-01-01

    Research on psychology shows that sunny weather has effect toward mood. Some researchers found that mood has significant effect toward Stock return. This paper examines relationship between Weather in Indonesia, especially in Jakarta with Stock return of LQ 45 Index. This research examine relationship between Weather and Stock return directly and indirect (using Mood as intervening variable). This research analyze that relationship during 2009 to 2010. However, because Weather in Jakarta is r...

  3. Stock market returns, volatility, and future output

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Guo

    2002-01-01

    In this article, Hui Guo shows that, if stock volatility follows an AR(1) process, stock market returns relate positively to past volatility but relate negatively to contemporaneous volatility in Merton’s (1973) Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model. The model helps explain the recent finding that stock market volatility drives out returns in forecasting real gross domestic product growth because the predictive power of returns is hampered by their positive correlation with past volatilit...

  4. FERMENTED BLOOD MEAL USE FOR TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus GROW-OUT DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the optimal level of fermented blood meal used in grow-out diets for tiger grouper, as an alternative protein source to fish meal. Juvenile tiger grouper, initial weight 31.1 ± 2.1 g, were stocked into 1 m x 1 m x 2 m floating net cages at 20 fish cage-1. The treatment applied was isoprotein and isocaloric diets formulated to contain fermented blood meal (FBM of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% replacement of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to the fish twice a day to satiation for 20 weeks. Based on the Tukey test, the fish fed 0%–15.0% FBM demonstrated similar performance (P>0.05 to those fed the control diet (FBM0 in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed and protein efficiency. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency of the fish fed 22.5%–30.5% FBM were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of the fish fed control diet (FBM0. However, there was a significant culvilinier decliner in overall fish performance with increasing inclusion of FPM and most notable for weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption. Based on regression analysis, the asymptote where fish growth deteriorates as a function of FBM inclusion was determined to be 8.9%. Tiger grouper diets incorporating up to 9% FBM as fish meal replacement had no adverse affects on fish growth and survival.

  5. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. METHODS: The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses. RESULTS: A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar

  6. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  7. Oil Price Risk and Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The oil price risk refers to the uncertainty of the change in oil price and the stock markets studied in this paper are the so called emerging ones. Fourteen countries are selected for a quantitative research on the link between the oil price fluctuation and the stock market performance. A multi-factor model is applied and specifically an OLS regression is conducted separately for the data on Brazilian stock market. As a result, the rising oil price decreases stock price in oil-importing coun...

  8. Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Colombo, Stephen J; Chen, Jiaxin

    2013-10-01

    Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010-2100. Simulations included four future forest harvesting scenarios based on historical harvesting levels (low, average, high, and maximum available) and a no-harvest scenario. In four harvesting scenarios, forest carbon stocks in Ontario's managed forest were estimated to range from 6202 to 6227 Mt C (millions of tons of carbon) in 2010, and from 6121 to 6428 Mt C by 2100. Inclusion of carbon stored in harvested wood products in use and in landfills changed the projected range in 2100 to 6710-6742 Mt C. For the no-harvest scenario, forest carbon stocks were projected to change from 6246 Mt C in 2010 to 6680 Mt C in 2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks was strongly related to changes in forest age (r = 0.603), but had weak correlation with harvesting rates. For all managed forests in Ontario combined, projected carbon stocks in combined forest and harvested wood products converged to within 2% difference by 2100. The results suggest that harvesting in the boreal forest, if applied within limits of sustainable forest management, will eventually have a relatively small effect on long-term combined forest and wood products carbon stocks. However, there was a large time lag to approach carbon equality, with more than 90 years with a net reduction in stored carbon in harvested forests plus wood products compared to nonharvested boreal forest which also has low rates of natural disturbance. The eventual near equivalency of carbon stocks in nonharvested forest and forest that is harvested and protected from natural disturbance reflects both the accumulation of carbon in harvested wood products and the relatively young age at which boreal forest stands undergo natural succession in the absence of disturbance.

  9. Performance of technical trading rules: evidence from Southeast Asian stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharavanij, Piyapas; Siraprapasiri, Vasan; Rajchamaha, Kittichai

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the profitability of technical trading rules in the five Southeast Asian stock markets. The data cover a period of 14 years from January 2000 to December 2013. The instruments investigated are five Southeast Asian stock market indices: SET index (Thailand), FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLC index (Malaysia), FTSE Straits Times index (Singapore), JSX Composite index (Indonesia), and PSE composite index (the Philippines). Trading strategies investigated include Relative Strength Index, Stochastic oscillator, Moving Average Convergence-Divergence, Directional Movement Indicator and On Balance Volume. Performances are compared to a simple Buy-and-Hold. Statistical tests are also performed. Our empirical results show a strong performance of technical trading rules in an emerging stock market of Thailand but not in a more mature stock market of Singapore. The technical trading rules also generate statistical significant returns in the Malaysian, Indonesian and the Philippine markets. However, after taking transaction costs into account, most technical trading rules do not generate net returns. This fact suggests different levels of market efficiency among Southeast Asian stock markets. This paper finds three new insights. Firstly, technical indicators does not help much in terms of market timing. Basically, traders cannot expect to buy at a relative low price and sell at a relative high price by just using technical trading rules. Secondly, technical trading rules can be beneficial to individual investors as they help them to counter the behavioral bias called disposition effects which is the tendency to sell winning stocks too soon and holding on to losing stocks too long. Thirdly, even profitable strategies could not reliably predict subsequent market directions. They make money from having a higher average profit from profitable trades than an average loss from unprofitable ones.

  10. Historic simulation of net ecosystem carbon balance for the Great Dismal Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon (C) balance relative to natural disturbances and land management strengthens our understanding of the benefits and tradeoffs of carbon sequestration. We conducted a historic model simulation of net ecosystem C balance in the Great Dismal Swamp, VA. for the 30-year time period of 1985-2015. The historic simulation of annual carbon flux was calculated with the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model. The LUCAS model utilizes a state-and-transition simulation model coupled with a carbon stock-flow accounting model to estimate net ecosystem C balance, and long term sequestration rates under various ecological conditions and management strategies. The historic model simulation uses age-structured forest growth curves for four forest species, C stock and flow rates for 8 pools and 14 fluxes, and known data for disturbance and management. The annualized results of C biomass are provided in this data release in the following categories: Growth, Heterotrophic Respiration (Rh), Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), Net Biome Production (NBP), Below-ground Biomass (BGB) Stock, Above-ground Biomass (AGB) Stock, AGB Carbon Loss from Fire, BGB Carbon Loss from Fire, Deadwood Carbon Loss from Management, and Total Carbon Loss. The table also includes the area (annually) of each forest type in hectares: Atlantic white cedar Area (hectares); Cypress-gum Area (hectares); Maple-gum Area (hectares); Pond pine Area (hectares). Net ecosystem production for the Great Dismal Swamp (~ 54,000 ha), from 1985 to 2015 was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When the hurricane and six historic fire events were modeled, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and belowground C loss estimated from the South One in 2008 and Lateral West fire in 2011 totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The C loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C

  11. Stock-Market Efficiency in Thin-Trading Markets: The Case of the Vietnamese Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Loc Dong; Lanjouw, Ger; Lensink, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews developments in the Stock Trading Centre (STC) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the main stock market in the country, since its start in 2000. It presents information about developments in the number of stocks traded, trading activity and stock-price developments. The article focuses on the question whether the market is weak-form efficient. An important element of the investigation concerns the possible bias of the results caused by the thin trading that c...

  12. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  13. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  14. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  15. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1296-2 - Definition of marketable stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... means— (1) Passive foreign investment company (PFIC) stock that is regularly traded, as defined in... foreign investment company, that stock will be treated as marketable stock owned by that RIC for purposes... defined in section 1298(a), stock in any passive foreign investment company, that stock will be treated as...

  17. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have a...

  18. 41 CFR 109-27.5003 - Stock control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stock control. 109-27... control. (a) Stock control shall be maintained on the basis of stock record accounts of inventories on... property under stock control for greater than 90 days shall be maintained in stock record accounts. ...

  19. The role of managerial stock option programs in governance: evidence from REIT stock repurchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, C.; Giambona, E.; Harding, J.P.; Sezer, O.; Sirmans, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of stock option programs and executive holdings of stock options in real estate investment trust (REIT) governance. We study the issue by analyzing how the market reaction to a stock repurchase announcement varies as a function of the individual REIT's governance

  20. The Stock Market Game: A Simulation of Stock Market Trading. Grades 5-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draze, Dianne

    This guide to a unit on a simulation game about the stock market contains an instructional text and two separate simulations. Through directed lessons and reproducible worksheets, the unit teaches students about business ownership, stock exchanges, benchmarks, commissions, why prices change, the logistics of buying and selling stocks, and how to…

  1. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.11 Capital stock...

  2. Forest carbon stocks and fluxes in physiographic zones of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mehraj A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing carbon Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ is of central importance to combat climate change. Foremost among the challenges is quantifying nation's carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation, which requires information on forest carbon storage. Here we estimated carbon storage in India's forest biomass for the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 and the net flux caused by deforestation and degradation, between two assessment periods i.e., Assessment Period first (ASP I, 2003-2005 and Assessment Period second (ASP II, 2005-2007. Results The total estimated carbon stock in India's forest biomass varied from 3325 to 3161 Mt during the years 2003 to 2007 respectively. There was a net flux of 372 Mt of CO2 in ASP I and 288 Mt of CO2 in ASP II, with an annual emission of 186 and 114 Mt of CO2 respectively. The carbon stock in India's forest biomass decreased continuously from 2003 onwards, despite slight increase in forest cover. The rate of carbon loss from the forest biomass in ASP II has dropped by 38.27% compared to ASP I. Conclusion With the Copenhagen Accord, India along with other BASIC countries China, Brazil and South Africa is voluntarily going to cut emissions. India will voluntary reduce the emission intensity of its GDP by 20-25% by 2020 in comparison to 2005 level, activities like REDD+ can provide a relatively cost-effective way of offsetting emissions, either by increasing the removals of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere by afforestation programmes, managing forests, or by reducing emissions through deforestation and degradation.

  3. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  5. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  6. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  7. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  8. Design System Fuel Inventory Control In Gas Stations With The Concept Of Min-Max Stock Level And Time Phased Order Point

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Danuri; Kodrat Imam Satoto

    2017-01-01

    The method used for planning is the ordering of distribution requirements planning with the stage of determining the net requirements (netting), selection Lot (lotting), the timing of orders (offsetting) and the determination of gross requirements for next level (exploision). The Time Phased Order Point and min-max stock level Consept used for optimalitation needs Planning. Model Design of the system is using waterfall model which consists of system analysis, system design, system implementa...

  9. Artificial neural nets application in the cotton yarn industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Clóvis Antoneli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness in the yarn production sector has led companies to search for solutions to attain quality yarn at a low cost. Today, the difference between them, and thus the sector, is in the raw material, meaning processed cotton and its characteristics. There are many types of cotton with different characteristics due to its production region, harvest, storage and transportation. Yarn industries work with cotton mixtures, which makes it difficult to determine the quality of the yarn produced from the characteristics of the processed fibers. This study uses data from a conventional spinning, from a raw material made of 100% cotton, and presents a solution with artificial neural nets that determine the thread quality information, using the fibers’ characteristics values and settings of some process adjustments. In this solution a neural net of the type MultiLayer Perceptron with 11 entry neurons (8 characteristics of the fiber and 3 process adjustments, 7 output neurons (yarn quality and two types of training, Back propagation and Conjugate gradient descent. The selection and organization of the production data of the yarn industry of the cocamar® indústria de fios company are described, to apply the artificial neural nets developed. In the application of neural nets to determine yarn quality, one concludes that, although the ideal precision of absolute values is lacking, the presented solution represents an excellent tool to define yarn quality variations when modifying the raw material composition. The developed system enables a simulation to define the raw material percentage mixture to be processed in the plant using the information from the stocked cotton packs, thus obtaining a mixture that maintains the stability of the entire productive process.

