WorldWideScience

Sample records for net greenhouse-gas flux

  1. Land Use Effects on Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in the US Great Plains: Historical Trends and Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S. J.; Parton, W. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Mosier, A. R.; Mosier, A. R.; Paustian, K.; Peterson, G. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present maps showing regional patterns of land use change and soil C levels in the US Great Plains during the 20th century and time series of net greenhouse gas fluxes associated with different land uses. Net greenhouse gas fluxes were calculated by accounting for soil CO2 fluxes, the CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions and CH4 uptake, and the CO2 costs of N fertilizer production. Both historical and modern agriculture in this region have been net sources of greenhouse gases. The primary reason for this, prior to 1950, is that agriculture mined soil C and resulted in net CO2 emissions. When chemical N fertilizer became widely used in the 1950's agricultural soils began to sequester CO2-C but these soils were still net greenhouse gas sources if the effects of increased N2O emissions and decreased CH4 uptake are included. The sensitivity of net greenhouse gas fluxes to conventional and alternative land uses was explored using the DAYCENT ecosystem model. Model projections suggest that conversion to no-till, reduction of the fallow period, and use of nitrification inhibitors can significantly decrease net greenhouse gas emissions in dryland and irrigated systems, while maintaining or increasing crop yields.

  2. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods exist to calculate global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHG) as measures of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agroecosystems. Little is, however, known about net GWP and GHGI that account for all sources and sinks of GHG emissions. Sources of GHG include...

  3. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  4. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J.; Alm, J.; Saarnio, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  5. Nitrogen and carbon interactions in controlling terrestrial greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Christiansen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    The increased input of N to terrestrial systems may have profound impacts on net greenhouse gas (GHGs) fluxes and, consequently, our future climate; however, fully capturing and quantifying these interactions under field conditions urgently requires new, more efficient, measurement approaches. We have recently developed and deployed a novel system for the automation of terrestrial GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scales, using the approach of 'flying' a single measurement chamber to multiple points in an experimental field arena. As an example of the value of this approach, we shall describe the results from a field experiment investigating the interactions between increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) additions on net ecosystem exchanges of N2O, CH4 and CO2, enabling the simultaneous application of 25 treatments, replicated five times in a fully replicated block field design. We will describe how the ability to deliver automated GHG flux measurements, highly replicated in space and time, has revealed hitherto unreported findings on N and C interactions in field soil. In our experiments we found insignificant N2O fluxes from bare field soil, even at very high inorganic N addition rates, but the interactive addition of even small amounts of available C resulted in very large and rapid N2O fluxes. The SkyGas experimental system enabled investigation of the underlying interacting response surfaces on the fluxes of the major soil-derived GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to increasing N and C inputs, and revealed unexpected interactions. In addition to these results we will also discuss some of the technical problems which have been overcome in developing these 'flying' systems and the potential of the systems for automatically screening the impacts of large numbers of treatments on GHG fluxes, and other ecosystem responses, under field conditions. We describe here technological advances that can facilitate the development of more robust GHG mitigation

  6. Greenhouse gas fluxes over Central European grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörtnagl, L. J.; Bahn, M.; Barthel, M.; Eugster, W.; Klumpp, K.; Ladreiter-Knauss, T.; Merbold, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Buchmann, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    The uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by grassland ecosystems can be offset by the concurrent emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in terms of CO2-equivalents. As a consequence, CH4 and N2O emissions can contribute to an increase of the global warming potential (GWP) of the respective study site. For a full assessment of the climatic impact of grassland ecosystems it is therefore necessary to quantify fluxes of these two compounds in combination with CO2 exchange. Since agricultural management practices and land use change at a given site can have a strong impact on annual CH4 and N2O budgets, both compounds are a frequent topic of discussion when planning GHG mitigation strategies.Here we present an overview of the GHG exchange of eight managed Central European grassland sites along a gradient of elevation and land use intensity. Fluxes of the three major GHGs CO2, CH4 and N2O were quantified using the eddy covariance or chamber technique. The grasslands differed with regard to the amount of fertilizer input, frequency of cuts and grazing duration and intensity, ranging from more intensively managed to very lightly managed and abandoned grassland. In this presentation we focus on time periods when measurements of all three compounds were available for all sites. We investigate common features among observed CH4 and N2O exchange patterns at the different grassland sites in relation to management activities and concurrently measured biotic / abiotic parameters. In addition, we evaluate the impact of CH4 and N2O fluxes on the annual GWP of field sites for which long-term measurements are available.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Peatland Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, E.; Baird, A. J.; Billett, M. F.; Chapman, P. J.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Holden, J.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands contain around one third of the global soil carbon (C) stock. Understanding the processes in peatland C cycling, and in particular those involved in the release of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, is a current research priority. Natural open-water pools are a common feature of many peatlands, and previous research suggests pools can be strong sources of atmospheric GHGs, particularly CH4, and thus have the potential to play an important role in global radiative forcing. The area of open-water in peatlands is rapidly expanding in a warming Arctic (e.g. Walter et al., 2007) while artificially created pools are becoming more commonplace in the recent drive to restore the hydrological functioning of drained peatlands by blocking ditches. We present the results of >2 years of comprehensive field monitoring from pool complexes in the Flow Country of northern Scotland, the largest expanse (c.4000 km2) of blanket bog in Europe. Concentrations and fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are presented from 12 intensively monitored pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. We examined both natural (n = 6) and artificial (n = 6) pools, which allowed us to quantify how pools created during restoration compare to undisturbed sites. C and hydrology budgets were determined for the study pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. Dissolved concentrations of GHGs ranged from 0.08-4.68 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.01-731 µg CH4-C L-1 in natural pools, and 0.29-10.38 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.04-239 µg CH4-C L-1 in artificial pools. GHG fluxes from natural pool surfaces ranged between -2.47-653 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -31.7-14.8 g CO2 m-2 d-1. Artificial pool GHG fluxes were -8.19-581 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -7.66-34.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1. We provide more accurate GHG budgets for peatlands with natural pool complexes by considering their relative importance at the landscape-scale, and outline the potential effect on GHG fluxes when creating artificial pools during peatland restoration

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes in mountain grassland differing in land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladreiter-Knauss, Thomas; Schmitt, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kienzl, Sandra; Ingrisch, Johannes; Hasibeder, Roland; Bahn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Mountain grassland covers large areas, thus influences the global greenhouse gas (GHG) balance and is strongly affected by changes in land use. Effects of such changes on the GHG-balance have so far not been well documented. As a contribution to the EU-project GHG Europe we are studying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) on a mountain meadow, an adjacent and an abandoned pasture at 1820-1970m a.s.l. in the Austrian Central Alps. The GHG balance is estimated from manual and auto-chamber measurements, combined with already published CO2-NEE over almost a decade. Winter CO2-fluxes, primarily soil respiration underneath the snowpack, are estimated with solid state CO2-sensors using a validated diffusion model. We found that abandon the management decreases the NEE of CO2 while its component, soil respiration (Rs), increases. The decrease is explained by differences in leaf area index, biomass and leaf-area-independent changes that were likely related to photosynthetic physiology. The increase in Rs can be explained by higher belowground carbon input due to missing grazing or mowing. The abandoned pasture showed the highest uptake rates of CH4 and a slight uptake of N2O, possibly due to better soil aeration. Spring freeze-thaw events caused slight CH4 emissions in the managed grassland. The meadow and pasture had just low emission rates of N2O even at freeze-thaw cycles and organic fertilization. These results suggest that in mountain grassland the main contributor to the GHG balance are CO2 fluxes that can largely be influenced by land use changes.

  9. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Todd S.; Mpanda, Mathew; Pelster, David E.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thiong'o, Margaret; Mutuo, Paul; Abwanda, Sheila; Rioux, Janie; Kimaro, Anthony A.; Neufeldt, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in soils is a prerequisite to constrain national, continental, and global GHG budgets. However, data characterizing fluxes from agricultural soils of Africa are markedly limited. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) fluxes at 10 farmer-managed sites of six crop types for 1 year in Kenya and Tanzania using static chambers and gas chromatography. Cumulative emissions ranged between 3.5-15.9 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 0.4-3.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, and -1.2-10.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, depending on crop type, environmental conditions, and management. Manure inputs increased CO2 (p = 0.03), but not N2O or CH4, emissions. Soil cultivation had no discernable effect on emissions of any of the three gases. Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were 54-208% greater (p impact of agricultural soils on GHG budgets. A targeted effort to understand the magnitude and mechanisms underlying African agricultural soil fluxes is necessary to accurately estimate the influence of this source on the global climate system and for determining mitigation strategies.

  10. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  11. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  12. Greenhouse gas flux from tropical peatlands: context and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Susan; Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Hooijer, Aljosja

    2010-05-01

    . It discusses likely responses of tropical peatlands to a changing climate and considers the scope for mitigation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including hydrological rehabilitation and reforestation. This information is highly relevant to current tropical peatland carbon emission reduction programmes, which aim to re-wet the peat in order to reduce the CO2 flux from peat decomposition as well as from fire. There is an urgent requirement to develop simulation tools (models) capable of predicting the dynamic response of peatland ecosystem-atmosphere CO2exchange to environmental change and landuse (e.g. hydrological) management.

  13. Comparison of soil greenhouse gas fluxes from extensive and intensive grazing in a temperate maritime climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Drewer, J.; Helfter, C.; Anderson, M.; Dinsmore, K.; McKenzie, R.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from a seminatural, extensively sheep-grazed drained moorland and intensively sheep-grazed fertilised grassland in South East (SE) Scotland were compared over 4 yr (2007-2010). Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured by static chambers, respiration from soil plus ground vegetation by a flow-through chamber, and the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) by eddy-covariance. All GHG fluxes displayed high temporal and interannual variability. Temperature, radiation, water table height and precipitation could explain a significant percentage of seasonal and interannual variations. Greenhouse gas fluxes were dominated by the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 at both sites. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and respiration was much larger on the productive fertilised grassland (-1567 and 7157 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1, respectively) than on the seminatural moorland (-267 and 2554 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1, respectively). Large ruminant CH4 (147 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) and soil N2O (384 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) losses from the grazed grassland counteracted the CO2 uptake by 34%, whereas the small N2O (0.8 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) and CH4 (7 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) emissions from the moorland only impacted the NEE flux by 3%. The 4-yr average GHG budget for the grazed grassland was -1034 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1 and -260 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1 for the moorland.

  14. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Forested Wetland and Upland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, K. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important greenhouse gases. Soils are the dominant natural source of N2O, and have been shown to be a small sink under N-limited conditions. Wetlands are a significant natural source of CH4, and dry upland soils a natural CH4 sink. Soils release CO2 produced by both autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration processes. Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling soil aeration, and hence the balance between aerobic (predominantly CO2 producing) and anaerobic (both CO2 and CH4 producing) respiration. The production and consumption of N2O is also highly dependent on spatial and temporal variation in soil moisture. Howland forest, ME is a mosaic of well drained upland, wetland and small transitional upland/wetland soils which makes for a unique and challenging environment to measure the effects of soil moisture on the net exchange of these important greenhouse gases. To quantify the flux of CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Howland forest soils, we utilized a previously developed automated chamber system for measuring CO2 efflux (Licor 6252 IRGA) from soils, and configured it to run in-line with a new model quantum cascade laser (QCL) system which measures N2O and CH4 (Aerodyne model QC-TILDAS-CS). This system allowed for simultaneous, high frequency, continuous measurement of all three greenhouse gases. Fourteen sampling chambers were deployed in an upland soil (8), nearby wetland (3) and a transitional upland/wetland (3). Each chamber was measured every 90 minutes. Upland soils were consistent sources of CO2 and sinks for CH4, however the N2O fluxes were transient between sources and sinks. The wetland soils were consistent sources of high CH4 emissions, low CO2 emissions and a consistently small N2O sink. The transitional upland/wetland soil was a consistent source of CO2 but was much more transient between CH4 and N2O sources and

  16. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  17. Comparison of soil greenhouse gas fluxes from extensive and intensive grazing in a temperate maritime climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Skiba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes from a seminatural, extensively sheep-grazed drained moorland and intensively sheep-grazed fertilised grassland in South East (SE Scotland were compared over 4 yr (2007–2010. Nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4 fluxes were measured by static chambers, respiration from soil plus ground vegetation by a flow-through chamber, and the net ecosystem exchange (NEE of carbon dioxide (CO2 by eddy-covariance. All GHG fluxes displayed high temporal and interannual variability. Temperature, radiation, water table height and precipitation could explain a significant percentage of seasonal and interannual variations. Greenhouse gas fluxes were dominated by the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 at both sites. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and respiration was much larger on the productive fertilised grassland (−1567 and 7157 g CO2eq m−2 yr−1, respectively than on the seminatural moorland (−267 and 2554 g CO2eq m−2 yr−1, respectively. Large ruminant CH4 (147 g CO2eq m−2 yr−1 and soil N2O (384 g CO2eq m−2 yr−1 losses from the grazed grassland counteracted the CO2 uptake by 34%, whereas the small N2O (0.8 g CO2eq m−2 yr−1 and CH4 (7 g CO2eq m−2 yr−1 emissions from the moorland only impacted the NEE flux by 3%. The 4-yr average GHG budget for the grazed grassland was −1034 g CO2eq m−2 yr−1 and −260 g CO2eq m−2 yr−1 for the moorland.

  18. Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different tree species on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how tree species, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variation in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each tree species. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 to April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all tree species were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil organic carbon and total N were significantly positively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil bulk density was significantly negatively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter significantly decreased in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes. Soils in six tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, soils in all tree

  19. Comparison of net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by management practices in two dryland cropping sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the effect of management practices on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dryland cropping systems. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a combinat...

  20. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Henrys, Peter A; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem CO2 exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in CO2 sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. CH4 was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. User-Friendly Predictive Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage in Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We developed user-friendly empirical models to predict instantaneous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from coastal wetlands based on a small set of dominant hydro-climatic and environmental drivers (e.g., photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity). The dominant predictor variables were systematically identified by applying a robust data-analytics framework on a wide range of possible environmental variables driving wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The method comprised of a multi-layered data-analytics framework, including Pearson correlation analysis, explanatory principal component and factor analyses, and partial least squares regression modeling. The identified dominant predictors were finally utilized to develop power-law based non-linear regression models to predict CO2 and CH4 fluxes under different climatic, land use (nitrogen gradient), tidal hydrology and salinity conditions. Four different tidal wetlands of Waquoit Bay, MA were considered as the case study sites to identify the dominant drivers and evaluate model performance. The study sites were dominated by native Spartina Alterniflora and characterized by frequent flooding and high saline conditions. The model estimated the potential net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) both in gC/m2 and metric tonC/hectare by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to the growing season and accounting for the lateral C flux exchanges between the wetlands and estuary. The entire model was presented in a single Excel spreadsheet as a user-friendly ecological engineering tool. The model can aid the development of appropriate GHG offset protocols for setting monitoring plans for tidal wetland restoration and maintenance projects. The model can also be used to estimate wetland GHG fluxes and potential carbon storage under various IPCC climate change and sea level rise scenarios; facilitating an appropriate management of carbon stocks in tidal wetlands and their incorporation into a

  2. Human footprints on greenhouse gas fluxes in cryogenic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, D. V.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Zamolodchikov, D. G.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zazovskaya, E. P.; Shishkov, V. A.; Kraev, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Various human footprints on the flux of biogenic greenhouse gases from permafrost-affected soils in Arctic and boreal domains in Russia are considered. Tendencies of significant growth or suppression of soil CO2 fluxes change across types of human impact. Overall, the human impacts increase the mean value and variance of local soil CO2 flux. Human footprint on methane exchange between soil and atmosphere is mediated by drainage. However, all the types of human impact suppress the sources and increase sinks of methane to the land ecosystems. N2O flux grew under the considered types of human impact. Based on the results, we suggest that human footprint on soil greenhouse gases fluxes is comparable to the effect of climate change at an annual to decadal timescales.

  3. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for eddy flux covariance...

  4. Forestation of boreal peatlands: Impacts of changing albedo and greenhouse gas fluxes on radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohila, Annalea; Minkkinen, Kari; Laine, Jukka; Savolainen, Ilkka; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Korhonen, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; TietäVäInen, Hanna; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-12-01

    We estimated the magnitude of the radiative forcing (RF) due to changes in albedo following the forestation of peatlands, and calculated the net RF by taking into account the changes in both the albedo and the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes during one forest rotation. Data on radiation, tree biomass, and soil GHG fluxes were combined with models for canopy cover, tree carbon accumulation, and the RF due to increased atmospheric GHG concentrations for four typical site cases in Finland covering two soil nutrient levels in the south and north of the country. We also studied the observed long-term surface temperatures to detect any indications of drainage-induced effects. The magnitude of the albedo-induced RF was similar to that caused by the carbon sequestration of the growing trees. At three site cases out of four the drainage induced a cooling or negative RF, the tendency for cooling being higher at sites with a higher nutrient level. The differences in albedo-induced RF mainly arose from the spring season due to (1) the different snow cover duration in the south versus the north, and (2) the different albedos of drained and undrained snow covered peatlands. An increase in the maximum daily temperatures was observed in April in southern Finland, where the most intensive drainage practices have taken place, suggesting that forestry drainage has potentially affected the local climate. Our results show that the decreasing albedo resulting from peatland forestation contributes significantly to the RF, balancing out or even exceeding the cooling effect due to the changing GHG fluxes.

  5. Quantifying soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gas fluxes in the sugarcane agrosystem: point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Galdos, Marcelo Valadares; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to mitigate climate change through the use of biofuels (such as ethanol) are associated not only to the increase in the amount of C stored in soils but also to the reduction of GHG emissions to the atmosphere.This report mainly aimed to propose appropriate methodologies for the determinations of soil organic carbon stocks and greenhouse gas fluxes in agricultural phase of the sugarcane production. Therefore, the text is a piece of contribution that may help to obtain data not only ...

  6. Effects of seasonality, transport pathway, and spatial structure on greenhouse gas fluxes in a restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Gavin; Sturtevant, Cove S; Knox, Sara H; Dronova, Iryna; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Silver, Whendee L

    2017-07-01

    Wetlands can influence global climate via greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Few studies have quantified the full GHG budget of wetlands due to the high spatial and temporal variability of fluxes. We report annual open-water diffusion and ebullition fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O from a restored emergent marsh ecosystem. We combined these data with concurrent eddy-covariance measurements of whole-ecosystem CO 2 and CH 4 exchange to estimate GHG fluxes and associated radiative forcing effects for the whole wetland, and separately for open-water and vegetated cover types. Annual open-water CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O emissions were 915 ± 95 g C-CO 2  m -2  yr -1 , 2.9 ± 0.5 g C-CH 4  m -2  yr -1 , and 62 ± 17 mg N-N 2 O m -2  yr -1 , respectively. Diffusion dominated open-water GHG transport, accounting for >99% of CO 2 and N 2 O emissions, and ~71% of CH 4 emissions. Seasonality was minor for CO 2 emissions, whereas CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes displayed strong and asynchronous seasonal dynamics. Notably, the overall radiative forcing of open-water fluxes (3.5 ± 0.3 kg CO 2 -eq m -2  yr -1 ) exceeded that of vegetated zones (1.4 ± 0.4 kg CO 2 -eq m -2  yr -1 ) due to high ecosystem respiration. After scaling results to the entire wetland using object-based cover classification of remote sensing imagery, net uptake of CO 2 (-1.4 ± 0.6 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 ) did not offset CH 4 emission (3.7 ± 0.03 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 ), producing an overall positive radiative forcing effect of 2.4 ± 0.3 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 . These results demonstrate clear effects of seasonality, spatial structure, and transport pathway on the magnitude and composition of wetland GHG emissions, and the efficacy of multiscale flux measurement to overcome challenges of wetland heterogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Greenhouse gas fluxes following tillage and wetting in a wheat-fallow cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessavalou, A.; Drijber, R.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Doran, J.W. [Dept. of Agriculture, Lincoln, NE (United States)]|[Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Mosier, A.R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions of episodic tillage and precipitation events to annual greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Consequently, the authors measured carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and methane (CH{sub 4}) fluxes from soil in a wheat-fallow cropping system in western Nebraska using vented surface chambers, before and immediately after tillage and wetting with 5.1 cm of water, during the fallow period in 1995/1996. Replicated fallow management treatments included no-tillage, subtillage, and plow representing a wide range in degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density, water-filled pore space, electrical conductivity (EC{sub 1:1}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and pH within the top 30.5 cm soil, and soil temperature at 0 to 7.6 cm were measured to assess their correlation with variations in gas flux and tillage and wetting. Atmospheric concentrations above the soil (at {approximately} 40 cm) increased by 15% for CO{sub 2} and 9 to 31% for N{sub 2}O and 6 to 16% for CH{sub 4} within 1 min after tillage and returned to background concentrations within 2 h. Except immediately after tillage, net CH{sub 4} flux was negative, from the atmosphere into soil, and is referred to as CH{sub 4} uptake. Overall, increases (1.5--4-fold) in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O losses from soil, and CH{sub 4} uptake by soil were short lived and returned to background levels within 8 to 24 h after tillage. Losses of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O increased to 1.7 and 5 times background emissions, respectively, for 24 h following wetting, while CH{sub 4} uptake declined by about 60% for 3 to 14 d after wetting. Water-filled pore space in the surface soil fell below 60% within 24 h after saturation and exhibited an inverse relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.66) with CH{sub 4} uptake. A significant decline in soil NO{sub 3} and EC{sub 1:1} in the top 7.6 cm occurred following wetting. Under the experimental conditions, and the expected frequency of tillage and wetting

  8. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanda Chuersuwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 , nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2 fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF and free water surface flow (FWS CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p<0.05 while pollutant removal efficiencies of both CWs were not significantly different. The average CH4 , N2O and CO2 fluxes from SF-CWs were 2.9±3.5, 1.0±1.7, and 15.2±12.3 mg/m2 /hr, respectively, corresponding to the average global warming potential (GWP of 392 mg CO2 equivalents/m2 /hr. For FWS-CWs, the average CH4 , N2O and CO2 fluxes were 5.9±4.8, 1.8±1.0, and 29.6±20.2 mg/m2 /hr, respectively, having an average GWP of 698 mg CO2 equivalents/m2 /hr. Thus, FWS-CWs have a higher GWP than SF-CWs when they were used as a system for domestic water improvement.

  9. Estimating regional greenhouse gas fluxes: An uncertainty analysis of planetary boundary layer techniques and bottom-up inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantification of regional greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes is essential for establishing mitigation strategies and evaluating their effectiveness. Here, we used multiple top-down approaches and multiple trace gas observations at a tall tower to estimate GHG regional fluxes and evaluate the GHG fluxes de...

  10. Influences of Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes within Mixed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J.; Contosta, A.; Deng, J.; Lepine, L. C.; Li, C.; Ollinger, S. V.; Ouimette, A.; Tang, J.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities (e.g., urbanization, land use planning) have led to complex patterns of urban, suburban, agricultural, and forested landscapes. Ecosystems within these landscapes play an important role in climate regulation by acting as regulators of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and altering surface albedo and other biophysical properties. The overarching goal of our work is to examine the interactions among carbon cycling, land use, and climate change in a human-dominated, mixed land use region that includes urban, suburban, agriculture, and forest land uses. We combine field measurements of carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O), an improved process-based biogeochemical model - DNDC (DeNitrification and DeComposition) designed to predict C fluxes and trace gas emissions, and historical and projected land use change data derived from Landsat imagery and cellular automata/agent-based modeling. Our specific objectives designed to achieve the overarching goal are to: (1) Measure C pools and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) in urban, suburban, agricultural, and forested landscapes; (2) Improve and parameterize the DNDC (DeNitrification and DeComposition) model and validate model predictions; (3) Develop historical land use change data for the last three decades from Landsat imagery and projections of future land use change; (4) Generate spatially continuous predictions of C pools and greenhouse gas emissions using Urban-DNDC and assess how land use interacts with C cycling and climate change and how future land use change will influence carbon sequestration potential within these complex landscapes. Our results will have implications for crafting effective land management policies that balance C sequestration and climate mitigation with food production, forest resources and many other services that these landscapes provide.

  11. Biochar and nitrogen fertilizer alters soil nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gas fluxes from two temperate soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiyong; Stewart, Catherine E; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Biochar (BC) application to agricultural soils could potentially sequester recalcitrant C, increase N retention, increase water holding capacity, and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Biochar addition to soils can alter soil N cycling and in some cases decrease extractable mineral N (NO and NH) and NO emissions. These benefits are not uniformly observed across varying soil types, N fertilization, and BC properties. To determine the effects of BC addition on N retention and GHG flux, we added two sizes (>250 and soils (aridic Argiustoll and aquic Haplustoll) with and without N fertilizer and measured extractable NO and NH and GHG efflux (NO, CO, and CH) in a 123-d laboratory incubation. Biochar had no effect on NO, NH, or NO in the unfertilized treatments of either soil. Biochar decreased cumulative extractable NO in N fertilized treatments by 8% but had mixed effects on NH. Greenhouse gas efflux differed substantially between the two soils, but generally with N fertilizer BC addition decreased NO 3 to 60%, increased CO 10 to 21%, and increased CH emissions 5 to 72%. Soil pH and total treatment N (soil + fertilizer + BC) predicted soil NO flux well across these two different soils. Expressed as CO equivalents, BC significantly reduced GHG emissions only in the N-fertilized silt loam by decreasing NO flux. In unfertilized soils, CO was the dominant GHG component, and the direction of the flux was mediated by positive or negative BC effects on soil CO flux. On the basis of our data, the use of BC appears to be an effective management strategy to reduce N leaching and GHG emissions, particularly in neutral to acidic soils with high N content. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. A Mechanistically Informed User-Friendly Model to Predict Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage from Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a user-friendly modeling tool on MS Excel to predict the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and estimate potential carbon sequestration from the coastal wetlands. The dominant controls of wetland GHG fluxes and their relative mechanistic linkages with various hydro-climatic, sea level, biogeochemical and ecological drivers were first determined by employing a systematic data-analytics method, including Pearson correlation matrix, principal component and factor analyses, and exploratory partial least squares regressions. The mechanistic knowledge and understanding was then utilized to develop parsimonious non-linear (power-law) models to predict wetland carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes based on a sub-set of climatic, hydrologic and environmental drivers such as the photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity. The models were tested with field data for multiple sites and seasons (2012-13) collected from the Waquoit Bay, MA. The model estimated the annual wetland carbon storage by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to an extended growing season (e.g., May-October) and by accounting for the net annual lateral carbon fluxes between the wetlands and estuary. The Excel Spreadsheet model is a simple ecological engineering tool for coastal carbon management and their incorporation into a potential carbon market under a changing climate, sea level and environment. Specifically, the model can help to determine appropriate GHG offset protocols and monitoring plans for projects that focus on tidal wetland restoration and maintenance.

  13. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH4 emission of ~13 g CH4  m-2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH4 emission of ~7 g CH4  m-2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr-1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH4  m-2  yr-1 in landscape CH4 emissions. A long-term net CO2 uptake of >200 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH4 and CO2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing through the 21st century.

  14. Effect of experimental summer drought on greenhouse gas fluxes from soil under corn and sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, M.; Manderscheid, R.; Well, R.; Weigel, H.-J.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    For most of Central Europe climate change is supposed to lead to higher frequencies of extreme weather events with hotter and drier summers. These changing climate conditions will affect vegetation and the water cycle. Water content is one of the most important parameters controlling production rates and fluxes of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from soil. Drought periods directly affect water content in soil and thereby turnover rates of nitrogen and carbon; however, type and mass of plant coverage can modify the degree of desiccation. We conducted measurements of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2) and nitrogen dynamics (nitrate and ammonium) on an experimental field site on loamy sand soil in Northern Germany. The site was installed to study the effect of summer drought on biomass production of sorghum compared to corn. During summer, plants on 'wet' plots were irrigated whereas on 'dry' plots rain was excluded by transparent rain shelters to obtain less than 40% of plant available soil water content. Measurements were performed weekly over 1 1 2 years, including two periods of experimental drought. Soil water content and nitrogen dynamics were measured from soil samples and fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 were measured between plant rows using static chambers. First results of greenhouse gas fluxes show increased uptake of methane in soil of 'dry' compared to 'wet' plots. No clear impact on N2O emission could be identified until now, although N dynamics differed. Although corn growth was reduced to a greater extent than was sorghum growth under drought conditions, biomass production of corn was higher under both water regimes. Desiccation was higher and started earlier at 'dry corn' than at 'dry sorghum' plots in summer 2011, leading to lower CO2 emission and higher CH4 uptake in the drier soil.

  15. A closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Lukas; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Recent research indicates that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dry aquatic sediments are a relevant process in the freshwater carbon cycle. However, fluxes are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate and the dynamic nature of the habitat. Here we tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Using on-site material consistently resulted in elevated fluxes. The artefact was caused both by outgassing of the material and production of gas. The magnitude of the artefact was site dependent - the measured CO2 flux increased between 10 and 208 %. Errors due to incomplete sealing proved to be more severe than errors due to non-inert sealing material.Pottery clay as sealing material provided a tight seal between the chamber and the ground and no production of gases was detected. With this approach it is possible to get reliable gas fluxes from hard-substrate sites without using a permanent collar. Our test experiments confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments are similar to CO2 fluxes from terrestrial soils.

  16. A closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lesmeister

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from dry aquatic sediments are a relevant process in the freshwater carbon cycle. However, fluxes are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate and the dynamic nature of the habitat. Here we tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Using on-site material consistently resulted in elevated fluxes. The artefact was caused both by outgassing of the material and production of gas. The magnitude of the artefact was site dependent – the measured CO2 flux increased between 10 and 208 %. Errors due to incomplete sealing proved to be more severe than errors due to non-inert sealing material.Pottery clay as sealing material provided a tight seal between the chamber and the ground and no production of gases was detected. With this approach it is possible to get reliable gas fluxes from hard-substrate sites without using a permanent collar. Our test experiments confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments are similar to CO2 fluxes from terrestrial soils.

  17. Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine European peatlands and shrublands - responses to climatic and environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Klaus, Larsen; Emmett, B

    2012-01-01

    shrubland where drought tended to increase soil respiration. In terms of fractional importance of each greenhouse gas to the total numerical global warming response, the change in CO2 efflux dominated the response in all treatments (ranging 71–96 %), except for NO- 3 addition where 89% was due to change...... in CH4 emissions. Thus, in European peatlands and shrublands the effect on global warming induced by the investigated anthropogenic disturbances will be dominated by variations in soil CO2 fluxes......., and in annual precipitation from 300 to 1300mmyr-1. The effects of climate change, including temperature increase and prolonged drought, were tested at five shrubland sites. At one peatland site, the long-term (>30 yr) effect of drainage was assessed, while increased nitrogen deposition was investigated...

  18. Eutrophication effects on greenhouse gas fluxes from shallow-lake mesocosms override those of climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Thomas A; Audet, Joachim; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Lauridsen, Torben L; Søndergaard, Martin; Landkildehus, Frank; Larsen, Søren E; Jeppesen, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Fresh waters make a disproportionately large contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with shallow lakes being particular hot spots. Given their global prevalence, how GHG fluxes from shallow lakes are altered by climate change may have profound implications for the global carbon cycle. Empirical evidence for the temperature dependence of the processes controlling GHG production in natural systems is largely based on the correlation between seasonal temperature variation and seasonal change in GHG fluxes. However, ecosystem-level GHG fluxes could be influenced by factors, which while varying seasonally with temperature are actually either indirectly related (e.g. primary producer biomass) or largely unrelated to temperature, for instance nutrient loading. Here, we present results from the longest running shallow-lake mesocosm experiment which demonstrate that nutrient concentrations override temperature as a control of both the total and individual GHG flux. Furthermore, testing for temperature treatment effects at low and high nutrient levels separately showed only one, rather weak, positive effect of temperature (CH4 flux at high nutrients). In contrast, at low nutrients, the CO2 efflux was lower in the elevated temperature treatments, with no significant effect on CH4 or N2 O fluxes. Further analysis identified possible indirect effects of temperature treatment. For example, at low nutrient levels, increased macrophyte abundance was associated with significantly reduced fluxes of both CH4 and CO2 for both total annual flux and monthly observation data. As macrophyte abundance was positively related to temperature treatment, this suggests the possibility of indirect temperature effects, via macrophyte abundance, on CH4 and CO2 flux. These findings indicate that fluxes of GHGs from shallow lakes may be controlled more by factors indirectly related to temperature, in this case nutrient concentration and the abundance of primary producers. Thus, at ecosystem

  19. A global meta-analysis on the impact of management practices on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from cropland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural practices contribute significant amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little is known about their effects on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of carbon dioxide emissions per unit area or crop yield. Se...

  20. Uncertainty analysis of a coupled ecosystem response model simulating greenhouse gas fluxes from a temperate grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, Ralf; Kraft, Philipp; Houska, Tobias; Breuer, Lutz; Müller, Christoph; Kraus, David; Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Among anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 is the dominant driver of global climate change. Next to its direct impact on the radiation budget, it also affects the climate system by triggering feedback mechanisms in terrestrial ecosystems. Such mechanisms - like stimulated photosynthesis, increased root exudations and reduced stomatal transpiration - influence both the input and the turnover of carbon and nitrogen compounds in the soil. The stabilization and decomposition of these compounds determines how increasing CO2 concentrations change the terrestrial trace gas emissions, especially CO2, N2O and CH4. To assess the potential reaction of terrestrial greenhouse gas emissions to rising tropospheric CO2 concentration, we make use of a comprehensive ecosystem model integrating known processes and fluxes of the carbon-nitrogen cycle in soil, vegetation and water. We apply a state-of-the-art ecosystem model with measurements from a long term field experiment of CO2 enrichment. The model - a grassland realization of LandscapeDNDC - simulates soil chemistry coupled with plant physiology, microclimate and hydrology. The data - comprising biomass, greenhouse gas emissions, management practices and soil properties - has been attained from a FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) experiment running since 1997 on a temperate grassland in Giessen, Germany. Management and soil data, together with weather records, are used to drive the model, while cut biomass as well as CO2 and N2O emissions are used for calibration and validation. Starting with control data from installations without CO2 enhancement, we begin with a GLUE (General Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) assessment using Latin Hypercube to reduce the range of the model parameters. This is followed by a detailed sensitivity analysis, the application of DREAM-ZS for model calibration, and an estimation of the effect of input uncertainty on the simulation results. Since first results indicate problems with

  1. Soil Water Potential Control of the Relationship between Moisture and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Corn-Soybean Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Panday

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil water potential (Ψ controls the dynamics of water in soils and can therefore affect greenhouse gas fluxes. We examined the relationship between soil moisture content (θ at five different levels of water potential (Ψ = 0, −0.05, −0.1, −0.33 and −15 bar and greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, CO2; nitrous oxide, N2O and methane, CH4 fluxes. The study was conducted in 2011 in a silt loam soil at Freeman farm of Lincoln University. Soil samples were collected at two depths: 0–10 and 10–20 cm and their bulk densities were measured. Samples were later saturated then brought into a pressure plate for measurements of Ψ and θ. Soil air samples for greenhouse gas flux analyses were collected using static and vented chambers, 30 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter. Determination of CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations from soil air samples were done using a Shimadzu Gas Chromatograph (GC-14. Results showed that there were significant correlations between greenhouse gas fluxes and θ held at various Ψ in the 0–10 cm depth of soil group. For instance, θ at Ψ = 0 positively correlated with measured CO2 (p = 0.0043, r = 0.49, N2O (p = 0.0020, r = 0.64 and negatively correlated with CH4 (p = 0.0125, r = −0.44 fluxes. Regression analysis showed that 24%, 41% and 19% of changes in CO2, N2O and CH4 fluxes, respectively, were due to θ at Ψ = 0 (p < 0.05. This study stresses the need to monitor soil water potential when monitoring greenhouse gas fluxes.

  2. Pollution-tolerant invertebrates enhance greenhouse gas flux in urban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, Andrew S; Cook, Perran L M; Evrard, Victor; Grant, Stanley B; Levin, Lisa A

    2017-09-01

    One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive data set on carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) flux in sediment cores (n = 103) collected from 10 urban wetlands in Melbourne, Australia during summer and winter in order to test for invertebrate enhancement of GHG flux. We detected significant multiplicative enhancement effects of temperature, sediment carbon content, and invertebrate density on CH4 and CO2 flux. Each doubling in density of oligochaete worms or large benthic invertebrates (oligochaete worms and midge larvae) corresponded to ~42% and ~15% increases in average CH4 and CO2 flux, respectively. However, despite exceptionally high densities, invertebrates did not appear to enhance N2 O flux. This was likely due to fairly high organic carbon content in sediments (range 2.1-12.6%), and relatively low nitrate availability (median 1.96 μmol/L NO3- -N), which highlights the context-dependent nature of community structural effects on ecosystem function. The invertebrates enhancing GHG flux in this study are ubiquitous, and frequently dominate faunal communities in impaired aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, invertebrate effects on CO2 and CH4 flux may be common in wetlands impacted by urbanization, and urban wetlands may make greater contributions to the total GHG budgets of cities if the negative impacts of urbanization on wetlands are left unchecked. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Neural network analysis on the effect of heat fluxes on greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes) that potentially affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine waste lagoon. GHG concentrations (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) were monitored using a photoacous...

  4. Greenhouse gas fluxes induced by tillage and fertilisation in an organic grass-clover-wheat sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Maike; Ruser, Reiner; Hansen, Sissel; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Reduced tillage is technically a challenging task in organic arable farming due to the weed competition but also concerning the destruction of grass-clover leys. Regarding its climate impact, there are hardly any data existing. Soil-derived greenhouse gas fluxes were therefore monitored in a long-term field trial in Frick/CH. The trial is arranged in a strip-split-plot design on a heavy clay soil and compares since 2002 conventional tillage (up to 15 cm deep mouldboard ploughing) with reduced tillage (skim plough 5 cm deep and occasional chisel ploughing). In addition, cattle slurry only (SL) is compared with a slurry/manure compost treatment (MC) at a rate of 90 kg N/year. MC plots received one manure compost and two slurry batches, the latter applied with SL the same day but with half the amount. The overall management is in compliance with the EU organic farming regulation. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes were monitored in a two-year period including a grass-clover ley, its destruction and a subsequent winter wheat crop. We adjusted the closed chamber sampling method developed by Flessa et al. (1995) with eight replicates for each treatment. Gas and soil sampling took place weekly with additional measurements after fertiliser and tillage management. Soil samples were analysed for mineralised nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon and water filled pore space. Flux calculation included linear and non-linear regression calculated with the HMR-Model after Pedersen et al. (2010) and Fuss et al. (unpublished). N2O fluxes calculated with the non-linear model were 10% higher than calculated with the linear model only. First results for the grass-clover period show no significant differences in N2O fluxes neither between reduced tillage and ploughing nor between slurry and manure compost/slurry application. However, ley destruction induced high N2O emissions which will be discussed with the subsequent wheat period.

  5. Grazing reduces soil greenhouse gas fluxes in global grasslands: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiming; Tian, Dashuan; Niu, Shuli

    2017-04-01

    Grazing causes a worldwide degradation in grassland and likely alters soil greenhouse gas fluxes (GHGs). However, the general patterns of grazing-induced changes in grassland soil GHGs and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we synthesized 63 independent experiments in global grasslands that examined grazing impacts on soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O). We found that grazing with light or moderate intensity did not significantly influence soil GHGs, but consistently depressed them under heavy grazing, reducing CO2 emission by 10.55%, CH4 uptake by 19.24% and N2O emission by 28.04%. The reduction in soil CO2 was mainly due to decreased activity in roots and microbes (soil respiration per unit root and microbial biomass), which was suppressed by less water availability due to higher soil temperature induced by lower community cover under heavy grazing. N2O emission decreased with grazing-caused decline in soil total N. The inhibitory effect on methanotroph activities by water stress is responsible for the decreased CH4 uptake. Furthermore, grazing duration and precipitation also influenced the direction and magnitude of responses in GHGs fluxes. Overall, our results indicate that the reduction in soil CO2 and N2O emission under heavy grazing is partially compensated by the decrease in CH4 uptake, which is mainly regulated by variations in soil moisture.

  6. Net farm income and land use under a U.S. greenhouse gas cap and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin S. Baker; Bruce A. McCarl; Brian C. Murray; Steven K. Rose; Ralph J. Alig; Darius Adams; Greg Latta; Robert Beach; Adam. Daigneault

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, the U.S. agricultural sector has experienced high prices for energy related inputs and commodities, and a rapidly developing bioenergy market. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation would further alter agricultural markets and increase land competition in forestry and agriculture by shifting input costs, creating an agricultural GHG abatement...

  7. The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX: A test-bed for developing urban greenhouse gas emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Davis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX is to develop, evaluate and improve methods for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from cities. INFLUX’s scientific objectives are to quantify CO2 and CH4 emission rates at 1 km2 resolution with a 10% or better accuracy and precision, to determine whole-city emissions with similar skill, and to achieve high (weekly or finer temporal resolution at both spatial resolutions. The experiment employs atmospheric GHG measurements from both towers and aircraft, atmospheric transport observations and models, and activity-based inventory products to quantify urban GHG emissions. Multiple, independent methods for estimating urban emissions are a central facet of our experimental design. INFLUX was initiated in 2010 and measurements and analyses are ongoing. To date we have quantified urban atmospheric GHG enhancements using aircraft and towers with measurements collected over multiple years, and have estimated whole-city CO2 and CH4 emissions using aircraft and tower GHG measurements, and inventory methods. Significant differences exist across methods; these differences have not yet been resolved; research to reduce uncertainties and reconcile these differences is underway. Sectorally- and spatially-resolved flux estimates, and detection of changes of fluxes over time, are also active research topics. Major challenges include developing methods for distinguishing anthropogenic from biogenic CO2 fluxes, improving our ability to interpret atmospheric GHG measurements close to urban GHG sources and across a broader range of atmospheric stability conditions, and quantifying uncertainties in inventory data products. INFLUX data and tools are intended to serve as an open resource and test bed for future investigations. Well-documented, public archival of data and methods is under development in support of this objective.

