WorldWideScience

Sample records for net generating capacity

  1. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  2. Net Generation's Learning Styles in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Eleni; Kalokairinou, Athina

    2015-01-01

    Numerous surveys have confirmed that emerging technologies and Web 2.0 tools have been a defining feature in the lives of current students, estimating that there is a fundamental shift in the way young people communicate, socialize and learn. Nursing students in higher education are characterized as digital literate with distinct traits which influence their learning styles. Millennials exhibit distinct learning preferences such as teamwork, experiential activities, structure, instant feedback and technology integration. Higher education institutions should be aware of the implications of the Net Generation coming to university and be prepared to meet their expectations and learning needs.

  3. Managing nuclear predominant generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouget, Y.H.; Carbonnier, D.

    1999-01-01

    The most common believe, associated with nuclear power plant, leads to the conclusion that it can only operate, as a base load plant. This observation can be reversed, by just looking at large generating capacity, using an important nuclear generation mix. Nuclear plants may certainly load follow and contribute to the grid frequency control. The French example illustrates these possibilities. The reactor control of French units has been customized to accommodate the grid requests. Managing such a large nuclear plant fleet requires to take various actions, ranging from a daily basis to a multi-annual prospective standpoint. The paper describes the various contributions leading to safe, reliable, well accepted and cost competitive nuclear plants in France. The combination of all aspects related to operations, maintenance scheduling, nuclear safety management, are presented. The use of PWR units carries considerable weight in economic terms, with several hundred million francs tied in with outage scheduling every year. This necessitates a global view of the entire generating system which can be mobilized to meet demand. There is considerable interaction between units as, on the one hand, they are competing to satisfy the same need, and, on the other hand, reducing maintenance costs means sharing the necessary resources, and thus a coordinated staggering of outages. In addition, nuclear fuel is an energy reserve which remains in the reactor for 3 or 4 years, with some of the fuel renewed each year. Due to the memory effect, the fuel retains a memory of past use, so that today's choices impact upon the future. A medium-term view of fuel management is also necessary. The coordination systems implemented by EDF aim to control these parameters for the benefit of electricity consumers. (author)

  4. A large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Susumu; Miki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kazuichi

    2000-01-01

    In future large capacity nuclear power plant, capacity of a generator to be applied will be 1800 MVA of the largest class in the world. In response to this, the Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. began to carry out element technology verification of a four-pole large capacity turbine generator mainly using upgrading technique of large capacity, since 1994 fiscal year. And, aiming at reliability verification of the 1800 MVA class generator, a model generator with same cross-section as that of an actual one was manufactured, to carry out some verifications on its electrified tests, and so on. Every performance evaluation result of tests on the model generator were good, and high reliability to design and manufacturing technique of the 1800 MVA class generator could be verified. In future, on the base of these technologies, further upgrading of reliability on the large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation is intended to be carried out. (G.K.)

  5. The Net Generation, the Internet, and Political Communication and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Damir; Dumancic, Mario; Topolovcan, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    The Net Generation, a generation which grew up with digital media, differs from older generations which entered the world of digital media and the Internet afterwards. The Internet itself opened new possibilities of communication and participation in the sphere of politics as well. Research was conducted among students at the Faculty of Teacher…

  6. Capacity value evaluation of photovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, I.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an example of capacity value (kW-value) evaluation of photovoltaic generation from power companies generation planning point of view. The method actually applied to evaluate the supplying capability of conventional generation plants is briefly described. 21 figs, 1 tab

  7. World nuclear generating capacity 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the annual summary of world nuclear generating capacity for 1994. A global summary is first provided, reviewing total installed capacity and growth in installed capacity over the next five years. A more detailed discussion of the nuclear efforts in 34 countries follows, with a tabular listing of nuclear projects in each of these countries. The listing includes reactor supplier, reactor type, size, current status, and date of commercial operation

  8. TIGER-NET – enabling an Earth Observation capacity for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walli, A.; Tøttrup, C.; Naeimi, V.

    As part of the TIGER initiative [1] the TIGER-NET project aims to support the assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to transboundary basin level delivering indispensable information for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa through: 1. Development of an open......-source Water Observation and Information Systems (WOIS) for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner; 2. Capacity building and training of African water authorities and technical centers to fully exploit the increasing observation capacity offered by current...... and upcoming generations of satellites, including the Sentinel missions. Dedicated application case studies have been developed and demonstrated covering all EO products required by and developed with the participating African water authorities for their water resource management tasks, such as water reservoir...