  10. Protein requirement of fast- and slow-growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, T R; Njuru, D M

    1990-12-01

    1. Responses of male broiler chicks and male chicks of an egg-laying stock to dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations ranging from 167 to 251 g/kg (metabolisable energy content 13 MJ/kg) were compared from 0 to 21 d of age, using 20 groups of 9 or 10 chicks (5 diets x 2 stocks x 2 replicates). 2. Average growth rate in the broilers was three times that of the layer chicks. The broilers needed at least 251 g CP/kg to maximise their liveweight gain but the layer chicks needed only about 188 g CP/kg. 3. The broiler chicks ate less than twice as much food as the layers and their maximum gain/food ratio was 0.6 compared with 0.4 for the layer chicks. These maximum efficiencies of conversion of food to liveweight were achieved in both cases with a diet containing 230 g CP/kg. 4. The efficiency of protein utilisation (above maintenance) was the same in fast- and slow-growing genotypes (about 0.47 g protein gain/g protein consumed). 5. Carcase analysis at 3 weeks of age showed that the broilers had deposited more fat than the layers and that protein content of the diet had markedly influenced fat deposition in both stocks. Fat in the whole body increased from 29 to 87 g/kg in the layer chicks and from 81 to 123 g/kg in the broilers as dietary protein was reduced from 251 to 167 g/kg. 6. The optimum protein to energy ratio of a chick starter diet will depend on the growth potential of the stock, as well as the cost of ingredients and the value of fatter or leaner carcases.

  11. Mandatory IFRS Reporting and Stock Price Informativeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuselinck, C.A.C.; Joos, P.P.M.; Khurana, I.K.; van der Meulen, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether mandatory adoption of IFRS influences the flow of firm-specific information and contributes to stock price informativeness as measured by stock return synchronicity. Using a constant sample of 1,904 mandatory IFRS adopters in 14 EU countries for the period

  12. Risk-based stock decisions for projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.L. van Jaarsveld (Willem); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this report we discuss a model that can be used to determine stocking levels using the data that comes forward from a Shell RCM analysis and the data available in E-SPIR. The model is appropriate to determine stock quantities for parts that are used in redundancy situations, and for

  13. Selecting the Optimum Army Stock Fund Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    divisions: * Operations management * Financial management * Office organization * Performance analysis * Personnel. THE ARMY WHOLESALE STOCK FUND Operations...with DCSLOG. Office Organization Each MSC has a stock fund office, normally subordinate to the Directorate of Materiel Management, that is supervised...to subordinate elements of the retail divisions. Office Organization All ASF retail divisions are governed by OSD and HQDA guidance to operate their

  14. Jump Detection in the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2002-01-01

    It is well known in financial economics that stock market return data are often modelled by a diffusion process with some regular drift function. Occasionally, however, sudden changes or jumps occur in the return data. Wavelet scaling methods are used to detect jumps and cusps in stock market...

  15. Bun splitting: a practical cutting stock problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Glass (Catherine); J.M. van Oostrum (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a new hierarchical 2D-guillotine Cutting Stock Problem. In contrast to the classic cutting stock problem, waste is not an issue. The problem relates to the removal of a defective part and assembly of the remaining parts into homogeneous size blocks. The context is the packing

  16. Stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the link between stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty. We show that US stock market volatility is significantly related to the dispersion in economic forecasts from SPF survey participants over the period from 1969 to 1996. This link is much

  17. A Tale of Two Stock Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michelle Hine; Piercey, Victor I.; Greene-Hunley, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article describes two different projects using the stock market as a context for learning. For both projects, students "bought" shares in individual companies, tracked stock prices for a period of time, and then "sold" their shares at a gain or loss. The projects are adaptable for students in late elementary school through…

  18. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  19. Dynamic behavior of value and growth stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2004-01-01

    The difference between the performance of growth and value portfolios presents an interesting puzzle for researchers in finance. Most studies showed that value stocks outperform growth stocks. This is the so-called value premium. In this article, we try to find an answer to the question as to why

  20. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in

  1. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Muela Ribera, Joan; Soto, Veronica; Tenorio, Alex; Hoibak, Sarah; Aguirre, Angel Rosas; Toomer, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Hugo; Llanos Cuentas, Alejandro; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia; Erhart, Annette

    2013-01-01

    While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district) between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses). A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2%) than in those with walls (73.8%) (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], ppreference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting

  2. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  3. Modeling Chaotic Behavior of Chittagong Stock Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Banik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market prediction is an important area of financial forecasting, which attracts great interest to stock buyers and sellers, stock investors, policy makers, applied researchers, and many others who are involved in the capital market. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to predict stock index values using soft computing models and time series model. Paying attention to the applied econometric noises because our considered series are time series, we predict Chittagong stock indices for the period from January 1, 2005 to May 5, 2011. We have used well-known models such as, the genetic algorithm (GA model and the adaptive network fuzzy integrated system (ANFIS model as soft computing forecasting models. Very widely used forecasting models in applied time series econometrics, namely, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH model is considered as time series model. Our findings have revealed that the use of soft computing models is more successful than the considered time series model.

  4. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  5. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  6. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  7. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  8. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  9. Solving the Problem of Relocation of Residents from Old and Unfit Housing Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopovich Vladimir Pavlovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The speed of construction does not solve the problem of relocating the residents from old and unfit housing stock, the number of which exceeds the maximum permissible values. To assess housing stock condition, the author uses a model describing the path traversed by an accelerated body. The graphic analogue of model is a coil spring with a variable, increasing step, from which it follows that the volume of old and unfit housing stock is growing exponentially. The proposed model helps to project possible consequences of slow relocation, to plan necessary annual volume of new construction for relocation of the residents, as well as to assess the additional resources for preventing accidents.

  10. Net ionospheric currents closing field-aligned currents in the auroral region: CHAMP results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    By utilizing the high-resolution and precise vector magnetic field measurements from CHAMP during 2001-2005, the characteristics of the net auroral currents calculated by Ampère's integral law are comprehensively investigated. It is found that the net currents deduced from noon-midnight (dawn-dusk) orbits are directed duskward (antisunward). The intensities of the net currents increase linearly when the merging electric field (Em) is growing, exhibiting maximum values of about 2 (1) MA for the net duskward (antisunward) currents when Em exceeds 4 mV/m. For the first time the seasonal variations of the different net currents are shown. The net currents deduced from full orbits show only little seasonal dependence due to a compensation of the effects between the hemispheres. Conversely, the net currents deduced separately for the two hemispheres exhibit prominent seasonal dependences. For the net duskward currents the amplitudes and slopes of Em dependence are both larger by a factor of about 2 in summer than in winter. The related cross-polar cap Pedersen currents are higher in the sunlit hemisphere due to enhanced conductivity. The summer-time duskward currents are larger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere by a factor of 1.5. Conversely, the net antisunward currents show an opposite seasonal dependence. The ratio of summer to winter intensity amounts to about 0.7. In this case the currents are stronger in the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-11-01

    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  12. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  13. Urban soils as hotspots of anthropogenic carbon accumulation: Review of stocks, mechanisms and factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils and cultural layers accumulate carbon (C) over centuries and consequently large C stocks are sequestered below the cities. These C stocks as well as the full range of processes and mechanisms leading to high C accumulation in urban soils remain unknown. We collected data on organic (SOC), inorganic (SOC) and black (pyrogenic) (BC) C content in urban and natural soils from 100 papers based on Scopus and Web-of-Knowledge databases. The yielded database includes 770 values on SOC, SIC and BC stocks from 118 cities worldwide. The collected data were analyzed considering the effects of climatic conditions and urban-specific factors: city size, age and functional zoning. For the whole range of climatic conditions, the C contents in urban soils were 1.5-3 times higher than in respective natural soils. This higher C content and much deeper C accumulation in urban soils resulted in 3 to 5 times higher C stocks compared to natural soils. Urban SOC stocks were positively correlated with latitude, whereas SIC stocks were less affected by climate. The city size and age were the main factors controlling intra-city variability of C stocks with higher stocks in small cities compared to megapolises and in medieval compared to new cities. The inter-city variability of C stocks was dominated by functional zoning: large SOC and N stocks in residential areas and large SIC and BC stocks in industrial zones and roadsides were similar for all climates and for cities of different size and age. Substantial stocks of SOC, SIC and N were sequestered for long-term in the subsoils and cultural layers of the sealed soils, which underline the importance of these 'hidden' stocks for C assessments. Typical and specific for urban soils is that the anthropogenic factor overshadows the other five factors of soil formation. Substantial C stocks in urban soils and cultural layers result from specific mechanisms of C accumulation in cities: i) large and long-term C inputs from outside the

  14. Monitoring vegetation dynamics and carbon stock density in miombo woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Natasha S; Matos, Céu N; Moura, Isabel R; Washington-Allen, Robert A; Ribeiro, Ana I

    2013-11-09

    The United Nation's Program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to reduce the 20% contribution to global emissions of greenhouse gases from the forest sector, offering a financial value of the carbon stored in forests as an incentive for local communities. The pre-requisite for the setup of a participatory REDD + Program is the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of baseline carbon stocks and their changes over time. In this study, we investigated miombo woodland's dynamics in terms of composition, structure and biomass over a 4-year period (2005-2009), and the Carbon Stock Density (CSD) for the year 2009. The study was conducted in the Niassa National Reserve (NNR) in northern Mozambique, which is the 14th largest protected area in the world. Mean tree density distributed across 79 species increased slightly between 2005 and 2009, respectively, from 548 to 587 trees ha-1. Julbernardia globiflora (Benth.) was the most important species in this area [importance value index (IVI2005= 61 and IVI2009 = 54)]. The woodlands presented an inverted J-shaped diametric curve, with 69% of the individuals representing the young cohort. Woody biomass had a net increase of 3 Mg ha-1 with the highest growth observed in Dyplorhynchus condilocarpon (Müll.Arg.) Pichon (0.54 Mg ha-1). J. globiflora had a net decrease in biomass of 0.09 Mg ha-1. Total CSD density was estimated at ca. 67 MgC ha-1 ± 24.85 with soils (average 34.72 ± 17.93 MgC ha-1) and woody vegetation (average 29.8 MgC ha-1 ± 13.07) representing the major carbon pools. The results point to a relatively stable ecosystem, but they call for the need to refocus management activities. The miombo woodlands in NNR are representative of the woodlands in the eco-region in terms of vegetation structure and composition. They experienced net increase in woody biomass, a considerable recruitment level and low mortality. According to our results, NNR

  15. Manufacturing of thin walled near net shape iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per Leif

    2003-01-01

    The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed to be substitu.......000.000 cars produced world wide each year consumes enormous amounts of cast parts ! The aim of the project is to develop the green sand molding method on DISAMATIC to be able to deal with the new demands for thin walled near net shape castings in iron.......The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed...... to be substituting iron casings with aluminum castings. Substituting iron castings with aluminum castings is not as easy as first believed, and hence the substitution is very slow. This combined with the lack of fully exploiting the potential in iron castings, makes research in iron castings interesting. The 60...

  16. Comparison of stock valuation models with their intrinsic value in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stock evaluation is one of the most important and most complex operational processes in the stock exchange. In financial markets, the pricing of tradable assets plays a basic role in resource allocation. After initial stock valuation of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange, some changes were observed in prices with the value set by the Stock Exchange. The aim of this study was to determine the model applied in the formation of stock prices in the stock market to find an appropriate market value model among value-based valuation models. To test the models of stock valuation, ordinary least square regression was used. Also, E-Views software was used for further data analysis. The sample included all the companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2008 till 2013. Based on the stratified random sampling, each industry was selected as a category and using Cochran formula, sample size of 40 participants was determined from each category. The data analysis indicated that the price-to-book ratio (P/B ratio had the highest adjustment factor and had been set as the best stock valuation model.

  17. Managerial Stock Compensation and Risky Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana Nastasescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the mix of CEO equity-based compensation, namely stock options and restricted stock, and firms' risky investment. In general, the theory suggests that long-term compensation aligns CEOs' and shareholders' interests by inducing the managers to undertake risky investment, which has a positive impact on longterm well-being of the firm. However, as my results show, it is important to distinguish between types of awards since they can have different effects on the riskiness of the firm. In this respect, I answer the question how are different types of stock based compensation related to the executives' determination to increase or not the intensity of the firm's risky investment? I find that awarding the CEOs preponderantly with stock options positively affects the firm's level of R&D investment. Conversely, a higher proportion of restricted stock in the CEO's compensation is related to lower investment in (risky R&D. The inverse relation of causality also holds. Firms that make intensive R&D investments are more likely to award their CEOs with more stock options relative to restricted stock. Overall, the results are consistent with the theoretical prediction, in that the managerial compensation scheme plays an important role in determining the level of R&D investment.