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes and budget for an annual cropping system in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Aaron James

    Agriculture contributes significantly to national and global greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories but there is considerable control over management decisions and changes in production methods could lead to a significant reduction and possible mitigation of emissions from the sector. For example, conservation tillage practices have been suggested as a method of sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), however, many questions remain unanswered regarding the short-term efficacy of the production method and knowledge gaps exist regarding possible interactions with essential nutrient cycles, and the production of non-CO2 GHGs, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Between autumn 2005 and 2009, a micrometeorological flux system was used to determine net CO2 and (N2O exchange from an annual cropping system situated on clay soil in the Red River Valley of southern Manitoba. Four plots (4-ha each) were independently evaluated and planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007; in 2008, two spring wheat plots were monitored. As well, during the non-growing season in 2006-2007 following corn harvest, a second micrometeorological flux system capable of simultaneously measuring stable C isotopologue (12CO2 and 13CO 2) fluxes was operated at the site. Tillage intensity and crop management practices were examined for their influence on GHG emissions. Significant inter-annual variability in CO2 and (N2O fluxes as a function of crop and related management activities was observed. Tillage intensity did not affect GHG emissions from the site. After accounting for harvest removals, the net ecosystem C budgets were 510 (source), 3140 (source) and -480 (sink) kg C/ha/year for the three respective crop years, summing to a three-year loss of 3170 kg C/ha. Stable C isotope flux measurements during the non-growing season following corn harvest indicated that approximately 70 % and 20 -- 30 % of the total respiration flux originated from crop residue C during the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007

  9. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Salt Marshes Exposed to Chronic Nutrient Enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail L Chmura

    Full Text Available We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m(-2 hr(-1, respectively were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m(-2 hr(-1, respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m(-2 hr(-1. Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m(-2 hr(-1 with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m(-2 hr(-1 under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4 fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m(-2 hr(-1 in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m(-2 hr(-1 in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m(-2 hr(-1 under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m(-2 hr(-1, respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff. With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes.

  10. CarbonTracker-Lagrange: A Framework for Greenhouse Gas Flux Estimation at Regional to Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a flexible modeling framework developed to take advantage of newly available atmospheric data for CO2 and other long-lived gases such as CH4 and N2O. The North American atmospheric CO2 measurement network has grown from three sites in 2004 to >100 sites in 2015. The US network includes tall tower, mountaintop, surface, and aircraft sites in the NOAA Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network along with sites maintained by university, government and private sector researchers. The Canadian network is operated by Environment and Climate Change Canada. This unprecedented dataset can provide spatially and temporally resolved CO2 emissions and uptake flux estimates and quantitative information about drivers of variability, such as drought and temperature. CT-L is a platform for systematic comparison of data assimilation techniques and evaluation of assumed prior, model and observation errors. A novel feature of CT-L is the optimization of boundary values along with surface fluxes, leveraging vertically resolved data available from NOAA's aircraft sampling program. CT-L uses observation footprints (influence functions) from the Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) modeling system to relate atmospheric measurements to upwind fluxes and boundary values. Footprints are pre-computed and the optimization algorithms are efficient, so many variants of the calculation can be performed. Fluxes are adjusted using Bayesian or Geostatistical methods to provide optimal agreement with observations. Satellite measurements of CO2 and CH4 from GOSAT are available starting in July 2009 and from OCO-2 since September 2014. With support from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System, we are developing flux estimation strategies that use remote sensing and in situ data together, including geostatistical inversions using satellite retrievals of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. CT-L enables quantitative

  11. Net soil respiration and greenhouse gas balance along a sequence of forest disturbance to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusyu Aini, Fitri; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Smith, Jo; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in demand for land to establish oil palm and rubber plantations has led to the conversion of forests, with potential impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and on climate change. This study evaluates the net greenhouse gas balance following forest change to other land uses, i.e. one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and eight year oil palm plantation on Sumatran mineral soils. None of the plantations had ever been fertilized previously. During this study they were fertilized to provide nitrogen at the recommended rate used by farmers (33.3 kg N ha-1 y-1). The ecosystem stores carbon in litterfall, standing litter biomass (undergrowth vegetation, leaves, twigs, litter on the soil surface), soil organic matter, root biomass, and standing tree biomass. It releases carbon to the atmosphere through soil respiration fluxes, negative values indicating that carbon is stored by the land use change and positive values indicating emissions to the atmosphere. Net soil respiration was assessed using a mass balance approach: standing litter and tree biomass were measured once; the rate of carbon accumulation from standing litter and tree biomass was calculated by dividing the stock by the age of plantation or the time since logging started in the disturbed forest. The carbon accumulation in standing litter, tree biomass in the forest and soil organic matter for all land-uses was estimated from available in the literature. Root biomass for each land-use system was calculated using the root:shoot ratio. The net soil respiration of carbon dioxide from the forest, disturbed forest, one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and oil palm plantation were calculated to be -6 (± 5), 12 (± 6), 11 (± 15), 10 (± 5), 39 (± 7) Mg ha-1 y-1, respectively. Soil nitrous oxide, methane and litterfall were measured for 14 months and respiration fluxes were measured for 5 months across land uses and different seasons. The measured emissions of

  12. European greenhouse gas fluxes from land use: the impact of expanding the use of dedicated bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Astley; Böttcher, Hannes; Clifton-Brown, John; Fuchs, Richard; Hillier, Jon; Jones, Ed; Obersteiner, Michael; Pogson, Mark; Richards, Mark; Smith, Pete

    2013-04-01

    Bioenergy derived from vegetation cycles carbon to and from the atmosphere using the chemical energy fixed by the plants by photosynthesis using solar energy. However bioenergy is not carbon neutral as energy is used and greenhouse gasses (GHG) are emitted in the process of growing bioenergy feeedstocks and processing them into a usable fuel, whether it is biomass or liquid fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol. Using bio instead of fossil fuels replaces greenhouse gas emissions from coal, oil and gas by those of the biofuel. To estimate the impact on European greenhouse gas fluxes of expanding the use of bioenergy, it is necessary to quantify the difference between the GHG emissions associated with producing and using the biofuel and the fossil fuel it replaces, and to take into account any emissions associated with the change from the original land use to that of growing the bioenergy feedstock. This involves estimating any displacement of food, fibre and timber production to other geographical areas. Here we report on a study of the GHG emissions from the potential increasing use of a variety of biofuels produced from feedstocks grown in the EU countries. The GHG emissions of the historical land use of EU27 have been modelled using ECOSSE on a 1 km grid to estimate the impact the agriculture intensification and land use change of the last 50 years and the associated crop yield gains. The excess land made available from the yield gains is considered to be available for use for bioenergy, and the yields of potential bioenergy feedstocks are estimated from EUROSTAT data or modelled using the bioenergy crop growth model MISCANFOR. These yields are used to calculate the energy used and GHG emissions associated with the use of the resulting biofuel using a life cycle analysis, and to estimate the organic matter input into the soil. The ECOSSE model is then used to estimate the soil carbon change and GHG emissions associated with the land use change to growing the

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of annual greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetland in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J.; Chapman, E. J.; Childers, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands support ecological functions that result in valuable services to society, including the purification of water through processes such as denitrification, plant uptake, and soil retention. Wetlands are also sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Many free-water surface constructed treatment wetland systems (CW) in North America have been developed to remove nutrients from secondarily-treated water, but little is known about the contributions of CWS on greenhouse gas emissions, especially in arid regions. Since 2011, the 42-ha cell-1 of the Tres Rios CW in Phoenix, AZ has removed approximately 30-40% of excess nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) from the surface water entering the CW; with most of the nitrogen uptake occurring within the 21-ha vegetated-marsh area of the CW. To increase our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics of CW in arid regions, we investigated the GHG fluxes of N2O, CH4, and CO2 from a whole-system perspective and from a vegetated-marsh to open-water gradient within the CW. Since the spring of 2012, we have been utilizing the floating chamber technique to collect and measure gas samples from two transects in the vegetated-marsh area of the CW (nearest to inflow and nearest to outflow) and along three gradient subsites within the transects (shoreline, midmarsh, and open-water). From March 2012 to March 2013, we found seasonal significant differences in CO2 and CH4 fluxes (p<0.001), but not in N2O fluxes. CO2 fluxes were higher in the spring months compared to summer and winter months however, CH4 fluxes were higher in late spring and summer compared to the fall, winter, and early spring months. We found two significant spatial patterns in GHG fluxes in the CW, between the inflow and outflow transects and along the transect gradient subsites. Between the transects, we found significantly larger CO2 and N2O fluxes at the inflow compared to the outflow (p<0.001) but not CH4, possibly as a

  14. Weather and Management Effects over Nine Years of Net Ecosystem Direct Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Cropping System in the Red River Valley, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Variation in weather and crop management practices strongly determines direct greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and N2O) from agricultural crop land. Thus a long-term study was established to relate weather and management variations to direct emissions in the Northern Great Plains of Canada. Continuously emission determinations of CO2 and N2O were established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba, using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012, 2013 and 2014 all four plots were planted with corn, soybean and spring wheat, respectively. Management decisions increased emissions such as fertilizer N addition, and hay, straw and silage crop removal greatly increased emissions while choosing legume grain and perennial crops reduced emissions. Weather variation affecting seasonal and daily soil moisture, length of spring freeze-thaw period, and crop yield served to increase or decrease emissions. The variation in management and weather will be discussed in regards to impact on net emissions over the nine year study and answer if development of greenhouse gas neutral cropping systems is possible.

  15. Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP. Rogério

    Full Text Available For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2, through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia, with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission.

  16. Analytical methods for quantifying greenhouse gas flux in animal production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2016-08-01

    Given increased interest by all stakeholders to better understand the contribution of animal agriculture to climate change, it is important that appropriate methodologies be used when measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal agriculture. Similarly, a fundamental understanding of the differences between methods is necessary to appropriately compare data collected using different approaches and design meaningful experiments. Sources of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions in animal production systems includes the animals, feed storage areas, manure deposition and storage areas, and feed and forage production fields. These 3 gases make up the primary GHG emissions from animal feeding operations. Each of the different GHG may be more or less prominent from each emitting source. Similarly, the species dictates the importance of methane emissions from the animals themselves. Measures of GHG flux from animals are often made using respiration chambers, head boxes, tracer gas techniques, or in vitro gas production techniques. In some cases, a combination of techniques are used (i.e., head boxes in combination with tracer gas). The prominent methods for measuring GHG emissions from housing include the use of tracer gas techniques or direct or indirect ventilation measures coupled with concentration measures of gases of interest. Methods for collecting and measuring GHG emissions from manure storage and/or production lots include the use of downwind measures, often using photoacoustic or open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, combined with modeling techniques or the use of static chambers or flux hood methods. Similar methods can be deployed for determining GHG emissions from fields. Each method identified has its own benefits and challenges to use for the stated application. Considerations for use include intended goal, equipment investment and maintenance, frequency and duration of sampling needed to achieve desired representativeness

  17. Land use of drained peatlands: Greenhouse gas fluxes, plant production, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir, Åsa; He, Hongxing; Coria, Jessica; Nordén, Anna

    2017-10-10

    Drained peatlands are hotspots for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which could be mitigated by rewetting and land use change. We performed an ecological/economic analysis of rewetting drained fertile peatlands in a hemiboreal climate using different land use strategies over 80 years. Vegetation, soil processes, and total GHG emissions were modeled using the CoupModel for four scenarios: (1) business as usual-Norway spruce with average soil water table of -40 cm; (2) willow with groundwater at -20 cm; (3) reed canary grass with groundwater at -10 cm; and (4) a fully rewetted peatland. The predictions were based on previous model calibrations with several high-resolution datasets consisting of water, heat, carbon, and nitrogen cycling. Spruce growth was calibrated by tree-ring data that extended the time period covered. The GHG balance of four scenarios, including vegetation and soil, were 4.7, 7.1, 9.1, and 6.2 Mg CO 2 eq ha -1  year -1 , respectively. The total soil emissions (including litter and peat respiration CO 2 + N 2 O + CH 4 ) were 33.1, 19.3, 15.3, and 11.0 Mg CO 2 eq ha -1  year -1 , respectively, of which the peat loss contributed 35%, 24%, and 7% of the soil emissions for the three drained scenarios, respectively. No peat was lost for the wet peatland. It was also found that draining increases vegetation growth, but not as drastically as peat respiration does. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is sensitive to time frame, discount rate, and carbon price. Our results indicate that the net benefit was greater with a somewhat higher soil water table and when the peatland was vegetated with willow and reed canary grass (Scenarios 2 and 3). We conclude that saving peat and avoiding methane release using fairly wet conditions can significantly reduce GHG emissions, and that this strategy should be considered for land use planning and policy-making. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Attribution of urban greenhouse gas fluxes: Does the biosphere in cities matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutyra, L.; Gately, C.; Decina, S.; Reinmann, A.; Templer, P. H.; Nehrkorn, T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are the dominant anthropogenic source of CO2, responsible for ~70% of fossil fuel emissions, representing a heterogeneous mix of stationary sources (buildings, trees) and sources that are constantly moving (people, vehicles) each with its own temporal pattern. This paper quantifies sources and cycles of urban CO2 fluxes, particularly exploring the role of the urban biosphere in understanding and attributing carbon fluxes. The biosphere has a major influence on daily temporal and spatial patterns of CO2 concentrations in urban areas, even though the net flux may be small. Thus, biosphere fluxes must be modeled accurately in order to use urban concentration data to infer emissions. We present the results of both top-down atmospheric inversions and bottom-up estimations, highlighting the importance of spatially and temporally resolved drivers for urban carbon monitoring.

  19. Net Greenhouse Gas Budget and Soil Carbon Storage in a Field with Paddy–Upland Rotation with Different History of Manure Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Takakai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes were measured from paddy–upland rotation (three years for soybean and three years for rice with different soil fertility due to preceding compost application for four years (i.e., 3 kg FW m−2 year−1 of immature or mature compost application plots and a control plot without compost. Net greenhouse gas (GHG balance was evaluated by integrating CH4 and N2O emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions calculated from a decline in soil carbon storage. N2O emissions from the soybean upland tended to be higher in the immature compost plot. CH4 emissions from the rice paddy increased every year and tended to be higher in the mature compost plot. Fifty-two to 68% of the increased soil carbon by preceding compost application was estimated to be lost during soybean cultivation. The major component of net GHG emission was CO2 (82–94% and CH4 (72–84% during the soybean and rice cultivations, respectively. Net GHG emissions during the soybean and rice cultivations were comparable. Consequently, the effects of compost application on the net GHG balance from the paddy–upland rotation should be carefully evaluated with regards to both advantages (initial input to the soil and disadvantages (following increases in GHG.

  20. Summertime greenhouse gas fluxes from an urban bog undergoing restoration through rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rewetting can promote the ecological recovery of disturbed peatland ecosystems and may help to revert these ecosystems to carbon dioxide (CO2 sinks. However, rewetting of disturbed peatlands can also cause substantial emissions of methane (CH4 and possibly nitrous oxide (N2O. This study quantified summertime emissions of the three major long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs CO2, CH4 and N2O; from undisturbed, disturbed and rewetted soils in the Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA, a 20 km2 urban bog located in Delta, British Columbia, Canada. Four sites were chosen that represent different stages before or after ecological recovery in the BBECA: (i a relatively undisturbed scrub pine / Sphagnum / low shrub ecosystem; (ii a Rhynchospora alba / Sphagnum ecosystem that was disturbed by peat mining more than 65 years ago; (iii a R. alba / Dulichium arundinaceum ecosystem that was disturbed by peat mining 50 years ago and rewetted five years ago; and (iv a disturbed and rewetted surface with little vegetation cover that was cleared of vegetation 16 years ago and rewetted two years ago. The GHG fluxes from soils and ground vegetation were measured at all sites during June–August 2014, using a portable non-steady-state chamber system for CO2 and syringe sampling and laboratory analysis for CH4 and N2O fluxes. All four sites exhibited net GHG emissions into the atmosphere, dominated by CH4, which contributed 81–98 % of net CO2 equivalent (CO2e emissions. Overall, the median CH4 flux for all measurements and sites was ~74 mg m-2 day-1 (~30–410 mg m-2 day-1, 25th–75th percentiles. Fluxes in the rewetted (water-saturated sedge ecosystem were highest, with a quarter of the values higher than 3,000 mg m-2 day-1 (median 78 mg m-2 day-1. Exchange of CO2 due to photosynthesis and respiration was of secondary importance compared to soil CH4 emissions. Continuous CO2 flux measurements using the eddy covariance approach in the disturbed and rewetted R

  1. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  2. Greenhouse gas fluxes in a drained peatland forest during spring frost-thaw event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pihlatie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHG carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O were measured during a two month campaign at a drained peatland forest in Finland by the eddy covariance (EC technique (CO2 and N2O, and automatic and manual chambers (CO2, CH4 and N2O. In addition, GHG concentrations and soil parameters (mineral nitrogen, temperature, moisture content in the peat profile were measured. The aim of the measurement campaign was to quantify the GHG fluxes during freezing and thawing of the top-soil, a time period with potentially high GHG fluxes, and to compare different flux measurement methods. The forest was a net CO2 sink during the two months and the fluxes of CO2 dominated the GHG exchange. The peat soil was a small sink of atmospheric CH4 and a small source of N2O. Both CH4 oxidation and N2O production took place in the top-soil whereas CH4 was produced in the deeper layers of the peat, which were unfrozen throughout the measurement period. During the frost-thaw events of the litter layer distinct peaks in CO2 and N2O emissions were observed. The CO2 peak followed tightly the increase in soil temperature, whereas the N2O peak occurred with a delay after the thawing of the litter layer. CH4 fluxes did not respond to the thawing of the peat soil. The CO2 and N2O emission peaks were not captured by the manual chambers and hence we conclude that high time-resolution measurements with automatic chambers or EC are necessary to quantify fluxes during peak emission periods. Sub-canopy EC measurements and chamber-based fluxes of CO2 and N2O were comparable, although the fluxes of N2O measured by EC were close to the detection limit of the system. We conclude

  3. Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine European peatlands and shrublands - responses to climatic and environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, M.S.; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Emmett, B.

    2012-01-01

    in control plots ranged from 310 to 732 g CO2-Cm-2 yr(-1). Drought and long-term drainage generally reduced the soil CO2 efflux, except at a hydric shrubland where drought tended to increase soil respiration. In terms of fractional importance of each greenhouse gas to the total numerical global warming...... response, the change in CO2 efflux dominated the response in all treatments (ranging 71-96%), except for NO3- addition where 89% was due to change in CH4 emissions. Thus, in European peatlands and shrublands the effect on global warming induced by the investigated anthropogenic disturbances...... degrees C, and in annual precipitation from 300 to 1300 mm yr(-1). The effects of climate change, including temperature increase and prolonged drought, were tested at five shrubland sites. At one peatland site, the long-term (> 30 yr) effect of drainage was assessed, while increased nitrogen deposition...

  4. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Skogaryd Research Catchment - an infrastructure to integrate terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemedtsson, Leif; Weslien, Per; Bastviken, David; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Wallin, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    , efforts have been made to adopt the best possible measurement practices covering all types of flux pathways. The GHG fluxes have so far been monitored using 5-6 EC systems and a large number of flux chambers, and various primary production and respiration measurements covering a wide range of habitats. In addition, an ambitious monitoring program for hydrology, water chemistry, and soil and sediment characteristics has been adopted for SRC. Altogether the measurement designs were made to allow for Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) determinations over multiple years. Given this setup with extensive previous data collection and development of advanced research infrastructure SRC has a great potential to contribute to present and future studies of whole landscape GHG exchange in the hemiboreal biome. This presentation will further describe this potential and highlight some results from the ongoing research at SRC.

  6. Greenhouse gas flux measurements in a forestry-drained peatland indicate a large carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lohila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Drainage for forestry purposes increases the depth of the oxic peat layer and leads to increased growth of shrubs and trees. Concurrently, the production and uptake of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O change: due to the accelerated decomposition of peat in the presence of oxygen, drained peatlands are generally considered to lose peat carbon (C. We measured CO2 exchange with the eddy covariance (EC method above a drained nutrient-poor peatland forest in southern Finland for 16 months in 2004–2005. The site, classified as a dwarf-shrub pine bog, had been ditched about 35 years earlier. CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured at 2–5-week intervals with the chamber technique. Drainage had resulted in a relatively little change in the water table level, being on average 40 cm below the ground in 2005. The annual net ecosystem exchange was −870 ± 100 g CO2 m−2 yr−1 in the calendar year 2005, indicating net CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. The site was a small sink of CH4 (−0.12 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 and a small source of N2O (0.10 g N2O m−2 yr−1. Photosynthesis was detected throughout the year when the air temperature exceeded −3 °C. As the annual accumulation of C in the above and below ground tree biomass (175 ± 35 g C m−2 was significantly lower than the accumulation observed by the flux measurement (240 ± 30 g C m−2, about 65 g C m−2 yr−1 was likely to have accumulated as organic matter into the peat soil. This is a higher average accumulation rate than previously reported for natural northern peatlands, and the first time C accumulation has been shown by EC measurements to occur in a forestry-drained peatland. Our results suggest that forestry

  7. Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine European peatlands and shrublands – responses to climatic and environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Emmett, B.

    2012-01-01

    ~hydric shrubland where drought tended to increase soil respiration. When comparing the fractional importance of each greenhouse gas to the total numerical global warming response, the change in CO2 efflux dominated the response in all treatments (ranging 71–96%), except for NO3− addition where 89% was due...... to change in CH4 emissions. Thus, in European peatlands and shrublands the feedback to global warming induced by the investigated anthropogenic disturbances will be dominated by variations in soil CO2 fluxes......., and in annual precipitation from 300 to 1300 mm yr−1. The effects of climate change, including temperature increase and prolonged drought, were tested at five shrubland sites. At one peatland site, the long-term (>30 yr) effect of drainage was assessed, while increased nitrogen deposition was investigated...

  8. Limits of agricultural greenhouse gas calculators to predict soil N2O and CH4 fluxes in tropical agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Meryl; Metzel, Ruth; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Ly, Proyuth; Nyamadzawo, George; Duong Vu, Quynh; de Neergaard, Andreas; Oelofse, Myles; Wollenberg, Eva; Keller, Emma; Malin, Daniella; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Hillier, Jonathan; Rosenstock, Todd S.

    2016-05-01

    Demand for tools to rapidly assess greenhouse gas impacts from policy and technological change in the agricultural sector has catalyzed the development of ‘GHG calculators’— simple accounting approaches that use a mix of emission factors and empirical models to calculate GHG emissions with minimal input data. GHG calculators, however, rely on models calibrated from measurements conducted overwhelmingly under temperate, developed country conditions. Here we show that GHG calculators may poorly estimate emissions in tropical developing countries by comparing calculator predictions against measurements from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Estimates based on GHG calculators were greater than measurements in 70% of the cases, exceeding twice the measured flux nearly half the time. For 41% of the comparisons, calculators incorrectly predicted whether emissions would increase or decrease with a change in management. These results raise concerns about applying GHG calculators to tropical farming systems and emphasize the need to broaden the scope of the underlying data.

  9. Limits of agricultural greenhouse gas calculators to predict soil N2O and CH4 fluxes in tropical agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Meryl; Metzel, Ruth; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe

    2016-01-01

    Demand for tools to rapidly assess greenhouse gas impacts from policy and technological change in the agricultural sector has catalyzed the development of ‘GHG calculators’— simple accounting approaches that use a mix of emission factors and empirical models to calculate GHG emissions with minimal...... input data. GHG calculators, however, rely on models calibrated from measurements conducted overwhelmingly under temperate, developed country conditions. Here we show that GHG calculators may poorly estimate emissions in tropical developing countries by comparing calculator predictions against...... measurements from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Estimates based on GHG calculators were greater than measurements in 70% of the cases, exceeding twice the measured flux nearly half the time. For 41% of the comparisons, calculators incorrectly predicted whether emissions would increase or decrease...

  10. Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Liu, Yinglie; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Pingli; Huang, Taiqing

    2015-12-02

    Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. Accordingly, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in oil rape-rice-rice and wheat-rice (representing DR and UR, respectively) systems with straw incorporation (0, 3 and 6 t/ha) during the rice-growing seasons. Compared with the UR system, the annual CH4, N2O, grain yield and NGWP were significantly increased in the DR system, though little effect on SOC sequestration or GHGI was observed without straw incorporation. Straw incorporation increased CH4 emission and SOC sequestration but had no significant effect on N2O emission in both systems. Averaged over the three study years, straw incorporation had no significant effect on NGWP and GHGI in the UR system, whereas these parameters were greatly increased in the DR system, i.e., by 108% (3 t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI.

  11. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes, Environmental Controls, and the Partitioning of N2O Sources in UK Natural and Seminatural Land Use Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouridis, Fotis; Ullah, Sami

    2017-10-01

    Natural and seminatural terrestrial ecosystems (unmanaged peatlands and forests and extensive and intensive grasslands) have been under-represented in the UK greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory. Mechanistic studies of GHG fluxes and their controls can improve the prediction of the currently uncertain GHG annual emission estimates. The source apportionment of N2O emissions can further inform management plans for GHG mitigation. We have measured in situ GHG fluxes monthly in two replicated UK catchments and evaluated their environmental controlling factors. An adapted 15N-gas flux method with low addition of 15N tracer (0.03-0.5 kg 15N ha-1) was used to quantify the relative contribution of denitrification to net N2O production. Total N2O fluxes were 40 times higher in the intensive grasslands than in the peatlands (range: -1.32 to 312.3 μg N m-2 h-1). The contribution of denitrification to net N2O emission varied across the land use types and ranged from 9 to 60%. Soil moisture was the key parameter regulating the partitioning of N2O sources (r2 = 0.46). Total N2O fluxes were explained by a simple model (r2 = 0.83) including parameters such as total dissolved nitrogen, organic carbon, and water content. A parsimonious model with the soil moisture content as a single scalar parameter explained 84% of methane flux variability across land uses. The assumption that 1% of the atmospherically deposited N on natural ecosystems is emitted as N2O could be overestimated or underestimated (0.3-1.6%). The use of land use-specific N2O emission factors and further information on N2O source partitioning should help constrain this uncertainty.

  12. [Diurnal variations of greenhouse gas fluxes at the water-air interface of aquaculture ponds in the Min River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Tong, Chuan; He, Qing-Hua; Huang, Jia-Fang

    2012-12-01

    Wetland reclamation and aquaculture is one of the main disturbance types in coastal wetlands. Diurnal variations of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes at the water-air interface were determined using a floating chambers + gas chromatography method in a shrimp pond, and a mixed culture pond of fish and shrimp in October in the Shanyutan Wetland of the Min River estuary, southeast China. Meanwhile, the meteorological indicators in ground surface and physical, chemical and biological indicators of surface water were also measured. CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes at the water-air interface all demonstrated distinct diurnal variations. Both shrimp pond and mixed culture pond of fish and shrimp functioned as a sink of CO2 [the diurnal averaged CO2 fluxes were -48.79 and -105.25 mg x (m2 x h)(-1), respectively], and a source of CH4 [the diurnal averaged CH4 fluxes were 1.00 and 5.74 mg x (m2 x h)(-1), respectively]; the diurnal averaged CO2 and CH4 fluxes at the water-air interface of the mixed culture of fish and shrimp pond were higher than that of the shrimp pond. Greenhouse gas fluxes at the water-air interface from the aquaculture ponds were influenced by many factors. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the concentration of Chlorophyll was the major factor affecting the CO2 fluxes, and the concentrations of SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) were the major factors affecting the CH4 fluxes at the water-air interface of the shrimp pond; whereas water temperature and Chlorophyll were the major factors affecting the CO2 fluxes, and dissolved oxygen, PO4(3-) and pH were the major factors affecting the CH4 fluxes at the water-air interface of the mixed culture pond of fish and shrimp.

  13. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  14. Whole Farm Net Greenhouse Gas Abatement from Establishing Kikuyu-Based Perennial Pastures in South-Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Masters

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On-farm activities that reduce GHG emissions or sequester carbon from the atmosphere to compensate for anthropogenic emissions are currently being evaluated by the Australian Government as carbon offset opportunities. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of establishing and grazing Kikuyu pastures, integrated as part of a mixed Merino sheep and cropping system, as a carbon offset mechanism. For the assessment of changes in net greenhouse gas emissions, results from a combination of whole farm economic and livestock models were used (MIDAS and GrassGro. Net GHG emissions were determined by deducting increased emissions from introducing this practice change (increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to higher stocking rates from the soil carbon sequestered from growing the Kikuyu pasture. Our results indicate that livestock systems using perennial pastures may have substantially lower net GHG emissions, and reduced GHG intensity of production, compared with annual plant-based production systems. Soil carbon accumulation by converting 45% of arable land within a farm enterprise to Kikuyu-based pasture was determined to be 0.80 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1 and increased GHG emissions (leakage was 0.19 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1. The net benefit of this practice change was 0.61 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1 while the rate of soil carbon accumulation remains constant. The use of perennial pastures improved the efficiency of animal production almost eight fold when expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per unit of animal product. The strategy of using perennial pasture to improve production levels and store additional carbon in the soil demonstrates how livestock should be considered in farming systems as both sources and sinks for GHG abatement.

  15. Responses of greenhouse gas fluxes to experimental warming in wheat season under conventional tillage and no-tillage fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chun; Li, Fadong

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas (GHG, such as N2O, CH4 and CO2) feedbacks to climate change represents the major environmental issue. However, little information is available on how warming effects on GHG fluxes in farmland of North China Plain (NCP). An infrared warming simulation experiment was used to assess the responses of N2O, CH4 and CO2 to warming in wheat season of 2012-2014 from conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) systems. The results showed that warming increased cumulative N2O emission by 7.7% in CT but decreased it by 9.7% in NT fields (pwarming effects on GHG fluxes in two wheat seasons. However, in 2013, the long-term drought stress due to infrared warming and less precipitation decreased N2O and CO2 emission in warmed treatments. In contrast, warming during this time increased CH4 emission from deep soil depth. Across two years wheat seasons, warming significantly decreased by 30.3% and 63.9% sustained-flux global warming potential (SGWP) of N2O and CH4 expressed as CO2 equivalent in CT and NT fields, respectively. However, increase in soil CO2 emission indicated that future warming projection might provide positive feedback between soil C release and global warming in NCP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of land cover change on litter decomposition and soil greenhouse gas fluxes in subtropical Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngar Wong, Chun; Lai, Derrick Yuk Fo

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, over 50% of the world's population live in urbanized areas and the level of urbanization varies substantially across countries. Intense human activities and management associated with urbanization can alter the microclimate and biogeochemical processes in urban areas, which subsequently affect the provision of ecosystem services and functions. Litter decomposition and soil greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange play an important role in governing nutrient cycling and future climate change, respectively. Yet, the effects of urbanization on these two biogeochemical processes remain uncertain and not well understood, especially in subtropical and high-density cities. This study aims to examine the effects of urbanization on decomposition and GHG fluxes among four land covers- natural forest, urban forest, farmland and roadside planter, in Hong Kong based on litterbag experiment and closed chamber measurements for one full year. Litter decomposition rate was significantly lower in farmland than in other land cover types. Significant differences in CO2 emission were detected among the four land cover types (purban forest, respectively. Farmland and urban forest showed the highest and lowest mean N2O fluxes, respectively. The emission of CO2 was positively correlated with soil potassium content, while CH4 and N2O flux increased markedly with soil temperature and nitrate nitrogen content, respectively. The results obtained in this study will enhance our understanding on urban ecosystem and be useful for recommending sustainable management strategies for conservation of ecosystem services in urban areas.

  17. Water level, vegetation composition, and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Merten; Augustin, Jürgen; Burlo, Andrei; Yarmashuk, Tatsiana; Chuvashova, Hanna; Thiele, Annett; Freibauer, Annette; Tikhonov, Vitalij; Hoffmann, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Peat extraction leaves a land surface with a strong relief of deep cutover areas and higher ridges. Rewetting inundates the deep parts, while less deeply extracted zones remain at or above the water level. In temperate fens the flooded areas are colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis dependent on water depth. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported as large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. Here, we analyze the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured campaign-wise with manual chambers every 2 to 4 weeks for 2 years and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions generally increased with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Mesotrophic small sedge reeds with water table around the land surface were small GHG sources in the range of 2.3 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. Eutrophic tall sedge - Typha latifolia reeds on newly formed floating mats were substantial net GHG emitters in the range of 25.1 to 39.1 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr. They represent transient vegetation stages. Phragmites reeds ranged between -1.7 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1 with an overall mean GHG emission of 1.3 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. The annual CO2 balance was best explained by vegetation biomass, which includes the role of vegetation composition and species. Methane emissions were obviously driven by biological activity of vegetation and soil organisms. Shallow flooding of cutover temperate fens is a suitable measure to arrive at low GHG emissions. Phragmites australis establishment should be promoted in deeper flooded areas and will lead to moderate, but

  18. Combined FTIR-micrometeorological techniques for long term measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes from agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Anna Katinka [Institut fuer Umweltphysik (IUP), Universitaet Bremen (Germany); Griffith, David; Naylor, Travis [Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Harvey, Mike; Smith, Murray [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural systems can be sources or sinks of atmospheric trace gases, and the measurement of the fluxes is necessary when evaluating both the environmental impact of agricultural activities and the impact of atmospheric pollution on agricultural production and sustainability. With the exception of CO{sub 2}, micrometeorological measurements of the fluxes of greenhouse gases are still mostly possible only in campaign mode due to the complexity and logistical requirements of the existing techniques. We have developed an instrument system for long-term flux measurements through a combination of micrometeorological flux measurement techniques (Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) and Flux-Gradient (FG)) with FTIR spectroscopy. The combined technique is capable of simultaneous flux measurements of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} at paddock to regional scales continuously, over longer terms. The system was tested on a 3 weeks field campaign. The flux of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} was measured by Relaxed Eddy Accumulation, Flux-Gradient, and Eddy Correlation. Simultaneously, fluxes of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were measured by REA and FG technique.

  19. Landscape geomorphic characteristic impacts on greenhouse gas fluxes in exposed stream and riparian sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, Philippe; Serchan, Satish

    2016-07-13

    While excessive releases of greenhouse gases (GHG: N2O, CO2, CH4) to the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuel remains a concern, we also need to better quantify GHG emissions from natural systems. This study investigates GHG fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface in a series of 7 stream reaches (riparian zones + exposed streambed sediment) across a range of geomorphic locations from headwaters reaches to lowland wetland reaches. When riparian fluxes (RZ) are compared to fluxes from in-stream locations (IS) under summer baseflow conditions, total CO2-equivalent (CO2eq) emissions are approximately 5 times higher at RZ locations than at IS locations, with most CO2eq driven by CH4 production at RZ locations where wet conditions dominate (headwater wetlands, lowland wetlands). On a gas-by-gas basis, no clear differences in N2O fluxes between RZ and IS locations were observed regardless of locations (headwater vs. lowland reaches), while CO2 fluxes were significantly larger at RZ locations than IS locations. Methane fluxes were significantly higher in wetland-influenced reaches than other reaches for both RZ and IS locations. However, GHG fluxes were not consistently correlated to DOC, DO, NO3(-), NH4(+), or water temperature, stressing the limitations of using water quality parameters to predict GHG emissions at the floodplain scale, at least during summer baseflow conditions. As strategies are developed to further constrain GHG emission for whole watersheds, we propose that approaches linking landscape geomorphic characteristics to GHG fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface offer a promising avenue to successfully predict GHG emissions in floodplains at the watershed scale.

  20. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, Atse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375268456; Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We

  1. Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from a poplar bioenergy plantation: How long does former land use type matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The cultivation of fast-growing tree species for the production of bioenergy -- known as short rotation woody crops (SRWC) -- is considered to be carbon-neutral because biomass combustion releases only carbon which has previously been extracted from the atmosphere via photosynthesis. The true greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of SRWC, however, remains largely unknown due to limited knowledge on the amount of GHG released from the soil during cultivation, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rate over time. Especially measurements of the complete GHG balance of SRWC plantations which have already been managed for several years are lacking. The aim of this study was to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of soil GHG fluxes in a SRWC plantation with poplar located in Lochristi, Belgium (POPFULL, http://uahost.uantwerpen.be/popfull/). The plantation has been established in April 2010 partly on former cropland and partly on former pasture, enabling us to study the dependency of soil GHG fluxes on former land use type under identical climate and management conditions. Furthermore, spatial differences in the SOC content created by alternating row spacings between poplars were studied. The plantation was harvested in February 2012, and in February 2014. Soil CO_2, CH_4, N_2O and CO fluxes were simultaneously monitored with automated closed dynamic chamber systems from May 2013 until August 2014, embracing a pre- and post-harvest period. The chamber measurements were accompanied by fortnightly measurements of soil gas concentrations in the top- and subsoil (2013: CO2 and O_2, 2014: CO_2, CH_4, and N_2O). Preliminary results show that former pasture and cropland areas were still distinguishable within the plantation based on properties such as weed composition, dry bulk density and SOC content. During a drought period in August 2013, soil CO2 fluxes seemed to be slightly higher from the former cropland area, but no apparent effect of former land

  2. Soil Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurements with Automated and Manual Static Chambers, Forced Diffusion Chamber, and Concentration Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, L.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Géli, M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Knox, S. H.; Nickerson, N.; McArthur, G.; Creelman, C.; Saad, N.; Alstad, K. P.; Arata, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurements of soil greenhouse gas fluxes are critical for determining the role of ecosystem dynamics, both natural and managed, in climate change. We compared concentration profile methods with static, forced diffusion, and automated flux chambers using a combination of infrared gas analyzers (IRGA), gas chromatography, and cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy (Picarro G2508) during field campaigns in managed ecosystems in California. At a drained peatland pasture site, we observed large differences between methods (fluxes ranged between 2-15 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). However, low temporal/high spatial replication measurements (manual LI6400 chamber measurements; n=6 collars) encompassed the full range of CO2 fluxes observed across all other methods. This suggests that the majority of variability in CO2 emissions was due to high spatial variation in soil respiration and not due to methodological differences across measurement systems. At a dry upland pasture site, water, nitrate solution and manure were applied during the experimental period to expand the range of greenhouse fluxes. Preliminary results showed good agreement of gas fluxes between static and automatic chamber sampling. We observed large CO2 and N2O fluxes after manure application with both methods. The two chamber types were highly significantly correlated for N2O (slope=0.74, r2=0.94). Mean CH4 fluxes measured by static chambers was -0.36 μg cm-2 h-1, similar to the -0.57 μg cm-2 h-1 measured by the automatic chamber and Picarro analyzer during the study period. Overall, our results suggest that both automated and static chamber methods are in good agreement, but automated chambers are advantageous for capturing diel dynamics and pulse responses to experimental treatments. Our results also highlight the importance of spatial replication, which can be difficult to achieve using expensive automated chambers. We suggest future research efforts to seek a combination of high spatially

  3. Measurements and models of greenhouse gas emissions and pollutant fluxes in the Baltimore/Washington Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Shepson, P. B.; Ahn, D.; Ren, X.; He, H.; Karion, A.; Allen, D. J.; Hall, D.

    2016-12-01

    Building on the lifetime accomplishments of Donald H. Stedman, we present results from a combined measurement and modeling program to quantify the flux of pollutants, both short and long lived, from the Baltimore/Washington area. Urban areas are a dominant and growing source of emissions leading to photochemical smog and climate forcing, but the rate of release of species such as CO, NOx, SO2, CO2, and CH4 remains uncertain. This presentation will summarize recent results that estimate the flux of these species, the relative importance of various sources, and the trends. NOx, CO, VOC's and SO2 have demonstrably improved in recent years, but such trends are not clear for greenhouse gases. New understanding of relative contribution from oil and gas operations, electricity generation, and mobile sources is presented and the role of outliers in the distribution of sources or "gross emitters" is discussed.

  4. Effects of transient Phragmites australis removal on brackish marsh greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rose M.; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena

    2017-06-01

    Phragmites australis is a common invasive reed of North American coastal marshes, and efforts to control or eradicate it often are included in coastal marsh restoration efforts. While much research has tested impacts of P. australis removal on plant and faunal communities, less is known about biogeochemical responses to P. australis removal. Since coastal marshes are valued for their robust carbon sequestration, understanding the effect of P. australis removal on marsh carbon cycling dynamics is important. Temporary P. australis aboveground biomass clearing conducted as part of a restoration effort provided an opportunity to evaluate changes in fluxes of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) during P. australis removal and recovery. In Experiment 1 (2014 growing season), GHG fluxes were compared between a P. australis stand cleared mechanically and recovered within months of initial removal and an uncleared stand in the same marsh system. CO2 uptake increased dramatically in the cleared stand as P. australis regrew, but CH4 emissions remained unchanged, demonstrating that P. australis did not directly contribute to CH4 emission. In Experiment 2 (2015 manipulations), to test mechanisms of P. australis' impact on GHG fluxes, fluxes (light and dark) were compared between unimpacted P. australis plots, cut P. australis plots with litter, and cleared P. australis plots without litter. P. australis cutting (independent of litter removal) resulted in increased CO2 and CH4 emissions. Recovery of P. australis directly drove the rapid recovery of CO2 uptake, and did not increase (and possibly attenuated) CH4 emissions. Results of this study suggest that at this site, P. australis removal, in the absence of native vegetation recovery, may exacerbate GHG emission of coastal marshes in the short term, and that longer-term impacts warrant investigation.