  9. Status of thermal power generation in India-Perspectives on capacity, generation and carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhodip

    2010-01-01

    India's reliance on fossil-fuel based electricity generation has aggravated the problem of high carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, primarily coal, in the country's energy sector. The objective of this paper is to analyze thermal power generation in India for a four-year period and determine the net generation from thermal power stations and the total and specific CO 2 emissions. The installed generating capacity, net generation and CO 2 emissions figures for the plants have been compared and large generators, large emitters, fuel types and also plant vintage have been identified. Specific emissions and dates of commissioning of plants have been taken into account for assessing whether specific plants need to be modernized. The focus is to find out areas and stations which are contributing more to the total emissions from all thermal power generating stations in the country and identify the overall trends that are emerging.

  10. Net energy analysis of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document is a report on the net energy analysis of nuclear power and other electricity generation systems. The main objectives of this document are: To provide a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on net energy analysis of nuclear and other energy systems for electricity generation; to address traditional questions such as whether nuclear power is a net energy producer or not. In addition, the work in progress on a renewed application of the net energy analysis method to environmental issues is also discussed. It is expected that this work could contribute to the overall comparative assessment of different energy systems which is an ongoing activity at the IAEA. 167 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Mobilizing local safety nets for enhanced adaptive capacity to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 avr. 2016 ... In Zimbabwe, the increased frequency of drought, flash floods, and unpredictable rainfall has added to recurrent food deficits for poor households who depend on rainfed farming on nutrient poor soils. This brief explores how the erosion of Zunde raMambo — a traditional community safety net mechanism ...

  12. Mobilizing local safety nets for enhanced adaptive capacity to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... This brief resulted from two projects supported by the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa program: the research project Resilience and the African Smallholder : Enhancing the Capacity of Communities to Adapt to Climate Change and the mentoring project Promoting Participatory Action Research through ...

  13. Generation capacity adequacy in interdependent electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in regional electricity markets with transmission constraints. Differences between regulatory policies and market designs in terms of generation adequacy policies may distort the normal functioning of the neighboring markets, as well as the reliability of supply. We test the effect of heterogeneous regulatory design between two interdependent markets: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. We rely on a long-term market simulation model in system dynamics that characterizes expansion decision in a competitive regime. The results show that differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. We examine both the short and long terms effect, and how free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other. The main finding is that the lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. - Research highlights: → We model the long-term dynamic of two interdependent markets. → We examine both the short and long terms effect of heterogeneous regulatory design: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. → Differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. → Lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. → Free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other.

  14. Scenarios of Expansion to Electric Generation Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Somoza-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the building scenarios of expansion to electric generation capacity enough to supply the demand to 2050. We were using the LEAP facility (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System, to simulate dispatch of electricity at minimum cost. Finally, we show the cost-benefice analysis of the technologies availability, included externality and CO2 emission limited. However that we included the externals cost in this analysis, it results insufficient to closed gap between fossil and renewable technologies of electric generation. Nevertheless, in some opportunities the renewable options had very important participations in the minimal cost scenario of expansion.

  15. Impact on NOMA on netowrk capacity dimensioning for 5G HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcano, Andrea; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2018-01-01

    Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a key technology for boosting the capacity of 5G networks. Since the latter are expected to be heterogeneous networks (HetNets), the performance of NOMA on 5G HetNets is highly anticipated. In this paper, we present a system-level analysis......, focused on the capacity dimensioning, of a 5G HetNet with hybrid multiple access where NOMA and orthogonal multiple access (OMA) coexist. We use dynamic power allocation and consider four generic pairing methods for NOMA: Hungarian, Gale-Shapley, random and exhaustive. Through our results, we show...... the capacity to cope with the high data demand expected for 5G....