  18. Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyet Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.

  19. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  20. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS ACCURACY AT MACEDONIAN STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this paper is to determine accuracy of some of widely used technical analysis techniques for MBI-10 stocks price forecast at MSE. We are testing accuracy of several technical analysis techniques: MACD (Moving-Average Convergence/Divergence, RSI (Relative Strength Index, Stochastic Oscillator and ADX (Average Directional Index on the three most liquid stocks quoted at MSE and included in MBI-10 index. Technical analysis for MPT, ALK and KMB stocks was performed and recommendations were issued in June 2010, based on monthly and weekly data for the stocks’ price movements during six years period from 2005 to 2010, as well as on their daily price movements from 2009 to 2010. We find that technical analysis is reliable tool for MSE stocks forecasting. Technical analysis predictions for three MSE stocks were confirmed by actual stock price movements within one year period (June 2010-June 2011. We did not find any notable differences in accuracy of use of technical analysis between stocks at MSE as well as between different technical analysis techniques.

  1. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Duchesne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km2 of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha−1, which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec’s managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041–2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec’s forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests.

  2. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results...

  3. Appendix 2: Risk-based framework and risk case studies. Risk case study: a framework for assessing climate change risks to forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have the ability to reduce the effects of climate change through the sequestration of carbon (C) (Pan et al. 2011) as well as contribute to net emissions through disturbance events such as wildfires and widespread tree mortality (Kurz et al. 2008). A conceptual framework for assessing climate-change risks to forest ecosystem C stocks facilitates...

  4. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  5. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  6. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  7. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...... of funding liquidity constraints suggesting an economic channel for the effect....

  8. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  9. Twitter as driver of stock price

    OpenAIRE

    Jubbega, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine the dynamic relationship of Twitter and stock price, by examining the effects for the ten most valuable brands according Interbrand (2010): Coca-Cola, IBM, Microsoft, Google, McDonald’s, Intel, Nokia, Disney, Toyota and Cisco. A VAR modelling approach captures the short and long term effects of Twitter to stock price and stock price to Twitter. Effects were found for 5 of the 10 brand. For Coca-Cola and Toyota, the number of brand sentiment tweets dri...

  10. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC). We investigate intra-functional as well as cross-functional complementarity effects from the perspective of the knowledge recipient. We test the impact of stocks on flows on the benefit that is created...... for MNC units. Based on a comprehensive sample of 324 relationships between MNC units we find that both types of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross...

  11. Level crossing analysis of the stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, G. R.; Movahed, M. S.; Fazeli, S. M.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Masoudi, S. F.

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope να+ crossing for the returns of market prices. The method is based on stochastic processes in which no scaling feature is explicitly required. Using this method we define a new quantity to quantify the stage of development and activity of stock exchanges. We compare the Tehran and western stock markets and show that some, such as the Tehran (TEPIX) and New Zealand (NZX) stock exchanges, are emerging, and also that TEPIX is a non-active market and is financially motivated to absorb capital.

  12. Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...... hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3...

  13. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  14. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  15. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  16. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  17. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  18. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  19. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  20. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  1. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  2. FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS AND DISCOUNTED FREE CASH FLOW VALUATION OF STOCKS AT MACEDONIAN STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Ivanovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the valuation performance of Discounted Free Cash Flow Model (DFCF at the Macedonian Stock Exchange (MSE in order to determine if this model offer significant level of accuracy and relevancy for stock values determination. We find that stock values calculated with DCF model are very close to average market prices which suggests that market prices oscillate near their fundamental values. We can conclude that DFCF models are useful tools for the companies’ enterprise values calculation on long term. The analysis of our results derived from stock valuation with DFCF model as well as comparison with average market stock prices suggest that discounted cash flow model is relatively reliable valuation tool that have to be used for stocks analyses at MSE.

  3. THE EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES ON BANKING STOCK PRICE INDEX IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laduna R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock price index can be regarded as a barometer in the measuremet of a nation’s economic condition, besides it can also be used in conducting statistical analysis on the current market. Stock is the proof of one’s share in a company in the form of securities issued by the listed go-public companies. This study was conducted to measure the effect of macroeconomic variables such as inflation, interest rate, and exchange rate on banking stock price index in Indonesia stock exchange or Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The results of study show that inflation and exchange rate posively influence the stock price index. The positive effect of the exchange rate shows that issuers who were positively affected by Rupiah (IDR depreciation appear to be the most dominant group. Meanwhile, the interest rate or Suku Bunga (SBI has a negative effect. Lower interest rate stimulates higher investments and better economic activities which increase the stock price.

  4. National-scale estimation of changes in soil carbon stocks on agricultural lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, Marlen D; Sperow, Mark; Paustian, Keith; Follett, Ronald F

    2002-01-01

    Average annual net change in soil carbon stocks under past and current management is needed as part of national reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and to evaluate the potential for soils as sinks to mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2. We estimated net soil C stock changes for US agricultural soils during the period from 1982 to 1997 using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) method for greenhouse gas inventories. Land use data from the NRI (National Resources Inventory; USDA-NRCS) were used as input along with ancillary data sets on climate, soils, and agricultural management. Our results show that, overall, changes in land use and agricultural management have resulted in a net gain of 21.2 MMT C year(-1) in US agricultural soils during this period. Cropped lands account for 15.1 MMT C year(-1), while grazing land soil C increased 6.1 MMT C year(-1). The land use and management changes that have contributed the most to increasing soil C during this period are (1) adoption of conservation tillage practices on cropland, (2) enrollment of cropland in the Conservation Reserve Program, and (3) cropping intensification that has resulted in reduced use of bare fallow.

  5. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980–2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially ‘normal’ ones are not commonly researched. Theoretical background According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. Data and results A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries. PMID:28654644

  6. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, Dirk H M

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially 'normal' ones are not commonly researched. According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries.

  7. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  8. Deeper and sparser nets are optimal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    The starting points of this paper are two size-optimal solutions: (1) one for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions (Home and Hush, 1994); and (2) another one for implementing certain sub-classes of Boolean functions (Red`kin, 1970). Because VLSI implementations do not cope well with highly interconnected nets--the area of a chip grows with the cube of the fan-in (Hammerstrom, 1988)--this paper will analyze the influence of limited fan-in on the size optimality for the two solutions mentioned. First, the authors will extend a result from Home and Hush (1994) valid for fan-in {Delta} = 2 to arbitrary fan-in. Second, they will prove that size-optimal solutions are obtained for small constant fan-in for both constructions, while relative minimum size solutions can be obtained for fan-ins strictly lower that linear. These results are in agreement with similar ones proving that for small constant fan-ins ({Delta} = 6...9) there exist VLSI-optimal (i.e., minimizing AT{sup 2}) solutions (Beiu, 1997a), while there are similar small constants relating to the capacity of processing information (Miller 1956).

  9. Deeper sparsely nets are size-optimal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E.

    1997-12-01

    The starting points of this paper are two size-optimal solutions: (i) one for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions (Horne, 1994); and (ii) another one for implementing certain sub-classes of Boolean functions (Red`kin, 1970). Because VLSI implementations do not cope well with highly interconnected nets--the area of a chip grows with the cube of the fan-in (Hammerstrom, 1988)--this paper will analyze the influence of limited fan-in on the size optimality for the two solutions mentioned. First, the authors will extend a result from Horne and Hush (1994) valid for fan-in {Delta} = 2 to arbitrary fan-in. Second, they will prove that size-optimal solutions are obtained for small constant fan-in for both constructions, while relative minimum size solutions can be obtained for fan-ins strictly lower than linear. These results are in agreement with similar ones proving that for small constant fan-ins ({Delta} = 6...9) there exist VLSI-optimal (i.e. minimizing AT{sup 2}) solutions (Beiu, 1997a), while there are similar small constants relating to the capacity of processing information (Miller 1956).

  10. Analysis of Asset Growth Anomaly on Cross-Section Stock Returns: Evidence from Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Iqbal; Buddi Wibowo

    2017-01-01

    Assorted types of market anomalies occur when stock prices deviate from the prediction of classical asset pricing theories. This study aims to examine asset growth anomaly where stocks with high asset growth will be followed by low returns in the subsequent periods. This study, using Indonesia Stock Exchanges data, finds that an equally-weighted low-growth portfolio outperforms high-growth portfolio by average 0.75% per month (9% per annum), confirming existence of asset growth anomaly. The a...

  11. Predicting Stocks with Machine Learning. Stacked Classifiers and other Learners Applied to the Oslo Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Olden, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether it is possible to make a profitable stock trading scheme using machine learning on the Oslo Stock Exchange (OSE). It compares binary classification learning algorithms and their performance. It investigates whether Stacked Ensemble Learning Algorithms, utilizing other learning algorithms predictions as additional features, outperforms other machine learning techniques. The experiments attempt to predict the daily movement of 22 stocks from OSE with 37 mach...

  12. Momentum Strategies in the Portuguese Stock Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Júlio Lobão; Cátia Da Mota Lopes

    2014-01-01

    .... Using a monthly sample that goes from January 1988 to April 2012, the most extensive sample ever used for the analysis of momentum profitability in the Portuguese Stock Market, we construct 32 different strategies...

  13. Influence network in Chinese stock market

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    In a stock market, the price fluctuations are interactive, that is, one listed company can influence others. In this paper, we seek to study the influence relationships among listed companies by constructing a directed network on the basis of Chinese stock market. This influence network shows distinct topological properties, particularly, a few large companies that can lead the tendency of stock market are recognized. Furthermore, by analyzing the subnetworks of listed companies distributed in several significant economic sectors, it is found that the influence relationships are totally different from one economic sector to another, of which three types of connectivity as well as hub-like listed companies are identified. In addition, the rankings of listed companies obtained from the centrality metrics of influence network are compared with that according to the assets, which gives inspiration to uncover and understand the importance of listed companies in the stock market. These empirical results are meaning...

  14. Socio-economy and stock market volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sharif Hossain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate how stock market return volatility behaves with respect to socioeconomic factors namely- interest rate volatility, foreign exchange rate volatility, S &P 500 index volatility, broad money supply volatility, per capita GDP, domestic investment, industry value addition, tertiary level of education, urbanization, and strike and blockades using time series data from 1976-2015. We find that interest rate volatility has significant positive impact on stock market return volatility where broad money supply volatility, foreign exchange rate volatility, tertiary level of education, and domestic investment have significant negative impact on stock market volatility based on stepwise regression. Therefore, increase in tertiary level of education and domestic investment makes the stock market more stable. From the estimated result of VAR model, results show no short run causality among these variables.

  15. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers’ decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market articipation cost is about 5% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers’ life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed articipation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers’ life cycle....

  16. Multifractal structures for the Russian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Taro

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we apply the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) to the Russian stock price returns. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to reveal the multifractal structures for the Russian stock market by financial crises. The contributions of the paper are twofold. (i) Finding the multifractal structures for the Russian stock market. The generalized Hurst exponents estimated become highly-nonlinear to the order of the fluctuation functions. (ii) Computing the multifractality degree according to Zunino et al. (2008). We find that the multifractality degree of the Russian stock market can be categorized within emerging markets, however, the Russian 1998 crisis and the global financial crisis dampen the degree when we consider the order of the polynomial trends in the MFDFA.

  17. STRATEGY OF STOCK VALUATION BY FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common stock valuation presents one of the most complex tasks in financial analysis. When it attemps to answer on question: „what affects on stock movements?“ then the answer would not relate only on economic factors. There are numerous factors that affect the stock price and which are almost impossible to predict. As one of the best ways to fight against many factors that make the uncertainty arises fundamental analysis. Fundamental analysis is one of the most widely used method for estimating price movements of securities which essentially analyse the impact of micro and macro economic factors on the business of the corporation in order to predict future economic and financial effects. Fundamental analysis also examine various financial statements with the aim to asses a real value of company's stock. This work has the task to systematize knowledge about fundamental analysis, so it can can serve as a good base for future research.