  5. The effect of peat swamp forest degradation on greenhouse gas fluxes in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Jeffrey; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Verchot, Louis; van Groeningen, Jan Willem; Oenema, Oene

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-dense peat swamp forests in Peru are recurrently harvested for M. flexuosa fruits, which is typically performed by cutting down entire palms. This research aimed to evaluate how biogeochemical cycles are affected by this type of forest degradation. Total soil respiration (Rs), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), CH4 and N2O fluxes, litterfall and environmental parameters were monitored monthly for two years in an undisturbed (UD), a moderately disturbed (MD), and a highly degraded site (HD). The experimental setup entailed measurements in hollows and hummocks with standing live or dead palms. Rh rates were higher in hummocks than in hollows (UD: 25.9±0.5 and 17.5±0.3, MD: 14.1±1.3 and 12.4±1.2, HD: 26.8±4.7 and 18.8±3.0 kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1, respectively). Unexpectedly, CH4 fluxes did not vary significantly between hummocks and hollows, whereas N2O fluxes followed the same trend as Rh. GHG fluxes from hummocks with a standing live or a standing dead palm were similar. However, degradation did reduce the relative hummock area (relative areas: 18, 10 and 4% for UD, MD, and HD, respectively). As a result, the overall weighted average Rh in the MD site (12.4±1.6 kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1) was lower than the UD one (18.4±1.0 kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1), while litter input was higher (12.2±0.3 and 9.3±0.4 kg d.w. ha-1 d-1in the MD and UD, respectively). The HD site exhibited Rh (17.5±1.2 kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1) and litter input (9.4±0.2 kg d.w. ha-1 d-1) rates similar to those of the UD site. CH4 fluxes were 0.75±0.10, 0.62±0.08, 0.89±0.05 kg C-CH4 ha-1 d-1 and N2O fluxes 1.7±0.2, 1.2±0.1, 2.0±0.3 g N-N2O ha-1 d-1 in the UD, MD and HD site, respectively. These findings suggest that differentiating hummocks and hollows in GHG flux assessments and accounting for changes in relative hummock areas are essential for evaluating degradation impacts on peat C and N cycling in Amazonian peat swamp forests. These results contribute to building knowledge on emission factors for

  6. Short-term spatial and temporal variability in greenhouse gas fluxes in riparian zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, P; Marchese, S; Welsh, M; McMillan, S

    2015-08-01

    Recent research indicates that riparian zones have the potential to contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG: N2O, CO2, CH4) to the atmosphere. Yet, the short-term spatial and temporal variability in GHG emission in these systems is poorly understood. Using two transects of three static chambers at two North Carolina agricultural riparian zones (one restored, one unrestored), we show that estimates of the average GHG flux at the site scale can vary by one order of magnitude depending on whether the mean or the median is used as a measure of central tendency. Because the median tends to mute the effect of outlier points (hot spots and hot moments), we propose that both must be reported or that other more advanced spatial averaging techniques (e.g., kriging, area-weighted average) should be used to estimate GHG fluxes at the site scale. Results also indicate that short-term temporal variability in GHG fluxes (a few days) under seemingly constant temperature and hydrological conditions can be as large as spatial variability at the site scale, suggesting that the scientific community should rethink sampling protocols for GHG at the soil-atmosphere interface to include repeated measures over short periods of time at select chambers to estimate GHG emissions in the field. Although recent advances in technology provide tools to address these challenges, their cost is often too high for widespread implementation. Until technology improves, sampling design strategies will need to be carefully considered to balance cost, time, and spatial and temporal representativeness of measurements.

  7. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils under organic and non-organic management--a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Colin; Gattinger, Andreas; Muller, Adrian; Mäder, Paul; Flieβbach, Andreas; Stolze, Matthias; Ruser, Reiner; Niggli, Urs

    2014-01-15

    It is anticipated that organic farming systems provide benefits concerning soil conservation and climate protection. A literature search on measured soil-derived greenhouse gas (GHG) (nitrous oxide and methane) fluxes under organic and non-organic management from farming system comparisons was conducted and followed by a meta-analysis. Up to date only 19 studies based on field measurements could be retrieved. Based on 12 studies that cover annual measurements, it appeared with a high significance that area-scaled nitrous oxide emissions from organically managed soils are 492 ± 160 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) a(-1) lower than from non-organically managed soils. For arable soils the difference amounts to 497 ± 162 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) a(-1). However, yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions are higher by 41 ± 34 kg CO2 eq. t(-1) DM under organic management (arable and use). To equalize this mean difference in yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions between both farming systems, the yield gap has to be less than 17%. Emissions from conventionally managed soils seemed to be influenced mainly by total N inputs, whereas for organically managed soils other variables such as soil characteristics seemed to be more important. This can be explained by the higher bioavailability of the synthetic N fertilisers in non-organic farming systems while the necessary mineralisation of the N sources under organic management leads to lower and retarded availability. Furthermore, a higher methane uptake of 3.2 ± 2.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) a(-1) for arable soils under organic management can be observed. Only one comparative study on rice paddies has been published up to date. All 19 retrieved studies were conducted in the Northern hemisphere under temperate climate. Further GHG flux measurements in farming system comparisons are required to confirm the results and close the existing knowledge gaps. © 2013.

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes and carbon leaching before and after partial harvesting and clearcutting in a drained peatland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkiakoski, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Ojanen, Paavo; Penttilä, Timo; Minkkinen, Kari; Rainne, Juuso; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea

    2017-04-01

    The most common method of forest management in Finland is rotation forestry including clearcutting and forest regeneration. Typical clearcutting involves removing stem wood and leaving logging residues (foliage, branches, stumps, and roots) on the site. After clearcutting of a peatland forest, water table level (WTL) rises due to ceased interception and transpiration of trees. Due to the elevated WTL, the thickness of the oxic peat layer and peat mass susceptible to aerobic decomposition decrease, and consequently, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the 'old' peat are expected to decrease. On the other hand, conditions for methane (CH4) producing microbes will be more favorable and methane oxidation may decrease, which together may increase emissions of CH4 to the atmosphere. Also, nitrogen oxide (N2O) emissions are expected to increase due to the enhancing effect of logging residues on nitrification and denitrification processes. Due to the rising WTL, the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may temporarily increase. In our project, we aim to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of peatland forestry by conducting a partial harvesting instead of clearcutting to regenerate our study forest (Lettosuo, Tammela in southern Finland). Ca. 3/4 of the tree biomass was removed in spring 2016. With this, we hope to achieve a moderate (about 20 cm) rise in the WTL from the original -50 cm level. This should eventually decrease CO2 emissions but not significantly increase CH4 emissions nor DOC leaching. The effect of harvest and the moderate WTL rise on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and evapotranspiration are studied using the data collected with the eddy covariance method before (2009-2015) and after (2016-) the harvest. We also retained an uncut control and set up a clear-cut plot at the site to compare the impacts of different management practices on site conditions, soil GHG fluxes and C and N leaching. The impact of logging residues on GHG fluxes are also

  9. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH4) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties.

  10. Five crop seasons' records of greenhouse gas fluxes from upland fields with repetitive applications of biochar and cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Ikeya, Kosuke; Kanazaki, Naoya; Makabe, Shuhei; Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Akira

    2014-11-01

    char had no significant influence on greenhouse gas emissions and crop yields, but a high C accumulating function was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The development and trial of an unmanned aerial system for the measurement of methane flux from landfill and greenhouse gas emission hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Grant; Hollingsworth, Peter; Kabbabe, Khristopher; Pitt, Joseph R; Mead, Mohammed I; Illingworth, Samuel; Roberts, Gareth; Bourn, Mark; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J

    2018-01-09

    This paper describes the development of a new sampling and measurement method to infer methane flux using proxy measurements of CO 2 concentration and wind data recorded by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The flux method described and trialed here is appropriate to the spatial scale of landfill sites and analogous greenhouse gas emission hotspots, making it an important new method for low-cost and rapid case study quantification of fluxes from currently uncertain (but highly important) greenhouse gas sources. We present a case study using these UAS-based measurements to derive instantaneous methane fluxes from a test landfill site in the north of England using a mass balance model tailored for UAS sampling and co-emitted CO 2 concentration as a methane-emission proxy. Methane flux (and flux uncertainty) during two trials on 27 November 2014 and 5 March 2015, were found to be 0.140 kg s -1 (±61% at 1σ), and 0.050 kg s -1 (±54% at 1σ), respectively. Uncertainty contributing to the flux was dominated by ambient variability in the background (inflow) concentration (>40%) and wind speed (>10%); with instrumental error contributing only ∼1-2%. The approach described represents an important advance concerning the challenging problem of greenhouse gas hotspot flux calculation, and offers transferability to a wide range of analogous environments. This new measurement solution could add to a toolkit of approaches to better validate source-specific greenhouse emissions inventories - an important new requirement of the UNFCCC COP21 (Paris) climate change agreement. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of land-use change from forest to oil palm on soil greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound fluxes in Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewer, Julia; Leduning, Melissa; Kerdraon-Byrne, Deirdre; Sayer, Emma; Sentien, Justin; Skiba, Ute

    2017-04-01

    Monocultures of oil palm have expanded in SE Asia, and more recently also in Africa and South America, frequently replacing tropical forests. The limited data available clearly show that this conversion is associated with a potentially large greenhouse gas (GHG) burden. The physical process of land-use change, such is felling, drainage and ploughing can significantly increase emissions of N2O and soil CO2 respiration and decrease CH4 oxidation rates in the short term; and in the long-term regular nitrogen applications will impact in particular soil N2O fluxes. Little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes from soil and litter in tropical forests and their speciation or about the links between GHG and VOC fluxes. VOC emissions are important as they directly and indirectly influence the concentrations and lifetimes of air pollutants and GHGs. For example, oxidation of VOCs generate tropospheric ozone which is also a potent GHG. Within ecosystems, monoterpenes can mediate plant-microbe and plant- interactions and protect photosynthesis during abiotic stress. However, little is known about monoterpene composition in the tropics - a widely recognized major global source of terpenoids to the atmosphere. These knowledge gaps make it difficult for developing countries in the tropics, especially SE Asia, to develop effective mitigation strategies. Current understanding of soil GHG fluxes associated with land-use change from forest to oil palm is not sufficient to provide reliable estimates of their carbon footprints and sustainability or advice on GHG mitigation strategies. To provide the necessary data we have installed a total of 56 flux chambers in logged forests, forest fragments and mature and young oil palm plantations as well as riparian zones within the SAFE landscape in SE Sabah (Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems; http://www.safeproject.net). Soil respiration rates, N2O, CH4 and VOC fluxes together with soil moisture, pH, mineral and total C and

  13. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  14. The greenhouse gas balance of the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nol, Linda; Neubert, Rolf; Vermeulen, Alex; Vellinga, Olaf; Meesters, Antoon; Tolk, Lieselotte; Olivier, Jos; Peters, Wouter; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Hutjes, Ronald; Moors, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to measure or even estimate the Dutch greenhouse gas emissions of the landscape, because we cannot put a flux chamber over the entire Netherlands. Greenhouse gas emissions are usually estimated by bottom-up methods or top-down methods. The Netherlands report most emissions to the

  15. Sorghum production under future climate in the Southwestern USA: model projections of yield, greenhouse gas emissions and soil C fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Ghimire, R.; Hartman, M. D.; Marsalis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large tracts of semi-arid land in the Southwestern USA are relatively less important for food production than the US Corn Belt, and represent a promising area for expansion of biofuel/bioproduct crops. However, high temperatures, low available water and high solar radiation in the SW represent a challenge to suitable feedstock development, and future climate change scenarios predict that portions of the SW will experience increased temperature and temporal shifts in precipitation distribution. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a valuable forage crop with promise as a biofuel feedstock, given its high biomass under semi-arid conditions, relatively lower N fertilizer requirements compared to corn, and salinity tolerance. To evaluate the environmental impact of expanded sorghum cultivation under future climate in the SW USA, we used the DayCent model in concert with a suite of downscaled future weather projections to predict biogeochemical consequences (greenhouse gas flux and impacts on soil carbon) of sorghum cultivation in New Mexico. The model showed good correspondence with yield data from field trials including both dryland and irrigated sorghum (measured vs. modeled; r2 = 0.75). Simulation experiments tested the effect of dryland production versus irrigation, low N versus high N inputs and delayed fertilizer application. Nitrogen application timing and irrigation impacted yield and N2O emissions less than N rate and climate. Across N and irrigation treatments, future climate simulations resulted in 6% increased yield and 20% lower N2O emissions compared to current climate. Soil C pools declined under future climate. The greatest declines in soil C were from low N input sorghum simulations, regardless of irrigation (>20% declines in SOM in both cases), and requires further evaluation to determine if changing future climate is driving these declines, or if they are a function of prolonged sorghum-fallow rotations in the model. The relatively small gain in yield for

  16. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Brian A., E-mail: btangen@usgs.gov; Finocchiaro, Raymond G., E-mail: rfinocchiaro@usgs.gov; Gleason, Robert A., E-mail: rgleason@usgs.gov

    2015-11-15

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties. Results showed that the effects of land use on GHG fluxes and abiotic soil properties differed with respect to catchment zone (upland, wetland), wetland classification, geographic location, and year. Mean CH{sub 4} fluxes from the uplands were predictably low (< 0.02 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} day{sup −1}), while wetland zone CH{sub 4} fluxes were much greater (< 0.001–3.9 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} day{sup −1}). Mean cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} fluxes ranged from roughly 0–650 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2}, with an overall mean of approximately 160 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2}. These maximum cumulative CH{sub 4} fluxes were nearly 3 times as high as previously reported in North America. The overall magnitude and variability of N{sub 2}O fluxes from this study (< 0.0001–0.0023 g N{sub 2}O m{sup −2} day{sup −1}) were comparable to previously reported values. Results suggest that soil organic carbon is lost when relatively undisturbed catchments are converted for agriculture, and that when non-drained cropland catchments are restored, CH{sub 4} fluxes generally are not different than the pre-restoration baseline. Conversely, when drained cropland catchments are restored, CH{sub 4} fluxes are noticeably higher. Consequently, it is important to consider the type of wetland restoration (drained, non-drained) when assessing restoration benefits. Results also suggest that elevated N{sub 2}O fluxes from cropland catchments likely would be reduced through restoration. The overall

  17. Modeling impacts of alternative practices on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from rice-wheat annual rotation in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluating the net exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions in conjunction with soil carbon sequestration may give a comprehensive insight on the role of agricultural production in global warming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measured data of methane (CH(4 and nitrous oxide (N(2O were utilized to test the applicability of the Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC model to a winter wheat - single rice rotation system in southern China. Six alternative scenarios were simulated against the baseline scenario to evaluate their long-term (45-year impacts on net global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The simulated cumulative CH(4 emissions fell within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, with the exception of N(2O emissions during rice-growing season and both gases from the control treatment. Sensitivity tests showed that both CH(4 and N(2O emissions were significantly affected by changes in both environmental factors and management practices. Compared with the baseline scenario, the long-term simulation had the following results: (1 high straw return and manure amendment scenarios greatly increased CH(4 emissions, while other scenarios had similar CH(4 emissions, (2 high inorganic N fertilizer increased N(2O emissions while manure amendment and reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenarios decreased N(2O emissions, (3 the mean annual soil organic carbon sequestration rates (SOCSR under manure amendment, high straw return, and no-tillage scenarios averaged 0.20 t C ha(-1 yr(-1, being greater than other scenarios, and (4 the reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario produced the least N loss from the system, while all the scenarios produced comparable grain yields. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of net GWP and GHGI for the comprehensive assessment of climate change and crop production, reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario followed by no-tillage scenario would be advocated for this specified

  18. Modeling Impacts of Alternative Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Rice–Wheat Annual Rotation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Yinglie; Pan, Xiaojian; Liu, Pingli; Chen, Zhaozhi; Huang, Taiqing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating the net exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in conjunction with soil carbon sequestration may give a comprehensive insight on the role of agricultural production in global warming. Materials and Methods Measured data of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were utilized to test the applicability of the Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC) model to a winter wheat – single rice rotation system in southern China. Six alternative scenarios were simulated against the baseline scenario to evaluate their long-term (45-year) impacts on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI). Principal Results The simulated cumulative CH4 emissions fell within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, with the exception of N2O emissions during rice-growing season and both gases from the control treatment. Sensitivity tests showed that both CH4 and N2O emissions were significantly affected by changes in both environmental factors and management practices. Compared with the baseline scenario, the long-term simulation had the following results: (1) high straw return and manure amendment scenarios greatly increased CH4 emissions, while other scenarios had similar CH4 emissions, (2) high inorganic N fertilizer increased N2O emissions while manure amendment and reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenarios decreased N2O emissions, (3) the mean annual soil organic carbon sequestration rates (SOCSR) under manure amendment, high straw return, and no-tillage scenarios averaged 0.20 t C ha−1 yr−1, being greater than other scenarios, and (4) the reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario produced the least N loss from the system, while all the scenarios produced comparable grain yields. Conclusions In terms of net GWP and GHGI for the comprehensive assessment of climate change and crop production, reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario followed by no-tillage scenario would be advocated for this specified cropping system. PMID

  19. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils under organic and non-organic management — A global meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Colin, E-mail: colin.skinner@fibl.org [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 21, 5070 Frick (Switzerland); Gattinger, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gattinger@fibl.org [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 21, 5070 Frick (Switzerland); Muller, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.mueller@fibl.org [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 21, 5070 Frick (Switzerland); Mäder, Paul, E-mail: paul.maeder@fibl.org [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 21, 5070 Frick (Switzerland); Fließbach, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.fliessbach@fibl.org [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 21, 5070 Frick (Switzerland); Stolze, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.stolze@fibl.org [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 21, 5070 Frick (Switzerland); Ruser, Reiner, E-mail: reiner.ruser@uni-hohenheim.de [Fertilisation and Soil Matter Dynamics (340i), Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstraße 20, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Niggli, Urs, E-mail: urs.niggli@fibl.org [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 21, 5070 Frick (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that organic farming systems provide benefits concerning soil conservation and climate protection. A literature search on measured soil-derived greenhouse gas (GHG) (nitrous oxide and methane) fluxes under organic and non-organic management from farming system comparisons was conducted and followed by a meta-analysis. Up to date only 19 studies based on field measurements could be retrieved. Based on 12 studies that cover annual measurements, it appeared with a high significance that area-scaled nitrous oxide emissions from organically managed soils are 492 ± 160 kg CO{sub 2} eq. ha{sup −1} a{sup −1} lower than from non-organically managed soils. For arable soils the difference amounts to 497 ± 162 kg CO{sub 2} eq. ha{sup −1} a{sup −1}. However, yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions are higher by 41 ± 34 kg CO{sub 2} eq. t{sup −1} DM under organic management (arable and use). To equalize this mean difference in yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions between both farming systems, the yield gap has to be less than 17%. Emissions from conventionally managed soils seemed to be influenced mainly by total N inputs, whereas for organically managed soils other variables such as soil characteristics seemed to be more important. This can be explained by the higher bioavailability of the synthetic N fertilisers in non-organic farming systems while the necessary mineralisation of the N sources under organic management leads to lower and retarded availability. Furthermore, a higher methane uptake of 3.2 ± 2.5 kg CO{sub 2} eq. ha{sup −1} a{sup −1} for arable soils under organic management can be observed. Only one comparative study on rice paddies has been published up to date. All 19 retrieved studies were conducted in the Northern hemisphere under temperate climate. Further GHG flux measurements in farming system comparisons are required to confirm the results and close the existing knowledge gaps. - Highlights: • Lower area-scaled nitrous

  20. Is CH4 consumption by soils controlled by physics or biology? Results from a study of plot-scale variability of greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin; Paulus, Sinikka; Nicolai, Clara; Nauer, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace gases vary on different spatial scales, between landscapes and ecosystems down to the plot scale within apparently homogenous sites. The production and consumption of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) underlie different spatial and temporal changes, und thus, their interrelation is difficult to unravel. Small-scale variability in soil properties is well-known from soil surveys, affecting theoretically water availability for plants, soil aeration, vegetation, the local photosynthesis rate, and, eventually, greenhouse gas fluxes. We investigated the small scale variability of greenhouse gas fluxes in a homogenous Scots Pine stand in a former riparian flood plain. Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were carried out at 60 points on a 250 m2 plot with strata of diverse soil substrates and understory vegetation. Gas flux measurements were combined with soil physical lab measurements, and a soil vegetation survey. The soil was a source of CO2 and a sink for CH4 and N2O. No correlations between the fluxes and only weak correlations between the fluxes and soil physical factors were observed. CH4 and CO2 fluxes were significantly different for the soil-vegetation strata. Separating the dataset into the different soil-vegetation strata showed that CH4 consumption increased significantly with soil gas diffusivity and soil respiration. Methane consumption in the silt stratum was higher at a given soil gas diffusivity than in the sand stratum, indicating a higher methanotrophic microbe population and thus better habitats in silt. CH4 consumption increased with soil respiration in all strata, so that we speculate that the rhizosphere and decomposing organic litter (as origin of most of the soil respiration) facilitate a preferred habitat of methanotrophic microbes. The patterns of N2O consumption were more complex, but consumption seemed to be limited at locations with

  1. Forage management to improve on-farm feed production, nitrogen fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy systems in a wet temperate region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Villar, A.; Moros, R

    2018-01-01

    for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and enhancing nitrogen (N) fluxes that can support an increase in on-farm forage resources, thus reducing the dependency on external inputs (fertilizers and feed products). A survey conducted in a weighted sample of 40 dairy farms in Cantabria showed four...... and heifers, diet, milk yield and slurry management. The model was applied to simulate carbon (C) and N fluxes at the farm level, and to calculate feed balances, GHG emissions and the N surplus. Farms were simulated under current forage management (baseline) and under scenarios of enhanced forage production....... Milk yield, the balance between forage production and consumption in the animal diet, and between manure generation and application in the field, were used as reference for accepting model simulations. The results from the scenarios indicate that increasing forage productivity, not only reduces...

  2. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the U.S. forest products industry value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; Van Maltby; Reid Miner; Kenneth E. Skog; James E. Smith; Jay Unwin; Brad Upton

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity...

  3. Effects of tillage practices and straw returning methods on greenhouse gas emissions and net ecosystem economic budget in rice-wheat cropping systems in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Guo, L. J.; Liu, T. Q.; Li, C. F.; Cao, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted to assess the effects of conservation tillage (no-tillage [NT] and straw returning) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and net economic budget in crop growing seasons. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effects conservation tillage on the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB) in a rice-wheat cropping system. Therefore, a split-plot field experiment was performed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of tillage practices (i.e., conventional intensive tillage [CT] and NT) and straw returning methods (i.e., straw returning or removal of preceding crop) on the soil total organic carbon (TOC), GHG emissions, GWP, GHGI, and NEEB of sandy loam soil in a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Conservation tillage did not affect rice and wheat grain yields. Compared with CT and straw removal, NT and straw returning significantly increased the TOC of 0-5 cm soil layer by 2.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the TOC of 0-20 cm soil layer was not affected by tillage practices and straw returning methods. NT did not also affect the N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons; NT significantly decreased the annual CH4 emissions by 7.5% and the annual GWP by 7.8% compared with CT. Consequently, GHGI under NT was reduced by 8.1%. Similar to NT, straw returning did not affect N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons. Compared with straw removal, straw returning significantly increased annual CH4 emissions by 35.0%, annual GWP by 32.0%, and annual GHGI by 31.1%. Straw returning did not also affect NEEB; by contrast, NT significantly increased NEEB by 15.6%. NT without straw returning resulted in the lowest GWP, the lowest GHGI, and the highest NEEB among all treatments. This finding suggested that NT without straw returning may be applied as a sustainable technology to increase economic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, environmentally straw

  4. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double-cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, as well as changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero N (control), optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. SN0, SNopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon), with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  5. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero-N control, optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. N0, Nopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon) with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  6. Decadal vegetation changes in a northern peatland, greenhouse gas fluxes and net radiative forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, T.; Malmer, N.; Crill, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    SUB-ARCTIC MIRE; CLIMATE-CHANGE; BOREAL PEATLANDS; METHANE EMISSIONS; VASCULAR PLANTS; CARBON-DIOXIDE; PERMAFROST THAW; CO2 EXCHANGE; WATER-TABLE......SUB-ARCTIC MIRE; CLIMATE-CHANGE; BOREAL PEATLANDS; METHANE EMISSIONS; VASCULAR PLANTS; CARBON-DIOXIDE; PERMAFROST THAW; CO2 EXCHANGE; WATER-TABLE...

  7. A decade of boreal rich fen greenhouse gas fluxes in response to natural and experimental water table variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefeldt, David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Kane, Evan S.; McGuire, A. David; Waldrop, Mark P.; Turetsky, Merritt R.

    2017-01-01

    Rich fens are common boreal ecosystems with distinct hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecology that influence their carbon (C) balance. We present growing season soil chamber methane emission (FCH4), ecosystem respiration (ER), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes from a 9-years water table manipulation experiment in an Alaskan rich fen. The study included major flood and drought years, where wetting and drying treatments further modified the severity of droughts. Results support previous findings from peatlands that drought causes reduced magnitude of growing season FCH4, GPP and NEE, thus reducing or reversing their C sink function. Experimentally exacerbated droughts further reduced the capacity for the fen to act as a C sink by causing shifts in vegetation and thus reducing magnitude of maximum growing season GPP in subsequent flood years by ~15% compared to control plots. Conversely, water table position had only a weak influence on ER, but dominant contribution to ER switched from autotrophic respiration in wet years to heterotrophic in dry years. Droughts did not cause inter-annual lag effects on ER in this rich fen, as has been observed in several nutrient-poor peatlands. While ER was dependent on soil temperatures at 2 cm depth, FCH4 was linked to soil temperatures at 25 cm. Inter-annual variability of deep soil temperatures was in turn dependent on wetness rather than air temperature, and higher FCH4 in flooded years was thus equally due to increased methane production at depth and decreased methane oxidation near the surface. Short-term fluctuations in wetness caused significant lag effects on FCH4, but droughts caused no inter-annual lag effects on FCH4. Our results show that frequency and severity of droughts and floods can have characteristic effects on the exchange of greenhouse gases, and emphasize the need to project future hydrological regimes in rich fens.

  8. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the

  9. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M.

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  10. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  11. Greenhouse gas fluxes of grazed and hayed wetland catchments in the U.S. Prairie Pothole Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Wetland catchments are major ecosystems in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) and play an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) flux. However, there is limited information regarding effects of land-use on GHG fluxes from these wetland systems. We examined the effects of grazing and haying, two common land-use practices in the region, on GHG fluxes from wetland catchments during 2007 and 2008. Fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2), along with soil water content and temperature, were measured along a topographic gradient every other week during the growing season near Ipswich, SD, USA. Closed, opaque chambers were used to measure fluxes of soil and plant respiration from native sod catchments that were grazed or left idle, and from recently restored catchments which were seeded with native plant species; half of these catchments were hayed once during the growing season. Catchments were adjacent to each other and had similar soils, soil nitrogen and organic carbon content, precipitation, and vegetation. When compared with idle catchments, grazing as a land-use had little effect on GHG fluxes. Likewise, haying had little effect on fluxes of CH4 and N2O compared with non-hayed catchments. Haying, however, did have a significant effect on combined soil and vegetative CO2 flux in restored wetland catchments owing to the immediate and comprehensive effect haying has on plant productivity. This study also examined soil conditions that affect GHG fluxes and provides cumulative annual estimates of GHG fluxes from wetland catchment in the PPR.

  12. Plant biomass, carbon content, decomposition, and soil greenhouse gas fluxes to support carbon budget development for a created salt marsh in eastern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Burchell, Michael R.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2016-01-01

    These data were collected from a small (14 ha), created salt marsh in Carteret County, North Carolina (34.82 deg. N; 76.61 deg. W). This site was created in 2007 following an engineering plan developed by Dr. Michael Burchell (NC-State University). This data collection was to support the development of a site-specific carbon budget. Data were collected from 2011 to 2013, or approximately 4-6 years post-creation. The data collection specifically funded by the U.S. Geological Survey includes plant carbon biomass, plant above ground biomass, plant below ground biomass, plant decomposition, and soil greenhouse gas fluxes, and these data are being made available. These data represent critical components of the carbon budget, and were previously missing from on-going study efforts focusing on other aspects of on-site carbon cycling. Other components of the carbon budget, for example dissolved and hydrological flux variables, were funded directly by North Carolina State University, and not included here.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  14. Effects of nitrogen application rates on net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in double-rice cropping systems of the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongdu; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    The net global warming potential (NGWP) and net greenhouse gas intensity (NGHGI) of double-rice cropping systems are not well documented. We measured the NGWP and NGHGI including soil organic carbon (SOC) change and indirect emissions (IE) from double-crop rice fields with fertilizing systems in Southern China. These experiments with three different nitrogen (N) application rates since 2012 are as follows: 165 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 225 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N1), which was the local N application rates as the control; 135 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 180 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N2, 20 % reduction); and 105 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 135 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N3, 40 % reduction). Results showed that yields increased with the increase of N application rate, but without significant difference between N1 and N2 plots. Annual SOC sequestration rate under N1 was estimated to be 1.15 MgC ha -1  year -1 , which was higher than those under other fertilizing systems. Higher N application tended to increase CH 4 emissions during the flooded rice season and significantly increased N 2 O emissions from drained soils during the nonrice season, ranking as N1 > N2 > N3 with significant difference (P < 0.05). Two-year average IE has a huge contribution to GHG emissions mainly coming from the higher N inputs in the double-rice cropping system. Reducing N fertilizer usage can effectively decrease the NGWP and NGHGI in the double-rice cropping system, with the lowest NGHGI obtained in the N2 plot (0.99 kg CO 2 -eq kg -1 yield year -1 ). The results suggested that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be simultaneously achieved by properly reducing N fertilizer application in double-rice cropping systems.

  15. How do Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Addition Affect Functional Microbial Community Involved in Greenhouse Gas Flux in Salt Marsh System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Megonigal, Patrick J; Kang, Hojeong

    2017-10-01

    Salt marshes are unique ecosystem of which a microbial community is expected to be affected by global climate change. In this study, by using T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR, and pyrosequencing, we comprehensively analyzed the microbial community structure responding to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and N addition in a salt marsh ecosystem subjected to CO2 manipulation and N addition for about 3 years. We focused on the genes of microbes relevant to N-cycling (denitrification and nitrification), CH4-flux (methanogens and methanotrophs), and S-cycling (sulfate reduction) considering that they are key functional groups involved in the nutrient cycle of salt marsh system. Overall, this study suggests that (1) eCO2 and N addition affect functional microbial community involved in greenhouse gas flux in salt marsh system. Specifically, the denitrification process may be facilitated, while the methanogenesis may be impeded due to the outcompeting of sulfate reduction by eCO2 and N. This implies that future global change may cause a probable change in GHGs flux and positive feedback to global climate change in salt marsh; (2) the effect of eCO2 and N on functional group seems specific and to contrast with each other, but the effect of single factor would not be compromised but complemented by combination of two factors. (3) The response of functional groups to eCO2 and/or N may be directly or indirectly related to the plant community and its response to eCO2 and/or N. This study provides new insights into our understanding of functional microbial community responses to eCO2 and/or N addition in a C3/C4 plant mixed salt marsh system.

  16. Response of Soil Biogeochemistry to Freeze-thaw Cycles: Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Nutrient Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Parsons, C. T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2014-12-01

    Freeze-thaw is an abiotic stress applied to soils and is a natural process at medium to high latitudes. Freezing and thawing processes influence not only the physical properties of soil, but also the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. Fungi and bacteria play a crucial role in soil organic matter degradation and the production of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Production and consumption of these atmospheric trace gases are the result of biological processes such as photosynthesis, aerobic respiration (CO2), methanogenesis, methanotrophy (CH4), nitrification and denitrification (N2O). To enhance our understanding of the effects of freeze-thaw cycles on soil biogeochemical transformations and fluxes, a highly instrumented soil column experiment was designed to realistically simulate freeze-thaw dynamics under controlled conditions. Pore waters collected periodically from different depths of the column and solid-phase analyses on core material obtained at the initial and end of the experiment highlighted striking geochemical cycling. CO2, CH4 and N2O production at different depths within the column were quantified from dissolved gas concentrations in pore water. Subsequent emissions from the soil surface were determined by direct measurement in the head space. Pulsed CO2 emission to the headspace was observed at the onset of thawing, however, the magnitude of the pulse decreased with each subsequent freeze-thaw cycle indicating depletion of a "freeze-thaw accessible" carbon pool. Pulsed CO2 emission was due to a combination of physical release of gases dissolved in porewater and entrapped below the frozen zone and changing microbial respiration in response to electron acceptor variability (O2, NO3-, SO42-). In this presentation, we focus on soil-specific physical, chemical, microbial factors (e.g. redox conditions, respiration, fermentation) and the mechanisms that drive GHG emission and nutrient cycling in soils under freeze-thaw cycles.

  17. Drained peatlands used for extraction and agriculture: biogeochemical status with special attention to greenhouse gas fluxes and rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Andrey; Chistotin, Maxim; Suvorov, Gennady; Glagolev, Mikhail; Kravchenko, Irina; Minaeva, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    ditches. The findings were supported by the studies conducted from 2005 at drained peatland sites in Moscow region (European part of Russia) which are used for peat extraction or as hayfield (Chistotin et al., 2006). Unexpected transient methane fluxes were observed at the inter-ditch surfaces in two types of sites: milled peat extraction area and used as a hay field after partial peat extraction. Under warm and wet conditions methane was released even from peat stockpiles. Microbiological studies showed not lower and near to twice higher genomic diversity of methanogens in extracted sites and in a hayfield as compared to virgin mire. We suppose that well-developed plant roots at the grassland provide a source of fresh organic material used for CH4 production. To test this hypothesis, a pot experiment with mesocosms which model three succession stages (bare peat, grass sowing, and developed grassland) under permanently high or fluctuating wetness was conducted. Methane efflux from peat under developed grassland was higher as compared to the other treatments. Under permanently high water supply the methane emission was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher. The obtained results clearly showed that plant organic matter can be an additional source of methane after rewetting which is obviously needed for abandoned peatland sites not used for agriculture any more. To mitigate the emissions, such management options as removal of the surface peat layer before rewetting could be applied. This practice could have additional benefits achieved by bringing day surface closer to ground water table level and forming more favorable soil conditions for mire species.

  18. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  19. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  20. Spatial variability and temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations and fluxes along the Zambezi River mainstem and major tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoru, C. R.; Nyoni, F. C.; Borges, A. V.; Darchambeau, F.; Nyambe, I.; Bouillon, S.

    2014-11-01

    Spanning over 3000 km in length and with a catchment of approximately 1.4 million km2, the Zambezi River is the fourth largest river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from the African continent. As part of a~broader study on the riverine biogeochemistry in the Zambezi River basin, we present data on greenhouse gas (GHG, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)) concentrations and fluxes collected along the Zambezi River, reservoirs and several of its tributaries during 2012 and 2013 and over two climatic seasons (dry and wet) to constrain the interannual variability, seasonality and spatial heterogeneity along the aquatic continuum. All GHGs concentrations showed high spatial variability (coefficient of variation: 1.01 for CO2, 2.65 for CH4 and 0.21 for N2O). Overall, there was no unidirectional pattern along the river stretch (i.e. decrease or increase towards the ocean), as the spatial heterogeneity of GHGs appeared to be determined mainly by the connectivity with floodplains and wetlands, and the presence of man-made structures (reservoirs) and natural barriers (waterfalls, rapids). Highest CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the mainstream river were found downstream of extensive floodplains/wetlands. Undersaturated CO2 conditions, in contrast, were characteristic for the surface waters of the two large reservoirs along the Zambezi mainstem. N2O concentrations showed the opposite pattern, being lowest downstream of floodplains and highest in reservoirs. Among tributaries, highest concentrations of both CO2 and CH4 were measured in the Shire River whereas low values were characteristic for more turbid systems such as the Luangwa and Mazoe rivers. The interannual variability in the Zambezi River was relatively large for both CO2 and CH4, and significantly higher concentrations (up to two fold) were measured during wet seasons compared to the dry season. Interannual variability of N2O was less pronounced but generally higher

  1. Tree species effects on soil properties and greenhouse gas fluxes in East-central Amazonia: comparison between monoculture and diverse forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Van Haren; R.C. de Oliveira, Jr.; P.T. Beldini; P.B. de Camargo; M. Keller; S. Saleska

    2013-01-01

    Tropical plantations are considered a viable option to sequester carbon on abandoned agricultural lands, but implications of tree species selection for overall greenhouse gas budgets on plantations have been little studied. During three wet seasons, we investigated the influence of nine tree species on soil pH, temperature (ST), bulk density (BD), moisture content...

  2. Holistic greenhouse gas management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, P. [Dept. of Applied and International Economics, Massey Univ. (New Zealand); Parshotam, A. [Inst. of Fundamental Sciences, Massey Univ. (New Zealand)

    2005-07-01

    A holistic greenhouse gas management strategy is described. The first stage is the growth of a large-scale global bio-energy market with world trade in bio-fuels and with a strategic stock of biomass raw material in new plantation forests. Later stages, more costly - as needs may be in response to possible future precursors of abrupt climate change - would involve linking CO2 capture and sequestration to bio-energy, yielding a negative emissions energy system. Illustrative calculations point to the feasibility of a return to pre-industrial CO{sub 2} levels before mid-century. This result is subject to significant caveats, but, prima facie, the first stage can provide several environmental and socio-economic side-benefits while yielding a positive financial return if oil prices remain above 35$/bbl. The vision is that the polluter pays principle can be turned to a greening of the earth. (orig.)

  3. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  4. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} reductions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Gyldenkaerne, S. [Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hermansen, J.E. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: > GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. > Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. > Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. > A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. > Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO{sub 2} reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  5. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  6. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  7. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  8. Quantification of urban atmospheric boundary layer greenhouse gas dry mole fraction enhancements in the dormant season: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Miles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We assess the detectability of city emissions via a tower-based greenhouse gas (GHG network, as part of the Indianapolis Flux (INFLUX experiment. By examining afternoon-averaged results from a network of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction measurements in Indianapolis, Indiana for 2011–2013, we quantify spatial and temporal patterns in urban atmospheric GHG dry mole fractions. The platform for these measurements is twelve communications towers spread across the metropolitan region, ranging in height from 39 to 136 m above ground level, and instrumented with cavity ring-down spectrometers. Nine of the sites were deployed as of January 2013 and data from these sites are the focus of this paper. A background site, chosen such that it is on the predominantly upwind side of the city, is utilized to quantify enhancements caused by urban emissions. Afternoon averaged mole fractions are studied because this is the time of day during which the height of the boundary layer is most steady in time and the area that influences the tower measurements is likely to be largest. Additionally, atmospheric transport models have better performance in simulating the daytime convective boundary layer compared to the nighttime boundary layer. Averaged from January through April of 2013, the mean urban dormant-season enhancements range from 0.3 ppm CO2 at the site 24 km typically downwind of the edge of the city (Site 09 to 1.4 ppm at the site at the downwind edge of the city (Site 02 to 2.9 ppm at the downtown site (Site 03. When the wind is aligned such that the sites are downwind of the urban area, the enhancements are increased, to 1.6 ppm at Site 09, and 3.3 ppm at Site 02. Differences in sampling height affect the reported urban enhancement by up to 50%, but the overall spatial pattern remains similar. The time interval over which the afternoon data are averaged alters the calculated urban enhancement by an average of 0.4 ppm

  9. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil Fertilization and Biochar Addition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, I.; Johnson, M. S.; Jassal, R. S.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), linked to current climate change has stimulated a scientific response to provide robust accounting of sources and sinks of these gases. There is an urgent need to increase awareness of land management impacts on GHG flux dynamics to facilitate the development of management strategies that minimize GHG emissions. Biochar (pyrolyzed organic matter) has been identified as a strategy to reduce net GHG fluxes from soils. This is due to its potential to sequester large amounts of carbon for significant time periods, as well as its modification of biotic and abiotic soil conditions, which in turn can alter the GHG balance. This study describes the effect of biochar and urea-N application on soil surface CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forest on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada (49o 52' N, 125o 20' W). We used a randomized complete-block design with four replicates of the following treatments: i) control, ii) 5 Mg ha-1 biochar surface application, iii) 200 kg N ha-1 urea pellets surface application, and iv) 5 Mg ha-1 biochar plus 200 kg N ha-1 urea. Soil GHG flux measurements were made biweekly for two years beginning in September 2011 using a non-steady-state non-flow through chamber technique. Biochar was added in February 2012, with urea applied in March 2013. A collar made from 21-cm diameter x 11-cm long PVC piping was installed in each of the 16 plots between two large trees on the forest floor, penetrating the organic layer to the mineral soil at the 5-8 cm depth. A clear Plexiglas lid, equipped with a 10-cm long vent tube and 9-V fan, was placed on each collar when making measurements, with 20-mL samples of chamber headspace air collected at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 min using a medical syringe with 21-gauge needle inserted through a rubber septum in the chamber lid. Samples were injected into and transported in previously

  10. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    One of the activities of the European Science Foundation (ESF, www.esf.org) is developing European scale Research Networking Programmes (RNPs). RNPs lay the foundation for nationally funded research groups to address major scientific and research infrastructure issues, in order to advance the frontiers of existing science. MOLTER (www.esf.org/molter or www.molter.no) is such an RNP. MOLTER stands for "Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes" aims at stimulating the use of isotopic and organic chemistry to study carbon stabilization and biogeochemistry in terrestrial ecosystems and soils in particular. The understanding of the formation, stabilization and decomposition of complex organic compounds in the environment is currently being revolutionized by advanced techniques in identification, quantification, and origin tracing of functional groups and individual molecules. MOLTER focuses on five major research themes: - Molecular composition and turnover time of soil organic matter; - Plant molecular structures as drivers of C stabilisation in soils; - Fire transformations of plant and soil molecular structures - Molecular markers in soils; - Dissolved organic molecules in soils: origin, functionality and transport. These research themes are covered via the following activities: - Organisation of international conferences; - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Organisation of summer schools for PhD students; - Short- and long-term exchange grants for scientists. MOLTER is supported by research funding or performing agencies from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The ESF is also the implementing agency of COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology, www.cost.esf.org), one of the longest-running European instruments supporting cooperation among scientists and researchers across Europe. COST Action 639 "Greenhouse gas budget of

  11. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  12. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of the United States Under Present Conditions and Future Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Bernknopf, Richard; Clow, David; Dye, Dennis; Faulkner, Stephen; Forney, William; Gleason, Robert; Hawbaker, Todd; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; Prisley, Stephen; Reed, Bradley; Reeves, Matthew; Rollins, Matthew; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stehman, Stephen; Striegl, Robert G.; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Section 712, authorizes the U.S. Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and conduct an assessment of the Nation's ecosystems focusing on carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and emissions of three greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The major requirements include (1) an assessment of all ecosystems (terrestrial systems, such as forests, croplands, wetlands, shrub and grasslands; and aquatic ecosystems, such as rivers, lakes, and estuaries), (2) an estimation of annual potential capacities of ecosystems to increase carbon sequestration and reduce net GHG emissions in the context of mitigation strategies (including management and restoration activities), and (3) an evaluation of the effects of controlling processes, such as climate change, land use and land cover, and wildlfires. The purpose of this draft methodology for public review is to propose a technical plan to conduct the assessment. Within the methodology, the concepts of ecosystems, carbon pools, and GHG fluxes used for the assessment follow conventional definitions in use by major national and international assessment or inventory efforts. In order to estimate current ecosystem carbon stocks and GHG fluxes and to understand the potential capacity and effects of mitigation strategies, the method will use two time periods for the assessment: 2001 through 2010, which establishes a current ecosystem GHG baseline and will be used to validate the models; and 2011 through 2050, which will be used to assess future potential conditions based on a set of projected scenarios. The scenario framework is constructed using storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES), along with initial reference land-use and land-cover (LULC) and land-management scenarios. An additional three LULC and land-management mitigation scenarios will be constructed for each

  13. A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Bernknopf, Richard; Clow, David; Dye, Dennis; Faulkner, Stephen; Forney, William; Gleason, Robert; Hawbaker, Todd; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; Prisley, Stephen; Reed, Bradley; Reeves, Matthew; Rollins, Matthew; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stehman, Stephen; Striegl, Robert G.; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2010-01-01

    he Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Section 712, mandates the U.S. Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and conduct an assessment of the Nation’s ecosystems, focusing on carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and emissions of three greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The major requirements include (1) an assessment of all ecosystems (terrestrial systems, such as forests, croplands, wetlands, grasslands/shrublands; and aquatic ecosystems, such as rivers, lakes, and estuaries); (2) an estimate of the annual potential capacities of ecosystems to increase carbon sequestration and reduce net GHG emissions in the context of mitigation strategies (including management and restoration activities); and (3) an evaluation of the effects of controlling processes, such as climate change, land-use and land-cover change, and disturbances such as wildfires.The concepts of ecosystems, carbon pools, and GHG fluxes follow conventional definitions in use by major national and international assessment or inventory efforts. In order to estimate current ecosystem carbon stocks and GHG fluxes and to understand the potential capacity and effects of mitigation strategies, the method will use two time periods for the assessment: 2001 through 2010, which establishes a current ecosystem carbon and GHG baseline and will be used to validate the models; and 2011 through 2050, which will be used to assess potential capacities based on a set of scenarios. The scenario framework will be constructed using storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES), along with both reference and enhanced land-use and land-cover (LULC) and land-management parameters. Additional LULC and land-management mitigation scenarios will be constructed for each storyline to increase carbon sequestration and reduce GHG fluxes in ecosystems. Input from regional experts and stakeholders will be

  14. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model: A Tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Animal agriculture is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but good information does not exist on the net emissions from our farms. A software tool called the Dai...