  16. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve demand over the evolution of many years or decades. Various CEM formulations are used to evaluate systems ranging in scale from states or utility service territories to national or multi-national systems. CEMs can be computationally complex, and to achieve acceptable solve times, key parameters are often estimated using simplified methods. In this paper, we focus on two of these key parameters associated with the integration of variable generation (VG) resources: capacity value and curtailment. We first discuss common modeling simplifications used in CEMs to estimate capacity value and curtailment, many of which are based on a representative subset of hours that can miss important tail events or which require assumptions about the load and resource distributions that may not match actual distributions. We then present an alternate approach that captures key elements of chronological operation over all hours of the year without the computationally intensive economic dispatch optimization typically employed within more detailed operational models. The updated methodology characterizes the (1) contribution of VG to system capacity during high load and net load hours, (2) the curtailment level of VG, and (3) the potential reductions in curtailments enabled through deployment of storage and more flexible operation of select thermal generators. We apply this alternate methodology to an existing CEM, the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Results demonstrate that this alternate approach provides more accurate estimates of capacity value and curtailments by explicitly capturing system interactions across all hours of the year. This approach could be applied more broadly to CEMs at many different scales where hourly resource and load data is available, greatly improving the representation of challenges

  17. The Strategies of Academic Library to Serve Net-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Pratama Setiawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The  fast  developments  in  information  and  communication  technology  have  rapidly  shaped  and created enormous changes in the way people live and use libraries. The generation who grow in this era is called net generation. Academic libraries, where the majority of the users are the net-generation,  have  started  to  implement  the  concept  of  hybrid  library  as  a  response  of  the technological  advances.  The  trend  of  digital  collections  usage  is  getting  increase,  on  the  other hand,  the  number  of  library  visitor  is  getting  lower  significantly.  The  condition  make  librarians afraid  of  being  abandoned  by  its  users,  whereas  libraries  still  have  many  physical  collections. This paper is written as a result of simple observation in some libraries where the needs of net-generation  has  accommodated.  The  concept  of library  as  place,  and  library  marketing  offer  the solutions to deal with the problem. Libraries can develop and provide some facilities that suitable with  the net-generation  characteristics.  In  addition,  libraries  can  create  some  events  to  promote their services even the collections to attract the users to visit library.

  18. Automatic Structure-Based Code Generation from Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Westergaard, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Automatic code generation based on Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models is challenging because CPNs allow for the construction of abstract models that intermix control flow and data processing, making translation into conventional programming constructs difficult. We introduce Process-Partitioned CPNs...... (PP-CPNs) which is a subclass of CPNs equipped with an explicit separation of process control flow, message passing, and access to shared and local data. We show how PP-CPNs caters for a four phase structure-based automatic code generation process directed by the control flow of processes....... The viability of our approach is demonstrated by applying it to automatically generate an Erlang implementation of the Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)....

  19. The Strategies of Academic Library to Serve Net-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    candra pratama setiawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast developments in information and communication technology have rapidly shaped and created enormous changes in the way people live and use libraries. The generation who grow in this era is called net generation. Academic libraries, where the majority of the users are the netgeneration, have started to implement the concept of hybrid library as a response of the technological advances. The trend of digital collections usage is getting increase, on the other hand, the number of library visitor is getting lower significantly. The condition make librarians afraid of being abandoned by its users, whereas libraries still have many physical collections. This paper is written as a result of simple observation in some libraries where the needs of netgeneration has accomodated. The concept of library as place, and library marketing offer the solutions to deal with the problem. Libraries can develop and provide some facilities that suitable with the net-generation characteristics. In addition, libraries can create some events to promote their services even the collections to attract the users to visit library.

  20. Electric distribution systems and embedded generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderaro, V.; Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A.; Siano, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main policy issues of European States are sustainable energy supply promotion and liberalization of energy markets, which introduced market competition in electricity production and created support mechanisms to encourage renewable electricity production and consumption. As a result of liberalization, any generator, including small-scale and renewable energy based units, can sell electricity on the free market. In order to meet future sustainability targets, connection of a higher number of Distributed Generation (DG) units to the electrical power system is expected, requiring changes in the design and operation of distribution electricity systems, as well as changes in electricity network regulation. In order to assist distribution system operators in planning and managing DG connections and in maximizing DG penetration and renewable sources exploitation, this paper proposed a reconfiguration methodology based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA), that was tested on a 70-bus system with DG units. The simulation results confirmed that the methodology represents a suitable tool for distribution system operators when dealing with DG capacity expansion and power loss issues, providing information regarding the potential penetration network-wide and allowing maximum exploitation of renewable generation. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification and catalytic methanation is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and GHG emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects of producing electricity, heat, methanol and methane. The Gas Technology...... Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw......-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance...