  18. Stock returns, macroeconomic variables and expectations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lúcio Linck; Roberto Frota Decourt

    2016-01-01

    ... returns in Brazil from 2000 to 2010. The study investigates the causality relationships among real stock returns, basic interest rates, GDP, ination and the market expectation of future behavior of these macroeconomic variables...

  19. Development of the stock exchange information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Radojko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stock exchange represents the key institution for the development of capital market of any country. Thus the information system of every stock exchange must satisfy very strict international standards. The development of these systems is particularly difficult in countries in transition, due to intense economic and legal changes, lack of technical and financial resources, lack of experience and knowledge in the area of the capital market business, etc. Therefore the special software project management methodology for their realization must be clearly defined. In the development process of the Belgrade Stock Exchange (BSE information system a new software project management methodology for its realization has been defined, the application of which is illustrated through a series of different development stages of the Belgrade Stock Exchange information system. In order to make all the problems more comprehensive, only the continuous trading method is described, being the most frequently used trading method in the world.

  20. Policy on Existing Stocks of Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This statement establishes general principles the Agency generally will apply in determining whether and under what conditions to allow the sale and use of existing stocks of pesticides for which the registration has been amended, canceled, or suspended.

  1. The volatility of stock market prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, R J

    1987-01-02

    If the volatility of stock market prices is to be understood in terms of the efficient markets hypothesis, then there should be evidence that true investment value changes through time sufficiently to justify the price changes. Three indicators of change in true investment value of the aggregate stock market in the United States from 1871 to 1986 are considered: changes in dividends, in real interest rates, and in a direct measure of intertemporal marginal rates of substitution. Although there are some ambiguities in interpreting the evidence, dividend changes appear to contribute very little toward justifying the observed historical volatility of stock prices. The other indicators contribute some, but still most of the volatility of stock market prices appears unexplained.

  2. Accrual components and stock trading costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qianhua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between accrual components and stock trading costs in China and finds that both abnormal and normal accruals are associated with these costs. Moreover, negative accruals, both abnormal and normal, have a greater influence on stock trading costs than positive accruals because of short-selling constraints in the Chinese stock market. Further analysis reveals that investors who are fixated on accruals are unable to separate positive or negative abnormal accruals from earnings in general. Additionally, investors overestimate the persistence of both positive and negative normal accruals. These findings constitute further evidence of the low degree of market efficiency in China. Chinese investors seem to overestimate firm value when abnormal and normal accruals are positive and underestimate it when they are negative, thus leading to an asymmetric effect on trading costs between positive and negative accruals in the face of short-selling constraints in the Chinese stock market.

  3. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  4. SIS - Species and Stock Administrative Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Species and Stock Administrative data set within the Species Information System (SIS) defines entities within the database that serve as the basis for recording...

  5. Scaling in the Bombay stock exchange index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we study Bombay stock exchange (BSE) index financial time series for fractal and multifractal behaviour. We show that BSE index time series is monofractal and can be represented by a fractional Brownian motion.

  6. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank, both...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of stock. 101...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.406 Disposition of stock. Stocks of slow-moving items which are... this section, shall be taken, as necessary, to remove stocks of inactive items from inventory. (a...

  8. 47 CFR 65.303 - Cost of preferred stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of preferred stock. 65.303 Section 65.303... stock. The formula for determining the cost of preferred stock is: ER01JN95.001 Where: “Total Annual Preferred Dividends” is the total dividends on preferred stock for the most recent two years for all local...

  9. 12 CFR 925.21 - Issuance and form of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance and form of stock. 925.21 Section 925... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.21 Issuance and form of stock. (a) A Bank shall issue to each new member, as of the effective date of membership, stock in the member's name for the...

  10. The Determinants of Future Bank Stock Returns in Eight Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoun An

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine which traditional asset pricing variables together with bank-specific accounting variables explain the cross-sectional variation of future bank stock returns, using a firm-level data of eight Asian countries. Our empirical evidence shows that exchange rate risk, firm size, the book-to-market ratio, and the net income ratio are important in explaining future bank stock returns during normal times. However, during the Global Financial Crisis period, different variables such as local market beta, illiquidity risk, equity ratio, and off-balance sheets ratio were statistically significant. Thus, researchers and policy practitioners should monitor these variables during normal times as well as during times of crisis.

  11. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  12. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  13. Mapping aboveground carbon stocks using LiDAR data in Eucalyptus spp. plantations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Samuel de Padua Chaves e Carvalho; Andrew T. Hudak; e Luiz Carlos Estraviz. Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing plantation forests provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this study was to evaluate airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to predict aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Eucalyptus spp. plantations. Biometric parameters (tree height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (DBH)) were collected from...

  14. Recent changes in the estimation of standing dead tree biomass and carbon stocks in the U.S. forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; James E. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, standing dead tree biomass and carbon (C) has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. Traditional estimates of standing dead tree biomass/C attributes were based on merchantability standards that did not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to...

  15. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS FOR ROLLING STOCK TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Pasko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rolling stock on the railways of Ukraine has not been updated for many years, which has led to significant wear of the country electric and diesel locomotive fleet. A way out of the existing situation is execution of major overhaul with extension of locomotive life to allow their operation for several more years. Repair or upgrading as well as putting new rolling stock into operation must be accompanied by implementation of state-of-the-art traction electric drives.

  16. Growth performance of Nigerian fish stocks

    OpenAIRE

    King, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function are presented for 42 fish stocks belonging to 16 families, 22 genera and 27 species. The growth performance index, Phi '(= log K + 2logL sub( infinity )), was computed for each stock and was found to be highest in male Gymnarchus niloticus (Gymnarchidae) from Lake Chad and lowest in Chrysichthys auratus (Bagridae) from the Cross River. Mean Phi ' for major fish genera and families are also presented and was highest in brackishwater fishes, clo...

  17. Global stock market in 1990-s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshenskyi S.Z.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1990s became a period of long-term recovery, the main driving force of which was the high-tech companies of the so-called «new economy», mainly associated with information technology and Internet at the global stock market. Such innovations have led to unrealistic expectations of the profitability of new companies from the sale of goods and services on the Internet. This became a prerequisite for a speculative boom in equity markets in developed financial systems. The boom intensified the mass privatization of state-owned enterprises in UK, Germany, France and some other countries. The capitalization of the global stock market increased more than ten times although the world GDP grew only 2.5 times during two decades, from 1980 to 2000. Though the stock market is the source of capital only in the countries with the Anglo-American model of financial markets (for countries of continental Europe and Japan such sources are bank loans, stock markets increased in all countries with developed financial systems. The systematic analysis of such key indicators as market capitalization and liquidity is required for an objective assessment of such rise in stock markets. But statistical information at stock markets is often not systematized and fragmentary. Therefore, the author (based on the official statistics of such international financial organizations as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Federation of Exchanges has calculated and systematically analyzed capitalization and liquidity as the main indicators of the stock market for the largest countries with developed financial systems (USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Japan. The paper displays the differences in the mechanisms of attraction of capital determined by the different models of financial markets (decentralized Anglo-American and centralized European as well as the features of the composition of the main investors in the world stock markets.

  18. Participation Constraints in the Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    participation costs cause non-participation. We have three key findings. First, windfall wealth has a positive effect on participation. Second, the majority of households do not react to sizeable windfalls by entering the stock market, but hold on to substantial safe assets—even over longer horizons. Third......, the majority of households inheriting stock holdings actively sell the entire portfolio. Overall, these findings suggest that participation by many individuals is unlikely to be constrained by financial participation costs....

  19. Incomplete information, idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Berrada, Tony Nicolas; Hugonnier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    We develop a q-theoretic model of investment under incomplete information that explains the link between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. When calibrated to match properties of the US business cycles as well as various firms and industry characteristics, the model generates a negative relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. We show that conditional on earning surprises, the link is positive after good news and negative after bad news. This result provides new i...

  20. Long - Memory Persistence in African Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Numapau Gyamfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging stock markets are said to become efficient with time. This study seeks to investigate this assertion by analyzing long - memory persistence in 8 African stock markets covering the period from 28 August 2000 to 28 August 2015. The Hurst exponent is used as our efficiency measure which is evaluated by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. Our findings show strong evidence of long - memory persistence in the markets studied therefore violating the weak - form Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH.

  1. Growth of planted ponderosa pine thinned to different stocking levels in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1979-01-01

    Growth was strongly related to growing stock level (GSL) for 5 years after thinning 20-year-old poles on Site Index50 115 land at the Elliot Ranch Plantation in northern California. Five GSL's-basal areas anticipated when trees average 10 inches d.b.h. or more-ranging from 40 to 160 square feet per acre were tested. Periodic annual increment...

  2. A Proposed Role for Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs in Ewing Sarcoma Cancer Immunoediting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan eBerger-Achituv

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon activation, neutrophils release fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil proteins termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. NETs trap and kill microbes, activate dendritic cells and T-cells, and are implicated in auto-immune and vascular diseases. Given the growing interest in the role of neutrophils in cancer immunoediting and the diverse function of NETs, we searched for NETs release by tumor associated neutrophils (TANs. Using pediatric Ewing sarcoma (ES as a model, we retrospectively examined histopathological material from diagnostic biopsies of 8 patients (mean ± SD age of 11.5 ± 4.7 years. TANs were found in 6 patients and in 2 of those we identified NETs. These 2 patients presented with metastatic disease and despite entering complete remission after intensive chemotherapy had an early relapse. NETs were not identified in the diagnostic biopsies of 2 patients with localized disease and 2 with metastatic disease. This study is the first to show that TANs in ES are activated to make NETs, pointing to a possible role of NETs in cancer.

  3. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  4. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  5. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  6. Temperature effects on stocks and stability of a phytoplankton-zooplankton model and the dependence on light and nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a closed phytoplankton—zooplankton ecosystem was analyzed for effects of temperature on stocks and stability and the dependence of these effects on light and total nutrient concentration of the system. An analysis of the steady state equations showed that the effect of temperature on zooplankton and POM biomass was levelled when primary production is nutrient limited. Temperature increase had a generally negative effect on all biomasses at high nutrient levels due to increased maintenance costs. Nutrient limitation of net primary production is the main factor governing the effect of stocks and flows as well as the stability of the system. All components of the system, except for phytoplankton biomass, are proportional to net production and thus to the net effect of light on photosynthesis. However, temperature determines the slope of that relationship. The resilience of the system was measured by calculating the eigenvalues of the steady state. Under oligotrophic conditions, the system can be stable, but an increase in temperature can cause instability or a decrease in resilience. This conclusion is discussed in the face of recent models that take spatial heterogeneity into account and display far more stable behavior, in better agreement to empirical data. Using simulations, we found that the amplitude of fluctuations of the herbivore stock increases with temperature while the mean biomass and minimum values decrease in comparison with steady state predictions

  7. 12 CFR 220.11 - Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks. 220.11 Section 220.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... (REGULATION T) § 220.11 Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin... paragraph (f) of this section, OTC margin stock shall meet the following requirements: (1) Four or more...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market...

  9. Collective behavior of stock price movements in an emerging market

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the universality of the structure of interactions in different markets, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of stock price fluctuations in the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India. We find that this emerging market exhibits strong correlations in the movement of stock prices compared to developed markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). This is shown to be due to the dominant influence of a common market mode on the stock prices. By comparison, interactions ...

  10. The impact of investor sentiment on the German stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Finter, Philipp; Niessen-Ruenzi, Alexandra; Ruenzi, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a broad-based sentiment indicator for Germany and investigates whether investor sentiment can explain stock returns on the German stock market. Based on a principal component analysis, we construct a sentiment indicator that condenses information of several well-known sentiment proxies. We show that this indicator explains the return spread between sentiment sensitive stocks and stocks that are not sensitive to sentiment fluctuations. Specifically, stocks that are difficul...