  15. A "Greenhouse Gas" Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Elaine; Paul, Melissa; Como, Charles; Barat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an effective experience in greenhouse gas reduction. Ammoniated water is flowed counter-current to a simulated flue gas of air and CO2 in a packed column. The gaseous CO2 concentrations are measured with an on-line, non- dispersive, infrared analyzer. Column operating parameters include total gas flux, dissolved…

  16. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  17. Greenhouse gas emission factors associated with rewetting of organic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drained organic soils are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to the atmosphere. Rewetting these soils may reduce GHG emissions and could also create suitable conditions for return of the carbon (C sink function characteristic of undrained organic soils. In this article we expand on the work relating to rewetted organic soils that was carried out for the 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Wetlands Supplement. We describe the methods and scientific approach used to derive the Tier 1 emission factors (the rate of emission per unit of activity for the full suite of GHG and waterborne C fluxes associated with rewetting of organic soils. We recorded a total of 352 GHG and waterborne annual flux data points from an extensive literature search and these were disaggregated by flux type (i.e. CO2, CH4, N2O and DOC, climate zone and nutrient status. Our results showed fundamental differences between the GHG dynamics of drained and rewetted organic soils and, based on the 100 year global warming potential of each gas, indicated that rewetting of drained organic soils leads to: net annual removals of CO2 in the majority of organic soil classes; an increase in annual CH4 emissions; a decrease in N2O and DOC losses; and a lowering of net GHG emissions. Data published since the Wetlands Supplement (n = 58 generally support our derivations. Significant data gaps exist, particularly with regard to tropical organic soils, DOC and N2O. We propose that the uncertainty associated with our derivations could be significantly reduced by the development of country specific emission factors that could in turn be disaggregated by factors such as vegetation composition, water table level, time since rewetting and previous land use history.

  18. GALILEO PROBE NET FLUX RADIOMETER DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Probe Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) measured net and upward radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere between about 0.44 bars and 14 bars, using five spectral...

  19. Greenhouse gas flux under warm-season perennial C4 grasses across different soil and climate gradients on the Islands of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, M. N.; Crow, S. E.; Sumiyoshi, Y.; Wells, J.; Kikkawa, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural soils can serve as either a sink or a source for atmospheric carbon (C) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). This is particularly true for tropical soils where influences from climate and soil gradients are wide ranging. Current estimates of GHG flux from soil are often under or overestimated due to high variability in sample sites and inconsistencies in land use and vegetation type, making extrapolation to new study systems difficult. This work aimed to identify patterns of trace fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) across two soil types and three species of warm season perennial C4 grasses: Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) on the islands of Oahu and Maui in Hawaii. Multiple static vented chambers were installed into replicate plots for each species; flux measurements were made during the growth, fertilization and harvest cycles at set time intervals for one hour and analyzed by gas chromatography. Initial results from Oahu indicate no significant differences in CO2 flux between the P. maximum and P. purpureum species after fertilization or at full growth. We observed an average flux of 143 mg m-2 h-1 and 155 mg m-2 h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively at full growth for CO2 and 1.7 μg m-2 h-1and 0.3 μg m-2 h-1 for N2O. Additionally, N2O rates sampled after a typical fertilizer application were significantly greater than at full growth (p=0.0005) with flux rates of 25.2 μg m2h-1 and 30.3 μg m2h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively. With a global warming potential of 310 for N2O, even short-term spikes following fertilizer application can cause long lasting effects of GHG emission from agricultural soils. CH4 flux was negligible for all species on the Oahu plots during these sample periods. Globally, water limitation is a major factor influencing the potential productivity of agricultural crops and the sustainability of

  20. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  1. Greenhouse Gas Exchange and Biogeochemistry of Fertilized Canadian Plantation Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiliko, N.; Grayston, S. J.; Roy, R.; Mohn, W. W.; Yolova, V.; Prescott, C.

    2005-12-01

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 has raised questions of the role of ecosystem management as a tool to temporarily reduce the net greenhouse gas burden of the forestry industry and potentially generate emission offset credits. We examined growing season methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, soil nutrient chemistry, and microbial biomass and CH4-oxidizing bacterial communities in 20-year-old sub-boreal lodgepole pine and maritime hemlock plantations under control conditions and simulated operational fertilization with N (200kg urea-N per ha, applied twice) and N, P, K, and micronutrients. CH4 uptake was significantly greater in the lodgepole pine site than in the hemlock site (152-221 and 57-81 micrograms CH4 consumed per square meter per hour), and there were no significant differences among treatments at either site. Among sites, treatments, and sampling times, CH4 uptake correlated positively with NH4 concentrations and negatively with extractable organic N:P quotients, indicating that this process may potentially be limited by nutrient availability to the CH4-oxidizing bacteria. N2O efflux was measured sporadically at a few flux collars, but was not significantly different from zero at any site, treatment, or time. Soil respiration (CO2 efflux) rates were faster in the hemlock than lodgepole pine site (243-409 and 100-266 milligrams CO2 per square meter per hour), and significant treatment differences were observed at individual times, though with fertilized plots exhibiting both faster and slower rates than controls. Soil respiration correlated significantly with microbial biomass C and N and NO3. Within each site, soil respiration, but not CH4 uptake, was positively correlated with soil temperature. New experiments examining the short-term effects of fertilization on greenhouse gas exchanges are underway, and both short and long-term effects will be evaluated in relation to changes in C storage in plant biomass

  2. Preface: Towards a full greenhouse gas balance of the biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merbold, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-01-01

    and modeling networks (Baldocchi et al., 2001; Friend et al., 2007; Raymond et al., 2013; Tranvik et al., 2009), similar information on the biosphere–atmosphere exchange of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (i.e., CH4 and N2O) is sparsely available in comparison. To date, a strong focus has been given to so-called high...... quantification of the exchange of these three major greenhouse gases from a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is still missing. Therefore, approaches to develop full greenhouse gas monitoring networks, as currently undertaken in larger environmental research infrastructures such as ICOS......Ecosystem greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) represent a major driver of global environmental change (IPCC, 2014). While there exists an emerging understanding on the net exchange of CO2 across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due in part to the existence of large measurement...

  3. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, soil oxygen concentrations were lower in the low and mid-marshes relative to the high marsh (P < 0.001). Net N2 O fluxes differed significantly among marsh zones (P = 0.009), averaging 9.8 ± 5.4 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , -2.2 ± 0.9 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , and 0.67 ± 0.57 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) in the low, mid, and high marshes, respectively. Both net N2 O release and uptake were observed in the low and high marshes, but the mid-marsh was consistently a net N2 O sink. Gross N2 O production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Eddy covariance flux measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange from a lowland peatland flux tower network in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Balzter, Heiko; Burden, Annette; Callaghan, Nathan; Cumming, Alenander; Dixon, Simon; Evans, Jonathan; Kaduk, Joerg; Page, Susan; Pan, Gong; Rayment, Mark; Ridley, Luke; Rylett, Daniel; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands store disproportionately large amounts of soil carbon relative to other terrestrial ecosystems. Over recent decades, the large amount of carbon stored as peat has proved vulnerable to a range of land use pressures as well as the increasing impacts of climate change. In temperate Europe and elsewhere, large tracts of lowland peatland have been drained and converted to agricultural land use. Such changes have resulted in widespread losses of lowland peatland habitat, land subsidence across extensive areas and the transfer of historically accumulated soil carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). More recently, there has been growth in activities aiming to reduce these impacts through improved land management and peatland restoration. Despite a long history of productive land use and management, the magnitude and controls on greenhouse gas emissions from lowland peatland environments remain poorly quantified. Here, results of surface-atmosphere measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) from a network of seven eddy covariance (EC) flux towers located at a range of lowland peatland ecosystems across the United Kingdom (UK) are presented. This spatially-dense peatland flux tower network forms part of a wider observation programme aiming to quantify carbon, water and greenhouse gas balances for lowland peatlands across the UK. EC measurements totalling over seventeen site years were obtained at sites exhibiting large differences in vegetation cover, hydrological functioning and land management. The sites in the network show remarkable spatial and temporal variability in NEE. Across sites, annual NEE ranged from a net sink of -194 ±38 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 to a net source of 784±70 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1. The results suggest that semi-natural sites remain net sinks for atmospheric CO2. Sites that are drained for intensive agricultural production range from a small net sink to the largest observed source for atmospheric CO2 within the flux tower network

  5. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  6. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  7. Greenhouse gas inventory estimates for India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subodh K. Sharma; Asim Choudhury; Pinaki Sarkar; Subhashis Biswas; Anil Singh; Pradeep K. Dadhich; Ajay K. Singh; Suman Majumdar; Arti Bhatia; Madhu Mohini; Rajesh Kumar; C. S. Jha; M. S. R. Murthy; N. H. Ravindranath; Jayant K. Bhattacharya; M. Karthik; Sumana Bhattacharya; Rita Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the greenhouse gas emissions of anthropogenic origin by sources and removals by sinks of India for 2007 prepared under the aegis of the Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA) (note 1...

  8. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  10. Humus and energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions with compost fertilization in organic farming compared with mineral fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Schmid, Harald; Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen; Hartl, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    Humus and energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions with compost fertilization in organic farming compared with mineral fertilization E. Erhart, H. Schmid, K.-J. Hülsbergen, W. Hartl The positive effects of compost fertilization on soil humus with their associated benefits for soil quality are well-established. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of compost fertilization on humus and energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions and to compare the results of the humus balances with the changes in soil organic carbon contents measured in the soil of the experimental field. In order to assess the effects of compost use in organic farming as compared to conventional farming practice using mineral fertilizers, the field experiment with compost fertilization 'STIKO' was set up in 1992 near Vienna, Austria, on a Molli-gleyic Fluvisol. It included three treatments with compost fertilization (C1, C2 and C3 with 8, 14 and 20 t ha-1 y-1 f. m. on average of 14 years), three treatments with mineral nitrogen fertilization (N1, N2 and N3 with 29, 46 and 63 kg N ha-1 y 1 on average) and an unfertilized control (0) in six replications in a latin rectangle design. In the field trial, biowaste compost from the composting plant of the City of Vienna was used. Data from the field experiment (from 14 experimental years) were fed into the model software REPRO to calculate humus and energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions. The model software REPRO (REPROduction of soil fertility) couples the balancing of C, N and energy fluxes. For the determination of the net greenhouse effect, REPRO performs calculations of C sequestration in the soil, CO2 emissions from the use of fossil energy and N2O emissions from the soil. Humus balances showed that compost fertilization at a rate of 8 t ha-1 y-1 (C1) resulted in a positive humus balance of +115 kg C ha-1 y-1. With 14 and 20 t ha-1 y-1 compost (C2 and C3), respectively, humus accumulated at rates of 558 and 1021 kg C ha-1

  11. Optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies to suppress energy cannibalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.M. [Queen' s Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Energy cannibalism refers to an effect where rapid growth of an entire energy producing (or conserving) technology industry creates a need for energy that uses (or cannibalizes) the energy of existing power plants or devices. For the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies to grow while remaining net greenhouse gas emission mitigators, they must grow at a rate slower than the inverse of their energy payback time. This constraint exposes a current market failure that significantly undervalues the physical reality of embodied energy in products or processes deployed to mitigate GHG emissions and indicates potential solutions. (author)

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Mustard, John F; Cerri, Carlos C

    2010-11-16

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.

  13. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  14. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  15. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  16. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial...

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  18. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  19. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Enteric Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Tedeschi, L.; Dijkstra, J.; Ellis, J.L.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock directly contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. For cost and practicality reasons, quantification of GHG has been through development of various types of mathematical models. This chapter addresses the utility and

  20. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms requires a comprehensive approach that integrates the impacts and interactions of all important sources and sinks. This approach requires some form of modeling. Types of models commonly used include empirical emission factors, pr...

  1. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from University Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Matthew; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was conducted for Yale University's procurement of goods and services over a one-year period. The goal of the inventory was to identify the financial expenditures resulting in the greatest "indirect" GHG emissions. This project is part of an ongoing effort to quantify and reduce the university's…

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Farber, Daniel A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The major regulatory experiment with greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU enables legal scholars to learn lessons regarding its design options and implementation problems. Some fundamental concerns are: (1) the issue of how to develop a fair allocation method, also in view of carbon leakage;

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available South African greenhouse gas emissions contributed about 1.2% to the global increase in the greenhouse effect in 1988. South Africa generated trace gases with a radiation absorption potential over a 20-year period equivalent to 534 million tons...

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from the grassy outdoor run of organic broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Meda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 fluxes over the grassy outdoor run of organically grown broilers were monitored using static chambers over two production batches in contrasted seasons. Measured N2O and CH4 fluxes were extremely variable in time and space for both batches, with fluxes ranging from a small uptake by soil to large emissions peaks, the latter of which always occurred in the chambers located closest to the broiler house. In general, fluxes decreased with increasing distance to the broiler house, demonstrating that the foraging of broilers and the amount of excreted nutrients (carbon, nitrogen largely control the spatial variability of emissions. Spatial integration by kriging methods was carried out to provide representative fluxes on the outdoor run for each measurement day. Mechanistic relationships between plot-scale estimates and environmental conditions (soil temperature and water content were calibrated in order to fill gaps between measurement days. Flux integration over the year 2010 showed that around 3 ± 1 kg N2O-N ha−1 were emitted on the outdoor run, equivalent to 0.9% of outdoor N excretion and substantially lower than the IPCC default emission factor of 2%. By contrast, the outdoor run was found to be a net CH4 sink of about −0.56 kg CH4-C ha−1, though this sink compensated less than 1.5% (in CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions. The net greenhouse gas (GHG budget of the outdoor run is explored, based on measured GHG fluxes and short-term (1.5 yr variations in soil organic carbon.

  5. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  6. Greenhouse gas impacts of natural gas: Influence of deployment choice, methane leak rate, and methane GWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Growing supplies of natural gas have heightened interest in the net impacts of natural gas on climate. Although its production and consumption result in greenhouse gas emissions, natural gas most often substitutes for other fossil fuels whose emission rates may be higher. Because natural gas can be used throughout the sectors of the energy economy, its net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions will depend not only on the leak rates of production and distribution, but also on the use for which natural gas is substituted. Here, we present our estimates of the net greenhouse gas emissions impacts of substituting natural gas for other fossil fuels for five purposes: light-duty vehicles, transit buses, residential heating, electricity generation, and export for electricity generation overseas. Emissions are evaluated on a fuel cycle basis, from production and transport of each fuel through end use combustion, based on recent conditions in the United States. We show that displacement of existing coal-fired electricity and heating oil furnaces yield the largest reductions in emissions. The impact of compressed natural gas replacing petroleum-based vehicles is highly uncertain, with the sign of impact depending on multiple assumptions. Export of liquefied natural gas for electricity yields a moderate amount of emissions reductions. We further show how uncertainties in upstream emission rates for natural gas and in the global warming potential of methane influence the net greenhouse gas impacts. Our presentation will make the case that how natural gas is deployed is crucial to determining how it will impact climate.

  7. A life cycle greenhouse gas inventory of a tree production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa Kendall; E. Gregory McPherson

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThis study provides a detailed, process-based life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory of an ornamental tree production system for urban forestry. The success of large-scale tree planting initiatives for climate protection depends on projects being net sinks for CO2 over their entire life cycle....

  8. Software for evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farms. Component models for representing all important sources and sinks of CH4, N2O, and CO2 in dairy p...

  9. Sectoral Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores sectoral approaches as a new set of options to enhance the effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction policies and to engage emerging economies on a lower emission path. It surveys existing literature and recent policy trends in international climate change discussions, and provides an overview of sectoral approaches and related issues for trade-exposed, greenhouse-gas intensive industries (cement, iron and steel and aluminium). It is also based on interviews conducted by the IEA Secretariat in Australia, China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. Sectoral approaches were also discussed during workshops on technology and energy efficiency policies in industry, following the IEA's mandate under the Gleneagles Plan of Action.

  10. Accouting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Deemer, B. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Nietch, C. T.; Waldo, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a `basis for future methodological development' due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions linked to the National Lakes Assessment.

  11. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  12. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  13. Towards a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, Riley; Butler, James; Rotman, Doug; Miller, Charles; Decola, Phil; Sheffner, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Mitchiner, John; Jonietz, Karl; Dimotakis, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems and in the oceans. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, meta-analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to rigorously identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a status of the GHGIS effort including our latest analysis and ideas for potential near-term pilot projects with potential relevance to European initiatives including the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS).

  14. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  15. Impact of stream geomorphology on greenhouse gas concentration in a New York mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Satish Serchan

    2016-01-01

    As increased greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG: N2O, CO2, CH4) in our atmosphere remain a major concern, better quantifying GHG fluxes from natural systems is essential. In this study, we investigate GHG concentrations in saturated riparian sediments (dry, wet, mucky), streambed hyporheic zone...

  16. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott. Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  18. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O' Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2013-03-15

    Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations

  19. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  20. Beneficial effect of compost utilization on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in a rice cultivation system through the overall management chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Tak; Kim, Gil Won; Hwang, Hyun Young; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Livestock manure application can stimulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially methane (CH4) in rice paddy. The stabilized organic matter (OM) is recommended to suppress CH4 emission without counting the additional GHG emission during the composting process. To evaluate the effect of compost utilization on the net global warming potential (GWP) of a rice cropping system, the fluxes of GHGs from composting to land application were calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The model framework was composed of GHG fluxes from industrial activities and biogenic GHG fluxes from the composting and rice cultivation processes. Fresh manure emitted 30MgCO2-eq.ha-1, 90% and 10% of which were contributed by CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, respectively, during rice cultivation. Compost utilization decreased net GWP by 25% over that of the fresh manure during the whole process. The composting process increased the GWP of the industrial processes by 35%, but the 60% reduction in CH4 emissions from the rice paddy mainly influenced the reduction of GWP during the overall process. Therefore, compost application could be a good management strategy to reduce GHG emissions from rice paddy systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Mustard, John F.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006–2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24–49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2–0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso. PMID:20651250

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2017-03-01

    Livestock agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with a substantial proportion of emissions derived from manure management. Accurate estimates of emissions related to management practices and climate are needed for identifying the best approaches to minimize, and potentially mitigate, GHG emissions. Current emissions models such as those of the IPCC, however, are based on emissions factors that have not been broadly tested against field-scale measurements, due to a lack of data. We used a diverse set of measurements over 22 months across a range of substrate conditions on a working dairy to determine patterns and controls on soil-based GHG fluxes. Although dairy soils and substrates differed by management unit, GHG fluxes were poorly predicted by these or climate variables. The manure pile had the greatest GHG emissions, and though temperature increased and O2 concentration decreased following mixing, we detected almost no change in GHG fluxes due to mixing. Corral fluxes were characterized by hotspots and hot moments driven by patterns in deposition. Annual scraping kept the soil and accumulated manure pack thin, producing drier conditions, particularly in the warm dry season. Summed over area, corral fluxes had the greatest non-CO2 global warming potential. The field had net CH4 consumption, but CH4 uptake was insufficient to offset N2 O emissions on an area basis. All sites emitted N2 O with a similar or greater climate impact than CH4 . Our results highlight the importance of N2 O emissions, a less commonly measured GHG, from manure management and present potential opportunities for GHG emissions reductions. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Use of UAVs for greenhouse gas monitoring at hotspot emissions zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, J. R.; Allen, G.; Mead, M. I.; Hollingsworth, P.; Kabbabe, K.; Roberts, G.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring greenhouse gas emissions from individual localised sources, or "hotspots", is important for both compliance monitoring and validating the techniques used to compile national emission inventories. Frequently ground based techniques are used, such as flux chamber measurements, which suffer from issues regarding sample representativeness, and tracer release methods, which for area sources rely heavily on release site configuration. Obtaining vertically resolved data can enable the use of a mass balance method to calculate greenhouse gas fluxes. This has been achieved using remote sensing techniques, but this usually requires the deployment of expensive, bulky instrumentation. Here we evaluate the suitability of using UAVs, in conjunction with emerging miniaturised sensor technology, as a highly manoeuvrable, low cost alternative for measuring hotspot greenhouse gas emissions. We describe a case study performed at a UK landfill site, where greenhouse gas measurements made on board a fixed wing UAV were used to estimate the bulk CH4 emission rate. Details of the mass balance technique employed, along with the key uncertainties associated with it, are discussed. This work is part of an ongoing study at the University of Manchester into the application of UAVs in atmospheric research, with the rapid advancement in miniaturised sensor technology providing new opportunities for integrating trace gas measurement with existing lightweight UAVs.

  4. Thermal net flux measurements on the Pioneer Venus entry probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revercomb, H. E.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Suomi, V. E.; Boese, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Corrected thermal net (upward minus downward flux) radiation data from four Pioneer Venus probes at latitudes of 4 deg and 60 deg N, and 27 deg and 31 deg S, are presented. Comparisons of these fluxes with radiative transfer calculations were interpreted in terms of cloud properties and the global distribution of water vapor in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The presence of an as yet undetected source of IR opacity is implied by the fluxes in the upper cloud range. It was also shown that beneath the clouds the fluxes at a given altitude increase with latitude, suggesting greater IR cooling below the clouds at high latitudes and a decrease of the water vapor mixing ratios toward the equator.

  5. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    -consuming and labor-intensive. This PhD thesis presents the development of a new method for measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios from ice cores based on a melting device of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. The coupling to a CFA melting device enables time-efficient measurements of high resolution......Ice cores offer the unique possibility to study the history of past atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 800,000 years, since past atmospheric air is trapped in bubbles in the ice. Since the 1950s, paleo-scientists have developed a variety of techniques to extract the trapped air from...... individual ice core samples, and to measure the mixing ratio of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the extracted air. The discrete measurements have become highly accurate and reproducible, but require relatively large amounts of ice per measured species and are both time...

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...... production. The surplus area could be used for energy production without affecting the land use necessary for food and feed production. We built a model to investigate the effect of changing nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates on cropping area required for a given amount of crops. We found that an increase...... a reduction of N input is still more effective than the production of bioenergy unless mitigation effect of the bioenergy production exceeds 7 t carbon dioxide (CO2)-eq../ha. An intensification of land use in terms of N supply to provide more land for bioenergy production can only in exceptional cases...

  7. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  10. MetaFluxNet: the management of metabolic reaction information and quantitative metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yup; Yun, Hongsoek; Park, Sunwon; Lee, Sang Yup

    2003-11-01

    MetaFluxNet is a program package for managing information on the metabolic reaction network and for quantitatively analyzing metabolic fluxes in an interactive and customized way. It allows users to interpret and examine metabolic behavior in response to genetic and/or environmental modifications. As a result, quantitative in silico simulations of metabolic pathways can be carried out to understand the metabolic status and to design the metabolic engineering strategies. The main features of the program include a well-developed model construction environment, user-friendly interface for metabolic flux analysis (MFA), comparative MFA of strains having different genotypes under various environmental conditions, and automated pathway layout creation. http://mbel.kaist.ac.kr/ A manual for MetaFluxNet is available as PDF file.

  11. Coupling above and below ground gas measurements to understand greenhouse gas production in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Creelman, Chance

    2016-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic changes in climate have the potential to significantly affect the Earth's natural greenhouse gas balances. To understand how these climatic changes will manifest in a complex biological, chemical and physical system, a process-based understanding of the production and consumption of greenhouse gases in soils is critical. Commonly, both chamber methods and gradient-based approaches are used to estimate greenhouse gas flux from the soil to the atmosphere. Each approach offers benefits, but not surprisingly, comes with a list of drawbacks. Chambers are easily deployed on the surface without significant disturbance to the soil, and can be easily spatially replicated. However the high costs of automated chamber systems and the inability to partition fluxes by depth are potential downfalls. The gradient method requires a good deal of disturbance for installation, however it also offers users spatiotemporally resolved flux estimates at a reasonable price point. Researchers widely recognize that the main drawback of the gradient approach is the requirement to estimate diffusivity using empirical models based on studies of specific soils or soil types. These diffusivity estimates can often be off by several orders of magnitude, yielding poor flux estimates. Employing chamber and gradient methods in unison allows for in-situ estimation of the diffusion coefficient, and therefore improves gradient-based estimates of flux. A dual-method approach yields more robust information on the temporal dynamics and depth distribution of greenhouse gas production and consumption in the soil profile. Here we present a mathematical optimization framework that allows these complimentary measurement techniques to yield more robust information than a single technique alone. We then focus on how it can be used to improve the process-based understanding of greenhouse gas production in the soil profile.

  12. Energy, greenhouse gas, and cost reductions for municipal recycling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Martin, Elliot; Sathaye, Nakul

    2008-03-15

    Curbside recycling programs can be more cost-effective than landfilling and lead to environmental benefits from the recovery of materials. Significant reductions in energy and emissions are derived from the decrease of energy-intensive production with virgin materials. In many cities, competing priorities can lead to limited consideration given to system optimal collection and processing strategies that can drive down costs and increase revenue while simultaneously reducing system energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We evaluate three alterations to a hypothetical California city's recycling network to discern the conditions under which the changes.constitute system improvements to cost, energy, and emissions. The system initially operates with a collection zoning scheme that does not mitigate the impact of seasonal variations in consumer tonnage. In addition, two collection organizations operate redundantly, collecting recyclables from different customer types on the same street network. Finally, the system is dual stream, meaning recyclables are separated at the curbside. In some scenarios, this practice can limit the consumer participation rate leading to lower collection quantities. First, we evaluate a "business as usual" (BAU) scenario and find that the system operates at a $1.7 M/yr loss but still avoids a net 18.7 GJ and 1700 kg of greenhouse gas equivalent (GGE) per ton of material recycled. Second, we apply an alternative zoning scheme for collection that creates a uniform daily pickup demand throughout the year reducing costs by $0.2 M/yr, energy by 30 MJ/ton, and GHG emissions by 2 kg GGE/ton. Next, the two collection organizations are consolidated into a single entity further reducing vehicle fleet size and weekly vehicle miles traveled resulting in savings from BAU of $0.3 M/yr, 100 MJ/ton, and 8 kg GGE/ton. Lastly, we evaluate a switch to a single-stream system (where recyclables are commingled). We showthat single-stream recycling

  13. Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Subtropical Mangrove in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, D. Y. F.; Xu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The concept of "blue carbon" has received increasing attention recently, which points to the potential role of vegetated coastal wetlands in carbon sequestration. Yet, the magnitude and controls of greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetland ecosystems, especially mangroves in the subtropical regions, are still largely unknown. In this study, we conducted chamber measurements in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve of Hong Kong at monthly intervals to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the emission of greenhouse gases, including CO2, CH4 and N2O from mangrove soils, and examine the influence of environmental and biotic variables on greenhouse gas fluxes. We found the highest mean CH4 and N2O emissions in autumn and the highest CO2 flux in summer. Along the tidal gradient, we observed significantly higher CH4 and N2O emissions from the middle zones and landward zones, respectively, while no clear spatial variation of CO2 emissions was observed. There were significantly higher soil greenhouse gas emissions from sites dominated by Avicennia marina than those dominated by Kandelia obovata, which might be due to the presence of pneumatophores which facilitated gas transport. We found a significant, negative correlation between CH4 flux and soil NO3-N concentration, while CO2 flux was positively correlation with total Kjeldahl nitrogen content. Soil temperature was positively correlated with the emissions of all three greenhouse gases, while water table depth was positively and negatively correlated with CH4 and N2O emissions, respectively. Our findings demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from mangrove soils which could be attributed in part to the differences in environmental conditions and dominant plant species.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  15. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  16. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  17. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  18. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  19. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelowa, Axel [University of Zuerich, Muehlegasse 21, 8001 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dransfeld, Bjoern [Perspectives GmbH, Sonnenredder 55, 22045 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO{sub 2} emissions by more than 10 million t. While the shift from beef to other forms of meat in industrialized and countries in transition has lead to lifecycle emissions savings of 20 million t CO{sub 2} equivalent between 1990 and 2005, emissions due to obesity-promoting foodstuffs have increased by more than 400 million t in advanced developing countries. Emissions in OECD countries could be reduced by more than 4 million t through reduction of associated food waste. Due to the intimate behavioural nature of the obesity problem, policies to reduce obesity such as food taxation, subsidization of human-powered transport, incentives to reduce sedentary leisure and regulation of fat in foodstuffs have not yet been implemented to any extent. The emissions benefits of fiscal and regulatory measures to reduce obesity could accelerate the tipping point where a majority of voters feels that the problem warrants policy action. (author)

  20. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  1. Effect of different agronomic practises on greenhouse gas emissions, especially N2O and nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2014-05-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, management practises need to be adapted by implementing sustainable land use. At first, reliable field data are required to assess the effect of different farming practises on greenhouse gas budgets. The conducted field experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system, implementing additionally the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practises. Furthermore, the analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties enables a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the monitored cycle of matter, especially the nitrogen cycle. Measurements were carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then, parcels in a field (each around 0,2-0,4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted. So the 20 years impacts of different tillage and fertilisation practises on soil properties including trace gases were examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 are monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (per point: 4 chambers, each covering 0,4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit (Flessa et al. 2002). Each chamber is sampled 3-4 times in 24 hours. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes as influenced by management practice events (fertilisation and tillage) and weather effects (drying-rewetting, freezing-thawing, intense rainfall and dry periods

  2. Composting of biochars improves their sorption properties, retains nutrients during composting and affects greenhouse gas emissions after soil application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar application to soils has been suggested to elevate nutrient sorption, improve soil fertility and reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We examined the impact of composting biochar together with a biologically active substrate (i.e., livestock manure-straw mixture). We hypothesized that ...

  3. DairyGHG: a tool for evaluating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment have become important national and international concerns. Dairy production, along with all other animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farm...

  4. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  5. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon budgeting in a short-hydroperiod floodplain wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Jackie; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Krauss, Ken W.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the controls on floodplain carbon (C) cycling is important for assessing greenhouse gas emissions and the potential for C sequestration in river-floodplain ecosystems. We hypothesized that greater hydrologic connectivity would increase C inputs to floodplains that would not only stimulate soil C gas emissions but also sequester more C in soils. In an urban Piedmont river (151 km2 watershed) with a floodplain that is dry most of the year, we quantified soil CO2, CH4, and N2O net emissions along gradients of floodplain hydrologic connectivity, identified controls on soil aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and developed a floodplain soil C budget. Sites were chosen along a longitudinal river gradient and across lateral floodplain geomorphic units (levee, backswamp, and toe slope). CO2 emissions decreased downstream in backswamps and toe slopes and were high on the levees. CH4 and N2O fluxes were near zero; however, CH4emissions were highest in the backswamp. Annual CO2 emissions correlated negatively with soil water-filled pore space and positively with variables related to drier, coarser soil. Conversely, annual CH4 emissions had the opposite pattern of CO2. Spatial variation in aerobic and anaerobic respiration was thus controlled by oxygen availability but was not related to C inputs from sedimentation or vegetation. The annual mean soil CO2 emission rate was 1091 g C m−2 yr−1, the net sedimentation rate was 111 g C m−2 yr−1, and the vegetation production rate was 240 g C m−2 yr−1, with a soil C balance (loss) of −338 g C m−2 yr−1. This floodplain is losing C likely due to long-term drying from watershed urbanization.

  6. Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussana, J F; Tallec, T; Blanfort, V

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon sequestration (enhanced sinks) is the mechanism responsible for most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in the agriculture sector. Carbon sequestration in grasslands can be determined directly by measuring changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and indirectly by measuring the net balance of C fluxes. A literature search shows that grassland C sequestration reaches on average 5 ± 30 g C/m2 per year according to inventories of SOC stocks and -231 and 77 g C/m2 per year for drained organic and mineral soils, respectively, according to C flux balance. Off-site C sequestration occurs whenever more manure C is produced by than returned to a grassland plot. The sum of on- and off-site C sequestration reaches 129, 98 and 71 g C/m2 per year for grazed, cut and mixed European grasslands on mineral soils, respectively, however with high uncertainty. A range of management practices reduce C losses and increase C sequestration: (i) avoiding soil tillage and the conversion of grasslands to arable use, (ii) moderately intensifying nutrient-poor permanent grasslands, (iii) using light grazing instead of heavy grazing, (iv) increasing the duration of grass leys; (v) converting grass leys to grass-legume mixtures or to permanent grasslands. With nine European sites, direct emissions of N2O from soil and of CH4 from enteric fermentation at grazing, expressed in CO2 equivalents, compensated 10% and 34% of the on-site grassland C sequestration, respectively. Digestion inside the barn of the harvested herbage leads to further emissions of CH4 and N2O by the production systems, which were estimated at 130 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year. The net balance of on- and off-site C sequestration, CH4 and N2O emissions reached 38 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year, indicating a non-significant net sink activity. This net balance was, however, negative for intensively managed cut sites indicating a source to the atmosphere. In conclusion, this review confirms that

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from the Tubul-Raqui estuary (central Chile 36°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Inger; DeGrandpre, Michael; Farías, Laura

    2013-12-01

    The Tubul-Raqui estuary is a coastal system off central Chile at 37°S, adjacent to an active coastal upwelling area, which undergoes rapid changes associated with natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Biogenic greenhouse gas cycling and the gas saturation levels are good indicators of microbial metabolism and trophic status in estuaries. The dissolved greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O and other biological and chemical variables were spatially recorded in this estuary over two seasons (summer and winter) and over one-half of one tidal cycle. Tidal and spatial variability of these gases indicated they had different origins within the system. Surface waters were always oversaturated in CO2 (up to 578%) and CH4 (up to 6200%) with respect to the atmosphere. But while CO2 seems to come from marine and in situ metabolism, CH4 appears to be more influenced by fluvial and adjacent salt marsh areas. In contrast, N2O was mostly undersaturated and sediments seem to be largely responsible for its consumption. Strong seasonal variability was also observed in CO2 and CH4 fluxes, being tenfold (from -319 to 714 mmol m-2 d-1) and fivefold (from 0.33 to 2.5 mmol m-2 d-1) higher, respectively, in the austral summer compared to winter. In contrast, only small seasonal differences in N2O fluxes were found ranging from -59 to 28 µmol m-2 d-1. These temporal patterns can be explained not only in terms of hydrological and nutrient balances within the system, but also by the influence of wind-driven upwelling processes. Additionally, potential effects of changes in nutrient load and freshwater discharge on net ecosystem metabolism (i.e., autotrophy or heterotrophy) and therefore, on the production/removal of greenhouse gases in this system were explored.

  8. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  9. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  10. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beetz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs, depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O sources but methane (CH4 sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP by reducing GHG emissions.

    We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007–30 June 2009 in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4–5 cuts per year; extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year; near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence. Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE measurements were carried out every 3–4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled.

    Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 in the first (2007/2008 and the second (2008/2009 measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to −129 ± 231 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr

  11. FY2010 Federal Government Greenhouse Gas Inventory by Agency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President — The comprehensive Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory for the Federal Government accounts for emissions associated with Federal operations in FY 2010. Attached...

  12. Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1998-05-26

    The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of carsharing in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study evaluating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission changes that result from individuals participating in a carsharing organization. In this study, the authors conducted a survey of carsharing members across the c...

  14. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from the mineralisation process in a Sludge Treatment Reed Bed system: Seasonal variation and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    the annual greenhouse gas emission rate of the mineralisation process. The full-scale STRB at Helsinge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Denmark was chosen as the study site. Gas emission rates were measured using static surface flux chambers. The measurements were carried out in October/November 2014...

  16. Biochar Impacts on Soil Physical Properties and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a co-product of a controlled pyrolysis process, can be used as a tool for sequestering C in soil to offset greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and as a soil amendment. Whereas the impacts of biochar application on soil chemical properties are widely known, the research information on soil physical properties is scarce. The objectives of this review are to (i synthesize available data on soil physical properties and GHG emissions, (ii offer possible mechanisms related to the biochar-amended soil processes, and (iii identify researchable priorities. Application rates of 1%–2% (w/w of biochar can significantly improve soil physical quality in terms of bulk density (BD, and water holding capacity (WHC. However, little data are available on surface area (SA, aggregation stability, and penetration resistance (PR of biochar-amended soil. While biochar amendment can initially accentuate the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2, the emission of GHGs may be suppressed over time. A 2-phase complexation hypothesis is proposed regarding the mechanisms of the interaction between soil and biochar.

  17. Improving Empirical Approaches to Estimating Local Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, M.; Azevedo, I. L.; Lattanzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence increasingly indicates our changing climate will have significant global impacts on public health, economies, and ecosystems. As a result, local governments have become increasingly interested in climate change mitigation. In the U.S., cities and counties representing nearly 15% of the domestic population plan to reduce 300 million metric tons of greenhouse gases over the next 40 years (or approximately 1 ton per capita). Local governments estimate greenhouse gas emissions to establish greenhouse gas mitigation goals and select supporting mitigation measures. However, current practices produce greenhouse gas estimates - also known as a "greenhouse gas inventory " - of empirical quality often insufficient for robust mitigation decision making. Namely, current mitigation planning uses sporadic, annual, and deterministic estimates disaggregated by broad end use sector, obscuring sources of emissions uncertainty, variability, and exogeneity that influence mitigation opportunities. As part of AGU's Thriving Earth Exchange, Ari Lattanzi of City of Pittsburgh, PA recently partnered with Dr. Inez Lima Azevedo (Carnegie Mellon University) and Dr. Michael Blackhurst (University of Pittsburgh) to improve the empirical approach to characterizing Pittsburgh's greenhouse gas emissions. The project will produce first-order estimates of the underlying sources of uncertainty, variability, and exogeneity influencing Pittsburgh's greenhouse gases and discuss implications of mitigation decision making. The results of the project will enable local governments to collect more robust greenhouse gas inventories to better support their mitigation goals and improve measurement and verification efforts.