  11. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  12. Spatiotemporal modeling of soil organic carbon stocks across a subtropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Christopher Wade; Grunwald, Sabine; Myers, David Brenton

    2013-09-01

    Given the significance and complex nature of soil organic carbon in the context of the global carbon cycle, the need exists for more accurate and economically feasible means of soil organic carbon analysis and its underlying spatial variation at regional scale. The overarching goal of this study was to assess both the spatial and temporal variability of soil organic carbon within a subtropical region of Florida, USA. Specifically, the objectives were to: i) quantify regional soil organic carbon stocks for historical and current conditions and ii) determine whether the soils have acted as a net sink or a net source for atmospheric carbon-dioxide over an approximate 40 year time period. To achieve these objectives, geostatistical interpolation models were used in conjunction with "historical" and "current" datasets to predict soil organic carbon stocks for the upper 20 cm soil profile of the study area. Soil organic carbon estimates derived from the models ranged from 102 to 108 Tg for historical conditions and 211 to 320 Tg for current conditions, indicating that soils in the study area have acted as a net sink for atmospheric carbon over the last 40 years. A paired resampling of historical sites supported the geostatistical estimates, and resulted in an average increase of 0.8 g carbon m(-2) yr(-1) across all collocated samples. Accurately assessing the spatial and temporal state of soil organic carbon at regional scale is critical to further our understanding of global carbon stocks and provide a baseline so that the effects sustainable land use policy can be evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stock flow diagram analysis on solid waste management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Faridah; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Kie, Cheng Jack

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness on solid waste management is a major importance to societies. Numerous generation of solid waste from our daily activities has risked for our communities. These due to rapid population grow and advance in economic development. Moreover, the complexity of solid waste management is inherently involved large scale, diverse and element of uncertainties that must assist stakeholders with deviating objectives. In this paper, we proposed a system dynamics simulation by developing a stock flow diagram to illustrate the solid waste generation process and waste recycle process. The analysis highlights the impact on increasing the number of population toward the amount of solid waste generated and the amount of recycled waste. The results show an increment in the number of population as well as the amount of recycled waste will decrease the amount of waste generated. It is positively represent the achievement of government aim to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed by year 2020.

  14. Which stocks are profitable? A network method to investigate the effects of network structure on stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Luo, Peng; Sun, Bianxia; Wang, Huaiqing

    2015-10-01

    According to asset pricing theory, a stock's expected returns are determined by its exposure to systematic risk. In this paper, we propose a new method for analyzing the interaction effects among industries and stocks on stock returns. We construct a complex network based on correlations of abnormal stock returns and use centrality and modularity, two popular measures in social science, to determine the effect of interconnections on industry and stock returns. Supported by previous studies, our findings indicate that a relationship exists between inter-industry closeness and industry returns and between stock centrality and stock returns. The theoretical and practical contributions of these findings are discussed.

  15. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Studer, D.; Benne, K.; Griffith, B.; Torcellini, P.; Liu, B.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Yazdanian, M.; Huang, J.; Crawley, D.

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program has set the aggressive goal of producing marketable net-zero energy buildings by 2025. This goal will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. We developed standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent fairly realistic buildings and typical construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock.

  17. Estimating changes in Scottish soil carbon stocks using ECOSSE. II. Application

    OpenAIRE

    J. Smith; P. Gottschalk; J. Bellarby; S. Chapman; A. Lilly; W. Towers; J. Bell; K. Coleman; D. Nayak; M. Richards; J. Hillier; H. Flynn; Martin Wattenbach; M. Aitkenhead; J. Yeluripati

    2010-01-01

    In order to predict the response of carbon (C)-rich soils to external change, models are needed that accurately reflect the conditions of these soils. Here we present an example application of the new Estimation of Carbon in Organic Soils – Sequestration and Emissions (ECOSSE) model to estimate net change in soil C in response to changes in land use in Scotland. The ECOSSE estimate of annual change in soil C stocks for Scotland between 2000 and 2009 is –810 ± 89 kt yr–1, equivalent to 0.037 ±...

  18. Taking stock: provider prescribing practices in the presence and absence of ACT stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Caroline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, the monitoring of prompt and effective treatment for malaria with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is conducted largely through household surveys. This measure; however, provides no information on case management processes at the health facility level. The aim of this review was to assess evidence from health facility surveys on malaria prescribing practices using ACT, in the presence and absence of ACT stock, at time and place where treatment was sought. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted. Findings were collated and data extracted on proportion of patients prescribed ACT and alternative anti-malarials in the presence and absence of ACT stock. Results Of the 14 studies identified in which ACT prescription for uncomplicated malaria in the public sector was evaluated, just six, from three countries (Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, reported this in the context of ACT stock. Comparing facilities with ACT stock to facilities without stock (i ACT prescribing was significantly higher in all six studies, increasing by a range of 21.3% in children Conclusions Prescriber practices vary based on ACT availability. Although ACT prescriptions increased and alternative anti-malarials prescriptions decreased in the presence of ACT stock, ACT was prescribed in the absence, and alternative anti-malarials were prescribed in the presence of, ACT. Presence of stock alone does not ensure that treatment guidelines are followed. More health facility surveys, together with qualitative research, are needed to understand the role of ACT stock-outs on provider prescribing behaviours and preferences.

  19. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and pro rata rights. 240.16a-9 Section 240.16a-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... acquisition of rights, such as shareholder or pre-emptive rights, pursuant to a pro rata grant to all holders...

  20. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  1. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  2. CSR and Company's Stock Price. A Comparative Evidence from Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Dornean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and stock price for the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE in 2015, comparing with the results obtained for 2014. This study investigates the differences in the market stock price (and other market variables, such as dividends and stock return of companies that show CSR compared with those that do not. For this purpose we will use three statistical techniques: discriminant analysis, probit analysis model and logistic regression. There is no significant difference between the prediction ability of the models, in the context in which probit model and logistic regression have and average correct classification of 70.29%, while discriminant analysis records 71.62%. Our analysis highlighted that stock return has a significant impact on CSR activities of a company. Moreover, all discriminants have a positive impact on CSR.

  3. Multifractal in Volatility of Family Business Stocks Listed on Casablanca STOCK Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    In this paper, we check for existence of multifractal in volatility of Moroccan family business stock returns and in volatility of Casablanca market index returns based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) technique. Empirical results show strong evidence of multifractal characteristics in volatility series of both family business stocks and market index. In addition, it is found that small variations in volatility of family business stocks are persistent, whilst small variations in volatility of market index are anti-persistent. However, large variations in family business volatility and market index volatility are both anti-persistent. Furthermore, multifractal spectral analysis based results show strong evidence that volatility in Moroccan family business companies exhibits more multifractality than volatility in the main stock market. These results may provide insightful information for risk managers concerned with family business stocks.

  4. Crude oil price shocks and stock returns. Evidence from Turkish stock market under global liquidity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Istemi [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Aydogan, Berna [Izmir Univ. of Economics (Turkey). Dept. of International Trade and Finance

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of crude oil price variations on the Turkish stock market returns. We have employed vector autoregression (V AR) model using daily observations of Brent crude oil prices and Istanbul Stock Exchange National Index (ISE- 1 00) returns for the period between January 2, 1990 and November 1, 2011. We have also tested the relationship between oil prices and stock market returns under global liquidity conditions by incorporating a liquidity proxy variable, Chicago Board of Exchange's (CBOE) S and P 500 market volatility index (VIX), into the model. Variance decomposition test results suggest little empirical evidence that crude oil price shocks have been rationally evaluated in the Turkish stock market. Rather, it was global liquidity conditions that were found to account for the greatest amount of variation in stock market returns.

  5. Estimating litter carbon stocks on forest land in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Grant M; Perry, Charles H; Walters, Brian F; Woodall, Christopher W; Russell, Matthew B; Smith, James E

    2016-07-01

    Forest ecosystems are the largest terrestrial carbon sink on earth, with more than half of their net primary production moving to the soil via the decomposition of litter biomass. Therefore, changes in the litter carbon (C) pool have important implications for global carbon budgets and carbon emissions reduction targets and negotiations. Litter accounts for an estimated 5% of all forest ecosystem carbon stocks worldwide. Given the cost and time required to measure litter attributes, many of the signatory nations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change report estimates of litter carbon stocks and stock changes using default values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or country-specific models. In the United States, the country-specific model used to predict litter C stocks is sensitive to attributes on each plot in the national forest inventory, but these predictions are not associated with the litter samples collected over the last decade in the national forest inventory. Here we present, for the first time, estimates of litter carbon obtained using more than 5000 field measurements from the national forest inventory of the United States. The field-based estimates mark a 44% reduction (2081±77Tg) in litter carbon stocks nationally when compared to country-specific model predictions reported in previous United Framework Convention on Climate Change submissions. Our work suggests that Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change defaults and country-specific models used to estimate litter carbon in temperate forest ecosystems may grossly overestimate the contribution of this pool in national carbon budgets. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Neural-like growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Vitaliy A.

    2000-03-01

    On the basis of the analysis of scientific ideas reflecting the law in the structure and functioning the biological structures of a brain, and analysis and synthesis of knowledge, developed by various directions in Computer Science, also there were developed the bases of the theory of a new class neural-like growing networks, not having the analogue in world practice. In a base of neural-like growing networks the synthesis of knowledge developed by classical theories - semantic and neural of networks is. The first of them enable to form sense, as objects and connections between them in accordance with construction of the network. With thus each sense gets a separate a component of a network as top, connected to other tops. In common it quite corresponds to structure reflected in a brain, where each obvious concept is presented by certain structure and has designating symbol. Secondly, this network gets increased semantic clearness at the expense owing to formation not only connections between neural by elements, but also themselves of elements as such, i.e. here has a place not simply construction of a network by accommodation sense structures in environment neural of elements, and purely creation of most this environment, as of an equivalent of environment of memory. Thus neural-like growing networks are represented by the convenient apparatus for modeling of mechanisms of teleological thinking, as a fulfillment of certain psychophysiological of functions.

  7. Optimizing Safety Stock Levels in Modular Production Systems Using Component Commonality and Group Technology Philosophy: A Study Based on Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Edgar Hernandez-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular production and component commonality are two widely used strategies in the manufacturing industry to meet customers growing needs for customized products. Using these strategies, companies can enhance their performance to achieve optimal safety stock levels. Despite the importance of safety stocks in business competition, little attention has been paid to the way to reduce them without affecting the customer service levels. This paper develops a mathematical model to reduce safety stock levels in organizations that employ modular production. To construct the model, we take advantage of the benefits of aggregate inventories, standardization of components, component commonality, and Group Technology philosophy in regard to stock levels. The model is tested through the simulation of three years of operation of two modular product systems. For each system, we calculated and compared the safety stock levels for two cases: (1 under the only presence of component commonality and (2 under the presence of both component commonality and Group Technology philosophy. The results show a reduction in safety stock levels when we linked the component commonality with the Group Technology philosophy. The paper presents a discussion of the implications of each case, features of the model, and suggestions for future research.

  8. Children's Schemes for Anticipating the Validity of Nets for Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken

    2017-01-01

    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were…

  9. Similar net ecosystem exchange of beech stands located in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as measured with eddy covariance was compared for two European beech stands for the years 1996-1999: a young beech forest (32 year-old) growing in east France, and a mature beech stand (80 year-old) located in Denmark. Those sites are included in the Carboeuroflux...

  10. Bayesian analysis of energy balance data from growing cattle using parametric and non-parametric modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes, L.E.; Kebreab, E.; Strathe, A.B.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.; Casper, D.; Fadel, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Linear and non-linear models have been extensively utilised for the estimation of net and metabolisable energy requirements and for the estimation of the efficiencies of utilising dietary energy for maintenance and tissue gain. In growing animals, biological principles imply that energy retention

  11. Comparison between global financial crisis and local stock disaster on top of Chinese stock network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lisi; You, Daming; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Quantong

    2018-01-01

    The science of complex network theory can be usefully applied in many important fields, one of which is the finance. In these practical cases, a massive dataset can be represented as a very large network with certain attributes associated with its nodes and edges. As one of the most important components of financial market, stock market has been attracting more and more attention. In this paper, we propose a threshold model to build Chinese stock market networks and study the topological properties of these networks. To be specific, we compare the effects of different crises, namely the 2008 global crisis and the stock market disaster in 2015, on the threshold networks. Prices of the stocks belonging to the Shanghai and Shenzhen 300 index are considered for three periods: the global crisis, common period and the stock market disaster. We find the probability distribution of the cross-correlations of the stocks during the stock market disaster is fatter than that of others. Besides, the thresholds of cross-correlations are assigned to obtain the threshold networks and the power-law of degree distribution in these networks are observed in a certain range of threshold values. The networks during the stock market disaster also appear to have larger mean degree and modularity, which reveals the strong correlations among these stock prices. Our findings to some extent crosscheck the liquidity shortage reason which is believed to result in the outbreak of the stock market disaster. Moreover, we hope that this paper could give us a deeper understanding of the market's behavior and also lead to interesting future research about the problems of modern finance theory.