  18. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  20. Effects of compost and manure additions on the greenhouse gas dynamics of managed grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Grasslands cover approximately 30% of the terrestrial land surface, and have significant potential to increase soil C storage and thus lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Organic matter amendments (e.g., compost, manure) have been shown to be effective at increasing grassland soil C both through direct addition and by increasing net primary productivity. However, organic matter additions can also increase N2O and CH4 fluxes. The effects of organic matter amendments on both soil C and greenhouse gas emissions are dependent on their physical and chemical qualities. To explore the impacts of organic matter amendments of different chemical and physical qualities on soil C and greenhouse gas emissions we established research plots on three managed annual grasslands in California. Three replicate blocks were established at each site and included an untreated control, a manure treatment, and a compost treatment. At one site, an additional compost with a lower nitrogen content was also tested. In October 2011, a 1 cm layer of the designated amendment was added to each plot. All plots were sampled for soil (C and N, bulk density, temperature, moisture) and plant (community, aboveground biomass) properties, prior to and for two years following treatment. Plots were also sampled intensively for N2O, CH4, and CO2 fluxes using static chambers on over 35 days throughout the two rainy seasons, where sampling days were selected to target pulses following rain events. Results show that the amendments differentially affected soil C and greenhouse gases among the treatments. One year after treatment, C concentrations in the top 10 cm of soils had increased at all three sites by a mean of 0.5-1% on plots that received either compost treatment, but not on those that received manure. Lower in the profile (10-30 cm), C concentrations were increased by a smaller amount (<0.3%) and only in two of the sites. The untreated grassland soils were a small source of N2O during the first few

  1. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  2. Ecosystem Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Respond Directly to Weather Not Climate: A Case Study on the Relationship of Global Atmospheric Circulation, Foehn Frequency, and Winter Weather to Northern Alps Regional Grassland Phenology and Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, A. R.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Zeeman, M. J.; Katata, G.; Mauder, M.; Schmid, H. P. E.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of climate change on regional ecosystem structure and biogeochemical cycling has two important aspects that require better elaboration to improve projections of these effects. The first is that ecosystems don't respond directly to climate, but indirectly via frequency and occurrence of weather systems, which are driven by climatic shifts in global circulation and radiative processes. The second is that many responses of ecosystems to these weather patterns and extremes are lagged in time. Here, we examine these aspects for northern Alpine grasslands. Long-term eddy covariance flux tower and phenology observations in Austria and Germany and biophysical models reveal a strong influence of winter air temperature, snowfall, and snowmelt frequency on winter grass mortality and spring grassland carbon uptake. Further, the mode of climate variability that drives winter air temperature and snow depth patterns is primarily the frequency of strong regional southerly Foehn flow that promotes warm, dry conditions in winter. Finally, we demonstrate that much of the interannual variance in Foehn frequency and southerly flow is driven by statistics and climatic trends of 500 hPa pressure patterns in Greenland, part of the Arctic Oscillation. However, a few years, including the unusually warm and dry winter of 2013-2014 appear to have secondary, possibly local thermotopographic circulation factors that promoted its weather conditions regionally, which also included primarily cool and wet conditions in northern Europe and the southern Alps. These findings demonstrate that the regional response of ecosystems to climate change is modulated by how large-scale circulation patterns influence local meteorology and topographic flows both during and outside the growing season and provides a framework for future assessment and climate model improvements of linkages of climate change, weather patterns, and ecosystem responses.

  3. Drought drives rapid shifts in soil biogeochemistry and greenhouse gas emissions in a wet tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C.; Silver, W. L.; Ruan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Global circulation models suggest that climate change will increase the frequency and severity of drought in the humid tropics (Neelin et al., 2006). There is considerable uncertainty about the effects of drought on biogeochemical cycling in these ecosystems (Chambers et al., 2012), which play a key role in global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budgets (Vitousek & Sanford, 1986; Wright, 2005; Le Quéré et al., 2009). We used an automated sensor array to determine the effects of a recent severe drought on soil moisture, oxygen (O2), greenhouse gas emissions, and key nutrients across a wet tropical forest landscape. The onset of drought led to a rapid decline in soil moisture (46% drop in 21 days) and an associated rise in soil aeration. Drying also led to significant declines in inorganic P concentrations, an element commonly limiting to net primary productivity (NPP) in humid tropical forests (Cleveland et al. 2011). Drought increased soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from slopes by 60% (from 3.79 ± 2.92 to 6.06 ± 4.26 µmol m-2 s-1) and valleys by 163% (from 0.57 ± 0.17 to 1.51 ± 0.75 µmol m-2 s-1). Methane (CH4) fluxes declined by 90% in valleys after the drought (from 17.43 ± 29.60 to 1.67 ± 4.09 nmol m-2 s-1) but increased above pre-drought baseline by tenfold and hundredfold in ridges and slopes, respectively, post-drought, offsetting the initial decline in soil CH4 emissions. Soil moisture and soil O2 concentrations were slow to recover after the onset of rains, effectively increasing the length of the drought effect by up to 65%. Results indicate that drought is likely to result in soil C losses and increased soil P limitation, potentially decreasing tropical forest C uptake and storage in the future.

  4. Low Power Greenhouse Gas Sensors for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lary

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate compact, low power, lightweight laser-based sensors for measuring trace gas species in the atmosphere designed specifically for electronic unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platforms. The sensors utilize non-intrusive optical sensing techniques to measure atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations with unprecedented vertical and horizontal resolution (~1 m within the planetary boundary layer. The sensors are developed to measure greenhouse gas species including carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane in the atmosphere. Key innovations are the coupling of very low power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs to low power drive electronics and sensitive multi-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopic techniques. The overall mass of each sensor is between 1–2 kg including batteries and each one consumes less than 2 W of electrical power. In the initial field testing, the sensors flew successfully onboard a T-Rex Align 700E robotic helicopter and showed a precision of 1% or less for all three trace gas species. The sensors are battery operated and capable of fully automated operation for long periods of time in diverse sensing environments. Laser-based trace gas sensors for UAVs allow for high spatial mapping of local greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmospheric boundary layer where land/atmosphere fluxes occur. The high-precision sensors, coupled to the ease-of-deployment and cost effectiveness of UAVs, provide unprecedented measurement capabilities that are not possible with existing satellite-based and suborbital aircraft platforms.

  5. Greenhouse gas budget from a rice paddy field in the Albufera of Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Calvo-Roselló, Esperanza; López-Jiménez, Ramón; Recio-Huetos, Jaime; Calatayud, Vicent; Carrara, Arnaud; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope

    2017-04-01

    Rice paddy fields are large sources of anthropogenic methane (CH4) and therefore many studies have assessed CH4 fluxes from rice paddy fields, mainly in Asia where most of the rice cultivation takes place. However, rice is also cultivated in the Mediterranean, where climatic and management conditions greatly differ. In the Albufera of Valencia, the largest freshwater lagoon in Spain, rice paddy fields have the particularity of being flooded not only while the rice grows, but also after the harvest during the winter. These flooding conditions might result in emissions which are very specific of this ecosystem, and cannot be extrapolated from other studies. We studied CH4 fluxes in a rice paddy field in the Albufera of Valencia at different stages of rice cultivation using the eddy covariance technique and static chambers. We additionally measured carbon dioxide (CO2), water fluxes and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes with eddy covariance and chamber methods respectively, in order to obtain a full greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. Our study also aimed at providing a mechanistic understanding of GHG emissions at different stages of rice cultivation, and therefore we also used the Enhanced and Normalized Vegetation Indexes (EVI and NDVI, respectively), derived from remote sensing images. The general ecosystem functioning encompasses three different phases. The first one, over the autumn and the winter, a biological dormancy period causes low CO2 emissions (ca. 1-5 µmol m-2 s-1), which coincides with the EVI and NDVI. The intermittent flooding taking place during this period is expected to cause CH4 emissions. Then, during the spring months (March-May), larger CO2 respiratory emissions take place during the daytime (> 5 µmol m-2 s-1) due to an increase in air temperature, which turn to neutral at the end of spring due to the start of photosynthesis by the rice. The third phase corresponds to the vegetation growth, when the net CO2 uptake increases gradually up to maximum CO2

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation of the GTL Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Grant S; Hahn, Tristan E; Jensen, Scott D

    2011-10-15

    Gas to liquids (GTL) products have the potential to replace petroleum-derived products, but the efficacy with which any sustainability goals can be achieved is dependent on the lifecycle impacts of the GTL pathway. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally established tool (with GHG emissions as a subset) to estimate these impacts. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 standard advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the "displacement method" or the "substitution method") for life-cycle analyses, application of this method for the GTL pathway has been limited until now because of the difficulty in quantifying potential products to be displaced by GTL coproducts. In this paper, we use LCA methodology to establish the most comprehensive GHG emissions evaluation to date of the GTL pathway. The influence of coproduct credit methods on the GTL GHG emissions results using substitution methodology is estimated to afford the Well-to-Wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of GTL Diesel. These results are compared to results using energy-based allocation methods of reference GTL diesel and petroleum-diesel pathways. When substitution methodology is used, the resulting WTW GHG emissions of the GTL pathway are lower than petroleum diesel references. In terms of net GHGs, an interesting way to further reduce GHG emissions is to blend GTL diesel in refineries with heavy crudes that require severe hydrotreating, such as Venezuelan heavy crude oil or bitumen derived from Canadian oil sands and in jurisdictions with tight aromatic specifications for diesel, such as California. These results highlight the limitation of using the energy allocation approach for situations where coproduct GHG emissions reductions are downstream from the production phase.

  7. Greenhouse gas balance of cropland conversion to bioenergy poplar short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, S.; Arriga, N.; Bertolini, T.; Castaldi, S.; Chiti, T.; Consalvo, C.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Gioli, B.; Matteucci, G.; Papale, D.

    2015-05-01

    The production of bioenergy in Europe is one of the strategies conceived to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The suitability of the land use change from a cropland (REF site) to a short rotation coppice plantation of hybrid poplar (SRC site) was investigated by comparing the GHG budgets of these two systems over 24 months in Viterbo, Italy. Eddy covariance measurements were carried out to quantify the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (FCO2), whereas chambers were used to measure N2O and CH4 emissions from soil. Soil organic carbon (SOC) of an older poplar plantation was used to estimate via a regression the SOC loss due to SRC establishment. Emissions from tractors and from production and transport of agricultural inputs (FMAN) were modelled and GHG emission offset due to fossil fuel substitution was credited to the SRC site considering the C intensity of natural gas. Emissions due to the use of the biomass (FEXP) were also considered. The suitability was finally assessed comparing the GHG budgets of the two sites. FCO2 was the higher flux in the SRC site (-3512 ± 224 g CO2 eq m-2 in two years), while in the REF site it was -1838 ± 107 g CO2 m-2 in two years. FEXP was equal to 1858 ± 240 g CO2 m-2 in 24 months in the REF site, thus basically compensating FCO2, while it was 1118 ± 521 g CO2 eq m-2 in 24 months in the SRC site. This latter could offset -379.7 ± 175.1 g CO2 eq m-2 from fossil fuel displacement. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were negligible. FMAN weighed 2 and 4% in the GHG budgets of SRC and REF sites respectively, while the SOC loss weighed 455 ± 524 g CO2 m-2 in two years. Overall, the REF site was close to neutrality in a GHG perspective (156 ± 264 g CO2 eq m-2), while the SRC site was a net sink of -2202 ± 792 g CO2 eq m-2. In conclusion the experiment led to a positive evaluation of the conversion of cropland to bioenergy SRC from a GHG viewpoint.

  8. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover peatlands. Moreover, Sphagnum cultivating may become a new way to use cutover peatlands and agriculturally used peatlands as it permits the economical use of bogs under wet conditions. The climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over the course of more than 2 years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled at a high temporal resolution. Measured and modelled values fit very well together. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7± 112.7g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to differing weather conditions, water levels and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The annual CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to 0. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB was between -185.5 ± 126.9 and 49

  9. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  10. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  11. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE INFLUENCES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGHELUȚĂ PETRICĂ SORIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been observed a degradation of the environment. This has negative effects on human activities. Besides the influence of the environment on people, also the economic crisis had a negative contribution. The imbalances manifested in the environment influence the economic systems. This article presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions. Also, there is a link between the greenhouse gas emissions and the economic development. In the situation in which the environmental pollution is increasingly affecting humanity, the transition to an economy with reduced greenhouse gas emissions appears to be a viable solution. This transition provides a number of opportunities, as well. Therefore, one of these opportunities is the one related to the employment. In this regard, retraining people working in polluting industries is very important

  12. Understanding and managing leakage in forest-based greenhouse-gas-mitigation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Reimund; Niles, John O; Olander, Jacob

    2002-08-15

    A major concern about land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the potential for leakage. Leakage refers to a net increase of greenhouse-gas emissions in an area outside the project resulting from the CDM activity. This paper provides an overview of leakage, its definitions and its causes. It describes ways that LULUCF projects may suffer from leakage and attempts to assess the magnitude of leakage risks for different LULUCF project types. It also summarizes some of the approaches, both in terms of policies and project development, to address LULUCF leakage.

  13. Zero-Net Mass-Flux Actuator Cavity Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Michael; Mohseni, Kamran

    2013-11-01

    Zero-Net Mass-Flux (ZNMT) devices are used commonly as synthetic jet actuators for flow control in various applications. The authors have recently proposed using larger ZNMF jet actuators for underwater propulsion; similar to squid and jellyfish. Generally the external flow generated by these devices is characterized according to momentum and energy transfer rates, and little attention is paid to the dynamics of flow inside the cavity. In fact the flow inside the cavity, especially during the refilling phase is not only highly dynamic but greatly influences the pressure distribution at the opening as well as the external flow during the following jetting phase. A completely transparent axisymmetric ZNMF cavity was constructed in order to investigate the internal vortex dynamics. The flow is seeded with reflective particles and illumined with a laser sheet bisecting the axis of symmetry. Standard 2D DPIV techniques are used to recover the velocity field in this cross section. During filling it is observed that a starting jet extending from the opening to the inside of the cavity rolls into a vortex ring much like the jetting phase. However, the effect of the cavity walls becomes apparent almost immediately. In this talk we characterize how the circulation within the cavity decays as a function of both cavity/orifice geometry and the mass flux program. In addition a load cell measures the total thrust acting on the device which is used to validate pressure calculations performed on the moving surface inside the cavity, showing excellent agreement. This work is supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research.

  14. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzers for measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)...

  15. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herbst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated, and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m−2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m−2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m−2 from the atmosphere. However, in terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors and management activities were used to explain the large inter-annual variations in the full atmospheric GHG budget of the wetland. The largest impact on the annual GHG fluxes, eventually defining their sign, came from site management through changes in grazing duration and animal stocking density. These changes accounted for half of the observed variability in the CO2 fluxes and about two thirds of the variability in CH4 fluxes. An unusually long period of snow cover in 2010 had the second largest effect on the annual CO2 flux, whose interannual variability was larger than that of the CH4 flux. Since integrated CO2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify the effects of ecosystem disturbance, in terms of management activities and exceptional weather patterns, on the atmospheric GHG budget more

  16. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  17. Water management reduces greenhouse gas emissions in a Mediterranean rice paddy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruening, Carsten; Meijide, Ana; Manca, Giovanni; Goded, Ignacio; Seufert, Guenther; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy fields are one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore most studies on greenhouse gases (GHG) in these agricultural systems focus on the evaluation of CH4 production. However, there are other GHGs such as CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) also exchanged within the atmosphere. Since each of the GHGs has its own radiative forcing effect, the total GHG budget of rice cultivation and its global warming potential (GWP) must be assessed. For this purpose a field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean rice paddy field in the Po Valley (Italy), the largest rice producing region in Europe. Ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes were assessed using the eddy covariance technique, while soil respiration and soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured with closed chambers for two complete years. Combining all GHGs measured, the rice paddy field acted as a sink of -368 and -828 g CO2 eq m-2 year-1 in the first and second years respectively. Both years, it was a CO2 sink and a CH4 source, while the N2O contribution to the GWP was relatively small. Differences in the GHG budget between the two years of measurements were mainly caused by the greater CH4 emissions in the first year (37.4 g CH4 m-2 compared to 21.03 g CH4 m-2 in the second year), probably as a consequence of the drainage of the water table in the middle of the growing season during the second year, which resulted in lower CH4 emissions without significant increases of N2O and CO2 fluxes. However, midseason drainage also resulted in small decreases of yield, indicating that GHG budget studies from agricultural systems should consider carbon exports through the harvest. The balance between net GWP and carbon yield indicated a loss of carbon equivalents from the system, which was more than 30-fold higher in the first year. Our results therefore suggest that an adequate management of the water table has the potential to be an

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions in salt marshes and their response to nitrogen loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Morkeski, K.; Carey, J.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes play an important role in global and regional carbon and nitrogen cycling. Anthropogenic nitrogen loading may alter greenhouse gas (GHG, including CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions and carbon sequestration in salt marshes. We measured GHG emissions biweekly for two growing seasons across a nitrogen-loading gradient of four Spartina salt marshes in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. In addition, we conducted nitrogen addition experiments in a pristine marsh by adding low and high nitrate bi-weekly during the summer. The GHG flux measurements were made in situ with a state-of-the-art mobile gas measurement system using the cavity ring down technology that consists of a CO2/CH4 analyzer (Picarro) and an N2O/CO analyzer (Los Gatos). We observed strong seasonal variations in greenhouse gas emissions. The differences in gas emissions across the nitrogen gradient (between 1 and 10 gN m-2y-1) were not significant, but strong pulse emissions of N2O were observed after nitrogen was artificially added to the marsh. We found that the studied salt marsh was a significant carbon sink (NEP ~ 380 gC m-2y-1). CH4 fluxes are 3 orders of magnitude less than CO2 fluxes in the salt marsh. Carbon fluxes are driven by light, salinity, tide, and temperature. We conclude that restoration or conservation of this carbon sink has a significant social benefit for carbon credit.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from Savanna ( Miombo ) woodlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural vegetation represents an important sink for greenhouse gases (GHGs); however, there is relatively little information available on emissions from southern African savannas. The effects of clearing savanna woodlands for crop production on soil fluxes of N2O, CO2 and CH4 were studied on clay (Chromic luvisol) and ...

  20. Quality manual for the Danish greenhouse gas inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    The report outlines the quality work undertaken by the emission inventory group at the Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University in connection with the preparation and reporting of the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. The report updates and expands on the first version of the quality...... manual published in 2005. The report fulfils the mandatory requirements for a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan as lined out in the UNFCCC reporting guidelines and the specifications related to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. The report describes all elements of the internal QC...... procedures as well as the QA and verification activities carried out in connection with the Danish greenhouse gas inventory....

  1. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob

    Methane is a greenhouse gas (GHG) and the anthropogenic emission of methane to the atmosphere contributes to global warming. There are several anthropogenic methane sources, and the quantification of methane from these emission sources are often based on emission factors and model calculations...... actions. As an example the highest emission was measured at a landfill with active methane recovery and utilization. Compared with national and European greenhouse gas reporting schemes the measurement showed a large difference, with reporting ranging a factor of 100 above to a factor of 10 below...

  2. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  3. Strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in automotive transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. J. [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    The strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in automotive transportation sector are discussed in this report. They are: Technologies to Improve Fuel Economy of Conventional Vehicles. Alternative Fuel Vehicles such as Natural Gas Vehicles, Hydrogen Vehicles, Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Fuel Cell Vehicles. New Generation of Vehicles such as Super Car and 3 Liter Car. Energy-Efficient Transportation Technologies such Model Shift and ITS(Intelligent Transportation Systems). Political Approaches to reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Since the purpose of this report is to present objective information, is does not explicitly address the relative benefits and costs of the various strategies. (author). 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Quality manual for the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.-K.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Winther, M. [and others

    2013-02-15

    This report outlines the quality work undertaken by the emission inventory group at the Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University in connection with the preparation and reporting of the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. This report updates and expands on the first version of the quality manual published in 2005. The report fulfils the mandatory requirements for a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan as lined out in the UNFCCC reporting guidelines and the specifications related to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. The report describes all elements of the internal QC procedures as well as the QA and verification activities carried out in connection with the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. (Author)

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    based on the information provided by other authors resulted in 2406 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, on average. The Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13] study does not report emissions. When compared to diesel on a energy basis, avoided emissions due to the use of biodiesel account for 80 g CO{sub 2}e/MJ. Thus, avoided life cycle emissions associated with the use of biodiesel yield a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We also assessed the carbon balance between a palm tree plantation, including displaced emissions from diesel, and a natural ecosystem. Considering the carbon balance outcome plus life cycle emissions the payback time for a tropical forest is 39 years. The result published by Gibbs et al. (2008) [Gibbs HK, Johnston M, Foley JA, Holloway T, Monfreda C, Ramankutty N, et al., Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology. Environmental Research Letters 2008;3:10], which ignores life cycle emissions, determined a payback range for biodiesel production between 30 and 120 years. (author)

  6. Increasing insolation and greenhouse gas concentration trigger Bølling-Allerød warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obase, Takashi; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako

    2017-04-01

    During the last deglaciation, a major global warming was punctuated by several abrupt climate changes, likely related to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Curculation (AMOC) (Clark et al. 2012). Transient deglaciation experiments from the Last Glacial Maximum have been conducted by applying time-dependent insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations, and glacial meltwater forcing (Liu et al. 2009). They have showed that reduction in glacial meltwater discharge rate into North Atlantic induces abrupt recovery of AMOC, warming of Greenland and cooling of Antarctica (bipolar response) during the period of Bølling-Allerød (BA, 14.6 ka). We conduct a transient simulation from the Last Glacial Maximum to BA using an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model (AOGCM) MIROC 4m (an IPCC-class Japanese community model). The model is initialized with the 21ka, and we change insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations and meltwater fluxes following the protocol of PMIP4 (Ivanovic et al. 2016). Glacial meltwater is derived from ice sheet reconstruction (ICE6g, Peltier et al. 2015). We assume the glacial meltwater due to ice sheet loss is uniformly applied to the area of 50-70N North Atlantic Ocean. We conduct additional experiments branched from 16 ka, where 50-80% of ICE6g meltwater fluxes are applied without reducing the meltwater fluxes before the BA. The model results show that abrupt resumption of AMOC and warming of Greenland occurred at around the period of BA even under hosing of 0.06 Sv. Transition from cold stadial mode to warm interstadial mode occurs in about 100 years, which is consistent with reconstructions (Buizert et al. 2014). The result implies that increasing summer insolation and greenhouse gas concentration trigger abrupt AMOC recovery and warming in the Northern Hemisphere, and large fluctuation of meltwater due to ice sheet melting may not be necessary.

  7. Country-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Liquefied Natural Gas Trade for Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumu, Adebola S; Li, Vivian; Coleman, James W; Liendo, Jeanne; Jordaan, Sarah M

    2018-02-20

    In the determination of the net impact of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation have yet to combine the effects of transport distances between exporting and importing countries, country-level infrastructure in importing countries, and the fuel sources displaced in importing countries. To address this, we conduct a LCA of electricity generated from LNG export from British Columbia, Canada with a three-step approach: (1) a review of viable electricity generation markets for LNG, (2) the development of results for greenhouse gas emissions that account for transport to importing nations as well as the infrastructure required for power generation and delivery, and (3) emissions displacement scenarios to test assumptions about what electricity is being displaced in the importing nation. Results show that while the ultimate magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with natural gas production systems is still unknown, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions depend on country-level infrastructure (specifically, the efficiency of the generation fleet, transmission and distribution losses and LNG ocean transport distances) as well as the assumptions on what is displaced in the domestic electricity generation mix. Exogenous events such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster have unanticipated effects on the emissions displacement results. We highlight national regulations, environmental policies, and multilateral agreements that could play a role in mitigating emissions.

  8. Mapping Daily Net CO2 Flux From Grasslands Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holifield, C.; Emmerich, W.; Moran, M. S.; Bryant, R.; Verdugo, C.

    2003-12-01

    The daily net carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from extensive grassland ecosystems is an important component of the global carbon cycle. In previous studies, instantaneous net CO2 flux was estimated using a Water Deficit Index (WDI) determined from the relation between surface reflectance and temperature. The mean absolute difference between measured and WDI-derived CO2 flux was 0.23 over a range of CO2 flux values from -0.10 to 1.10 (mg m-2 s-1). The objective of this study was to determine daily net CO2 flux from instantaneous estimates for a semiarid grassland site in Southeast Arizona. This objective was reached through two main steps. First, a linear relationship (R2 = 0.95) was found between instantaneous net CO2 flux and net daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) flux and used to generate maps of daytime CO2 flux. Second, a field study was conducted to relate night time flux measurements to daytime measurements. These relations made it possible to map daily (24-hour) net CO2 flux from a single satellite image and basic meteorological information. A limitation of this approach is the dependence upon empirical relations for deriving daytime and night time estimates from instantaneous measurements. On the other hand, the empirical relations derived at this location were strong and consistent for the six-year study period.

  9. Greenhouse gas footprint and the carbon flow associated with different solid waste management strategy for urban metabolism in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K M Nazmul

    2017-02-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) and associated climate change consequences are gripping attention globally, while MSW management as a vital subsystem of urban metabolism significantly influences the urban carbon cycles. This study evaluates the GHG emissions and carbon flow of existing and proposed MSW management in Bangladesh through scenario analysis, including landfill with landfill gas (LFG) recovery, waste to energy (WtE), and material recovery facility (MRF). The analysis indicates that, scenario H2 and H5 emitted net GHGs -152.20kg CO2 eq. and -140.32kg CO2 eq., respectively, in comparison with 420.88kg CO2 eq. of scenario H1 for managing per ton of wastes during the reference year 2015. The annual horizontal carbon flux of the waste input was 319Gg and 158Gg during 2015 in Dhaka and Chittagong, respectively. An integrated strategy of managing the wastes in the urban areas of Bangladesh involving WtE incineration plant and LFG recovery to generate electricity as well as MRF could reverse back 209.46Gg carbon and 422.29Gg carbon to the Chittagong and Dhaka urban system, respectively. This study provides valuable insights for the MSW policy framework and revamp of existing MSW management practices with regards to reduction of GHGs emissions from the waste sector in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bridging the data gap: engaging developing country farmers in greenhouse gas accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, Keith

    2013-06-01

    Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ed B Metz, O R Davidson, P R Bosch, R Dave and L A Meyer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) chapter 8, pp 498-540 Jawson M D, Shafer S R, Franzluebbers A J, Parkin T B and Follett R F 2005 GRACEnet: greenhouse gas reduction through agricultural carbon enhancement network Soil Tillage Res. 83 167-72 Lal R 2004 Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security Science 304 1623-7 Milne E et al 2013 Methods for the quantification of GHG emissions at the landscape level for developing countries in smallholder contexts Environ. Res. Lett. 8 015019 National Academy of Sciences 2010 Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements (Committee: S Pacala, C Breidenich, P Brewer, I Fung, M Gunson, G Heddle, B Law, G Marland, K Paustian, M Prather, J Randerson, P Tans, S Wofsy) (Washington, DC: National Academies Press) p 110 Paustian K 2012 Agriculture, farmers and GHG mitigation: a new social network? Carbon Manag. 3 253-7 Paustian K et al 2012 COMET 2.0—decision support system for agricultural greenhouse gas accounting Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases: Coordinated Agricultural Research through GraceNet to Address Our Changing Climate ed M Liebig, A Franzluebbers and R Follett (San Diego, CA: Academic) pp 251-70 Qiang C Z, Kuek S C, Dymond A and Esselaar S 2011 Mobile Applications for Agriculture and Rural Development (Washington, DC: ICT Sector Unit, World Bank) (http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONANDTECHNOLOGIES/Resources/MobileApplications_for_ARD.pdf) Sanchez P A et al 2009 Digital soil map of the world Science 325 680-1 Skiba U et al 2009 Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen and greenhouse gases at the NitroEurope core flux measurement sites: measurement strategy and first data sets Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 133 139

  11. Annual greenhouse gas budget for a bog ecosystem undergoing restoration by rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ching; Christen, Andreas; Black, Andrew T.; Johnson, Mark S.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Merkens, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Many peatlands have been drained and harvested for peat mining, agriculture, and other purposes, which has turned them from carbon (C) sinks into C emitters. Rewetting of disturbed peatlands facilitates their ecological recovery and may help them revert to carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks. However, rewetting may also cause substantial emissions of the more potent greenhouse gas (GHG) methane (CH4). Our knowledge of the exchange of CO2 and CH4 following rewetting during restoration of disturbed peatlands is currently limited. This study quantifies annual fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in a disturbed and rewetted area located in the Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area in Delta, BC, Canada. Burns Bog is recognized as the largest raised bog ecosystem on North America's west coast. Burns Bog was substantially reduced in size and degraded by peat mining and agriculture. Since 2005, the bog has been declared a conservancy area, with restoration efforts focusing on rewetting disturbed ecosystems to recover Sphagnum and suppress fires. Using the eddy covariance (EC) technique, we measured year-round (16 June 2015 to 15 June 2016) turbulent fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from a tower platform in an area rewetted for the last 8 years. The study area, dominated by sedges and Sphagnum, experienced a varying water table position that ranged between 7.7 (inundation) and -26.5 cm from the surface during the study year. The annual CO2 budget of the rewetted area was -179 ± 26.2 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (CO2 sink) and the annual CH4 budget was 17 ± 1.0 g CH4-C m-2 yr-1 (CH4 source). Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) exceeded ecosystem respiration (Re) during summer months (June-August), causing a net CO2 uptake. In summer, high CH4 emissions (121 mg CH4-C m-2 day-1) were measured. In winter (December-February), while roughly equal magnitudes of GEP and Re made the study area CO2 neutral, very low CH4 emissions (9 mg CH4-C m-2 day-1) were observed. The key environmental factors controlling the seasonality of

  12. Annual greenhouse gas budget for a bog ecosystem undergoing restoration by rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many peatlands have been drained and harvested for peat mining, agriculture, and other purposes, which has turned them from carbon (C sinks into C emitters. Rewetting of disturbed peatlands facilitates their ecological recovery and may help them revert to carbon dioxide (CO2 sinks. However, rewetting may also cause substantial emissions of the more potent greenhouse gas (GHG methane (CH4. Our knowledge of the exchange of CO2 and CH4 following rewetting during restoration of disturbed peatlands is currently limited. This study quantifies annual fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in a disturbed and rewetted area located in the Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area in Delta, BC, Canada. Burns Bog is recognized as the largest raised bog ecosystem on North America's west coast. Burns Bog was substantially reduced in size and degraded by peat mining and agriculture. Since 2005, the bog has been declared a conservancy area, with restoration efforts focusing on rewetting disturbed ecosystems to recover Sphagnum and suppress fires. Using the eddy covariance (EC technique, we measured year-round (16 June 2015 to 15 June 2016 turbulent fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from a tower platform in an area rewetted for the last 8 years. The study area, dominated by sedges and Sphagnum, experienced a varying water table position that ranged between 7.7 (inundation and −26.5 cm from the surface during the study year. The annual CO2 budget of the rewetted area was −179 ± 26.2 g CO2–C m−2 yr−1 (CO2 sink and the annual CH4 budget was 17 ± 1.0 g CH4–C m−2 yr−1 (CH4 source. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP exceeded ecosystem respiration (Re during summer months (June–August, causing a net CO2 uptake. In summer, high CH4 emissions (121 mg CH4–C m−2 day−1 were measured. In winter (December–February, while roughly equal magnitudes of GEP and Re made the study area CO2 neutral, very low CH4 emissions (9 mg CH4–C m−2

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Vimy M.

    In Nova Scotia, constructed wetland systems are widely considered as effective treatment systems for agricultural wastewater. Although research has examined the water quality treatment attributes, there has been limited focus on the air quality effects of these systems. Six operational pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built with flow-through chambers for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Truro, NS. Utilized within this facility were three gas analyzers to monitor GHG emissions (CO2, N 2O, CH4) and the gaseous fluxes could then be determined using the mass balance micrometeorological technique. Prior to data collection, the site underwent testing to ensure valid conclusions and replicated responses from the wetland systems. Those wetlands receiving wastewater at a typical HLR (10.6 mm d-1) and with ample vegetation displayed the best concentration reductions. During the growing season (GS), average CO 2 consumption was large (approximately -44 g CO2m -2 d-1) for wetlands with dense vegetation (approximately 100% cover) at the typical loading rate. For those wetlands at higher loading rates, CO2 emissions were observed to be as high as +9.2 g CO 2m-2 d-1. Wetlands with typical loading rates and healthy aquatic vegetation produced average CH4 fluxes of approximately 43 g CO2 eq. m-2d-1, while higher loaded systems with little vegetation approached 90 g CO 2 eq. m-2d-1. During the non-growing season (NGS), all vegetated wetlands exhibited higher CH4 emissions than the non-vegetated systems (˜15 to 20% higher). Vegetation maturity played a strong role in the GHG balance. The average CO2consumption for wetlands with established vegetation was ˜ -36 g CO2 m -2 d-1 during the GS. Wetland 4, which had been newly transplanted in 2004, had the highest single day CO2 consumption of -152 g CO2m-2 d-1 . Methane emissions from wetlands with two-year-old vegetation followed the same pattern but were approximately half of the emissions recorded from 2003. The

  14. Methane Ebullition in Temperate Hydropower Reservoirs and Implications for US Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Goldman, Amy E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2017-10-01

    The United States is home to 2198 dams actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement, it is important to accurately quantify anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, has been shown to account for nearly all methane emissions from tropical hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. However, distinct ebullitive methane fluxes have been studied in comparatively few temperate hydropower reservoirs globally. This study measures ebullitive and diffusive methane fluxes from two eastern Washington reservoirs, and synthesizes existing studies of methane ebullition in temperate, boreal, and tropical hydropower reservoirs. Ebullition comprises nearly all methane emissions (>97%) from this study's two eastern Washington hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. Summer methane ebullition from these reservoirs was higher than ebullition in six southeastern U.S. hydropower reservoirs, however it was similar to temperate reservoirs in other parts of the world. Our literature synthesis suggests that methane ebullition from temperate hydropower reservoirs can be seasonally elevated compared to tropical climates, however annual emissions are likely to be higher within tropical climates, emphasizing the possible range of methane ebullition fluxes and the need for the further study of temperate reservoirs. Possible future changes to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UNFCCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories highlights the need for accurate assessment of reservoir emissions.

  15. Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: gabriel.maltais-landry@umontreal.ca; Maranger, Roxane [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada)], E-mail: r.maranger@umontreal.ca; Brisson, Jacques [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: jacques.brisson@umontreal.ca; Chazarenc, Florent [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH{sub 4} was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH{sub 4} fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH{sub 4} fluxes but favoured CO{sub 2} production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP < 15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. - Methane is the main greenhouse gas produced in constructed wetlands and oxygen availability is the main factor controlling fluxes.

  16. Electric vehicle greenhouse gas emission assessment for Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This study estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) compared to that of other popular and similar cars in Hawaii, by county over an assumption of 150,000 miles driven. The GHG benefits of EVs depend critically on the electr...

  17. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  18. A whole farm model for quantifying total greenhouse gas emissions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A whole farm model for quantifying total greenhouse gas emissions on South African dairy farms. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The model, which is based on a whole farm management approach, accounts for the variability that occurs in GHG emissions among farm production and management practices.

  19. Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions (Chapter 3)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winkler, H

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas development (SGD) presents opportunities and risks with regards to air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is a potential opportunity to reduce emissions, if shale gas replaces ‘dirtier’ (more emissions-intensive) fuels...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...

  1. Combating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Developing Country: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Developing Country: A Conceptualisation and Implementation of Carbon Tax in Zimbabwe. ... measurements of emission, nor a clear emission-reduction strategy. These shortcomings were essentially a consequence of a combination of technical, financial and human constraints.

  2. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of

  3. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J.; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems

  4. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from Mexican intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rendon

    2017-11-08

    Nov 8, 2017 ... Abstract. The objectives of this study were to compare estimates of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as CH4. (enteric-manure), N2O (manure), and CO2 (fuel and energy use), the use of water and soil, the excretion of nutrients in manure, and feed efficiency from Mexican intensive dairy farms. Data from 26 ...

  5. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential Greenhouse Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal matter on potential greenhouse gas emission and its field application. Poultry litters were randomly assigned to four treatments viz; salt solution, alum, air exclusion and the control (untreated). Alum treated faeces had higher (p<0.05) percentage nitrogen ...

  6. Productivity gains and greenhouse gas emissions intensity in dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Steinfeld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between productivity of dairy production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess GHG emissions from dairy production and processing chains. Milk yield expressed as kg fat and protein

  7. USDA Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by approximately 43%, 152%, and 20% respectively since about 1750. In 2013, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions were 6,673 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMT CO2 eq.), ris...

  8. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from Mexican intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to compare estimates of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as CH4 (enteric-manure), N2O (manure), and CO2 (fuel and energy use), the use of water and soil, the excretion of nutrients in manure, and feed efficiency from Mexican intensive dairy farms. Data from 26 dairy farms were analysed ...

  9. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellarby, J.; Tirado, R.; Leip, A.; Weiss, F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also

  10. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  11. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential greenhouse gas emission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal waste on potential greenhouse gas emission and inherent agronomic potentials. Sugar solution at 100g/l salt solution at 350g/l and oven-drying were the various faecal treatments examined using a completely randomized design.

  12. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...

  13. Can savannas help balance the South African greenhouse gas budget?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the South African Greenhouse Experiment on Savannas (SAGES) study conducted by the CSIR' Division of Forest Science and Technology (Foretek) on the role of savannas in the balance of the greenhouse gas budget of South Africa...

  14. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, P.J.; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40–50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6–7.5 GtCO2e yr–1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical

  15. The Role of Nuclear Power in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge As this chapter will point out, nuclear energy is a low greenhouse gas emitter and is capable of providing large amounts of power using proven technology. In the immediate future, it can contribute to gr...

  16. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  17. Drivers of the Growth in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arto, Inaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions.

  18. Greenhouse gas balance of cropland conversion to bioenergy poplar short-rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, S.; Arriga, N.; Bertolini, T.; Castaldi, S.; Chiti, T.; Consalvo, C.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Gioli, B.; Matteucci, G.; Papale, D.

    2016-01-01

    The production of bioenergy in Europe is one of the strategies conceived to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The suitability of the land use change from a cropland (REF site) to a short-rotation coppice plantation of hybrid poplar (SRC site) was investigated by comparing the GHG budgets of these two systems over 24 months in Viterbo, Italy. This period corresponded to a single rotation of the SRC site. The REF site was a crop rotation between grassland and winter wheat, i.e. the same management of the SRC site before the conversion to short-rotation coppice. Eddy covariance measurements were carried out to quantify the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (FCO2), whereas chambers were used to measure N2O and CH4 emissions from soil. The measurements began 2 years after the conversion of arable land to SRC so that an older poplar plantation was used to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC) loss due to SRC establishment and to estimate SOC recovery over time. Emissions from tractors and from production and transport of agricultural inputs (FMAN) were modelled. A GHG emission offset, due to the substitution of natural gas with SRC biomass, was credited to the GHG budget of the SRC site. Emissions generated by the use of biomass (FEXP) were also considered. Suitability was finally assessed by comparing the GHG budgets of the two sites. CO2 uptake was 3512 ± 224 g CO2 m-2 at the SRC site in 2 years, and 1838 ± 107 g CO2 m-2 at the REF site. FEXP was equal to 1858 ± 240 g CO2 m-2 at the REF site, thus basically compensating for FCO2, while it was 1118 ± 521 g CO2 m-2 at the SRC site. The SRC site could offset 379.7 ± 175.1 g CO2eq m-2 from fossil fuel displacement. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were negligible. FMAN made up 2 and 4 % in the GHG budgets of SRC and REF sites respectively, while the SOC loss was 455 ± 524 g CO2 m-2 in 2 years. Overall, the REF site was close to neutrality from a GHG perspective (156 ± 264 g CO2eq m-2), while the SRC site was a net sink of

  19. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  20. Influence of Waiting Time after Insertion of Base Chamber into Soil on Produced Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Influencia del Tiempo de Espera Después de la Inserción de la Base de la Cámara en el Suelo en los Flujos de Gases de Efecto Invernadero Producidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Muñoz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil chamber technique is most commonly used for measuring gas exchange between soil surfaces and the atmosphere, to understand regulatory processes relevant to determine the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from soils and to improve the emissions inventory of agricultural systems. The chambers are inserted into the soil to avoid the lateral diffusion of the gases. However, soil disturbance caused by chamber insertion causes in degassing and can result in erroneous flux data from measurements made immediately following chamber insertion. Here we assess the effect of soil disturbance associated with the insertion of the chambers on nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4 fluxes with and without N fertilization, from a New Zealand pasture soil. We collected gas samples from the chambers at 0, 2, 4, 24, 96 and 168 h after chambers insertion. Our results show elevated levels of N2O inside the chambers (1.7 fold those of atmospheric concentrations outside the chambers and greater fluxes within the first 4 h of installation compared to the values observed at 24 h and later; and negative CH4 flux in the same time period, but near to zero after 24 h. Our results suggest that for accurate measurement of gas fluxes, measurements should be taken after 24 h of chambers installation to avoid the degassing effect.La técnica de la cámara es la más comúnmente usada para medir el intercambio de gases entre la superficie del suelo y la atmósfera, entender los procesos regulatorios relevantes para determinar las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GHG desde los suelos, y mejorar los inventarios de emisiones de sistemas agrícolas. Las cámaras se insertan en el suelo para evitar la difusión lateral de los gases. Sin embargo, la alteración en el suelo causada por la inserción de las cámaras causa pérdida de gases y puede resultar en datos de flujos erróneos desde las mediciones realizadas inmediatamente posteriores a la inserción de las c

  1. Spatial-temporal variability in GHG fluxes and their functional interpretation in RusFluxNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Julia; Sarzhanov, Dmitriy; Mazirov, Ilia; Yaroslavtsev, Alex; Komarova, Tatiana; Tikhonova, Maria

    2016-04-01

    High spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most modern boreal landscapes in the European Territory of Russia. This variability is result of their relatively young natural and land-use age with very complicated development stories. RusFluxNet includes a functionally-zonal set of representative natural, agricultural and urban ecosystems from the Central Forest Reserve in the north till the Central Chernozemic Reserve in the south (more than 1000 km distance). Especial attention has been traditionally given to their soil cover and land-use detailed variability, morphogenetic and functional dynamics. Central Forest Biosphere Reserve (360 km to North-West from Moscow) is the principal southern-taiga one in the European territory of Russia with long history of mature spruce ecosystem structure and dynamics investigation. Our studies (in frame of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) have been concentrated on the soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics due to dominated there windthrow and fallow-forest successions. In Moscow RTSAU campus gives a good possibility to develop the ecosystem and soil monitoring of GHG fluxes in the comparable sites of urban forest, field crops and lawn ecosystems taking especial attention on their meso- and micro-relief, soil cover patterns and subsoil, vegetation and land-use technologies, temperature and moisture spatial and temporal variability. In the Central Chernozemic Biosphere Reserve and adjacent areas we do the comparative analysis of GHG fluxes and balances in the virgin and mowed meadow-steppe, forest, pasture, cropland and three types of urban ecosystems with similar subsoil and relief conditions. The carried out researches have shown not only sharp (in 2-5 times) changes in GHG ecosystem and soil fluxes and balances due to seasonal and daily microclimate variation, vegetation and crop development but their essential (in 2-4 times) spatial variability due to

  2. Hydrologic profiling for greenhouse gas effluxes from natural grasslands in the prairie pothole region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; Miller, Johnston; Aldred, David; Adams, Jennifer K.; Spitale, Salvatore; Bourbonniere, Rick A.