  12. Long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvo Dajčman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze and compare the fractal structure of the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns. The presence of long memory components in asset returns provides evidence against the weak-form of stock market efficiency. The starting working hypothesis that there is no long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns is tested by applying the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS (1992 test, Lo’s (1991 modified rescaled range (R/S test, and the wavelet ordinary least squares (WOLS estimator of Jensen (1999. The research showed that the WOLS estimator may lead to different conclusions regarding long memory presence in the stock returns from the KPSS and unit root tests or Lo’s R/S test. Furthermore, it proved that the fractal structure of individual stock returns may be masked in aggregated stock market returns (i.e. in returns of stock index. The main finding of the paper is that both the Croatian stock index Crobex and individual stocks in this index exhibit long memory. Long memory is identified for some stocks in the Hungarian stock market as well, but not for the stock market index BUX. Based on the results of the long memory tests, it can be concluded that while the Hungarian stock market is weakform efficient, the Croatian stock market is not.

  13. Changing recruitment capacity in global fish stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Gregory L.; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans. PMID:26668368

  14. Using the Stock Market to Teach Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, David A.; Hearn, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Students are interested in money. Personal finance is an important issue for most students, especially as they move into university education and take a greater control of their own finances. Many are also interested in stock markets and their ability to allow someone to make, and lose, large sums of money, with their interest fueled by the boom in technology-based stocks of 2000/2001 followed by their subsequent dramatic collapse and the publicizing of so-called "rogue-traders." There is also a much greater ownership of stocks by families following public offerings, stock-based savings products, and the ability to trade stocks online. Consequently, there has been a steady growth of finance and finance-related courses available within degree programs in response to the student demand, with many students motivated by the huge salaries commanded by those with a successful career in the financial sector. We report here details of a joint project between Charterhouse School and the University of Surrey designed to exploit the excitement of finance to teach elements of the high school (age 16-18) curriculum through modeling and simulation.

  15. Foreign Delisting and Domestic Stock Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uderche-Rangau, Loredana; Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to understand the foreign delisting phenomenon using a multi-method approach based on both information content analysis and event study analysis of foreign companies withdrawing their stocks from the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Our objective is to measure the impact of the delis......The aim of our paper is to understand the foreign delisting phenomenon using a multi-method approach based on both information content analysis and event study analysis of foreign companies withdrawing their stocks from the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Our objective is to measure the impact...... of the delisting decision on the domestic stock price by observing the link between the pure value impact and the reasons for delisting. Our results show that, contrary to previous results, firms delisting from Tokyo can gain value depending on the reaction of the market operators to the content of the information...... provided in the delisting announcements. i.e. delisting can be presented either as the result of the not fulfilment of the benefits of cross-listing or as a part of a more general strategy of the company. Highlighting significant clusters, content analysis provides a valuable addition to traditional event...

  16. Spillovers among regional and international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Tan Bee; Arsad, Zainudin; Chun, Ooi Po

    2014-07-01

    Realizing the greater risk by the increase in the level of financial market integration, this study investigates the dynamic of international and regional stock markets co-movement among Asian countries with the world leading market, the US. The data utilized in this study comprises of weekly closing prices for four stock indices, that consists of two developing markets (Malaysia and China) and two developed markets (Japan and the US), and encompasses the period from January 1996 to December 2012. Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) model with the BEKK parameterization is employed to investigate the mean and volatility spillover effects among the selected stock indices. The results show significant mean spillover not only from the larger developed markets to smaller developing markets but also from the smaller developing markets to larger developed markets. Volatility spillover between the developed markets is found to be smaller than that between the developing markets. Conditional correlations among the stock markets are found to increase over the sample period. The findings of significant mean and volatility spillovers are considered as bad news for international investors as it reduces the benefit from portfolio diversification but act as useful information for investors to be more aware in diversifying their investment or stock selection.

  17. Net-generation attributes and seductive properties of the internet as predictors of online activities and internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Louis

    2004-06-01

    Born between 1977 and 1997, Net-generation is the first generation to grow up surrounded by home computers, video games, and the Internet. As children of the Baby Boomers, the Internet is the medium of choice for the Net-geners. Based on the assumption that Net-generation has unique characteristics, this study examined (1) how Net-geners addicted to the Internet differ from the non-addicted and (2) how these attributes, together with the seductive properties of the Internet, are related to Internet addiction. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 699 Net-geners between the ages of 16 and 24. Results show that Net-geners addicted to the Internet tend to be young female students. Being emotionally open on the Net and a heavy user of ICQ were most influential in predicting Net-geners' problematic use of the Internet. Addicted Net-geners are also strongly linked to the pleasure of being able to control the simulated world in online games. The finding reinforces previous research that "dependents" of the Internet spend most of their time in the synchronous communication environment engaging in interactive online games, chat rooms, and ICQ for pleasure-seeking or escape, while "non-dependents" use information-gathering functions available on the Internet. Furthermore, Internet addicts tend to watch television significantly less, indicating a displacement effect on traditional media use for the Net-generation.

  18. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  19. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  20. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  1. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  2. Influence of soil C stocks and interannual climatic variability on the CO2 and CH4 exchange of maize cultivated on mineral and organic soils in NE Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Madlen; Hagemann, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Mathias; Giebels, Michael; Albiac-Borraz, Elisa; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Due to its glacially influenced genesis and land use history, the soils of the Great Plain Region of NE-Germany show large differences in groundwater levels and soil carbon (C) stocks over short distances. Although generally featuring a rather dry climate, trace gas exchange at individual sites may be influenced by i) interannual climatic variability, particularly with respect to precipitation; as well as by ii) variability of soil C stocks. However, it is still unclear how these factors affect fluxes of CO2 and CH4, and if there is any positive or negative feedback on the C source or sink function of different soil types. We present measured and modeled CO2 and CH4 fluxes of minerally fertilized grain maize for three sites located near Paulinenaue, within the so-called Rhin-Havelluch, a shallow and drained paludification mire complex in NE Germany. The sites are characterized by a distinct gradient of 0-1 m soil organic C stocks: i) Arenosol (AR: mineral soil/distant groundwater; 8 000 g C m-2), ii) Gleysol (GL: organic soil/groundwater-dependent; 35 000 g C m-2), and iii) Histosol (HS: organic soil/near groundwater; 45 000 g C m-2). CO2 flux measurements of ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary production (GPP; calculated as difference between NEE and Reco) were conducted every four weeks using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. Measurement gaps of Reco and NEE were filled by using temperature or radiation-based models, respectively. CH4 fluxes were measured bi-weekly using a static closed chamber system with interval sampling, with gap filling via linear interpolation. Cumulated fluxes of CO2-C (Reco, GPP, NEE) and CH4-C were calculated for a period of four consecutive years (2007-2010). The intensity of CO2-C fluxes increased with growing soil organic C stocks (AR years 2008-2010 for Reco ranged between 1 500 g C m-2 and 2 000 g C m-2; annual GPP fluxes ranged from -1 400 g C m-2 to -2 300 g C m-2. NEE

  3. Cdc5 influences phosphorylation of Net1 and disassembly of the RENT complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Azzam, Ramzi; Chen, Susan L; Huddleston, Michael J; Baskerville, Christopher; Charbonneau, Harry; Annan, Roland S; Carr, Steve A; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2002-04-17

    In S. cerevisiae, the mitotic exit network (MEN) proteins, including the Polo-like protein kinase Cdc5 and the protein phosphatase Cdc14, are required for exit from mitosis. In pre-anaphase cells, Cdc14 is sequestered to the nucleolus by Net1 as a part of the RENT complex. When cells are primed to exit mitosis, the RENT complex is disassembled and Cdc14 is released from the nucleolus. Here, we show that Cdc5 is necessary to free nucleolar Cdc14 in late mitosis, that elevated Cdc5 activity provokes ectopic release of Cdc14 in pre-anaphase cells, and that the phosphorylation state of Net1 is regulated by Cdc5 during anaphase. Furthermore, recombinant Cdc5 and Xenopus Polo-like kinase can disassemble the RENT complex in vitro by phosphorylating Net1 and thereby reducing its affinity for Cdc14. Surprisingly, although RENT complexes containing Net1 mutants (Net1(7m) and Net1(19m') lacking sites phosphorylated by Cdc5 in vitro are refractory to disassembly by Polo-like kinases in vitro, net1(7m) and net1(19m') cells grow normally and exhibit only minor defects in releasing Cdc14 during anaphase. However, net1(19m') cells exhibit a synergistic growth defect when combined with mutations in CDC5 or DBF2 (another MEN gene). We propose that although Cdc5 potentially disassembles RENT by directly phosphorylating Net1, Cdc5 mediates exit from mitosis primarily by phosphorylating other targets. Our study suggests that Cdc5/Polo is unusually promiscuous and highlights the need to validate Cdc5/Polo in vitro phosphorylation sites by direct in vivo mapping experiments.

  4. Children's schemes for anticipating the validity of nets for solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken

    2017-09-01

    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were interviewed on two occasions about their anticipation of whether or not given nets for the cube- and square-based pyramid would fold to form the target solid. Vergnaud's ( Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 167-181, 1998, Human Development, 52, 83-94, 2009) four characteristics of schemes were used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data. Successful schemes depended on the interaction of operational invariants, such as strategic choice of the base, rules for action, particularly rotation of shapes, and anticipations of composites of polygons in the net forming arrangements of faces in the solid. Inferences were rare. These data suggest that students need teacher support to make inferences, in order to create transferable schemes.

  5. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  6. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  7. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  8. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  9. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  10. Deterministic Elements of Japanese Stock Prices under Low Interest Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kurihara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses daily data to perform an empirical analysis of the relationship between recent Japanese stock prices and macroeconomic variables under the zero or low interest policy in Japan. The empirical results indicate that short-term interest rates have not impacted Japanese stock prices. On the other hand, long-term interest rates, exchange rates, and foreign stock prices have been significant determinants of Japanese stock prices. This seems counter to traditional economic theory, but interest rates were quite low and other variables, such as exchange rates and other stock prices, play important roles in determining Japanese stock prices.

  11. The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Altafini

    Full Text Available Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable can be related to other variables (shape variables undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale, while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote.

  12. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...... comprehensive renovations in the coming years and in connection with this renovation process energy saving measures can be implemented relatively inexpensive and cost effective. This opportunity should be used to insure the buildings in the future as far as energy consumption is concerned. This paper gives...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock...

  13. Clustering stocks using partial correlation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sean S.; Chang, Woojin

    2016-11-01

    A partial correlation analysis is performed on the Korean stock market (KOSPI). The difference between Pearson correlation and the partial correlation is analyzed and it is found that when conditioned on the market return, Pearson correlation coefficients are generally greater than those of the partial correlation, which implies that the market return tends to drive up the correlation between stock returns. A clustering analysis is then performed to study the market structure given by the partial correlation analysis and the members of the clusters are compared with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS). The initial hypothesis is that the firms in the same GICS sector are clustered together since they are in a similar business and environment. However, the result is inconsistent with the hypothesis and most clusters are a mix of multiple sectors suggesting that the traditional approach of using sectors to determine the proximity between stocks may not be sufficient enough to diversify a portfolio.

  14. The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable) can be related to other variables (shape variables) undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale), while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote.

  15. THE STEEL EUROPEAN STOCK MARKET EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing the hypothesis of informational efficiency is a permanent preoccupation of researchers because the theories and the models of modern finance are based on it. This paper presents the results obtained after testing the efficiency hypothesis, in the weak form, for the European stock market of the companies that belong to the economic steel sub-sector. Following the use of both linear and non-linear tests of autocorrelation of returns we can conclude that the European stock market in the economic steel sub-sector is inefficient from an informational point of view and the investors in these stocks may obtain better results than those of the European market in general.

  16. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  17. A ranking of net national contributions to climate change mitigation through tropical forest conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K

    2014-12-15

    Deforestation in tropical regions causes 15% of global anthropogenic carbon emissions and reduces the mitigation potential of carbon sequestration services. A global market failure occurs as the value of many ecosystem services provided by forests is not recognised by the markets. Identifying the contribution of individual countries to tropical carbon stocks and sequestration might help identify responsibilities and facilitate debate towards the correction of the market failure through international payments for ecosystem services. We compare and rank tropical countries' contributions by estimating carbon sequestration services vs. emissions disservices. The annual value of tropical carbon sequestration services in 2010 from 88 tropical countries was estimated to range from $2.8 to $30.7 billion, using market and social prices of carbon respectively. Democratic Republic of Congo, India and Sudan contribute the highest net carbon sequestration, whereas Brazil, Nigeria and Indonesia are the highest net emitters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stock Performance of Socially Responsible Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tzu-Man

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year Corporate Responsibility Magazine selects and ranks 100 companies on the basis of their corporate social responsibility. This study investigates the stock performance of socially responsible companies in the U.S. The monthly stock returns for these companies are analyzed and compared with the market performance, with the S&P 500 index designated as a proxy for the market. The empirical evidence suggests that these 100 companies outperform the market in their monthly stock returns. We also narrow down the number of companies selected to the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms. As we narrow down the companies selected, the difference between their returns and the market returns also narrows. In other words, a portfolio that includes all top 100 companies provides the best stock performance. We extend the analysis to long-term annual stock performance. We find that these socially responsible companies′ annual returns are higher than the market returns for up to seven years after they are listed. We also conduct the same analysis on the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms, respectively. Similarly, the larger the number of these top 100 companies, the greater the tendency to generate higher annual returns. We suspect that because the difference between the socially responsible companies′ average returns and the market returns is not dramatic, with a bigger population and thus a larger sample size, the difference becomes more significant. However, in practice, transaction costs must be considered. This study is limited in that it does not consider transaction costs. Nevertheless, we hope to shed some light on the issue of socially responsible companies′ stock performance to encourage companies to start thinking about the importance of corporate social responsibility.

  19. Stock Prices, Earnings and Expected Dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiller, Robert; Campbell, John

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents estimates indicating that, for aggregate U.S. stock market data 1871-1986, a long historical average of real earnings is a good predictor of the present value of future real dividends. This is true even when the information contained in stock prices is taken into account. We estimate that for each year the optimal forecast of the present value of future real dividends is roughly a weighted average of moving average earnings and current real price, with between 2/3 and 3/4 ...

  20. The Management of the Joint Stock Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Cimpoeru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the joint stock company there are three types of bodies: deliberative and decision-making (general meeting of shareholders, executive and management (administrator, administrators, Administrative Board, Directorate or Supervisory Board and management control (auditors. The shareholders may set by the constitutive act other organs of society than those provided for under company law. An important role in the organization of a company has the administrators who have responsibilities in the sphere of internal management acts and representation in relations with third parties. Under the Romanian legal provisions, the joint stock companies may be managed in two systems: unitary and dualist.

  1. What Determines Stock Option Contract Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Pasternack, Daniel; Rosenberg, Matts

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes factors driving the design of stock option plans for Finnish firms. We examine determinants of the scope of plans, exercise price, target group, and dividend protection. The scope is found to be negatively related to Tobin’s Q and positively related to proxies for monitoring costs. The scope is also greater in broad-based plans, and in plans with dividend protection. Prior stock return is found to be negatively related to the size of the premium (out-of-the-moneyness), whe...

  2. Pyjamas, nylon stockings, and other Olympic dreams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen de Kloet

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Photography by Elaine W. Ho. While strolling through the streets of Xiamen in the summer of 1992, I came across many young women wearing short nylon stockings. I remember, with shame, I must confess now, how I would make fun of them with my friends. Taking Dutch standards as the yardstick of good taste, I considered nylon stockings to be part of one’s underwear, whose fringes, indeed the boundaries between the clothed and naked body, were not to be revealed in public. Similar smiles appeared ...

  3. Impact of money supply on stock bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Širůček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the effect and implications of changes in money supply in the US on stock bubble rise on the US capital market, which is represented by the Dow Jones Industrial Average index. This market was chosen according to the market capitalization. The attention of the paper is drawn to issues – if according to the results of empirical analysis, the money supply is a significant factor which causes the bubbles and if during the time the significance and impact of this macroeconomic factor on stock index increase.

  4. Pyjamas, nylon stockings, and other Olympic dreams.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen de Kloet

    2009-01-01

    Photography by Elaine W. Ho. While strolling through the streets of Xiamen in the summer of 1992, I came across many young women wearing short nylon stockings. I remember, with shame, I must confess now, how I would make fun of them with my friends. Taking Dutch standards as the yardstick of good taste, I considered nylon stockings to be part of one’s underwear, whose fringes, indeed the boundaries between the clothed and naked body, were not to be revealed in public. Similar smiles appeared ...

  5. Mandatory IFRS Reporting and Stock Price Informativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Beuselinck, C.A.C.; Joos, P.P.M.; Khurana, I.K.; Meulen, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether mandatory adoption of IFRS influences the flow of firm-specific information and contributes to stock price informativeness as measured by stock return synchronicity. Using a constant sample of 1,904 mandatory IFRS adopters in 14 EU countries for the period 2003-2007, we find a V-shaped pattern in synchronicity around IFRS adoption, which is consistent with IFRS disclosures revealing new firm-specific information in the adoption period (i.e., a reduction of sy...

  6. A model for stock returns and volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Serota, R. A.

    2014-03-01

    We prove that Student’s t-distribution provides one of the better fits to returns of S&P component stocks and the generalized inverse gamma distribution best fits VIX and VXO volatility data. We further prove that stock returns are best fit by the product distribution of the generalized inverse gamma and normal distributions. We find Brown noise in VIX and VXO time series and explain the mean and the variance of the relaxation times on approach to the steady-state distribution.

  7. On the exact calculation of the mean stock level in the base stock periodic review policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Babiloni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the most usual indicators to measure the performance of any inventory policy is the mean stock level. In the generalized base stock, periodic review policy, the expected mean stock during the replenishment cycle is usually estimated by practitioners and researchers with the traditional Hadley-Whitin approximation. However it is not accurate enough and exact methods suggested on the related literature focus on specific demand distributions. This paper proposes a generalized method to compute the exact value of the expected mean stock to be used when demand is modelled by any uncorrelated, discrete and stationary demand pattern.Design/methodology/approach: The suggested method is based on computing the probability of every stock level at every point of the replenishment cycle for which it is required to know the probability of any stock level at the beginning of the cycle and the probability transition matrix between two consecutive periods of time. Furthermore, the traditional Hadley-Whitin approximation is compared with the proposed exact method over different discrete demand distributionsFindings: This paper points out the lack of accuracy that the Hadley-Whitin approximation shows over a wide range of service levels and discrete demand distributions. Research limitations/implications: The suggested method requires the availability of appropriate tools as well as a sound mathematical background. For this reason, approximations to it are the logical further research of this work. Practical implications: The use of the Hadley-Whitin approximation instead of an exact method can lead to underestimate systematically the expected mean stock level. This fact may increase total costs of the inventory system.Originality/value: The original derivation of an exact method to compute the expected mean stock level for the base stock, periodic review policy when demand is modelled by any discrete function and backlog is not allowed.

  8. The study of issuance of stocks in venture companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement the profitable projects, achieve the maximum efficiency, and increase their shareholders, companies may use different types of financial resources in different ways. The ability of companies to identify the internal and external resources for providing capital and financial programs is considered as one of the main factors that affects on the growth and development of the companies. Financing resources and their usage volume are factors that affect on the companies’ operating performance. In this regard, companies and economic institutions can be financially provided from both inside and outside. Companies can issue and sell new common stocks to investors to provide their required financial resources. This study was conducted to investigate the issuance of stocks as one of resources of financing in the companies. Statistical population of this study was active listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. The sample of study was selected among listed companies raising capital through applying stage random sampling and simple random sampling. Sampling was conducted during the period 2008-20013 and finally the sample size including 40 companies were chosen using a Cochran formula. To analyze the obtained information, t-test and correlation coefficient were used. Although the results of the study revealed that there was no significant difference between the internal sources of financing and the issuance of stocks among the studied companies, there is a significant relationship between companies’ issuance of stocks and their size. Companies increase the use of retained earnings and stocks for financing through expanding the size of companies. Also, due to the existence of relationship between financing and the fixed assets of the companies through issuing the stocks of companies, no statistically significant relationship were observed between financing and companies’ profitability. Finally, there was no significant

  9. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qian Sun

    Full Text Available Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  10. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  11. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  12. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  13. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor...... stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area...

  14. Net ecosystem productivity, net primary productivity and ecosystem carbon sequestration in a Pinus radiata plantation subject to soil water deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneth, A.; Kelleher, F. M. [Lincoln Univ., Soil Sience Dept., Lincoln, (New Zealand); McSeveny, T. M. [Manaaki Whenua-Landcare Research, Lincoln, (New Zealand); Byers, J. N. [Almuth Arneth Landcare Research, Lincoln (New Zealand)

    1998-12-01

    Tree carbon uptake (net primary productivity excluding fine root turnover, NPP`) in pine trees growing in a region of New Zealand subject to summer soil water deficit was investigated jointly with canopy assimilation (A{sub c}) and ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange rate (net ecosystem productivity, NEP). Canopy assimilation and NEP were used to drive a biochemically-based and environmentally constrained model validated by seasonal eddy covariance measurements. Over a three year period with variable rainfall annual NPP` and NEP showed significant variations. At the end of the growing season, carbon was mostly allocated to wood, with nearly half to stems and about a quarter to coarse roots. On a biweekly basis NPP` lagged behind A{sub c}, suggesting the occurrence of intermediate carbon storage. On an annual basis, however the NPP`/A{sub c} ratio indicated a conservative allocation of carbon to autotrophic respiration. The combination of data from measurements with canopy and ecosystem carbon fluxes yielded an estimate of heterotrophic respiration (NPP`-NEP) of approximately 30 per cent of NPP` and 50 per cent NEP. The annual values of NEP and NPP` can also be used to derive a `best guess` estimate of the annual below-ground carbon turnover rate, assuming that the annual changes in the soil carbon content is negligible. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Acidulants for japanese quails housed at high stocking rates at finishing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Oliveira Saccomani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quail for being an alternative species will be able to supply a new market niche due to its fast growth, high laying rate, low feed intake, in addition to the increase of the acceptance of its products by the consumer. A growing interest in raising the stocking rates in the cages as an alternative to increase the performance of the stock is noticed; although studies demonstrate that high densities can result into unfavorable environment to the birds’ welfare with alterations in the performance of the flocks and as a stressing factor being able to alter the production and profitability of the flock. At high stocking rates, the birds become predisposed to aggressiveness reactions, presenting cannibalism behavior, besides the combination of factors such as pH, temperature, ventilation and humidity deficiency which create environmental conditions favorable for certain benign bacteria which utilize uric acid of the manure through their enzymatic complexes and produce ammonia, causing stress to birds and which can cause damages to performance with significant economic losses to the producer.  The experiment with 112-day duration was conducted with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of acidulants in the Japanese quails’ drinking water and verifying the effect on the stocking rate in cages. A completely randomized design with four treatments (2 stocking rates of quails x 2 additions of and 5 replications of 24 and 36 birds per cage, corresponding to the stocking rates of 141.67 and 94.44 cm2/bird, respectively, receiving or not acidulant in the water (acetic, lactic and phosphoric acid was utilized. Performance was evaluated through egg weight (EWg, egg yield (%Laying., egg mass (EMg/bird/day, feed intake (FIg/bird/day, feed conversion (FCkg/dz and FCkg/kg and mortality (%Mort. No significant statistical differences about the performance (P>0.05 were found. There was a significant effect (P<0.05 of the density for daily feed intake with

  16. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  17. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Hudiburg, T.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980-2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC). For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m-2 yr-1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996-2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr-1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6). The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr-1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha) fire. These results highlight