    2013-06-01

    prairie pothole physiographic region of North America is likely to be affected by climate change, and it is important to establish its baseline global warming potential as a basis for assessing global change effects. This study estimated the hydrologic effects on soil greenhouse gas efflux during the growing season along hydrologic profiles within natural prairie potholes ranging from the southern to northern limits of the prairie pothole region within central Canada. Soil moisture was found to be an important driver of differences in soil efflux along the hydrologic profiles and along the south-to-north gradient. The position of peak cumulative soil efflux varied along the hydrologic profile, with the N2O peak occurring at the backslope, the CO2 peaks at footslope and toeslope, and the CH4 peaks at toeslope and surface waters. When cumulative soil efflux was converted to global warming potential (Mg CO2 eq), the largest values were restricted to the narrow land-water interface in the south but expanded to a broader area of the hillslope in the north. CO2 was the major (> 95%) contributor to global warming potential. Omitting hydrologic controls on greenhouse gas fluxes from estimates of global warming potential led to substantial underestimates of the contributions of N2O and CH4. Arid regions in the south had smaller global warming potential than wetter regions in the north. If future climate projections for a warmer, drier climate in this region are realized, global warming potential from soil greenhouse gas fluxes will be smaller in this landscape, because the changing hydrologic conditions should result in a reduction of global warming potential from land surfaces, even as global warming potential from surface waters increases.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Educational Facilities and the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Actions You Need to Take Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurmbrand, Mitchell M.; Klotz, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    On September 22, 2009, The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reporting. The informational literature that EPA has published to support the rule clearly states that EPA believes the vast majority of smaller GHG-emitting facilities, such as educational facilities, will not be…

  4. Molecular mechanisms of water table lowering and nitrogen deposition in affecting greenhouse gas emissions from a Tibetan alpine wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Lingfei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Wei; Chen, Litong; Cao, Guangmin; Yue, Haowei; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Tang, Yanhong; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Rapid climate change and intensified human activities have resulted in water table lowering (WTL) and enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition in Tibetan alpine wetlands. These changes may alter the magnitude and direction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, affecting the climate impact of these fragile ecosystems. We conducted a mesocosm experiment combined with a metagenomics approach (GeoChip 5.0) to elucidate the effects of WTL (-20 cm relative to control) and N deposition (30 kg N ha -1  yr -1 ) on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes as well as the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that WTL reduced CH 4 emissions by 57.4% averaged over three growing seasons compared with no-WTL plots, but had no significant effect on net CO 2 uptake or N 2 O flux. N deposition increased net CO 2 uptake by 25.2% in comparison with no-N deposition plots and turned the mesocosms from N 2 O sinks to N 2 O sources, but had little influence on CH 4 emissions. The interactions between WTL and N deposition were not detected in all GHG emissions. As a result, WTL and N deposition both reduced the global warming potential (GWP) of growing season GHG budgets on a 100-year time horizon, but via different mechanisms. WTL reduced GWP from 337.3 to -480.1 g CO 2 -eq m -2 mostly because of decreased CH 4 emissions, while N deposition reduced GWP from 21.0 to -163.8 g CO 2 -eq m -2 , mainly owing to increased net CO 2 uptake. GeoChip analysis revealed that decreased CH 4 production potential, rather than increased CH 4 oxidation potential, may lead to the reduction in net CH 4 emissions, and decreased nitrification potential and increased denitrification potential affected N 2 O fluxes under WTL conditions. Our study highlights the importance of microbial mechanisms in regulating ecosystem-scale GHG responses to environmental changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture without compromising food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast

  6. Historical greenhouse gas concentrations for climate modelling (CMIP6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinshausen, Malte; Vogel, Elisabeth; Nauels, Alexander; Lorbacher, Katja; Meinshausen, Nicolai; Etheridge, David M.; Fraser, Paul J.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Rayner, Peter J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Beyerle, Urs; Canadell, Josep G.; Daniel, John S.; Enting, Ian G.; Law, Rachel M.; Lunder, Chris R.; O'Doherty, Simon; Prinn, Ron G.; Reimann, Stefan; Rubino, Mauro; Velders, Guus J. M.; Vollmer, Martin K.; Wang, Ray H. J.; Weiss, Ray

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are at unprecedented, record-high levels compared to the last 800 000 years. Those elevated GHG concentrations warm the planet and - partially offset by net cooling effects by aerosols - are largely responsible for the observed warming over the past 150 years. An accurate representation of GHG concentrations is hence important to understand and model recent climate change. So far, community efforts to create composite datasets of GHG concentrations with seasonal and latitudinal information have focused on marine boundary layer conditions and recent trends since the 1980s. Here, we provide consolidated datasets of historical atmospheric concentrations (mole fractions) of 43 GHGs to be used in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 6 (CMIP6) experiments. The presented datasets are based on AGAGE and NOAA networks, firn and ice core data, and archived air data, and a large set of published studies. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, the new datasets are latitudinally resolved and include seasonality. We focus on the period 1850-2014 for historical CMIP6 runs, but data are also provided for the last 2000 years. We provide consolidated datasets in various spatiotemporal resolutions for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as 40 other GHGs, namely 17 ozone-depleting substances, 11 hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 9 perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2). In addition, we provide three equivalence species that aggregate concentrations of GHGs other than CO2, CH4 and N2O, weighted by their radiative forcing efficiencies. For the year 1850, which is used for pre-industrial control runs, we estimate annual global-mean surface concentrations of CO2 at 284.3 ppm, CH4 at 808.2 ppb and N2O at 273.0 ppb. The data are available at https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/search/input4mips/ and http

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-1999. National Inventory Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Thomas R; Brandes LJ; Peters JAHW; Coenen PWHG; LAE

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the 2001 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed

  8. 75 FR 41452 - Draft Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... QUALITY Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and... Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance (74 FR 52117) in order to establish an...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  10. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  11. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. PMID:27226475

  13. Unintended possible consequences of fuel input taxes for individual investments in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and the resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz E. Klingelhöfer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is planning to introduce a carbon tax as a Pigouvian measure for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, one of the tax bases designed as a fuel input tax. In this form, it is supposed to incentivise users to reduce and/or substitute fossil fuels, leading to a reduction of CO2 emissions. Aim: This article examines how such a carbon tax regime may affect the individual willingness to invest in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies. Setting: Mathematical derivation, using methods of linear programming, duality theory and sensitivity analysis. Methods: By employing a two-step evaluation approach, it allows to identify the factors determining the maximum price an individual investor would pay for such an investment, given the conditions of imperfect markets. Results: This price ceiling depends on the (corrected net present values of the payments and on the interdependencies arising from changes in the optimal investment and production programmes. Although the well-established results of environmental economics usually can be confirmed for a single investment, increasing carbon taxes may entail sometimes contradictory and unexpected consequences for individual investments in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and the resulting emissions. Under certain circumstances, they may discourage such investments and, when still undertaken, even lead to higher emissions. However, these results can be interpreted in an economically comprehensible manner. Conclusion: Under the usually given conditions of imperfect markets, the impact of a carbon tax regime on individual investment decisions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is not as straight forward as under the usually assumed, but unrealistically simplifying perfect market conditions. To avoid undesired and discouraging effects, policy makers cannot make solitary decisions, but have to take interdependencies on the addressee´s side into account. The individual investor

  14. Danish greenhouse gas reduction scenarios for 2020 and 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, K.; Joergensen, Kaj. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (DK)); Werling, J.; OErsted Pedersen, H.; Kofoed-Wiuff, A. (Ea energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    The aim of the project presented in this report was to develop scenarios for reducing Danish greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 and 2050. The scenarius provide a basis for estimating which technologies should be combined in order to obtain future reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective way. The scenarios include all emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, industry and oil extraction activities in the North Sea as well as the transport and energy sectors. Foreign air and sea carriage is not included because emissions related to such activities are not yet subject to international climate change agreements. The scenarios focus particularly on the technological possibilities and the necessary system changes in the Danish energy system and transport sector. Parallel to this, COWI has carried out analyses for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency focussing primarily on the reduction potentials in the transport sector and other emissions. COWI's results regarding agriculture and other emissions have been included in this analysis. Two timeframes are applied in the scenarios: the medium term, 2020, and the long term, 2050. For each timeframe, we have set up indicative targets that the scenarios must reach: 1) 2020: 30 and 40 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 2) 2050: 60 and 80 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990. The scenarios for 2020 focus primarily on technologies that are already commercially available, whereas the scenarios for 2050 also examine technological options at the experimental or developmental stage. This includes hydrogen technologies and fuel cells as well as CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The scenarios should be seen in connection with the EU objectives of a 20-30 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 and 60-80 % in 2050 compared to 1990. The EU's 30 % objective is contingent upon global efforts to reduce the world's greenhouse gas

  15. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... commitment period. In addition, the proposals are tested for their sensitivity to national circumstances and to market power. We find that penalties are sufficient to deter non-compliance if they are high enough and are effectively enforced. If the non-compliance penalties are weak or poorly enforced...

  16. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its......This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  17. Sol-Rad Net Flux (L 1.0, 1.5, 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  18. NACP North American 8-km Net Ecosystem Exchange and Component Fluxes, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides modeled carbon flux estimates at 8-km spatial resolution over North America for the year 2004 of (1) net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon...

  19. MEASURES TO REDUCE TRANSPORTATION GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Vasile; Mariana Balan; Gheorghe-Stelian Balan; Iwona Grabara

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse gas emissions from transport have registered a severe increase over the years about 23% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulted from burning fossil fuels worldwide. In this context, it is observed the increasing need to shift to sustainable transport patterns for taking into consideration a wide-scale use of alternative energy sources (e.g. bio-fuels, biogas) and also, the investments in environmental technologies research and development etc. Romania has a national transpor...

  20. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  3. Urban form and greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmaajaervi, Irmeli [VTT Building and Transport, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    Finland's regional form is becoming more concentrated, while urban sprawl is causing growth centres to become fragmented. The effects caused by these changes on greenhouse gas emissions were studied up to the year 2010, when, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, Finland's greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced to the 1990 level. The urban form affects especially transportation inside regions, the potential to utilise district heating and the need for infrastructure. By preventing urban sprawl and by encouraging teleworking and some lifestyle changes, it would be possible to reduce annual transportation emissions by the year 2010 by 1.1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} eq., i.e. 27%, the emissions from residential and service buildings by 1.1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} eq., i.e. 5%, and the emissions from municipal infrastructure by 0.1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} eq., i.e. 6%. Altogether, it is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 2.3 million tonnes, which amounts to 15% of Finland's target for emissions reductions in 2010. If the target-oriented scenario is realised, the subsequent decrease of emissions would accelerate. To stop urban sprawl, measures are required in planning, land use and housing policy as well as in transportation and tax policies. Additionally, more needs to be done in regard to co-operation, interaction and information dissemination. This paper introduces a report which estimates, for the first time, the effects caused by changes in the regional and urban forms on the levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland.

  4. Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R.; Boland, S.; Lempert, R.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny. Therefore, an effective system must openly and transparently produce data of unassailable quality. A global greenhouse gas information system will likely require a combination of space-and air-based remote- sensing assets, ground-based measurements, carbon cycle modeling and self-reporting. The specific requirements on such a system will be shaped by the degree of international cooperation it enjoys and the needs of the policy regime it aims to support, which might range from verifying treaty obligations, to certifying the tradable permits and offsets underlying a market in greenhouse gas emission reductions, to providing a comprehensive inventory of high and low emitters that could be used by non-governmental organizations and other international actors. While some technical studies have examined particular system components in single scenarios, there remains a need for a comprehensive survey of the range of potential requirements, options, and strategies for the overall system. We have initiated such a survey and recently hosted a workshop which engaged a diverse community of stakeholders to begin synthesizing requirements for such a system, with an initial focus on carbon dioxide. In this paper we describe our plan for completing the definition of the requirements, options, and strategies for a global greenhouse gas monitoring system. We discuss our overall approach and provide a status on the initial requirements synthesis activity.

  5. Supply Chain Greenhouse Gas Management under Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang LI

    2016-01-01

    To curb global warming man has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) created to the atmosphere by human activities, and it cannot neglect the efforts of corporate communities. Indeed, companiesa direct emissions are dwarfed by supply chain GHGs from an industry sector. No matter to prepare for future environmental regulations or to improve competitive advantages, companies are realizing that they have to reduce and mitigate GHGs from the supply chain perspective. Emission trading (also ca...

  6. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  7. Why New Zealand must rapidly halve its greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Scott; Woodward, Alistair; Macmillan, Alexandra; Baker, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Lindsay, Graeme; Hales, Simon; Sinclair, David; Jaine, Richard; Springford, Liz; Holmes, Andrew; Laking, George; Jones, Rhys; Carr, Harriette; Edwards, Richard; Shaw, Caroline; Wells, Susan; Hosking, Jamie; Forde, Andrea; Bismark, Marie; Palmer, Stephen; Keating, Gay; Simpson, Jenny; Highton, Rachel; Dhar, Divya; Kane, Penny

    2009-10-09

    New Zealand must commit to substantial decreases in its greenhouse gas emissions, to avoid the worst impacts of climate change on human health, both here and internationally. We have the fourth highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the developed world. Based on the need to limit warming to 2 degrees C by 2100, our cumulative emissions, and our capability to mitigate, New Zealand should at least halve its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 (i.e. a target of at least 40% less than 1990 levels). This target has a strong scientific basis, and if anything may be too lenient; reducing the risk of catastrophic climate change may require deeper cuts. Short-term economic costs of mitigation have been widely overstated in public debate. They must also be balanced by the far greater costs caused by inertia and the substantial health and social benefits that can be achieved by a low emissions society. Large emissions reductions are achievable if we mobilise New Zealand society and let technology follow the signal of a responsible target.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  10. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  11. The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Methane Ebullition in Temperate Hydropower Reservoirs and Implications for US Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Goldman, Amy E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2017-07-21

    The United States is home to more than 87,000 dams, 2,198 of which are actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s Paris Agreement, it is imperative for the U.S. to accurately quantify greenhouse gas fluxes from its hydropower reservoirs. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, can account for nearly all of a reservoir’s methane emissions to the atmosphere. However, methane ebullition in hydropower reservoirs has been studied in only three temperate locations, none of which are in the United States. This study measures high ebullitive methane fluxes from two hydropower reservoirs in eastern Washington, synthesizes the known information about methane ebullition from tropical, boreal, and temperate hydropower reservoirs, and investigates the implications for U.S. hydropower management and growth.

  13. Communicating the Uncertainty in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice; Glendining, Margaret; Perryman, Sarah; Whitmore, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Effective communication of the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions is important. It allows an individual, whether they are a scientist, policy maker or member of the public, to draw proper conclusions and so make sound decisions. Communicating uncertainty is challenging, however. There is no single best method for communicating uncertainty and the success of a particular method will depend on the subject matter and the target audience. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from a national inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: calibrated phrases such as 'very uncertain' and 'likely'; probabilities, whereby the probability of being within a defined range of values is given; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots and shaded arrays. We asked 64 individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory for their opinions on how successfully these methods communicated uncertainty. We analysed the results to see which methods were preferred and to see whether this preference was affected either by the professional group to which individuals belonged or the level of mathematics to which they were educated. The professional groups represented in our study were categorised as (i) those who influence policy (ii) research scientists (iii) those representing the environment and (iv) those representing the agricultural industry. The responses to our questionnaire were varied but some clear messages came through. Our analysis showed that although calibrated phrases were thought to be a good method of communication they did not convey enough information and were open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticized for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best indication of uncertainty when individuals were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas

  14. Enhanced greenhouse gas emissions from the Arctic with experimental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E.; Marushchak, Maija E.; Lind, Saara E.; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Biasi, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Temperatures in the Arctic are projected to increase more rapidly than in lower latitudes. With temperature being a key factor for regulating biogeochemical processes in ecosystems, even a subtle temperature increase might promote the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. Usually, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the GHGs dominating the climatic impact of tundra. However, bare, patterned ground features in the Arctic have recently been identified as hot spots for nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is a potent greenhouse gas, which is almost 300 times more effective in its global warming potential than CO2; but studies on arctic N2O fluxes are rare. In this study we examined the impact of temperature increase on the seasonal GHG balance of all three important GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from three tundra surface types (vegetated peat soils, unvegetated peat soils, upland mineral soils) in the Russian Arctic (67˚ 03' N 62˚ 55' E), during the course of two growing seasons. We deployed open-top chambers (OTCs), inducing air and soil surface warming, thus mimicking predicted warming scenarios. We combined detailed CO2, CH4 and N2O flux studies with concentration measurements of these gases within the soil profile down to the active layer-permafrost interface, and complemented these GHG measurements with detailed soil nutrient (nitrate and ammonium) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements in the soil pore water profile. In our study, gentle air warming (˜1.0 ˚ C) increased the seasonal GHG release of all dominant surface types: the GHG budget of vegetated peat and mineral soils, which together cover more than 80 % of the land area in our study region, shifted from a sink to a source of -300 to 144 g CO2-eq m-2 and from -198 to 105 g CO2-eq m-2, respectively. While the positive warming response was governed by CO2, we provide here the first in situ evidence that warming increases arctic N2O emissions: Warming did not only enhance N2O emissions from

  15. Effects of nitrogen loading on greenhouse gas emissions in salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Morkeski, K.; Mora, J.; Chen, X.; Carey, J.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes play an important role in global and regional carbon and nitrogen cycling. We tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic nitrogen loading alters greenhouse gas (GHG, including CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions and carbon sequestration in salt marshes. We measured GHG emissions biweekly for two growing seasons across a nitrogen-loading gradient of four Spartina salt marshes in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. In addition, we conducted nitrogen addition experiments in a pristine marsh by adding low and high nitrate to triplicate plots bi-weekly during the summer. The GHG flux measurements were made in situ with a state-of-the-art mobile gas measurement system using the cavity ring down technology that consists of a CO2/CH4 analyzer (Picarro) and an N2O/CO analyzer (Los Gatos). We observed strong seasonal variations in greenhouse gas emissions. The differences in gas emissions across the nitrogen gradient were not significant, but strong pulse emissions of N2O were observed after nitrogen was artificially added to the marsh. Our results will facilitate model development to simulate GHG emissions in coastal wetlands and support methodology development to assess carbon credits in preserving and restoring coastal wetlands.

  16. High temporal frequency measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, K.; Phillips, R.; Davidson, E.

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling the net exchange of these three GHGs. Although technologies for high-frequency, precise measurements of CO2 have been available for years, methods for measuring soil fluxes of CH4 and N2O at high temporal frequency have been hampered by lack of appropriate technology for in situ real-time measurements. A previously developed automated chamber system for measuring CO2 flux from soils was configured to run in line with a new quantum cascade laser (QCLAS) instrument that measures N2O and CH4. Here we present data from a forested wetland in Maine and an agricultural field in North Dakota, which provided examples of both net uptake and production for N2O and CH4. The objective was to provide a range of conditions in which to run the new system and to compare results to a traditional manual static-chamber method. The high-precision and more-than-10-times-lower minimum detectable flux of the QCLAS system, compared to the manual system, provided confidence in measurements of small N2O uptake in the forested wetland. At the agricultural field, the greatest difference between the automated and manual sampling systems came from the effect of the relatively infrequent manual sampling of the high spatial variation, or "hot spots", in GHG fluxes. Hot spots greatly influenced the seasonal estimates, particularly for N2O, over one 74-day alfalfa crop cycle. The high temporal frequency of the automated system clearly characterized the transient response of all three GHGs to precipitation and demonstrated a clear diel pattern related to temperature for GHGs. A combination of high-frequency automated and spatially distributed chambers would be ideal for characterizing hot spots and "hot moments" of GHG fluxes.

  17. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL’s FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL

  18. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  19. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712-0276 (United States); Scott Matthews, H; Hendrickson, Chris T [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sharrard, Aurora L [Green Building Alliance, 333 East Carson Street, Suite 331, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Azevedo, Ines Lima, E-mail: mblackhurst@gmail.com, E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu, E-mail: auroras@gbapgh.org, E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  20. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider...... the nutritional value of alternative food choices. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. METHODS: We created eight dietary scenarios...

  2. Nutrient removal and greenhouse gas emissions in duckweed treatment ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Atreyee; Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-03-01

    Stormwater treatment ponds provide a variety of functions including sediment retention, organic and nutrient removal, and habitat restoration. The treatment ponds are, however, also a source of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were to assess greenhouse gas (CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O) emissions in duckweed treatment ponds (DWPs) treating simulated stormwater and to determine the role of ammonia-oxidizing organisms in nutrient removal and methanogens in greenhouse gas emissions. Two replicated DWPs operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days were able to remove 84% (± 4% [standard deviation]) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 79% (± 3%) NH(4)(+)-N, 86% (± 2%) NO(3)(-)-N and 56% (± 7%) orthophosphate. CH(4) emission rates in the DWPs ranged from 502 to 1900 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) while those of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) ranged from 0.63 to 4 mg N(2)O m(-2) d(-1). The CO(2) emission rates ranged from 1700 to 3300 mg CO(2) m(-2) day(-1). Duckweed coverage on water surface along with the continued deposit of duckweed debris in the DWPs and low-nutrient influent water created a low dissolved oxygen environment for the growth of unique ammonia-oxidizing organisms and methanogens. Archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance in the DWPs ranged from (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10(7) to (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10(8) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(3) to (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil, respectively. The 16S rRNA acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens ranged from (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10(5) to (9.0 ± 0.3) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10(2) to (5.5 ± 0.4) × 10(3) copies/g dry soil, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) appeared to be the dominant nitrifiers and acetoclastic Methanosaeta was the major methanogenic genus. The results suggest that methane is the predominant (>90%) greenhouse gas in the DWPs, where the relatively low stormwater nutrient inputs facilitate the growth of K-strategists such as AOA and Methanosaeta that may

  3. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  4. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Francis Martin; Paltsev, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during 2010. Data from each of the approximately 4000 horizontal shale gas wells brought online that year are used to show that about 900 Gg CH[subscript 4] of potential fugitive emissions were generated by these operations, or 228 Mg CH[subscript 4] per well—a figure inappropriately ...

  5. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  6. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    associated with the use of nitrogen based fertilizers in agricultural production. Replacing fossil fuel-derived energy by biomass-derived energy is commonly and with increasing emphasis proposed as a mean to mitigate the CO2 emissions. However, a recent analysis of global emission data proposes...... as fertilizer for a maize energy crop within an organic cropping system. Furthermore, we assessed sustainability in terms of greenhouse gasses for co-production of bio-ethanol and bio-gas from maize. This was compared to estimated greenhouse gas balances for rye and grass-clover as alternative raw materials....

  7. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2013-01-01

    Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the level...... residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region....

  8. Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI from rice production within the farm gate were investigated. For the 13 study sites, soil samples were collected by the Land Development Department in 2004. In 2014, at these same sites, soil samples were collected again to estimate the soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR from 2004 to 2014. Surveys were conducted at each sampling site to record the rice yield and management practices. The carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, Net GWP, and GHGI associated with the management practices were calculated. Mean rice yield and SOCSR were 3307 kg·ha−1·year−1 and 1173 kg·C·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The net GWP varied across sites, from 819 to 5170 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1, with an average value of 3090 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1. GHGI ranged from 0.31 to 1.68 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield, with an average value of 0.97 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield. Our findings revealed that the amount of potassium (potash, K2O fertilizer application rate is the most significant factor explaining rice yield and SOCSR. The burning of rice residues in the field was the main factor determining GHGI in this area. An effective way to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to sustainable rice production for food security with low GHGI and high productivity is avoiding the burning of rice residues.

  9. Effect of Organic Amendment Application Rate on Greenhouse Gas Emissions at an Organic Farm in Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, M.; King, J. Y.; Cleveland, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Though greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) from mineral fertilizer application in agriculture have been well studied, the effect of organic amendment (OA) application rate on GHGEs is not yet understood. Application of multiple OAs can improve different properties that control soil fertility, including nutrient availability, aggregate stability, and water-holding capacity. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) flux at an organic farm in Goleta, CA in order to understand how OA application rate affects GHGEs and crop yield from agricultural soils. Based on management practices in the region, we asked farm managers to establish high compost (HC) and low compost (LC) treatments during the growing season of an annual crop (18.2, 9.13 Mg ha-1, respectively), and we measured GHGEs in beds and furrows using static chambers. Organic fertilizer (672 kg ha-1) was applied equally to HC and LC beds six weeks after compost application. Overall, emissions of N2O and CO2 were higher in HC than LC, but yield-scaled emissions were higher in LC. Importantly, treatment differences in both N2O and CO2 emissions were not apparent until after mid-season fertilizer application. Net CH4 uptake was higher in HC than LC in the furrows, but there was no difference in the beds. Our data suggest that high compost application rates likely increased SOM mineralization, soil water content, and nitrification and denitrification rates in HC relative to LC, which led to higher N2O emissions during the growing season. Fertilization primed SOM decomposition and increased soil respiration, which led to increased CO2 emissions. Our results suggest that improved management of application rate and timing during use of multiple OAs could reduce GHGEs while maintaining high crop yield. Understanding the mechanisms by which OA application rates alter the balance between GHGEs and yield is an important step toward reducing agriculture's contribution to climate change through

  10. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  11. ICT and greenhouse gas emissions; IKT og klimagassutslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    ICT can go from being a part of the climate challenge to be an important part of the solution by simplify, rationalize and replace a variety of features and services. ICT's contribute through production and operation for approx. 2.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time estimates show that ICT could help to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions by up to 15 % by 2020 through a series of measures. ICT can, for example. contribute to reduce travel activity through remote collaboration, the transition from material to virtual products and by greater energy efficiency in buildings and vehicles. Through remote collaboration, green tender rounds and change of focus from products to services, can authorities reduce their own emissions. In addition, the authorities go ahead as good examples by illustrating how environment benefits from governmental ICT investments. If we assume that video conferencing can replace 1 of 5 flights among the 140 000 state employees, this can lead to a reducted emission of 14 600 tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year. (AG)

  12. Germany 2050 a greenhouse gas-neutral country. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kathrin; Nissler, Diana (eds.)

    2013-10-15

    For several years, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has been looking at the question how the climate target of a GHG-neutral Germany can be achieved. In a multi-disciplinary project launched by the agency, the first point of call was power generation because of its high emissions. It was shown in 2010 that power generation from 100 % renewable energy is possible. Even then it was understood that a renewable energy supply alone would not be enough to completely abolish greenhouse gas emissions. Other sectors of the economy would have to follow suit and undergo major changes, relying on low-GHG technology. Consequently, the study now submitted, ''Greenhouse gas-neutral Germany 2050'', includes in its research all relevant emission sources that are described in the annual National Inventory Report (NIR) on emissions and removal of greenhouse gases. Alongside complete energy supply, including heating and transport, we also look at emissions from industry, waste disposal, agriculture and forestry as well as changes in land use. We develop a target scenario. The transformations that lead to the target and related economic considerations or the selection of appropriate policy instruments, however, are not part of our study. The scenario analysis is based on the assumption that in 2050, Germany will still be an exporting industrial country with an average annual growth of 0.7 % of its gross domestic product.

  13. Net carbon flux from agricultural ecosystems: methodology for full carbon cycle analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T O; Marland, G

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural ecosystems have the potential to sequester carbon in soils by altering agricultural management practices (i.e. tillage practice, cover crops, and crop rotation) and using agricultural inputs (i.e. fertilizers and irrigation) more efficiently. Changes in agricultural practices can also cause changes in CO2 emissions associated with these practices. In order to account for changes in net CO2 emissions, and thereby estimate the overall impact of carbon sequestration initiatives on the atmospheric CO2 pool, we use a methodology for full carbon cycle analysis of agricultural ecosystems. The analysis accounts for changes in carbon sequestration and emission rates with time, and results in values representing a change in net carbon flux. Comparison among values of net carbon flux for two or more systems, using the initial system as a baseline value, results in a value for relative net carbon flux. Some results from using the full carbon cycle methodology, along with US national average values for agricultural inputs, indicate that the net carbon flux averaged over all crops following conversion from conventional tillage to no-till is -189 kg C ha(-1) year(-1) (a negative value indicates net transfer of carbon from the atmosphere). The relative net carbon flux, using conventional tillage as the baseline, is -371 kg C ha(-1) year(-1), which represents the total atmospheric CO2 reduction caused by changing tillage practices. The methodology used here illustrates the importance of (1) delineating system boundaries, (2) including CO2 emissions associated with sequestration initiatives in the accounting process, and (3) comparing the new management practices associated with sequestration initiatives with the original management practices to obtain the true impact of sequestration projects on the atmospheric CO2 pool.

  14. The impact of water management practices and associated methane emissions on subtropical pasture greenhouse gas budgets and ecosystem service payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Boughton, E.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Bernacchi, C.; Sparks, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Pastures are an extensive land cover type, however patterns in pasture greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange vary widely depending on climate and land management. Understanding this variation is important, as pastures may be a net GHG source or sink depending on these factors. We quantified carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from subtropical pastures in south Florida for three years using eddy covariance, and estimated annual budgets of CO2, CH4, and GHG equivalent emissions. We also explored the influence of water retention practices on pasture GHG budgets by combining data from a multi-year pasture water retention experiment with CH4 flux data from our eddy covariance tower to 1) estimate the influence of water retention on surface soil flooding, and 2) estimate the influence of extended surface soil flooding on CH4 emissions. These findings were then used to assess the impact of CH4 emissions on stakeholder payments for water retention services in a carbon market framework. The pastures were net CO2 sinks sequestering up to 163 ± 54 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1, but were also strong CH4 sources emitting up to 23.5 ± 2.1 g CH4-C m-2 yr-1. Accounting for the global warming potential of CH4, the pastures were strong GHG sources emitting up to 584 ± 78 g CO2 eq. m-2 yr-1. Our analysis suggests CH4 emissions due to increased flooding from water management practices is a small component of the pasture GHG budget, and water retention likely contributes 2-11% of pasture GHG emissions. These emissions could reduce water retention payments by up to 12% if stakeholders were required to pay for current GHG emissions in a carbon market. It would require at least 93.7 kg CH4-C emissions per acre-foot water storage for carbon market costs to exceed water retention payments, and this scenario is highly unlikely as we estimate current practices are responsible for 11.3 ± 7.2 kg CH4-C emissions per acre-foot of water storage. Our results demonstrate that water retention practices

  15. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis-based global net surface energy flux and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    The net surface energy flux is central to the climate system yet observational limitations lead to substantial uncertainty (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2013; Roberts et al., 2016). A combination of satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) adjusted using the latest estimation of the net heat uptake of the Earth system, and the atmospheric energy tendencies and transports from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to estimate surface energy flux globally (Liu et al., 2015). Land surface fluxes are adjusted through a simple energy balance approach using relations at each grid point with the consideration of snowmelt to improve regional realism. The energy adjustment is redistributed over the oceans using a weighting function to avoid meridional discontinuities. Uncertainties in surface fluxes are investigated using a variety of approaches including comparison with a range of atmospheric reanalysis input data and products. Zonal multiannual mean surface flux uncertainty is estimated to be less than 5 Wm-2 but much larger uncertainty is likely for regional monthly values. The meridional energy transport is calculated using the net surface heat fluxes estimated in this study and the result shows better agreement with observations in Atlantic than before. The derived turbulent fluxes (difference between the net heat flux and the CERES EBAF radiative flux at surface) also have good agreement with those from OAFLUX dataset and buoy observations. Decadal changes in the global energy budget and the hemisphere energy imbalances are quantified and present day cross-equator heat transports is re-evaluated as 0.22±0.15 PW southward by the atmosphere and 0.32±0.16 PW northward by the ocean considering the observed ocean heat sinks (Roemmich et al., 2006) . Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res., Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  16. The nitrogen, carbon and greenhouse gas budget of a grazed, cut and fertilised temperate grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie K.; Helfter, Carole; Anderson, Margaret; Coyle, Mhairi; Campbell, Claire; Famulari, Daniela; Di Marco, Chiara; van Dijk, Netty; Sim Tang, Y.; Topp, Cairistiona F. E.; Kiese, Ralf; Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Schrumpf, Marion; Kaiser, Klaus; Nemitz, Eiko; Levy, Peter E.; Rees, Robert M.; Sutton, Mark A.; Skiba, Ute M.

    2017-04-01

    leaching fluxes as well as from animal respiration. The average greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of the grassland was -366 ± 601 g CO2 eq. m-2 yr-1 and was strongly affected by CH4 and N2O emissions. The GHG sink strength of the NEE was reduced by 54 % by CH4 and N2O emissions. Estimated enteric fermentation from ruminating sheep proved to be an important CH4 source, exceeding the contribution of N2O to the GHG budget in some years.

  17. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Mohammad, E-mail: m.yousefi@pgs.razi.ac.ir [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi [Departments of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoramivafa, Mahmud [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha{sup −1}, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ{sup −1}, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO{sub 2,} 31.58 kg N{sub 2}O and 3.82 kg CH{sub 4} per hectare{sub .} Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co{sub 2}eq ha{sup −1} in corn production systems. In terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO{sub 2}, 76% from N{sub 2}O, and 1% from CH{sub 4}. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha{sup −1}. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha{sup −1} and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha{sup -1}, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO{sub 2}eq ha{sup -1} in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel

  18. Net Ecosystem Fluxes of Hydrocarbons from a Ponderosa Pine Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Ortega, J. V.; Smith, J. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Shen, S.; Martinez, L.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Deventer, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Light (C2-C4) alkenes, light alkanes and isoprene (C5H8) are non-methane hydrocarbons that play important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Natural terrestrial fluxes of the light hydrocarbons are poorly characterized, with global emission estimates based on limited field measurements. In 2014, net fluxes of these compounds were measured at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory, a semi-arid ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and site of the prior BEACHON campaigns. Three field intensives were conducted between June 17 and August 10, 2014. Net ecosystem flux measurements utilized a relaxed eddy accumulation system coupled to an automated gas chromatograph. Summertime average emissions of ethene and propene were up to 90% larger than those observed from a temperate deciduous forest. Ethene and propene fluxes were also correlated to each other, similar to the deciduous forest study. Emissions of isoprene were small, as expected for a coniferous forest, and these fluxes were not correlated with either ethene or propene. Unexpected emissions of light alkanes were also observed, and these showed a distinct diurnal cycle. Understory flux measurements allowed for the partitioning of fluxes between the surface and the canopy. Full results from the three field intensives will be compared with environmental variables in order to parameterize the fluxes for use in modeling emissions.

  19. Network design assessment for greenhouse gas observing systems using Lagrangian footprint simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, C.; Pillai, D.; Kretschmer, R.; Karstens, U.; Koch, F. T.

    2011-12-01

    Deriving greenhouse gas balances at regional scales can be done via two approaches: up-scaling of local information such as from inventories for emissions and natural processes ("bottom-up"), or independently via combined atmospheric observations and inverse transport modeling ("top-down"). For the top-down approach, a dense coverage of the atmosphere with an observing network that enables a precise estimation of surface fluxes is associated with considerable costs. The European infrastructure project ICOS, (Integrated Carbon Observation System), together with Earth Networks, a US based Company, will largely increase the density of the atmospheric network within the next years. To facilitate decision-making with respect to the number and location of observing stations to be deployed, a quantitative network design tool is required that allows balancing cost and benefit. Here we assess different aspects of network design using the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model. We present sensitivities of mixing ratio observations from various potential networks to surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes (footprints), and assess impact from transport model uncertainties. Footprint analysis on specific temporal and spatial scales is used to assess the ability of a given network to detect spatial and temporal patterns and trends, and to investigate the impact of different a-priori assumptions for flux distributions on the potential to retrieve fluxes at reduced uncertainty bounds.

  20. Beyond CO2 - Tackling the full greenhouse gas budget of a sub-alpine forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Susanne; Merbold, Lutz; Meier, Philip; Eugster, Werner; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Buchmann, Nina

    2017-04-01

    In order to tackle the full greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets of forest ecosystems, it is desirable but challenging to quantify the three major GHGs, i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O simultaneously in-situ. At the long-term forest research site Davos (Candidate Class I Ecosystem Station within the Integrated Carbon Observation System - ICOS), we have recently installed a state-of-the-art measuring system simultaneously to observe the three GHGs on a high temporal resolution and both within and above the forest canopy. Thereby, we combine above-canopy eddy covariance flux measurements and forest floor chamber flux measurements (using five custom-made fully automated chambers). Both systems are connected to a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCL, Aerodyne) and measurements are switched between three hours of above-canopy and one hour of forest floor GHG flux measurements. Using this approach, we will be able to study the full GHG budget as well as the dynamics of the individual fluxes on two vertical levels within the forest using a single instrument. The first results presented here will highlight the suitability of this promising tool for quantifying the full GHG budget of forest ecosystems.

  1. Uncertainties in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flugsrud, Ketil; Hoem, Britta

    2011-11-15

    The national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory is compiled from estimates based on emission factors and activity data and from direct measurements by plants. All these data and parameters will contribute to the overall inventory uncertainty. The uncertainties and probability distributions of the inventory input parameters have been assessed based on available data and expert judgements.Finally, the level and trend uncertainties of the national GHG emission inventory have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The methods used in the analysis correspond to an IPCC tier 2 method, as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) (IPCC 2000). Analyses have been made both excluding and including the sector LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry). The uncertainty analysis performed in 2011 is an update of the uncertainty analyses performed for the greenhouse gas inventory in 2006 and 2000. During the project we have been in contact with experts, and have collected information about uncertainty from them. Main focus has been on the source categories where changes have occured since the last uncertainty analysis was performed in 2006. This includes new methodology for several source categories (for example for solvents and road traffic) as well as revised uncertainty estimates. For the installations included in the emission trading system, new information from the annual ETS reports about uncertainty in activity data and CO2 emission factor (and N2O emission factor for nitric acid production) has been used. This has improved the quality of the uncertainty estimates for the energy and manufacturing sectors. The results show that the uncertainty level in the total calculated greenhouse gas emissions for 2009 is around 4 per cent. When including the LULUCF sector, the total uncertainty is around 17 per cent in 2009. The uncertainty estimate is lower now than previous analyses have shown. This is partly due to a considerable work made to improve

  2. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg Cha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg Cha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China: A Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural household biogas (RHB systems are at a crossroads in China, yet there has been a lack of holistic evaluation of their energy and climate (greenhouse gas mitigation efficiency under typical operating conditions. We combined data from monitoring projects and questionnaire surveys across hundreds of households from two typical Chinese villages within a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA framework to assess net GHG (greenhouse gas mitigation by RHB systems operated in different contexts. We modelled biogas production, measured biogas losses and used survey data from biogas and non-biogas households to derive empirical RHB system substitution rates for energy and fertilizers. Our results indicate that poorly designed and operated RHB systems in northern regions of China may in fact increase farm household GHG emissions by an average of 2668 kg CO2-eq· year−1, compared with a net mitigation effect of 6336 kg CO2-eq per household and year in southern regions. Manure treatment (104 and 8513 kg CO2-eq mitigation and biogas leakage (-533 and -2489 kg CO2-eq emission are the two most important factors affecting net GHG mitigation by RHB systems in northern and southern China, respectively. In contrast, construction (−173 and −305 kg CO2-eq emission, energy substitution (−522 emission and 653 kg·CO2-eq mitigation and nutrient substitution (−1544 and −37 kg CO2-eq emission made small contributions across the studied systems. In fact, survey data indicated that biogas households had higher energy and fertilizer use, implying no net substitution effect. Low biogas yields in the cold northern climate and poor maintenance services were cited as major reasons for RHB abandonment by farmers. We conclude that the design and management of RHB systems needs to be revised and better adapted to local climate (e.g., digester insulation and household energy demand (biogas storage and micro power generators to avoid discharge of unburned biogas

  4. Carbon stocks and greenhouse gas balance of an old-growth forest and an anthropogenic peatland in southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Quezada, J. F.; Brito, C. E.; Valdés, A.; Urrutia, P.

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have reported the effects of deforestation on carbon stocks and greenhouse gas balance in the temperate forests of the southern hemisphere. In some areas of southern Chile, after clear-cut or forest fires occurs a proliferation of Sphagnum moss, generating an anthropogenic type of peatland. We measured the effects of this change on the carbon stocks and the greenhouse gas balance, starting in 2013. Carbon stocks were measured in >30 plots on each site; ecosystem CO2 fluxes were measured continuously using eddy covariance stations; CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured monthly using closed chambers and cavity ring-down spectroscopy technology. Total ecosystem carbon stock was 1,523 Mg ha-1 in the forest and 130 Mg ha-1 in the peatland, representing a 91% difference. Both land use types were found to act as sinks of CO2 (NEE=-1094.2 and -31.9 g CO2 m-2 year-¹ for the forest and peatland, respectively); CH4 was mainly captured in the forest and peatland soils, generating balances of -0.70 and -0.12 g CH₄ m-2 year-¹. N2O fluxes were extremely low, so were considered as null. These results indicate that the greenhouse gas balance moved from -1134.6 to -38.8 g CO2-eq m-2 year-1 when land use changed from forest to anthropogenic peatland. These results provide evidence of the importance of preserving old-growth forests in southern Chile.

  5. Channelling can affect concentrations of metabolic intermediates at constant net flux: artefact or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish-Bowden, A; Cárdenas, M L

    1993-04-01

    We show that if a metabolic intermediate is directly transferred ('channelled') from an enzyme that catalyses its production to another that uses it as substrate, there is no change in its free concentration compared with a system with the same net flux in which there is no direct transfer. Thus the widespread idea that channelling provides a mechanism for decreasing metabolite concentrations at constant flux is false. Results from computer simulation that suggest otherwise [Mendes, P., Kell, D. B. & Westerhoff, H. V. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 257-266] are artefacts either of variations in flux or of alterations in opposite directions of the activities of the relevant enzymes.