  18. Modeling changes in organic carbon stocks for distinct soils in southeastern brazil after four eucalyptus rotations using the century model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in carbon (C cycle and soil quality. Considering the complexity of factors that control SOM cycling and the long time it usually takes to observe changes in SOM stocks, modeling constitutes a very important tool to understand SOM cycling in forest soils. The following hypotheses were tested: (i soil organic carbon (SOC stocks would be higher after several rotations of eucalyptus than in low-productivity pastures; (ii SOC values simulated by the Century model would describe the data better than the mean of observations. So, the aims of the current study were: (i to evaluate the SOM dynamics using the Century model to simulate the changes of C stocks for two eucalyptus chronosequences in the Rio Doce Valley, Minas Gerais State, Brazil; and (ii to compare the C stocks simulated by Century with the C stocks measured in soils of different Orders and regions of the Rio Doce Valley growing eucalyptus. In Belo Oriente (BO, short-rotation eucalyptus plantations had been cultivated for 4.0; 13.0, 22.0, 32.0 and 34.0 years, at a lower elevation and in a warmer climate, while in Virginópolis (VG, these time periods were 8.0, 19.0 and 33.0 years, at a higher elevation and in a milder climate. Soil samples were collected from the 0-20 cm layer to estimate C stocks. Results indicate that the C stocks simulated by the Century model decreased after 37 years of poorly managed pastures in areas previously covered by native forest in the regions of BO and VG. The substitution of poorly managed pastures by eucalyptus in the early 1970´s led to an average increase of C of 0.28 and 0.42 t ha-1 year-1 in BO and VG, respectively. The measured C stocks under eucalyptus in distinct soil Orders and independent regions with variable edapho-climate conditions were not far from the values estimated by the Century model (root mean square error - RMSE = 20.9; model efficiency - EF = 0.29 despite the opposite result obtained

  19. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  20. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  1. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  2. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  3. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  4. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  5. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  6. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  7. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  8. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  9. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  10. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  11. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  12. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  13. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  14. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  15. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  16. Behavioral Finance: An Empirical Study of the Tunisian Stock Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustapha Chaffai; Imed Medhioub

    2014-01-01

    .... Based on a questionnaire distributed to the Tunisian investors in the stock market, and by using the Multiple Correspondence analysis, we focus to explain how the behavioral finance can affect Tunisian stock market...

  17. Executive Stock Options Compensation: An Empirical Analysis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pothesizes that the equity held by ... and when firms show levels of risk. Additionally, results suggest a non-linear negative relationship between board size and stock options attribution. Keywords: Agency Theory; Incentives; Stock Options.

  18. AFSC/REFM: Alaska Stock Assessment Results Archive (SARA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each year over 50 Alaskan groundfish stock assessments report the condition of Alaskan fisheries resources in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Stock assessment...

  19. Optimal Groundwater Extraction under Uncertainty and a Spatial Stock Externality

    Science.gov (United States)

    We introduce a model that incorporates two important elements to estimating welfare gains from groundwater management: stochasticity and a spatial stock externality. We estimate welfare gains resulting from optimal management under uncertainty as well as a gradual stock externali...

  20. The Interactive Influence of Perceived Ownership and Perceived Choosership of Stocks on Brain Response to Stock Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhe; Wang, Lei; Wu, Han

    2017-01-01

    The present research examined the influence of perceived ownership (self/other) and perceived chooser (self/other) of stocks on brain activity, and investigated whether differential brain responses to stock outcomes as a result of perceived differences in ownership of stock would be modulated by perceived chooser of stock. We used a 2 (stock chooser: self, other) × 2 (stock owner: self, other) within-subject design to represent four types of chooser-owner relationships. Brain potentials were recorded while participants observed increasing and decreasing stock prices. Results showed that observations of stock outcomes among four types of chooser-owner relationships elicited differentiated feedback-related negativity (d-FRN: differences in FRN waves between losses and gains, reflecting violations of expectancy to stock outcomes): (1) Self-chosen-other-owned stocks evoked significantly larger d-FRN discrepancies than self-chosen-self-owned stocks, indicating a greater expectancy violation to others' losses than to one's own, demonstrating a reversed ownership effect. Moreover, people high in conscientiousness showed an increase in this trend, suggesting a stronger other-consideration; (2) Self-chosen-self-owned stocks and other-chosen-self-owned stocks revealed no significant d-FRN discrepancy, showing no choosership effect beyond the ownership effect; (3) Other-chosen-self-owned stocks evoked a significantly stronger d-FRN discrepancy than other-chosen-other-owned stocks, demonstrating an ownership effect; (4) Self-chosen-other-owned stocks evoked a significantly stronger d-FRN discrepancy than other-chosen-other-owned stocks, revealing a choosership effect. These findings suggest that the ownership effect could be reversed by conscientiousness induced by perceived choosership in the agency relationship, while the choosership effect is attenuated and even disappears under the influence of perceived ownership.

  1. Impact of Oil Price Shocks and Exchange Rate Volatility on Stock Market Behavior in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedoyin I. Lawal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exchange rate and oil prices fluctuation on the stock market has been a subject of hot debate among researchers. This study examined the impact of both the exchange rate volatility and oil price volatility on stock market volatility in Nigeria, so as to guide policy formulation based on the fact that the nation’s economy was foreign induced and mono-cultured with heavy dependence on oil. EGARCH estimation techniques were employed to examine if either the volatility in exchange rate, oil price volatility or both experts on stock market volatility in Nigeria. The result shows that share price volatility is induced by both the exchange rate volatility and oil price volatility. Thus, it is recommended that policymakers should pursue policies that tend to stabilize the exchange rate regime on the one hand, and guarantee the net oil exporting position for the economy, that market practitioners should formulate portfolio strategies in such a way that volatility in both exchange rates and oil price will be factored in time when investment decisions are being made.

  2. THE STOCKS ACCOUNTING EVALUATION AND ESTIMATION INFLUENCE ON THE ENTITY PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TULVINSCHI MIHAELA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of a company involves an operative and accurate measurement of the efforts and effects, the efficient use of the company resources and also identifying ways to reduce consumption, a category in which stocks occupy a significant position. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the accounting information on stocks can not rely only on the accuracy assessment of past and current events, but must take into account estimations of future events, even if these involve uncertainty and risk taking. Different methods for evaluating stocks at the exit of the entity lead to different results but does not affect the entity performance. Opposed to the evaluation, when we speak about the accounting estimation, there is a significant freedom of action when choosing methods. The economic entity is always in the present, and for this reason it must take into consideration both the evaluation accuracy and the accounting estimations uncertainty. Estimating the net achievable value is influenced by the purpose for which the inventory is held. Accounting estimations are influenced by the judgment which is sometimes subjected to inherent bias, but this bias should not turn into a form of manipulating the entity's performance.

  3. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  4. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  5. Growing Vertical in the Flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-01-26

    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  6. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  7. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  8. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine

    2008-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  9. Feasibility of dsRNA treatment for post-clearing SPF shrimp stocks of newly discovered viral infections using Laem Singh virus (LSNV) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Charoonnart, Patai; Flegel, Timothy W

    2017-05-02

    Using post-larvae derived from specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks in penaeid shrimp farming has led to a dramatic increase in production. At the same time, new pathogens of farmed shrimp are continually being discovered. Sometimes these pathogens are carried by shrimp and other crustaceans as persistent infections without gross signs of disease. Thus it is that a 5-generation stock of Penaeus monodon SPF for several pathogens was found, post-stock-development, to be persistently-infected with newly-discovered Laem Singh virus (LSNV). In this situation, the stock developers were faced with destroying their existing stock (developed over a long period at considerable cost) and starting the whole stock development process anew in order to add LSNV to its SPF list. As an alternative, it was hypothesized that injection of complementary dsRNA into viral-infected broodstock prior to mating might inhibit replication of the target virus sufficiently to reduce or eliminate its transmission to their offspring. Subsequent selection of uninfected offspring would allow for post-clearing of LSNV from the existing stock and for conversion of the stock to LSNV-free status. Testing this hypothesis using the LSNV-infected stock described above, we found that transmission was substantially reduced in several treated broodstock compared to much higher transmission in buffer-injected broodstock. Based on these results, the model is proposed for post-clearing of SPF stocks using dsRNA treatment. The model may also be applicable to post-clearing of exceptional, individual performers from grow-out ponds for return to a nucleus breeding center. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Reed Elsevier stock price gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, B.

    1995-01-01

    This is the report of a limited study on the structural stock price differences between Reed and Elsevier. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the problem area and to formulate and discuss several hypotheses regarding the causes of this gap. The research was performed by

  11. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    education, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables.We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  12. Accounting for the Material Stock of Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Walker, Paul; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    National material stock (MS) accounts have been a neglected field of analysis in industrial ecology, possibly because of the difficulty in establishing such accounts. In this research, we propose a novel method to model national MS based on historical material flow data. This enables us to avoid the laborious data work involved with bottom-up accounts for stocks and to arrive at plausible levels of stock accumulation for nations. We apply the method for the United States and Japan to establish a proof of concept for two very different cases of industrial development. Looking at a period of 75 years (1930–2005), we find that per capita MS has been much higher in the United States for the entire period, but that Japan has experienced much higher growth rates throughout, in line with Japan's late industrial development. By 2005, however, both Japan and the United States arrive at a very similar level of national MS of 310 to 375 tonnes per capita, respectively. This research provides new insight into the relationship between MS and flows in national economies and enables us to extend the debate about material efficiency from a narrow perspective of throughput to a broader perspective of stocks. PMID:25505368

  13. MODELLING STOCK DYNAMICS IN THE SOUTHERN BENGUELA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelled stock dynamics in the southern Benguela ecosystem more closely represent observed timeseries when wasp-waist control by small pelagic fish is simulated. Overall, model simulations suggest that almost half the variance in the time-series can be explained based on a combination of fishing, vulnerability settings ...

  14. Testing spatial heterogeneity with stock assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jardim, Ernesto; Eero, Margit; Silva, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology that combines meta-population theory and stock assessment models to gain insights about spatial heterogeneity of the meta-population in an operational time frame. The methodology was tested with stochastic simulations for different degrees of connectivity betwee...

  15. Stock Selection, Style Rotation, and Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, André; Dijk, van Ronald; Kloek, Teun

    2001-01-01

    Using US data from June 1984 to July 1999, we show that the impact of firm-specificcharacteristics like size and book-to-price on future excess stock returns varies considerably over time. The impact can be either positive or negative at different times. This time variation is partially predictable.

  16. Stock Selection, Style Rotation, and Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Lucas (André); R. van Dijk (Ronald); T. Kloek (Teun)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractUsing US data from June 1984 to July 1999, we show that the impact of firm-specific characteristics like size and book-to-price on future excess stock returns varies considerably over time. The impact can be either positive or negative at different times. This time variation is partially

  17. Algorithmic Trading at Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Victor SĂNDIŢĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Very conservative estimates indicate that over 40% of transactions on the stock exchanges in the United States are based on automatically generated orders. Such systems are designed to do algorithmic trading on the basis of a predefined set of rules that determine the composition of the portfolio and the moment in which the purchases and sales of securities are done. Applying highly diverse trading strategies, algorithmic trading systems ultimately aim to maximize profit and minimize risk taking. Algorithmic trading on the Bucharest Stock Exchange is still in its incipient phase. Now, automated trading systems are used only for participants who act as Market Makers for the actions of a few issuers. Estimates indicate a volume of algorithmic trading on the Bucharest Stock Exchange of under 1% of its total transactions. This paper aims to describe a general way that algorithmic trading systems can be connected to the Bucharest Stock Exchange and to present some of our results in the implementation of such a system.

  18. Econometric Studies of Stock Market Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Reng

    This thesis consists of three sefcontained essays, all centering around the topic of stock market behaviour. The papers focus on the empirical performance of a number of asset pricing models, all attempting to quantify and price asset risk. We look at how well these models actually do in describi...

  19. Legal insider trading and stock market liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, Hans; de Jong, Frank; Lefebvre, J.J.G.

    This paper assesses the impact of legal trades by corporate insiders on the liquidity of the firm’s stock. For this purpose, we analyze two liquidity measures and one information asymmetry measure. The analysis allows us to study as well the effect of a change in insider trading regulation, namely

  20. Connecting VIX and Stock Index ETF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T-L. Hsieh (Tai-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAs stock market indexes are not tradeable, the importance and trading volume of Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) cannot be understated. ETFs track and attempt to replicate the performance of a specific index. Numerous studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the S&P500