  6. Validation of a minimum microclimate disturbance chamber for net ecosystem flux measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, A.; Werner, J.; Langensiepen, M.; Boer, van de A.; Schmidt, M.; Kupisch, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-01-01

    A minimum-disturbance chamber for canopy net CO2 and H2O flux measurements is described. The system is a passively (optionally actively) ventilated tunnel with large (similar to 0.14 m2) in- and outlet cross sections covering a surface area of approximately 1.6 m2. A differential, non-drying

  7. Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria

    2017-07-01

    This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH 4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO 2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  9. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  10. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    -makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation......A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...... be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision...

  11. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  12. Australia’s Consumption-based Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to the increase in Australia’s consumption emissions. China was the largest exporter of emissions to Australia and accounted for almost half of emissions embodied in Australian imports since 2002. The growth of trade with China coincides with the increase in imported emissions as well as the increase in aggregate......We use data from the World Input-Output Database in a multiregional input–output model to analyse Australian consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions for the years 1995 to 2009. We find that the emission content of Australian macroeconomic activity has changed over the 15-year period. Consumption......-based emissions have been growing faster than production-based emissions since 2001. We show that emissions embodied in Australian imports are increasingly becoming a significant source of emissions. We investigate emissions in Australian imports and find that increased trade with China contributed substantially...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hawaii: Household and visitor expenditure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konan, Denise Eby, E-mail: konan@hawaii.ed [Department of Economics, Economic Research Organization, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Saunders Hall 542, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chan, H.L., E-mail: hingc@hawaii.ed [OmniTrak Group Inc., 1250 Davies Pacific Center, 841 Bishop Street, Honolulu, HI 96813 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This paper focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with economic activities in Hawaii. Data on economic activity, petroleum consumption by type (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, residual, propane), and emissions factors are compiled and analyzed. In the baseline year 1997, emissions are estimated to total approximately 23.2 million metric tons of carbon, 181 thousand metric tons of nitrous oxide, and 31 thousand metric tons of methane in terms of carbon-equivalent global warming potential over a 100-year horizon. Air transportation, electricity, and other transportation are the key economic activity responsible for GHG emissions associated with fossil fuel use. More than 22% of total emissions are attributed to visitor expenditures. On a per person per annum basis, emission rates generated by visitor demand are estimated to be higher than that of residents by a factor of 4.3 for carbon, 3.2 for methane, and 4.8 for nitrous oxide.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hawaii. Household and visitor expenditure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konan, Denise Eby [Department of Economics, Economic Research Organization, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, Saunders Hall 542, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chan, Hing Ling [OmniTrak Group Inc., 1250 Davies Pacific Center, 841 Bishop Street, Honolulu, HI 96813 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This paper focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with economic activities in Hawaii. Data on economic activity, petroleum consumption by type (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, residual, propane), and emissions factors are compiled and analyzed. In the baseline year 1997, emissions are estimated to total approximately 23.2 million metric tons of carbon, 181 thousand metric tons of nitrous oxide, and 31 thousand metric tons of methane in terms of carbon-equivalent global warming potential over a 100-year horizon. Air transportation, electricity, and other transportation are the key economic activity responsible for GHG emissions associated with fossil fuel use. More than 22% of total emissions are attributed to visitor expenditures. On a per person per annum basis, emission rates generated by visitor demand are estimated to be higher than that of residents by a factor of 4.3 for carbon, 3.2 for methane, and 4.8 for nitrous oxide. (author)

  15. Statistical polarization in greenhouse gas emissions: Theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    The current debate on climate change is over whether global warming can be limited in order to lessen its impacts. In this sense, evidence of a decrease in the statistical polarization in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could encourage countries to establish a stronger multilateral climate change agreement. Based on the interregional and intraregional components of the multivariate generalised entropy measures (Maasoumi, 1986), Gigliarano and Mosler (2009) proposed to study the statistical polarization concept from a multivariate view. In this paper, we apply this approach to study the evolution of such phenomenon in the global distribution of the main GHGs. The empirical analysis has been carried out for the time period 1990-2011, considering an endogenous grouping of countries (Aghevli and Mehran, 1981; Davies and Shorrocks, 1989). Most of the statistical polarization indices showed a slightly increasing pattern that was similar regardless of the number of groups considered. Finally, some policy implications are commented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural...

  17. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Duval

    Full Text Available Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1. Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  18. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael, E-mail: mfb@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lima Azevedo, Ines, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Scott Matthews, H., E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Hendrickson, Chris T., E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO{sub 2} eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: > We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. > We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. > Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. > Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. > We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy R H; Brown, Sandra; Murray, Lara; Sidman, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. H. Pearson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Results Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  1. Assessing greenhouse gas emissions from Swedish Production : A study on the possibility to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the ten most valuable production categories in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Vide

    2015-01-01

    Industrialised and developing countries face an urgent challenge to decouple economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study is to investigate where the largest potentials are to the Swedish industry decrease greenhouse gas emissions without increasing their costs. To limit the scope of the study is made by assessing the 10 largest categories of production by value sold in Sweden. The objectives are to investigate: (a) which the 10 largest categories are; (b) how much the ...

  2. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an ethanol production process based on blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dexin; Hu, Zushou; Choi, Dong Gu; Thomas, Valerie M; Realff, Matthew J; Chance, Ronald R

    2010-11-15

    Ethanol can be produced via an intracellular photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), excreted through the cell walls, collected from closed photobioreactors as a dilute ethanol-in-water solution, and purified to fuel grade ethanol. This sequence forms the basis for a biofuel production process that is currently being examined for its commercial potential. In this paper, we calculate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for three different system scenarios for this proposed ethanol production process, using process simulations and thermodynamic calculations. The energy required for ethanol separation increases rapidly for low initial concentrations of ethanol, and, unlike other biofuel systems, there is little waste biomass available to provide process heat and electricity to offset those energy requirements. The ethanol purification process is a major consumer of energy and a significant contributor to the carbon footprint. With a lead scenario based on a natural-gas-fueled combined heat and power system to provide process electricity and extra heat and conservative assumptions around the ethanol separation process, the net life cycle energy consumption, excluding photosynthesis, ranges from 0.55 MJ/MJ(EtOH) down to 0.20 MJ/ MJ(EtOH), and the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions range from 29.8 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) down to 12.3 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) for initial ethanol concentrations from 0.5 wt % to 5 wt %. In comparison to gasoline, these predicted values represent 67% and 87% reductions in the carbon footprint for this ethanol fuel on a energy equivalent basis. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced via employment of higher efficiency heat exchangers in ethanol purification and/ or with use of solar thermal for some of the process heat.

  3. Net Ecosystem Fluxes of Methyl Halides from a Coastal Salt Marsh with Invasive Pepperweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventer, M. J.; Jiao, Y.; Lewis, J. A.; Weiss, R. F.; Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial emissions of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) are believed to constitute the `missing' source of these compounds to the atmosphere, but the variability of emission rates from natural ecosystems has led to large uncertainties in scaling up. Since April 2016, surface-atmosphere fluxes for methyl halides have been measured at Suisun Marsh, a coastal salt marsh in northern California, USA. Flux measurements are performed in two ways: tower based relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) for net ecosystem fluxes and static flux chamber measurements for plant-scale fluxes. The study site is invaded by perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), a methyl halide emitting species, covering a significant part of the flux source area. Both, REA and chamber samples are analyzed for methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The analytical precision [ppt] and REA flux detection limits [μmol m-2 d-1] are on the order of 3.9/0.6 for CH3Cl and 0.01/0.2 for CH3Br. Chamber measurements confirmed that methyl halide emissions of pepperweed are large, but that the native alkali heath (Frankenia salina) is a much stronger emitter, when normalized by biomass. REA measurements show that during the summer, the studied marsh is a substantial methyl halide source with net fluxes of 20 μmol m-2 d-1 (CH3Cl) and 1 μmol m-2 d-1 (CH3Br). Notably, these fluxes are comparable with reported chamber based emissions from southern California salt marshes. Furthermore, a positive response to light and temperature was found. The presentation will also expand on the diurnal variability and seasonality of the measured fluxes.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from a created brackish marsh in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Burchell, Michael R.; Krauss, Ken W.; Birgand, François; Broome, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Tidal marsh creation helps remediate global warming because tidal wetlands are especially proficient at sequestering carbon (C) in soils. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) losses can offset the climatic benefits gained from C storage depending on how these tidal marshes are constructed and managed. This study attempts to determine the GHG emissions from a 4–6 year old created brackish marsh, what environmental factors governed these emissions, and how the magnitude of the fluxes relates to other wetland ecosystems. The static flux chamber method was used to measure GHG fluxes across three distinct plant zones segregated by elevation. The major of soil GHG fluxes from the marsh were from CO2 (−48–192 mg C m-2 h-1), although it was near the lower end of values reported from other wetland types having lower salinities, and would mostly be offset by photosynthetic uptake in this created brackish marsh. Methane flux was also low (−0.33–0.86 mg C m-2 h-1), likely inhibited by the high soil SO42−and soil redox potentials poised above −150 mV in this in this created brackish marsh environment. Low N2O flux (−0.11–0.10 mg N m-2 h-1) was due to low soil NO3− and soil redox conditions favoring complete denitrification. GHG fluxes from this created brackish marsh were generally lower than those recorded from natural marshes, suggesting that C sequestration may not be offset by the radiative forcing from soil GHG emissions if projects are designed properly.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009 : National Inventory Report 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, C.W.M.; Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Zijlema, P.W.; Baas, K.; Berghe, van G.; Biesebeek, te J.D.; Brandt, A.T.; Geilenkirchen, G.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Molder, te R.; Dröge, R.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Wyngaert, van den I.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2009 decreased by approximately 3% compared to the emission in 2008. This decrease is a result of the economic crisis, especially due to the decrease in the industrial production. In 2009, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding

  6. Managed forest carbon estimates for the US greenhouse gas inventory, 1990-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith; Kenneth E. Skog; David J. Nowak; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    Land-use change and forestry is the major category featuring carbon sequestration in the annual US Greenhouse Gas Inventory, required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. We describe the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and present the sources of our data and methods and the most recent results. Forests and forest products in the United States...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database and Tool - Data repository of GHG mitigation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and electricity production facilities generate over 50 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the primary cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing GHG emi...

  8. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program GWP global warming... principle to including high global warming potential (GWP) HTFs in subpart I irrespective of their vapor... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs (MC-6207J...

  9. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands 1990-1996: Updated methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spakman J; Olivier JGJ; Loon MMJ van; LAE

    1997-01-01

    This inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands has been prepared according to the IPCC Guidelines and complies with the obligations under the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the UN-FCCC for emission reports on greenhouse gases not covered under the Montreal

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from boreal reservoirs in Manitoba and Quebec, Canada, measured with automated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarty, Maud; Bastien, Julie; Tremblay, Alain; Hesslein, Raymond H; Gill, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Growing concern over the contribution of freshwater reservoirs to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and the relevance of long-term continuous measurements has led Fisheries and Oceans Canada, in conjunction with Manitoba Hydro, to develop continuous GHG monitors. Continuous water pCO(2), pCH(4), and pO(2) measurements were gathered to estimate gas fluxes in one temperate reservoir (Riviere-des-Prairies) and two boreal reservoirs (Eastmain-1 and Robert-Bourassa) in Quebec, and in four boreal reservoirs (Grand Rapids, Jenpeg, Kettle, and McArthur Falls) in Manitoba, Canada. Mean daily CO(2) fluxes ranged between 7 and 14 mmolCO(2)*m(-2)*d(-1) in Manitoba and between 15 and 55 mmolCO(2)*m(-2)*d(-1) in Quebec. Summertime episodes of water undersaturation in CO(2) were observed at Jenpeg, Kettle, and McArthur, suggesting higher productivities of these systems compared to the other systems studied. Mean daily CH(4) fluxes ranged between 0 and 69 micromolCH(4)*m(-2)*d(-1) in Manitoba and between 9 and 48 micromolCH(4)*m(-2)*d(-1) in Quebec. Comparisons of results obtained in the Eastmain-1 area using automated monitors, floating chambers or dissolved gas analyses over multiple-station field campaigns demonstrated that a continuous GHG monitor at a single sampling station provided representative and robust results.

  12. Tower-based greenhouse gas measurement network design—The National Institute of Standards and Technology North East Corridor Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Coto, Israel; Ghosh, Subhomoy; Prasad, Kuldeep; Whetstone, James

    2017-09-01

    The North-East Corridor (NEC) Testbed project is the 3rd of three NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) greenhouse gas emissions testbeds designed to advance greenhouse gas measurements capabilities. A design approach for a dense observing network combined with atmospheric inversion methodologies is described. The Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model were used to derive the sensitivity of hypothetical observations to surface greenhouse gas emissions (footprints). Unlike other network design algorithms, an iterative selection algorithm, based on a k-means clustering method, was applied to minimize the similarities between the temporal response of each site and maximize sensitivity to the urban emissions contribution. Once a network was selected, a synthetic inversion Bayesian Kalman filter was used to evaluate observing system performance. We present the performances of various measurement network configurations consisting of differing numbers of towers and tower locations. Results show that an overly spatially compact network has decreased spatial coverage, as the spatial information added per site is then suboptimal as to cover the largest possible area, whilst networks dispersed too broadly lose capabilities of constraining flux uncertainties. In addition, we explore the possibility of using a very high density network of lower cost and performance sensors characterized by larger uncertainties and temporal drift. Analysis convergence is faster with a large number of observing locations, reducing the response time of the filter. Larger uncertainties in the observations implies lower values of uncertainty reduction. On the other hand, the drift is a bias in nature, which is added to the observations and, therefore, biasing the retrieved fluxes.

  13. Controlled Freeze-thaw Experiments to Study Biogeochemical Process and its Effects on Greenhouse Gas Release in Arctic Soil Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Tas, N.; Bill, M.; Ulrich, C.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse gas release associated with permafrost thawing is one of the largest uncertainties in future climate prediction. Improvement of such prediction relies on a better representation of the interactions between hydrological, geochemical and microbial processes in the Arctic ecosystem that occur over a wide range of space and time scales and under dynamic freeze-thaw conditions. As part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments in the Arctic (NGEE-Arctic), we conducted controlled laboratory freeze-thaw experiments to study greenhouse gas release in vertical permafrost soil columns with vertically heterogeneous hydrological, geochemical and microbial properties. The studies were performed using soil cores collected from the NGEE Barrow, AK site. Two cores collected next to each other with very similar soil structures were used for the experiment. One of the cores was destructively sampled for baseline characterization, and the second core was used for the freeze-thaw experiments. The core extends from the ground surface into the permafrost with roughly 40 cm of active layer. The column was instrumented with various sensors and sampling devices, including thermocouples, geophysical (electrical) sensors, and sampling ports for solids and fluids. The headspace of the soil column was purged with CO2 free air and the gas samples were collected periodically for greenhouse gas analysis. Our initial tests simulated seasonal temperature variation from ~ -10°C to +10°C at the ground surface. Our results demonstrated that temperature and geophysical data provided real time information on the freeze thaw dynamics of the column and the surface greenhouse gas fluxes correlated with the freeze thaw stages and associated hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the vertical soil column. For example, surface fluxes data revealed an early burst of GHG concentrations during the initial thawing of the surface ice rich layer of the soil, indicating the presence of trapped

  14. Effect of different agronomic management practices on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling in a long-term field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2015-04-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, modern agronomic management practices need to be established. Therefore, to assess the effect of different farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions, reliable data are required. The experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management for a better implementation of sustainable land use. The focus lies on the determination and interpretation of greenhouse gas emissions, however, regarding in each case a different agricultural management system, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system where the effect of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practices are observed. In addition, with analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the observed cycle of matter in the soil, especially the nitrogen and carbon cycle, will be enabled. Measurements have been carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then parcels of land (each around 0.2-0.4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted with the same crop rotation, tillage and fertilisation practice referring to organic and integrated farming management. Thus, the management impacts on the soil of more than 20 years are being examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 have been monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (0.4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit. Precipitation and temperature data have been observed for each experimental

  15. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R Schmer

    Full Text Available Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L. and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG reductions of -29 to -396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates. Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha-1 of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels.

  16. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, Marty R; Vogel, Kenneth P; Varvel, Gary E; Follett, Ronald F; Mitchell, Robert B; Jin, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of -29 to -396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha-1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from Indian rice fields: calibration and upscaling using the DNDC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pathak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC model was evaluated for its ability to simulate methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from Indian rice fields with various management practices. The model was calibrated and validated for field experiments in New Delhi, India. The observed yield, N uptake and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions were in good agreement with the values predicted by the model. The model was then applied for estimation of GHG emissions from rice fields in India using a newly compiled soil/climate/land use database. Continuous flooding of rice fields (42.25 million ha resulted in annual net emissions of 1.07-1.10, 0.04-0.05 and 21.16-60.96 Tg of CH4-C, N2O-N and CO2-C, respectively, with a cumulated global warming potential (GWP of 130.93-272.83 Tg CO2 equivalent. Intermittent flooding of rice fields reduced annual net emissions to 0.12-0.13 Tg CH4-C and 16.66-48.80 Tg CO2-C while N2O emission increased to 0.05-0.06 Tg N2O-N. The GWP, however, reduced to 91.73-211.80 Tg CO2 equivalent. The study suggested that the model could be applied for estimating the GHG emissions and the influences of agronomic management, soil and climatic parameters on the GHG emissions from rice fields in India.

  18. Impact of nitrogen fertilization on soil-Atmosphere greenhouse gas exchanges in eucalypt plantations with different soil characteristics in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Li, Ruida; Yang, Miao; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Lan, Jun; Xiang, Xuewu

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is necessary to sustain productivity in eucalypt plantations, but it can increase the risk of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the response of soil greenhouse gas emissions to N fertilization might be influenced by soil characteristics, which is of great significance for accurately assessing greenhouse gas budgets and scientific fertilization in plantations. We conducted a two-year N fertilization experiment (control [CK], low N [LN], middle N [MN] and high N [HN] fertilization) in two eucalypt plantations with different soil characteristics (higher and lower soil organic carbon sites [HSOC and LSOC]) in Guangxi, China, and assessed soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchanges. The annual mean fluxes of soil CO2, CH4, and N2O were separately 153-266 mg m-2 h-1, -55 --40 μg m-2 h-1, and 11-95 μg m-2 h-1, with CO2 and N2O emissions showing significant seasonal variations. N fertilization significantly increased soil CO2 and N2O emissions and decreased CH4 uptake at both sites. There were significant interactions of N fertilization and SOC level on soil CO2 and N2O emissions. At the LSOC site, the annual mean flux of soil CO2 emission was only significantly higher than the CK treatment in the HN treatment, but, at the HSOC site, the annual mean flux of soil CO2 emission was significantly higher for both the LN (or MN) and HN treatments in comparison to the CK treatment. Under the CK and LN treatments, the annual mean flux of N2O emission was not significantly different between HSOC and LSOC sites, but under the HN treatment, it was significantly higher in the HSOC site than in the LSOC site. Correlation analysis showed that changes in soil CO2 and N2O emissions were significantly related to soil dissolved organic carbon, ammonia, nitrate and pH. Our results suggested significant interactions of N fertilization and soil characteristics existed in soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchanges, which should be considered in assessing greenhouse gas

  19. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  20. Soil Trace Gas Flux for Wetland Vegetation Zones in North Dakota Prairie Pothole Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. L.; Beeri, O.; Dekaiser, E. S.

    2003-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are considered a source for radiatively trace gases [methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O)] but flux data for these greenhouse gases are lacking for depressional wetlands that comprise the Prairie Pothole Region. This region is characterized by thousands of small, closed basins that extend along the Missouri Coteau from north central Iowa to central Alberta. Surrounding each body of water are conspicuous zonation patterns given by specific vegetation life-forms and soil properties that are predominately formed by basin hydrology. Basin vegetation zones include deep marsh, shallow marsh, wet meadow, low prairie, and cropland (Stewart and Kantrud,1971). Our primary objective was to determine if net greenhouse gas flux for soils in these wetland basins [mg/m2/day CO2 equivalent (IPCC, 2000)] vary with vegetative zone for prairie pothole ecosystems. These data may then be used to map estimates for total basin greenhouse gas (GHG) flux. Additionally, we aimed to find the relative contribution of each of the 3 trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to net GHG flux. We hypothesized that flux would be greatest for marsh areas and lowest for upland areas. We selected a semi-permenant prairie pothole research site in Max, ND and mapped respective vegetative zones for 3 adjacent basins. Sample points were randomly selected for each basin and zone using aerial imagery. Samples of soil gases were collected using the static chamber method on August 3, 2003, and these were analyzed using gas chromatography for CO2, CH4 and N2O the following day. Soil moisture, clay content, organic matter, and temperature data were also collected. Net greenhouse gas flux for the cropped zone soils was significantly lower (pwetland zones within these closed basin ecosystems and that CH4 contributes most to net GHG flux for these wetland soils.

  1. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  2. Climate change science : high quality greenhouse gas emissions data are a cornerstone of programs to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    This testimony focuses on (1) the importance of quality data on emissions in the context of a program intended to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and (2) key considerations in developing reliable data on greenhouse gas emissions. This testimony is ba...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Establishing Energy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    NiChonchubhair, Orlaith; Osborne, Bruce; Krol, Dominika; Williams, Mike; Jones, Mike; Lanigan, Gary

    2013-04-01

    Land-use change to biomass crop production can contribute towards meeting both national and international renewable energy and emissions targets. As a carbon-neutral fuel stock, these crops have the capacity to mitigate GHG emissions through the substitution of fossil fuels. However, studies have also provided evidence of carbon sequestration in vegetative and soil reservoirs in these ecosystems. Realisation of this mitigation potential is, however, dependent on suitable crop selection and thorough assessment of the emissions and sinks associated with biomass crop cultivation. The aim of this research was to assess the GHG implications of land-use change to biomass crops by quantifying carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions both during the initial land conversion phase and in the newly-established plantations. Field-scale stands of Miscanthus × giganteus and Reed Canary Grass (RCG; Phalaris arundinacea) were established on land previously under permanent pasture in 2009 and 2010 respectively in the south-east of Ireland. CO2 uptake and release was measured at the ecosystem scale by two open path eddy covariance systems, while N2O fluxes before and after cultivation were sampled using the static chamber technique. Short-term tillage-induced carbon emissions were found to be high immediately after ploughing but transient in nature, reducing to background levels within a matter of hours. Results suggest that longer term losses could be limited to approximately 2 t CO2 ha-1 provided the fallow period is minimised. A more sustained release of N2O was observed after soil cultivation, resulting from increased availability of organic N for mineralisation by soil microbes. Development was initially slow in the Miscanthus stand, however by the third year, the crop had begun to mature and had switched from a net GHG source in the first year of establishment to a net sink of over 10 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1. More rapid establishment of RCG facilitated the development

  4. Temporal and spatial changes in mixed layer properties and atmospheric net heat flux in the Nordic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A; Alekseev, G [SI ' Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Korablev, A; Esau, I, E-mail: avsmir@aari.nw.r [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The Nordic Seas are an important area of the World Ocean where warm Atlantic waters penetrate far north forming the mild climate of Northern Europe. These waters represent the northern rim of the global thermohaline circulation. Estimates of the relationships between the net heat flux and mixed layer properties in the Nordic Seas are examined. Oceanographic data are derived from the Oceanographic Data Base (ODB) compiled in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Ocean weather ship 'Mike' (OWS) data are used to calculate radiative and turbulent components of the net heat flux. The net shortwave flux was calculated using a satellite albedo dataset and the EPA model. The net longwave flux was estimated by Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) method. Turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface were calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm. The net heat flux was calculated by using oceanographic and meteorological data of the OWS 'Mike'. The mixed layer depth was estimated for the period since 2002 until 2009 by the 'Mike' data as well. A good correlation between these two parameters has been found. Sensible and latent heat fluxes controlled by surface air temperature/sea surface temperature gradient are the main contributors into net heat flux. Significant correlation was found between heat fluxes variations at the OWS 'Mike' location and sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exelis has recently developed a novel laser-based instrument to aid in the autonomous real-time monitoring and mapping of CO2 concentration over a two-dimensional area. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE instrument uses two transceivers and a series of retroreflectors to continuously measure the differential transmission over a number of overlapping lines of sight or “chords”, forming a plane. By inverting the differential transmission measurements along with locally measured temperature (T, pressure (P and relative humidity (RH the average concentration of CO2 along each chord can be determined and, based on the overlap between chords, a 2D map of CO2 concentration over the measurement plane can be estimated. The GreenLITE system was deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT center in Bozeman, Montana, in Aug-Sept 2014, where more than 200 hours of data were collected over a wide range of environmental conditions, while utilizing a controlled release of CO2 into a segmented underground pipe [1]. The system demonstrated the ability to identify persistent CO2 sources at the test facility and showed strong correlation with an independent measurement using a LI-COR based system. Here we describe the measurement approach, instrument design, and results from the deployment to the ZERT site.

  6. Greenhouse gas dynamics in degraded and restored tropical peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jauhiainen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and other land uses on ombrotrophic lowland tropical peat swamps typically lead to reduced vegetation biomass and water table drawdown. We review what is known about greenhouse gas (GHG dynamics in natural and degraded tropical peat systems in south-east Asia, and on this basis consider what can be expected in terms of GHG dynamics under restored conditions. Only limited in situ data are available on the effects of restoration and the consequences for peat carbon (C dynamics. Hydrological restoration seeks to bring the water table closer to the peat surface and thus re-create near-natural water table conditions, in order to reduce wildfire risk and associated fire impacts on the peat C store, as well as to reduce aerobic peat decomposition rates. However, zero emissions are unlikely to be achieved due to the notable potential for carbon dioxide (CO2 production from anaerobic peat decomposition processes. Increased vegetation cover (ideally woody plants resulting from restoration will increase shading and reduce peat surface temperatures, and this may in turn reduce aerobic decomposition rates. An increase in litter deposition rate will compensate for C losses by peat decomposition but also increase the supply of labile C, which may prime decomposition, especially in peat enriched with recalcitrant substrates. The response of tropical peatland GHG emissions to peatland restoration will also vary according to previous land use and land use intensity.

  7. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  8. Temperature and organic matter controls on hyporheic greenhouse gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer-Warner, S.; Romeijn, P.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Gooddy, D.

    2016-12-01

    The region of groundwater and surface water mixing, known as the hyporheic zone, has recently attracted interest as an area of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. Although high concentrations of GHG have been found in these environments, the drivers of hyporheic GHG production remain poorly understood. Here we present the results of a microcosm incubation experiment, designed to determine the effect of multiple environmental parameters on GHG production. Three sediment types, representing a gradient of organic matter contents, from two contrasting UK lowland rivers (sandstone and chalk), were incubated for 29 hours. Experiments were performed at five temperature treatments between 5 and 25°C, and the microbial metabolism of each microcosm was determined using the smart tracer Resazurin. Headspace concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were measured to determine the effect of these environmental parameters on GHG production, and establish their roles as drivers of GHG production in the hyporheic zone. Our results indicate strong temperature controls of GHG production, overlapping with the observed impacts of varying organic matter content of different sediments. Experimental findings indicate that increased hyporheic temperatures during increasing baseflow and drought conditions may significantly enhance sediment respiration, and thus, GHG emissions from the streambed interface. This research advances understanding of drivers of whole stream carbon and nitrogen budgets, as well as the role of groundwater-surface water interfaces in GHG emissions, and allows the interaction of these controls to be assessed.

  9. Drivers of the growth in global greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arto, Iñaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-05-20

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions. For each of five factors (one of which is trade changes) in 40 countries we quantify its contribution to the growth in global emissions. We find that the changes in the levels of consumption per capita have led to an enormous growth in emissions (+14.0 Gt). This effect was partly offset by the changes in technology (-8.4 Gt). Smaller effects are found for population growth (+4.2 Gt) and changes in the composition of the consumption (-1.5 Gt). Changes in the trade structure had a very moderate effect on global emissions (+0.6 Gt). Looking at the geographical distribution, changes in the emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China) have caused 44% of emission growth whereas the increase in their national emissions accounted for 59% of emission growth. This means that 15% (1.4 Gt) of all extra GHG emissions between 1995 and 2008 have been emitted in emerging countries but were caused by changes in other countries.

  10. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  11. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Dragosits, U.; Drewer, J.; Fowler, D.; Rees, R. M.; Pappa, V. A.; Cardenas, L.; Chadwick, D.; Yamulki, S.; Manning, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N2O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N2O emissions. Microbial N2O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling. PMID:22451103

  12. Greenhouse gas emission reduction: A case study of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P. [IDEA, Washington, DC (United States); Munasinghe, M. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we describe a case study for Sri Lanka that explores a wide range of options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Options range from renewable technologies to carbon taxes and transportation sector initiatives. We find that setting electricity prices to reflect long-run marginal cost has a significant beneficial impact on the environment, and the expected benefits predicted on theoretical grounds are confirmed by the empirical results. Pricing reform also has a much broader impact than physical approaches to demand side management, although several options such as compact fluorescent lighting appear to have great potential. Options to reduce GHG emissions are limited as Sri Lanka lacks natural gas, and nuclear power is not practical until the system reaches a much larger size. Building the few remaining large hydro facilities would significantly reduce GHG emissions, but these would require costly resettlement programs. Given the inevitability for fossil-fuel base load generation, both clean coal technologies such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, as well as steam-cycle residual oil fueled plants merit consideration as alternatives to the conventional pulverized coal-fired plants currently being considered. Transportation sector measures necessary to ameliorate local urban air pollution problems, such as vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, also bring about significant reductions of GHG emissions. 51 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  14. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  15. Unconventional Heavy Oil Growth and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduagu, Experience I; Gates, Ian D

    2015-07-21

    Enormous global reserves of unconventional heavy oil make it a significant resource for economic growth and energy security; however, its extraction faces many challenges especially on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and recently, social acceptability. Here, we question whether it makes sense to extract and use unconventional heavy oil in spite of these externalities. We place unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas, and compare their energy intensities and life cycle GHG emissions. Our results reveal that oil shale is the most energy intensive fuel among upgraded primary fossil fuel options followed by in situ-produced bitumen from oil sands. Lignite is the most GHG intensive primary fuel followed by oil shale. Based on future world energy demand projections, we estimate that if growth of unconventional heavy oil production continues unabated, the incremental GHG emissions that results from replacing conventional oil with heavy oil would amount to 4-21 Gt-CO2eq GtCO2eq over four decades (2010 by 2050). However, prevailing socio-economic, regional and global energy politics, environmental and technological challenges may limit growth of heavy oil production and thus its GHG emissions contributions to global fossil fuel emissions may be smaller.

  16. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management approaches in the islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu

    2017-07-01

    Concerns about waste generation and climate change have attracted worldwide attention. Small islands, which account for more than one-sixth of the global land area, are facing problems caused by global climate change. This study evaluated the greenhouse gas emissions from five small islands surrounding Taiwan. These islands - Penghu County, Liuqui Island, Kinmen County, Matsu Island and Green Island - have their own waste management approaches that can serve as a guideline for waste management with greenhouse gas mitigation. The findings indicate that the total annual greenhouse gas emissions of the islands ranged from 292.1 to 29,096.2 [metric] tonne CO2-equivalent. The loading waste volumes and shipping distances were positively related to greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. The greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy plants, mainly carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, can be offset by energy recovery (approximately 38.6% of greenhouse gas emissions from incineration). In addition, about 34% and 11% of waste generated on the islands was successfully recycled and composted, respectively. This study provides valuable insights into the applicability of a policy framework for waste management approaches for greenhouse gas mitigation.

  17. Toward a protocol for quantifying the greenhouse gas balance and identifying mitigation options in smallholder farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, T. S.; Rufino, M. C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wollenberg, E.

    2013-06-01

    gas quantification Environ. Res. Lett. 8 011002 Palm C A, Smukler S M, Sullivan C C, Mutuo P K, Nyadzi G I and Walsh M G 2010 Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 107 19661-6 Parkin T B and Venterea R T 2010 Chamber-based trace gas flux measurements Sampling Protocols ed R F Follett chapter 3, pp 3-1-3-39 (available at: www.ars.usda.gov/research/GRACEnet) Smith P et al 2008 Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363 789-813 Tilman D, Balzer C, Hill J and Befort B 2011 Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 108 20260-4 Van Groenigen J W, Velthof G L, Oeneme O, Van Groenigen K J and Van Kessel C 2010 Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions: a case study for arable crops Eur. J. Soil Sci. 61 903-13 Verchot L V, Brienzajunior S, Deoliveira V, Mutegi J, Cattânio J H and Davidson E A 2008 Fluxes of CH4, CO2, NO, and N2O in an improved fallow agroforestry system in eastern Amazonia Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 126 113-21 Vermeulen S J, Campbell B M and Ingram J S I 2012 Climate change and food systems Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 37 195-222

  18. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapletal, Milos, E-mail: milos.zapletal@ekotoxa.cz [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Silesian University at Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Masarykova 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Cudlin, Pavel [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Chroust, Petr [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Edwards-Jonasova, Magda [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic); Paoletti, Elena [Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s{sup -1} and 0.36 cm s{sup -1} by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s{sup -1}. In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O{sub 3} concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: > We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. > The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. > We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. > We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} imply a reduction of NEP. > Deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  19. Estimation of net ecosystem exchange at the Skukuza flux site, Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric trace 43 gases in the tropics using FTIR-spectroscopy 3 SOIL AND VEGETATION: CARBON AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS 53 IN AFRICA West Africa?s savannahs under change: integrated view 55 on positive... FLEGT Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade FMC fuel moisture content FRLF Free light fraction FRP fire radiative power FTIR-spectroscopy Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) Spectroscopy GCMs General Circulation Models GEF Global...

  20. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants

  1. The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK Greenhouse Gas emission reduction strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    We employ a single-country dynamically-recursive Computable General Equilibrium model to make health-focussed macroeconomic assessments of three contingent UK Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation strategies, designed to achieve 2030 emission targets as suggested by the UK Committee on Climate Change....... In contrast to previous assessment studies, our main focus is on health co-benefits additional to those from reduced local air pollution. We employ a conservative cost-effectiveness methodology with a zero net cost threshold. Our urban transport strategy (with cleaner vehicles and increased active travel......) brings important health co-benefits and is likely to be strongly cost-effective; our food and agriculture strategy (based on abatement technologies and reduction in livestock production) brings worthwhile health co-benefits, but is unlikely to eliminate net costs unless new technological measures...

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from a small and shallow temperate lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetzel, Leandra; Schmiedeskamp, Marcel; Broder, Tanja; Hüttemann, Caroline; Jansen, Laura; Metzelder, Ulrike; Wallis, Ronya; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Small inland waters (lakes. They are further expected to be susceptible to changing climate conditions. So far, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and in-lake dynamics of CH4 production and oxidation in small, epilimnetic lakes in the temperate zone. Of particular interest is the potential occurrence of "hot spots" and "hot moments" that could contribute significantly to total emissions. To address this knowledge gap, we determined CO2 and CH4 emissions and dynamics to identify their controlling environmental factors in a polymictic small (1.4 ha) and shallow (max. depth approx. 1.5 m) crater lake ("Windsborn") in the Eifel uplands in south-west Germany. As Lake Windsborn has a small catchment area (8 ha) and no surficial inflows, it serves well as a model system for the identification of factors and processes controlling emissions. In 2015, 2016 and 2017 we measured CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes with different techniques across the sediment/water and water/atmosphere interface. Atmospheric exchange was measured using mini-chambers equipped with CO2 sensors and with an infra-red greenhouse gas analyzer for high temporal resolution flux measurements. Ebullition of CH4 was quantified with funnel traps. Sediment properties were examined using pore-water peepers. All measurements were carried out along a transect covering both littoral and central parts of the lake. Moreover, a weather station on a floating platform in the center of the lake recorded meteorological data as well as CO2 concentration in different depths of the water column. So far, Lake Windsborn seems to be a source for both CO2 and CH4 on an annual scale. CO2 emissions generally increased from spring to summer. Even though CO2 uptake could be observed during some periods in spring and fall, CO2 emissions in the summer exceeded the uptake. CO2 and CH4 emissions also appeared to be spatially variable between littoral areas and the inner

  3. The impacts of land-use change from grassland to bioenergy Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow on the crop and ecosystem greenhouse gas balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Z. M.; Taylor, G.; Alberti, G.; Dondini, M.; Smith, P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to better understand the greenhouse gas balance of land-use transition to bioenergy cropping systems in a UK context. Given limited land availability, addressing the food-energy-water nexus remains a challenge, and it is imperative that bioenergy crops are sited appropriately and that competition with food crops is minimised. Initial analyses included an extensive literature review and meta-analysis with a focus on the effects of land-use change to bioenergy on soil carbon and GHGs. This data mining exercise allowed us to understand the current state of the literature and identify key areas of research which needed to be addressed. Significant knowledge gaps were identified, with particular uncertainty around transitions from grasslands and transitions to short rotation forestry. A paired site experiment was established on a commercial SRC willow plantation and grassland to measure soil and ecosystem respiration. Initial results indicate that willow was a net sink for CO2 in comparison to grassland which was a net source of CO2. This provides evidence that the GHG balance of transition to SRC bioenergy willow will potentially result in increased soil carbon, in the long-term. The empirical findings from this study have been combined with modelled estimates for the site to both test and validate the ECOSSE model. Initial comparisons show that the model is able to accurately predict the respiration occurring at the field site, suggesting that it is a valuable approach for up-scaling from point sites such as this to wider geographical areas, and for considering future climate scenarios. The spatial modelling outputs will be used to build a modelling tool for non-specialist users which will determine the GHG and soil carbon effects of changing land to bioenergy for UK. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI).

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenhouse gas emissions from Three Gorges Reservoir of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity has led to significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG, which is thought to play important roles in global climate changes. It remains unclear about the kinetics of GHG emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous Oxide (N2O from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR of China, which was formed after the construction of the famous Three Gorges Dam. Here we report monthly measurements for one year of the fluxes of these gases at multiple sites within the TGR region, including three major tributaries, six mainstream sites, two downstream sites and one upstream site. The tributary areas have lower CO2 fluxes than the main storage; CH4 fluxes in the tributaries and upper reach mainstream sites are relative higher. Overall, TGR showed significantly lower CH4 emission rates than most new reservoirs in temperate and tropical regions. We attribute this to the well-oxygenated deep water and high water velocities that may facilitate the consumption of CH4. TGR's CO2 fluxes were lower than most tropical reservoirs and higher than most temperate systems. This could be explained by the high load of labile soil carbon delivered through erosion to the Yangtze River. Compared to fossil-fuelled power plants of equivalent power output, TGR is a very small GHG emitter – annual CO2-equivalent emissions are approximately 1.7% of that of a coal-fired generating plant of comparable power output.

  5. From Source to Sink: Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential of Using Composted Manure and Food Waste on California's Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, S.; Silver, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    That anthropogenic climate change is irreversible, except in the case of sustained net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, compels the scientific community to search for terrestrial carbon sinks. The soil is a promising sink: it currently stores more carbon than do the atmosphere and the vegetation combined, and most managed lands are degraded with respect to carbon. The application of compost to rangelands has been shown to enhance carbon uptake by soils, and the production of compost avoids greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management. Though these two mitigation pathways have been well studied, emissions from the composting process - which should be quantified in order to estimate the net carbon sequestration achieved by applying compost to rangelands - have not. We present a novel approach to quantifying emissions from composting, which we have deployed in Marin County, CA: a micrometerological mass balance set up, using a system of gas and wind towers surrounding a series of composting windrow piles. Real-time greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4) from the composting waste are measured by a laser spectrometer, and a system of sensors measure conditions within the pile, to identify biogeochemical drivers of those emissions. Understanding these drivers improves our knowledge of the processes governing the production of short-lived climate pollutants, and provides guidance to municipalities and states seeking to minimize their greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  7. Impact of historical land-use changes on greenhouse gas exchange in the U.S. Great Plains, 1883-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Melannie D; Merchant, Emily R; Parton, William J; Gutmann, Myron P; Lutz, Susan M; Williams, Stephen A

    2011-06-01

    European settlement of North America has involved monumental environmental change. From the late 19th century to the present, agricultural practices in the Great Plains of the United States have dramatically reduced soil organic carbon (C) levels and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in this region. This paper details the development of an innovative method to assess these processes. Detailed land-use data sets that specify complete agricultural histories for 21 representative Great Plains counties reflect historical changes in agricultural practices and drive the biogeochemical model, DAYCENT, to simulate 120 years of cropping and related ecosystem consequences. Model outputs include yields of all major crops, soil and system C levels, soil trace-gas fluxes (N2O emissions and CH4 consumption), and soil nitrogen mineralization rates. Comparisons between simulated and observed yields allowed us to adjust and refine model inputs, and then to verify and validate the results. These verification and validation exercises produced measures of model fit that indicated the appropriateness of this approach for estimating historical changes in crop yield. Initial cultivation of native grass and continued farming produced a significant loss of soil C over decades, and declining soil fertility led to reduced crop yields. This process was accompanied by a large GHG release, which subsided as soil fertility decreased. Later, irrigation, nitrogen-fertilizer application, and reduced cultivation intensity restored soil fertility and increased crop yields, but led to increased N2O emissions that reversed the decline in net GHG release. By drawing on both historical evidence of land-use change and scientific models that estimate the environmental consequences of those changes, this paper offers an improved way to understand the short- and long-term ecosystem effects of 120 years of cropping in the Great Plains.

  8. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

    2002-04-01

    The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; McMichael, Anthony J; Smith, Kirk R; Roberts, Ian; Woodcock, James; Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Tonne, Cathryn; Barrett, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-19

    This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for health. In some cases, the potential benefits seem to be substantial. This evidence provides an additional and immediate rationale for reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions beyond that of climate change mitigation alone. Climate change is an increasing and evolving threat to the health of populations worldwide. At the same time, major public health burdens remain in many regions. Climate change therefore adds further urgency to the task of addressing international health priorities, such as the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive than are those that address these priorities independently. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of site of starch digestion on portal nutrient net fluxes in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, Pierre; Rémond, Didier; Lemosquet, Sophie; Chauveau, Béatrice; Durand, Denys; Poncet, Claude

    2005-08-01

    Processing of maize grain is known to modulate the site of starch digestion, thus the nature and amount of nutrients delivered for absorption. We assessed the effect of site of starch digestion on nutrient net fluxes across portal-drained viscera (PDV). Three steers, fitted with permanent digestive cannulas and blood catheters, successively received two diets containing 35 % starch as dent maize grain. Diets differed according to maize presentation: dry and cracked (by-pass, BP) v. wet and ground (control, C). Ruminal physicochemical parameters were not significantly affected. Between C and BP, the decrease in ruminal starch digestion was compensated by an increase in starch digestion in the small intestine. The amount of glucose and soluble alpha-glucoside reaching the ileum was not affected. The amount of glucose disappearing in the small intestine increased from 238 to 531 g/d between C and BP, but portal net flux of glucose remained unchanged (-97 g/d). The portal O2 consumption and net energy release were not significantly affected, averaging 16 % and 57 % of metabolizable energy intake, respectively. The whole-body glucose appearance rate, measured by jugular infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose, averaged 916 g/d. The present study shows that the increase in the amount of glucose disappearing in the small intestine of conventionally fed cattle at a moderate intake level induces no change in portal net flux of glucose, reflecting an increase in glucose utilization by PDV. That could contribute to the low response of whole-body glucose appearance rate observed at this moderate level of intestinal glucose supply.

  12. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  13. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    by a person in Germany or Austria (10.6 t CO2e/p/a, UBA, 2016). The results indicate that GHG emissions from WWTP have at global scale a small impact, as also highlighted by the Austrian national inventory report (NIR, 2015), where the estimated CO2e emissions from WWTPs account for only 0.23% of the total CO2e emission in Austria. References IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Anabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/. NIR (2015). Austria's National Inventory Report 2015. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol. Reports, Band 0552, ISBN: 978-3-99004-364-6, Umweltbundesamt, Wien. Parravicini V., Valkova T., Haslinger J., Saracevic E., Winkelbauer A., Tauber J., Svardal K., Hohenblum P., Clara M., Windhofer G., Pazdernik K., Lampert C. (2015). Reduktionspotential bei den Lachgasemissionen aus Kläranlagen durch Optimierung des Betriebes (ReLaKO). The research project was financially supported by the Ministry for agriculture, forestry, Environment and Water Management. Project leader: TU Wien, Institute for Water Quality, Ressources and Waste Management; Project partner: Umweltbundesamt GmbH. Final report: http://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/service/publikationen/wasser/Lachgasemissionen---Kl-ranlagen.html. UBA (2016). German average carbon footprint. Umweltbundesamt, Januar 2016, http://uba.klimaktiv-co2-rechner.de/de_DE/page/footprint/

  15. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  16. Greenhouse gas production in wastewater treatment: process selection is the major factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J; Hartley, K

    2003-01-01

    Many practical design and operating decisions on wastewater treatment plants can have significant impacts on the overall environmental performance, in particular the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main factor in this regard is the use of aerobic or anaerobic treatment technology. This paper compares the GHG production of a number of case studies with aerobic or anaerobic main and sludge treatment of domestic wastewater and also looks at the energy balances and economics. This comparison demonstrates that major advantages can be gained by using primarily anaerobic processes as it is possible to largely eliminate any net energy input to the process, and therefore the production of GHG from fossil fuels. This is achieved by converting the energy of the incoming wastewater pollutants to methane which is then used to generate electricity. This is sufficient to power the aerobic processes as well as the mixing etc. of the anaerobic stages. In terms of GHG production, the total output (in CO2 equivalents) can be reduced from 2.4 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) for fully aerobic treatment to 1.0 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) for primarily anaerobic processes. All of the CO2 produced in the anaerobic processes comes from the wastewater pollutants and is therefore greenhouse gas neutral, whereas up to 1.4 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) originates from power generation for the fully aerobic process. This means that considerably more CO2 is produced in power generation than in the actual treatment process, and all of this is typically from fossil fuels, whereas the energy from the wastewater pollutants comes primarily from renewable energy sources, namely agricultural products. Even a change from anaerobic to aerobic sludge treatment processes (for the same aerobic main process) has a massive impact on the CO2 production from fossil fuels. An additional 0.8 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) is produced by changing to aerobic sludge digestion, which equates for a typical 100,000 EP plant to an additional

  17. Glacial greenhouse-gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Galbraith, Eric D

    2008-11-20

    Earth's climate and the concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) varied strongly on millennial timescales during past glacial periods. Large and rapid warming events in Greenland and the North Atlantic were followed by more gradual cooling, and are highly correlated with fluctuations of N(2)O as recorded in ice cores. Antarctic temperature variations, on the other hand, were smaller and more gradual, showed warming during the Greenland cold phase and cooling while the North Atlantic was warm, and were highly correlated with fluctuations in CO(2). Abrupt changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) have often been invoked to explain the physical characteristics of these Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations, but the mechanisms for the greenhouse-gas variations and their linkage to the AMOC have remained unclear. Here we present simulations with a coupled model of glacial climate and biogeochemical cycles, forced only with changes in the AMOC. The model simultaneously reproduces characteristic features of the Dansgaard-Oeschger temperature, as well as CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations. Despite significant changes in the land carbon inventory, CO(2) variations on millennial timescales are dominated by slow changes in the deep ocean inventory of biologically sequestered carbon and are correlated with Antarctic temperature and Southern Ocean stratification. In contrast, N(2)O co-varies more rapidly with Greenland temperatures owing to fast adjustments of the thermocline oxygen budget. These results suggest that ocean circulation changes were the primary mechanism that drove glacial CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations on millennial timescales.

  18. Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Jeremy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Zaccheo, T. Scott [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Blume, Nathan [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Pernini, Timothy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Braun, Michael [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Botos, Christopher [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the development and testing of a novel system, the Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE), for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 at Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. The system consists of a pair of laser based transceivers, a number of retroreflectors, and a set of cloud based data processing, storage and dissemination tools, which enable 2-D mapping of the CO2 in near real time. A system was built, tested locally in New Haven, Indiana, and then deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) facility in Bozeman, MT. Testing at ZERT demonstrated the ability of the GreenLITE system to identify and map small underground leaks, in the presence of other biological sources and with widely varying background concentrations. The system was then ruggedized and tested at the Harris test site in New Haven, IN, during winter time while exposed to temperatures as low as -15 °CºC. Additional testing was conducted using simulated concentration enhancements to validate the 2-D retrieval accuracy. This test resulted in a high confidence in the reconstruction ability to identify sources to tens of meters resolution in this configuration. Finally, the system was deployed for a period of approximately 6 months to an active industrial site, Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP), where >1M metric tons of CO2 had been injected into an underground sandstone basin. The main objective of this final deployment was to demonstrate autonomous operation over a wide range of environmental conditions with very little human interaction, and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system for long term deployment in a GCS environment.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Dispersion from Urban Greenhouse Gas Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottrott, Anders; Tan, Sze; He, Yonggang; Winkler, Renato

    2017-04-01

    Cities are characterized by complex topography, inhomogeneous turbulence, and variable pollutant source distributions. These features create a scale separation between local sources and urban scale emissions estimates known as the Grey-Zone. Modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques provide a quasi-deterministic, physically based toolset to bridge the scale separation gap between source level dynamics, local measurements, and urban scale emissions inventories. CFD has the capability to represent complex building topography and capture detailed 3D turbulence fields in the urban boundary layer. This presentation discusses the application of OpenFOAM to urban CFD simulations of natural gas leaks in cities. OpenFOAM is an open source software for advanced numerical simulation of engineering and environmental fluid flows. When combined with free or low cost computer aided drawing and GIS, OpenFOAM generates a detailed, 3D representation of urban wind fields. OpenFOAM was applied to model scalar emissions from various components of the natural gas distribution system, to study the impact of urban meteorology on mobile greenhouse gas measurements. The numerical experiments demonstrate that CH4 concentration profiles are highly sensitive to the relative location of emission sources and buildings. Sources separated by distances of 5-10 meters showed significant differences in vertical dispersion of plumes, due to building wake effects. The OpenFOAM flow fields were combined with an inverse, stochastic dispersion model to quantify and visualize the sensitivity of point sensors to upwind sources in various built environments. The Boussinesq approximation was applied to investigate the effects of canopy layer temperature gradients and convection on sensor footprints.

  20. Climate Golden Age or Greenhouse Gas Dark Age Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on the IPCC Assessments, this paper assesses legacy from total committed global warming over centuries, correlated with comprehensive projected impacts. Socio-economic inertia, climate system inertia, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, amplifying feedback emissions, and unmasking of cooling aerosols are determinants. Stabilization of global temperature (and ocean acidification for CO2) requires emissions of "long lived greenhouse gases" to be "about zero," including feedbacks. "The feedback … is positive" this century; many large feedback sources tend to be self- and inter-reinforcing. Only timely total conversion of all fossil fuel power to clean, virtually zero-carbon renewable power can achieve virtual zero carbon emissions. This results in multiple, increasing benefits for the entire world population of today's and all future generations, as laid out here. Conversions of methane- and nitrous oxide-emitting sources have large benefits. Without timely conversion to virtual zero emissions, the global climate and ocean disruptions are predicted to become progressively more severe and practically irreversible. "Continued emission of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems." Crop yields in all main food-producing regions are projected to decline progressively with rising temperature (as proxy to multiple adverse effects) (AR5). Ocean heating, acidification, and de-oxygenation are projected to increase under all scenarios, as is species extinction. The legacy for humanity depends on reducing long-lived global emissions fast enough to virtual zero. Today's surface warming with unprecedented and accelerating atmospheric GHG concentrations requires an immediate response. The only IPCC scenario to possibly meet this and not exceed 2ºC by and after 2100 is the best-case RCP2.6, which requires CO2 eq. emissions to peak right away and decline at the latest by 2020.

  1. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  3. Transit investments for greenhouse gas and energy reduction program : first assessment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and preliminary analysis of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administrations TIGGER Program. TIGGER, which stands for Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Redu...

  4. Transit investments for greenhouse gas and energy reduction program : second assessment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report is the second assessment of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administrations Transit Investments for : Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction (TIGGER) Program. The TIGGER Program provides capital funds to transit age...

  5. How conservation agriculture can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and enhance soil carbon storage in croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture can mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture by enhancing soil carbon sequestration, improving soil quality, N-use efficiency and water use efficiencies, and reducing fuel consumption. Management practices that increase carbon inputs and while reducing carbo...

  6. Climate Leadership webinar on Greenhouse Gas Management Resources for Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small businesses can calculate their carbon footprint and construct a greenhouse gas inventory to help track progress towards reaching emissions reduction goals. One strategy for this is EPA's Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  9. Holocene Changes in Land Cover and Greenhouse-gas Concentrations: Rethinking Natural vs Anthropogenic Causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Holocene has witnessed a switch from a nature-dominated to a human-dominated Earth system. Although globally-significant human impacts (wildfire, megafaunal extinctions) occurred during the late Pleistocene, it was the advent of agriculture that led to the progressive transformation of land cover, and which distinguishes the Holocene from previous interglacial periods. A wide array of data provide clear evidence of local-to-regional human disturbance from ~5 ka BP, in some cases earlier. There is more uncertainty about when the anthropogenic "footprint" became detectable at a global scale, and there has consequently been debate about how much of the pre-industrial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations is attributable to human causation, linked to processes such as deforestation (CO2) and wet rice cultivation (CH4). Although there has been recent progress in developing quantitative methods for translating pollen data into palaeo-land cover, such as the REVEALS model of Sugita (Holocene 2007) coupled to GIS, this has yet to be widely applied to existing data bases, and most pollen-based land-use reconstructions remain qualitative or semi-quantitative. Lake trophic status, sediment flux / soil erosion, and microcharcoal records of biomass burning provide alternative proxies that integrate regional-scale landscape disturbance. These proxy data along with documentary sources imply that globally-significant changes in land cover occurred prior to ~250 BP which must have altered atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations by this time. The polarised debate for and against early anthropogenic impact on global carbon cycling mirrors our industrial-era division between nature and society, both conceptually (e.g. Cartesian dualism) and on the ground (e.g. demarcating land between monoculture agriculture and wilderness). However, for the period before ~1750 AD, this likely represents a false dichotomy, because pre-industrial societies more often formed part

  10. Renewable Doesn’t Mean Carbon Neutral: Emerging Greenhouse Gas Inventory Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-17

    and materials), such as: – Biomass, wood, and wood waste – Landfill gas / biogas – Biofuels (B100, E100) – Biofuel component of mixed fuels (B20, E85...Renewable Doesn’t Mean Carbon Neutral: Emerging Greenhouse Gas Inventory Challenge FES-East Conference Bethesda, Maryland June 17, 2009 Mr...Emerging Greenhouse Gas Inventory Challenge 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  11. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Mulbry, W; White, J W; Kondrad, S L

    2011-02-01

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were approximately 20% higher than emissions from unmixed (static) piles. For both treatments, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) accounted for 75-80%, 18-21%, and 2-4% of GHG emissions, respectively. Seventy percent of CO(2) emissions and 95% of CH(4) emissions from all piles occurred within first 23 days. By contrast, 80-95% of N(2)O emissions occurred after this period. Mixed and static piles released 2 and 1.6 kg GHG (CO(2)-Eq.) for each kg of degraded volatile solids (VS), respectively. Our results suggest that to minimize GHG emissions, farmers should store manure in undisturbed piles or delay the first mixing of compost piles for approximately 4 weeks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Technical and policy aspects of strategies to decrease greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural activities greatly contribute to the global net flux of CH4, N2O and CO2 from the terrestrial biosphere into the atmosphere. For CH4 and N2O, the net contribution is in the order of 40ÐBecause of this relatively large contribution, there is an urgent need for the implementation of

  13. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M.; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, Linda S.; Miles, Natasha L.; Richardson, Scott; Breidt, F. Jay; Smith, James E.; McCarty, Jessica L.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A. Scott

    2015-03-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO2 emissions. The biogenic CO2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of -408 ± 136 Tg CO2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of -478 ± 146 Tg CO2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC.

  14. Aerosol lidar observations of atmospheric mixing in Los Angeles: Climatology and implications for greenhouse gas observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, John; Kort, Eric A.; DeCola, Phil; Duren, Riley

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases provide essential information on sources and sinks of these key atmospheric constituents. To quantify fluxes from atmospheric observations, representation of transport—especially vertical mixing—is a necessity and often a source of error. We report on remotely sensed profiles of vertical aerosol distribution taken over a 2 year period in Pasadena, California. Using an automated analysis system, we estimate daytime mixing layer depth, achieving high confidence in the afternoon maximum on 51% of days with profiles from a Sigma Space Mini Micropulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) and on 36% of days with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. We note that considering ceilometer data on a logarithmic scale, a standard method, introduces, an offset in mixing height retrievals. The mean afternoon maximum mixing height is 770 m Above Ground Level in summer and 670 m in winter, with significant day-to-day variance (within season σ = 220m≈30%). Taking advantage of the MiniMPL's portability, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the detailed horizontal structure of the mixing layer by automobile. We compare our observations to planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from sonde launches, North American regional reanalysis (NARR), and a custom Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring in Los Angeles. NARR and WRF PBL heights at Pasadena are both systematically higher than measured, NARR by 2.5 times; these biases will cause proportional errors in GHG flux estimates using modeled transport. We discuss how sustained lidar observations can be used to reduce flux inversion error by selecting suitable analysis periods, calibrating models, or characterizing bias for correction in post processing.

  15. Aerosol lidar observations of atmospheric mixing in Los Angeles: Climatology and implications for greenhouse gas observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, John; Kort, Eric A; DeCola, Phil; Duren, Riley

    2016-08-27

    Atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases provide essential information on sources and sinks of these key atmospheric constituents. To quantify fluxes from atmospheric observations, representation of transport-especially vertical mixing-is a necessity and often a source of error. We report on remotely sensed profiles of vertical aerosol distribution taken over a 2 year period in Pasadena, California. Using an automated analysis system, we estimate daytime mixing layer depth, achieving high confidence in the afternoon maximum on 51% of days with profiles from a Sigma Space Mini Micropulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) and on 36% of days with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. We note that considering ceilometer data on a logarithmic scale, a standard method, introduces, an offset in mixing height retrievals. The mean afternoon maximum mixing height is 770 m Above Ground Level in summer and 670 m in winter, with significant day-to-day variance (within season σ = 220m≈30%). Taking advantage of the MiniMPL's portability, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the detailed horizontal structure of the mixing layer by automobile. We compare our observations to planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from sonde launches, North American regional reanalysis (NARR), and a custom Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring in Los Angeles. NARR and WRF PBL heights at Pasadena are both systematically higher than measured, NARR by 2.5 times; these biases will cause proportional errors in GHG flux estimates using modeled transport. We discuss how sustained lidar observations can be used to reduce flux inversion error by selecting suitable analysis periods, calibrating models, or characterizing bias for correction in post processing.

  16. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  17. Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Related Aspects: Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important drivers of increasing greenhouse gas emissions are increasing world’s population, economic development resulting in higher level of productions and consumption, but also unanticipated increases in the energy intensity of GDP and in the carbon intensity of energy. The EU committed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 20% until 2020 or 40% until 2030 compared to 1990 levels of the Kyoto Protocol. The Czech Republic enlarged EU in 2004 as a country from Eastern Europe where usually the heavy industries or agriculture prevail over other sectors. The aim of the paper was an evaluation of the development of greenhouse gas emissions and related aspects in the industry of the Czech Republic. Based on the results was concluded that although greenhouse gas emissions of the Czech Republic are deeply below the Kyoto targets, there are areas for improvements e.g. in case of energy intensities, as well as in case of carbon intensity and carbon productivity, where the Czech Republic reaches worse results than the EU28. Therefore is recommended to decrease greenhouse gas emission and increase gross value added generated by each NACE sector. Both those factors will impact on improvement of energy intensity, carbon productivity as well as greenhouse gas emissions per capita.

  18. Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, T. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic. (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines issue related to life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions. The first issue is that of the greenhouse gas emission involved in the life cycle fuel usage of a vehicle. In this case approximately 80% of the energy consumption is in the actual driving of the vehicle. The second issue is that of the greenhouse gas emissions involved in the life cycle of bitumen and concrete roads. The large greenhouse gas emissions involved in the manufacture of cement for concrete roads, and their steel reinforcing, mean that in many situations bitumen roads are more greenhouse-friendly. The third issue is that of the greenhouse gases involved in maintaining the administrative infrastructure of a government authority to oversee transport issues. In the case of the NSW Roads and Traffic Authority, the largest source of their direct greenhouse gas emissions is not in their road and bridge construction activities, neither is it in the energy use involved in running their vehicle fleet, or their street lights and traffic lights. The largest direct source of the RTA greenhouse gas emissions is the energy use in their buildings. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase Following the Termination of a Perennial Legume Phase of an Annual Crop Rotation within the Red River Valley, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanis, K. L.; Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.; Glenn, A. J.; Maas, S.; Gervais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial legume forages may have the potential to increase soil carbon sequestration and decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere when introduced into annual cropping systems. However, little is known about what short-term effect the return to annual cropping following termination of perennial legume forage would have on carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O emissions. Furthermore, there are few quantitative measurements about this impact on the Canadian Prairies. A long-term field experiment to continuously measure CO2 and N2O fluxes was established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012 all four plots were planted with corn. Termination of the grass-alfalfa forage resulted in greater fall CO2 emissions in 2011, greater spring melt CO2 emissions and net annual N2O emissions in 2012 from the annual-perennial plots when compared to the annual plots. Over seven crop years (2006-2012), the annual - perennial system increased carbon uptake by 3.4 Mg C ha-1 and reduced N2O emissions by 3.0 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 compared to the annual system. However after accounting for harvest removals both the annual and annual-perennial systems were net carbon sources of 5.7 and 2.5 Mg C ha-1 and net GHG sources of 38 and 24 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 respectively. We are currently following the long-term impacts of inclusion of perennial forages in an annual

  20. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  1. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  2. Idaho National Laboratory’s FY14 Greenhouse Gas Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frerichs, Kimberly Irene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. In recent years, concern has grown about the environmental impact of GHGs. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of an inventory of the total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions. INL’s GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries, but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated 73,521 metric tons (MT) of CO2 equivalent (CO2e ) emissions during FY14. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL’s FY14 GHG inventory: • Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL’s GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions • Other sources with high emissions were

  3. Nordic regionalisation of a greenhouse-gas stabilisation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyser, Klaus; Rummukainen, Markku; Strandberg, Gustav

    2006-10-15

    The impact of a CO{sub 2} stabilisation on the Swedish climate is investigated with the regional climate model RCA3 driven by boundary conditions obtained from a global coupled climate system model (CCSM3). The global model has been forced with observed greenhouse gas concentrations from pre-industrial conditions until today's, and with an idealised further increase until the stabilisation level is reached. After stabilisation the model integration continues for another 150+ years in order to follow the delayed response of the climate system over a period of time. Results from the global and regional climate model are compared against observations and ECMWF reanalysis for 1961-1990. For this period, the global model is found to be too cold over Europe and with a zonal flow from the North Atlantic towards Europe that is too strong. The climate of the driving global model controls the climate of the regional model and the same deviations from one are thus inherited by the other. We therefore analyse the relative climate changes differences, or ratios, of climate variables between future's and today's climate. Compared to pre-industrial conditions, the global mean temperature changes by about 1.5 deg C as a result of the stabilisation at 450 ppmv equivalent CO{sub 2}. Averaged over Europe, the temperature change is slightly larger, and it is even larger for Sweden and Northern Europe. Annual mean precipitation for Europe is unaffected, but Sweden receives more precipitation under higher CO{sub 2} levels. The inter-annual and decadal variability of annual mean temperature and precipitation does not change with any significant degree. The changes in temperature and precipitation are not evenly distributed with the season: the largest warming and increased precipitation in Northern Europe occurs during winter months while the summer climate remains more or less unchanged. The opposite is true for the Mediterranean region where the precipitation decreases

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting through Integrated Business Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Given the risks posed by global climate change, it is important that society as a whole responds in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) into the atmosphere. Whether you are an environmentalist, a small-to-medium business owner, or a corporate risk manager - the need to act is now in order to reduce future environmental damage. While this sounds overwhelming, it’s really quite simple. Carbon Management is the process of understanding where your commercial activities generate GHG emissions, so that you can reduce those emissions in a planned, financially responsible way. Specifically, governments have the capacity to lead in this area and reduce these costs throughout their cities. Village Green Global develops and manages demonstration projects for the government that act as exemplar models to assist in gathering verifiable GHG reporting within selected regions and cities. This model highlights opportunities for the capture of conservation and energy credit commodities for local financial markets to use in global trading. Information gathered will prepare government for the ongoing changing global requirements and mitigate risk of unnecessary market exposure and cost; allow government to take a measured, responsible approach to its environmental responsibilities; reduce operational costs, improving the government’s asset utilization and more effectively streamlining its operations; and establish the government as responsible and proactive due to its creative approach to environmental challenges. Village Green Global’s government partnership model aims to deliver new jobs and technologies in the emerging “green economy;” a linkage to education at both at College and University levels, then assisting industry and community needs; and the involvement of industry leaders ensures training is targeted to job creation and local capacity building opportunities, in turn creating new skills and career pathways for the displaced workforce from the

  5. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  6. Indicators for Danish greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.

    2009-12-15

    The indicators defined according to the obligations under decisions of the EU Monitoring Mechanism have been worked out for 1990-2007. Discussions and comments on the definitions and the guidance of the indicators and their numerator and denominator were worked out. For many indicators the definitions and guidance were clear, for some indicators further text as definition and guidance would have been appropriate. Explanations on the data collection for the indicators for Denmark are given in this report. For the greenhouse gas emissions the source is the Danish inventories and the Danish inventory databases. For Economic data the source is Eurostat and for building data the source is Statistics Denmark. Only the energy, industry and transport sectors and only emissions of CO{sub 2} are covered by the indicators defined. A major result is that the main indicator (macro indicator 1) shows that the steady increase of gross domestic product is decoupled from the trend of the Danish national emissions of CO{sub 2}, since the indicator (the emissions divided by the GDP) in 2005-2007 decreased by 23-30 % compared to 1990. This decrease is mainly caused by higher efficiency in the heat and electricity production, a gradual shift to lesser CO{sub 2} emitting fuels, e.g. from coal to gas, and an increased use of biomass fuels. An important indicator for the industry sector is the CO{sub 2} emission over gross value added (priority indicator 4). The overall trend is a decrease from 1996 to 2007 after slightly fluctuating levels for the years 1990 to 1996. The rather steady increase of gross value added of industry, in 2007 27% above the 1990 level, simultaneously with an increase of CO{sub 2} emission of 5% only, is as for the macro indicator a decoupling. This causes the indicator in 2007 to be at 83 % of the 1990 level. The change to lower emitting fuels plays a role probably interplaying with the changes in industry structure towards less energy demanding industry. For

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emission from In-situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication, which continues to be a serious and chronic problem. Two primary processes for removing excess NO3- from water are biological assimilation and denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria use NO3- as the electron acceptor for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas (GHG). A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs), though research has been limited to NO3- level reduction and omitted process mechanisms. DNBRs work by providing an anaerobic environment with plenty of organic matter (commonly woodchips) for denitrifying bacteria to flourish. While, initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, GHG emission could be an unintended consequence. The study's goal is to determine how bioreactor design promotes microbial denitrification while limiting N2O production. It specifically focuses on expanding the body of knowledge concerning DNBRs in the areas of design implications and internal processes by measuring intermediate compounds and not solely NO3-. Nutrient samples are collected at inflow and outflow structures and tested for NO3- and nitrite (NO2-). Dissolved and headspace gas samples are collected and tested for N2O. Additional gas samples will be analyzed for naturally-occurring isotopic N2 to support proposed pathways. Designs will be analyzed both through the N2O/N2 production ratio and NO2- production caused by various residence times and inflow NO3- concentrations. High GHG ratios and NO2- production suggest non-ideal conditions or flow patterns for complete denitrification. NO3- reduction is used for comparison with previous studies. Few

  8. Sustained Magnetorotational Turbulence in Local Simulations of Stratified Disks with Zero Net Magnetic Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Davis, S.; M. Stone, J.; Pessah, Martin Elias

    2010-01-01

    We examine the effects of density stratification on magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in local simulations that adopt the shearing box approximation. Our primary result is that, even in the absence of explicit dissipation, the addition of vertical gravity...... leads to convergence in the turbulent energy densities and stresses as the resolution increases, contrary to results for zero net flux, unstratified boxes. The ratio of total stress to midplane pressure has a mean of ~0.01, although there can be significant fluctuations on long (>~50 orbit) timescales...

  9. [Net CO2 exchange and carbon isotope flux in Acacia mangium plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lu-Liu; Sun, Gu-Chou; Zhao, Ping; Cai, Xi-An; Zeng, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Quan

    2009-11-01

    By using stable carbon isotope technique, the leaf-level 13C discrimination was integrated to canopy-scale photosynthetic discrimination (Deltacanopy) through weighted the net CO2 assimilation (Anet) of sunlit and shaded leaves and the stand leaf area index (L) in an A. mangium plantation, and the carbon isotope fluxes from photosynthesis and respiration as well as their net exchange flux were obtained. There was an obvious diurnal variation in Deltacanopy, being lower at dawn and at noon time (18.47 per thousand and 19.87 per thousand, respectively) and the highest (21.21 per thousand) at dusk. From the end of November to next May, the Deltacanopy had an increasing trend, with an annual average of (20.37 +/- 0.29) per thousand. The carbon isotope ratios of CO2 from autotrophic respiration (excluding daytime foliar respiration) and heterotrophic respiration were respectively (- 28.70 +/- 0.75) per thousand and (- 26.75 +/- 1.3) per thousand in average. The delta13 C of nighttime ecosystem-respired CO2 in May was the lowest (-30.14 per thousand), while that in November was the highest (-28.01 per thousand). The carbon isotope flux of CO2 between A. mangium forest and atmosphere showed a midday peak of 178.5 and 217 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) x per thousand in May and July, with the daily average of 638.4 and 873.2 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) x per thousand, respectively. The carbon isotope flux of CO2 absorbed by canopy leaves was 1.6-2.5 times higher than that of CO2 emitted from respiration, suggesting that a large sum of CO2 was absorbed by A. mangium, which decreased the atmospheric CO2 concentration and improved the environment.

  10. The greenhouse gas balance of the oil palm industry in Colombia: a preliminary analysis. I. Carbon sequestration and carbon offsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian E Henson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is currently the world’s fifth largest producer of palm oil and the largest producer in South and Central America. It has substantial areas of land that could be used for additional oil palm production and there is considerable scope for increasing yields of existing planted areas. Much of the vegetation on land suitable for conversion to oil palm has a low biomass, and so establishing oil palm plantations on such land should lead to an increase in carbon stock, thereby counteracting greenhouse gas (GHG emissions responsible for global warming. The first part of this study examines changes in carbon stock in Colombia resulting from expansion of oil palm cultivation together with factors (offsets that act to minimize carbon emissions. The results are subsequently used to construct a net GHG balance

  11. The impacts of local farming system development trajectories on greenhouse gas emissions in the northern mountain areas of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisz, Stephen J; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2007-01-01

    fields, paddy, fruit trees and animal husbandry. Discussion in the policy debate and literature focuses on the impacts these changes have on local people's livelihoods. There have been no attempts to evaluate the impact of these changes on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper examines the realities...... of current farming system changes taking place at the hamlet level and other changes that could take place due to government land use policies and extension programs. The paper answers the following questions: How could farming system changes influence net GHGs? Which farming system changes in the NMR......, the trajectories of changes that are currently observed or those that would be followed if farmers adhere strictly to government policies and programs, will have a greater affect on the GHG contributions from agriculture in the region? Could ‘clean development mechanism' (CDM) projects make a difference...

  12. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical wheat field under different nitrogen fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Jim J; Tian, Zhou; Wang, Xudong; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Minimizing soil ammonia (NH 3 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EFs) has significant implications in regional air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions besides nitrogen (N) nutrient loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments of conventional urea, polymer-coated urea, ammonia sulfate, urease inhibitor (NBPT, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide)-treated urea, and nitrification inhibitor (DCD, dicyandiamide)-treated urea on emissions of NH 3 and GHGs from subtropical wheat cultivation. A field study was established in a Cancienne silt loam soil. During growth season, NH 3 emission following N fertilization was characterized using active chamber method whereas GHG emissions of N 2 O, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and methane (CH 4 ) were by passive chamber method. The results showed that coated urea exhibited the largest reduction (49%) in the EF of NH 3 -N followed by NBPT-treated urea (39%) and DCD-treated urea (24%) over conventional urea, whereas DCD-treated urea had the greatest suppression on N 2 O-N (87%) followed by coated urea (76%) and NBPT-treated urea (69%). Split fertilization of ammonium sulfate-urea significantly lowered both NH 3 -N and N 2 O-N EF values but split urea treatment had no impact over one-time application of urea. Both NBPT and DCD-treated urea treatments lowered CO 2 -C flux but had no effect on CH 4 -C flux. Overall, application of coated urea or urea with NPBT or DCD could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing NH 3 and N 2 O emissions in subtropical wheat production in Southern USA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Patterns in stream greenhouse gas dynamics from mountains to plains in northcentral Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, C.; Bettigole, C.; Glick, H. B.; Seegmiller, L.; Oliver, C. D.; Raymond, P.

    2017-09-01

    Quantification of small stream contributions to global carbon cycling is key to understanding how freshwater systems transmit and transform carbon between terrestrial and atmospheric pools. To date, greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from freshwaters, particularly in mountainous regions, remain poorly characterized due to a lack of direct field observations. Using a unique longitudinal approach, we conducted field surveys across two ecoregions (Middle Rockies and Great Plains) in the Clear Creek watershed, a subwatershed of Wyoming's Powder River Basin. We took direct measurements of stream gases using headspace sampling at 30 sites (8 June to 23 October). We observed the lowest and most variable concentrations in headwaters, which flow through a federally designated alpine wilderness area. By contrast, the Great Plains exhibited 1.45 and 4 times higher pCO2 and pCH4 concentrations and the relative contributions of methane increased downstream. Fluxes during snowmelt were 45% and 58% higher for CO2 and CH4 than during base flow but overall were lower than estimates for other systems. Variability for pCO2 was highest during late summer and in the uppermost sections of the headwaters. The high heterogeneity and common undersaturation observed through space and time, especially in the mountains, suggest that downscaled regional estimates may fail to capture variability in fluxes observed at these smaller scales. Based on these results, we strongly recommend higher resolution time series studies and increased scrutiny of systems at near equilibrium, inclusive of winter storage and ice-off events, to improve our understanding of the effects of seasonal dynamics on these processes.

  14. Irrigation Induced Surface Cooling in the Context of Modern and Increased Greenhouse Gas Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Puma, Michael J.; Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that expected warming trends from increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing have been locally masked by irrigation induced cooling, and it is uncertain how the magnitude of this irrigation masking effect will change in the future. Using an irrigation dataset integrated into a global general circulation model, we investigate the equilibrium magnitude of irrigation induced cooling under modern (Year 2000) and increased (A1B Scenario, Year 2050) GHG forcing, using modern irrigation rates in both scenarios. For the modern scenario, the cooling is largest over North America, India, the Middle East, and East Asia. Under increased GHG forcing, this cooling effect largely disappears over North America, remains relatively unchanged over India, and intensifies over parts of China and the Middle East. For North America, irrigation significantly increases precipitation under modern GHG forcing; this precipitation enhancement largely disappears under A1B forcing, reducing total latent heat fluxes and the overall irrigation cooling effect. Over India, irrigation rates are high enough to keep pace with increased evaporative demand from the increased GHG forcing and the magnitude of the cooling is maintained. Over China, GHG forcing reduces precipitation and shifts the region to a drier evaporative regime, leading to a relatively increased impact of additional water from irrigation on the surface energy balance. Irrigation enhances precipitation in the Middle East under increased GHG forcing, increasing total latent heat fluxes and enhancing the irrigation cooling effect. Ultimately, the extent to which irrigation will continue to compensate for the warming from increased GHG forcing will primarily depend on changes in the background evaporative regime, secondary irrigation effects (e.g. clouds, precipitation), and the ability of societies to maintain (or increase) current irrigation rates.

  15. Net ecosystem exchange from five land-use transitions to bioenergy crops from four locations across the UK - The Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Harris, Zoe M.; McCalmont, Jon; Rylett, Daniel; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan G.; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Morrison, Ross; Alberti, Giorgio; Donnison, Ian; Siebicke, Lukas; Morison, James; Taylor, Gail; McNamara, Niall P.

    2016-04-01

    A major part of international agreements on combating climate change is the conversion from a fossil fuel economy to a low carbon economy. Bioenergy crops have been proposed as a way to improve energy security while reducing CO2 emissions to help mitigate the effects of climate change. However, the impact of land-use change from a traditional land use (e.g., arable and grassland) to bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse gas balance (GHG) and carbon stocks are poorly quantified at this time. The Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) to provide scientific evidence within the UK on a range of land-use conversions (LUC) to bioenergy crops. The ELUM network consists of seven partners investigating five LUCs in four locations including Scotland, Wales, North and South England. Transitions included grasslands to short rotation forestry (SRF), to short rotation coppice willow (SRC) and to Miscanthus and arable to SRC and Miscanthus Measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) along with continuous measurements of meteorological conditions were made at seven sub-sites over a two-year period. Results showed that, over two years, two of the land-uses, a grassland in South England and a grassland conversion to Miscanthus in Wales were net sources of carbon. The greatest carbon sink was into the SRF site in Scotland followed by the SRC willow in South England. The annual terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) for the SRC willow in North and South Sussex sites were similar, but the annual GPP at the South England site was about 27% higher than that the North England site. Establishing a long term network will allow us to continue monitoring the effects of land use change on whole ecosystem carbon balance, providing an insight into which types of LUC are suitable for bioenergy cropping in the UK.

  16. Development of an ensemble-adjoint optimization approach to derive uncertainties in net carbon fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziehn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modelling of the carbon cycle strongly depends on the parametrization of its underlying processes. The Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS can be used as an estimator algorithm to derive posterior parameter values and uncertainties for the Biosphere Energy Transfer and Hydrology scheme (BETHY. However, the simultaneous optimization of all process parameters can be challenging, due to the complexity and non-linearity of the BETHY model. Therefore, we propose a new concept that uses ensemble runs and the adjoint optimization approach of CCDAS to derive the full probability density function (PDF for posterior soil carbon parameters and the net carbon flux at the global scale. This method allows us to optimize only those parameters that can be constrained best by atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 data. The prior uncertainties of the remaining parameters are included in a consistent way through ensemble runs, but are not constrained by data. The final PDF for the optimized parameters and the net carbon flux are then derived by superimposing the individual PDFs for each ensemble member. We find that the optimization with CCDAS converges much faster, due to the smaller number of processes involved. Faster convergence also gives us much increased confidence that we find the global minimum in the reduced parameter space.

  17. Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs and nitrogen fluxes from Indian watersheds: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, D. P.; Hong, B.; Paneer Selvam, A.; Howarth, R. W.; Ramesh, R.; Purvaja, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply an established methodology for estimating Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) to India and its major watersheds. Our primary goal here is to provide initial estimates of major nitrogen inputs of NANI for India, at the country level and for major Indian watersheds, including data sources and parameter estimates, making some assumptions as needed in areas of limited data availability. Despite data limitations, we believe that it is clear that the main anthropogenic N source is agricultural fertilizer, which is being produced and applied at a growing rate, followed by N fixation associated with rice, leguminous crops, and sugar cane. While India appears to be a net exporter of N in food/feed as reported elsewhere (Lassaletta et al., 2013b), the balance of N associated with exports and imports of protein in food and feedstuffs is sensitive to protein content and somewhat uncertain. While correlating watershed N inputs with riverine N fluxes is problematic due in part to limited available riverine data, we have assembled some data for comparative purposes. We also suggest possible improvements in methods for future studies, and the potential for estimating riverine N fluxes to coastal waters.

  18. Nutrient fluxes and net metabolism in a coastal lagoon SW peninsula of Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Duarte, R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of nutrients and net metabolism were estimated in coastal lagoon Magdalena Bay using LOICZ biogeochemical model. In situ data were obtained from 14 sites in the lagoon and also from a fixed site in the adjacent ocean area. Intense upwelling (February to July and faint upwelling (August to January were analyzed from monthly time series. The Temperature, nitrite + nitrate, ammonium and phosphate within the lagoon showed significant differences (p<0.05 between the two periods. Salinity (p=0.408 was more homogeneous (no significantly different due to mixing processes. During the intense upwelling period, nutrients increased in and out of the lagoon due to the influence of Transitional Water and Subartic Water transported by the California Current. However, during the faint upwelling, from August to January, the Transition Water and Subtropical Surface Water were predominant. Magdalena Bay showed denitrification processes of throughout the year as it occurred in other semi-arid coastal lagoons. It also showed a net autotrophic metabolism during intense upwelling and heterotrophic metabolism during faint upwelling. Understanding nutrient flows and net metabolism through simple biogeochemical models can provide tools for better management of the coastal zone.

  19. Quantifying the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions from current and future savanna land use change across northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bristow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The clearing and burning of tropical savanna leads to globally significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs; however there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas occupy the northern quarter of the continent, a region of increasing interest for further exploitation of land and water resources. Land use decisions across this vast biome have the potential to influence the national greenhouse gas budget. To better quantify emissions from savanna deforestation and investigate the impact of deforestation on national GHG emissions, we undertook a paired site measurement campaign where emissions were quantified from two tropical savanna woodland sites; one that was deforested and prepared for agricultural land use and a second analogue site that remained uncleared for the duration of a 22-month campaign. At both sites, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured using the eddy covariance method. Observations at the deforested site were continuous before, during and after the clearing event, providing high-resolution data that tracked CO2 emissions through nine phases of land use change. At the deforested site, post-clearing debris was allowed to cure for 6 months and was subsequently burnt, followed by extensive soil preparation for cropping. During the debris burning, fluxes of CO2 as measured by the eddy covariance tower were excluded. For this phase, emissions were estimated by quantifying on-site biomass prior to deforestation and applying savanna-specific emission factors to estimate a fire-derived GHG emission that included both CO2 and non-CO2 gases. The total fuel mass that was consumed during the debris burning was 40.9 Mg C ha−1 and included above- and below-ground woody biomass, course woody debris, twigs, leaf litter and C4 grass fuels. Emissions from the burning were added to the net CO2 fluxes as measured by the eddy covariance tower for other post-deforestation phases to

  20. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and

  1. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution: Measurements Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Safta, Cosmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sargsyan, Khachik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFranchi, Brian W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Schrader, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michelsen, Hope A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bambha, Ray P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In this project we have developed atmospheric measurement capabilities and a suite of atmospheric modeling and analysis tools that are well suited for verifying emissions of green- house gases (GHGs) on an urban-through-regional scale. We have for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate atmospheric CO2 . This will allow for the examination of regional-scale transport and distribution of CO2 along with air pollutants traditionally studied using CMAQ at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution with the goal of leveraging emissions verification efforts for both air quality and climate. We have developed a bias-enhanced Bayesian inference approach that can remedy the well-known problem of transport model errors in atmospheric CO2 inversions. We have tested the approach using data and model outputs from the TransCom3 global CO2 inversion comparison project. We have also performed two prototyping studies on inversion approaches in the generalized convection-diffusion context. One of these studies employed Polynomial Chaos Expansion to accelerate the evaluation of a regional transport model and enable efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior for Bayesian inference. The other approach uses de- terministic inversion of a convection-diffusion-reaction system in the presence of uncertainty. These approaches should, in principle, be applicable to realistic atmospheric problems with moderate adaptation. We outline a regional greenhouse gas source inference system that integrates (1) two ap- proaches of atmospheric dispersion simulation and (2) a class of Bayesian inference and un- certainty quantification algorithms. We use two different and complementary approaches to simulate atmospheric dispersion. Specifically, we use a Eulerian chemical transport model CMAQ and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model - FLEXPART-WRF. These two models share the same WRF

  2. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

  3. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M; Canadell, Josep G; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R; Wofsy, Steven C

    2016-03-10

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net