  2. Neural net generated seismic facies map and attribute facies map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addy, S.K.; Neri, P.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of 'seismic facies maps' in the analysis of an Upper Wilcox channel system in a 3-D survey shot by CGG in 1995 in Lavaca county in south Texas was discussed. A neural net-generated seismic facies map is a quick hydrocarbon exploration tool that can be applied regionally as well as on a prospect scale. The new technology is used to classify a constant interval parallel to a horizon in a 3-D seismic volume based on the shape of the wiggle traces using a neural network technology. The tool makes it possible to interpret sedimentary features of a petroleum deposit. The same technology can be used in regional mapping by making 'attribute facies maps' in which various forms of amplitude attributes, phase attributes or frequency attributes can be used

  3. Impact on NOMA on netowrk capacity dimensioning for 5G HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcano, Andrea; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2018-01-01

    , focused on the capacity dimensioning, of a 5G HetNet with hybrid multiple access where NOMA and orthogonal multiple access (OMA) coexist. We use dynamic power allocation and consider four generic pairing methods for NOMA: Hungarian, Gale-Shapley, random and exhaustive. Through our results, we show...... of a flexible choice of the pairing method to be used for NOMA depending on the network load, thus achieving a balance between the network capacity gain and the complexity of the pairing method. In our network, for 100 cells, the combination of the Hungarian and the random method allows supporting 4% higher...... that the optimal or close-to-optimal pairing methods offer the highest capacity gain (22-24%) when the network cells are equally loaded. On the contrary, if the load is unequal and load balancing techniques are used, simpler pairing methods offer higher gains (approximately 29%). This leads to the idea...

  4. Digital generation, net generation, millennials, Y generation: reflecting about the relation between the youths and digital technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristina; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) Rede La Salle

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed is critically reflect on the relationship of the youths with the TD, by discussing the generational approach. This approach in different researches linked the youths, through terms like Digital Generation, Net Generation, Millennials and Y Generation, creating stereotypes and excluding social, cultural, economic and political perspectives. The results of this qualitative research, based on reflections through literature, sees reality of Brazilian youths that do not have acces...

  5. Heat wave generates questions about Ontario's generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns regarding Ontario's power generation capacity were raised following a major blackout which occurred in August 2003. Power demand reached 26,170 MW during the weeks leading to the blackout, forcing the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) to ask residents to reduce electricity use during the day. The grid operator had also issued a forecast that Toronto could face rolling blackouts during times of heavy power demand. Ontario power consumption records were set in June and July of 2003 due to a heat wave, with hourly demand exceeding 25,000 MW on 53 occasions. Ontario was forced to import up to 3,400 MW (13 per cent of its power needs) from neighbouring provinces and the United States. During that period, the price of power had risen sharply to over 30 cents a kilowatt hour, although household consumers were still charged in the 5 to 10 cent range per kilowatt hour. However, it was noted that taxpayers will eventually bear the cost of importing power. The IESO noted that importing electricity is cheaper than the generation available in Ontario and that it is more economical to import, based on the market clearing price of all generators. In 2004, the IESO purchased 6 per cent of their electricity from the United States. That figure is expected to increase for 2005. Ontario generators produced 26.9 million MWh more in the summer of 2005 than during the same period in 2004 to meet electricity demand levels. It was noted that although importing power presently meets peak demand, the IESO agrees there is a need for new generation within Ontario. In addition to restarting Ontario's Pickering and Bruce nuclear facilities, more than 3,300 MW of new gas-fired generation is under construction or approved, and more than 9,000 MW are in various stages of approval. This paper discussed the effect of high energy costs on industry and Ontario's ability to meet future electricity demand in comparison to neighbouring jurisdictions. Issues regarding grid maintenance

  6. An elaborated feeding cycle model for reductions in vectorial capacity of night-biting mosquitoes by insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Menach, Arnaud; Takala, Shannon; McKenzie, F Ellis; Perisse, Andre; Harris, Anthony; Flahault, Antoine; Smith, David L

    2007-01-25

    Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) are an important tool for malaria control. ITNs are effective because they work on several parts of the mosquito feeding cycle, including both adult killing and repelling effects. Using an elaborated description of the classic feeding cycle model, simple formulas have been derived to describe how ITNs change mosquito behaviour and the intensity of malaria transmission, as summarized by vectorial capacity and EIR. The predicted changes are illustrated as a function of the frequency of ITN use for four different vector populations using parameter estimates from the literature. The model demonstrates that ITNs simultaneously reduce mosquitoes' lifespans, lengthen the feeding cycle, and by discouraging human biting divert more bites onto non-human hosts. ITNs can substantially reduce vectorial capacity through small changes to all of these quantities. The total reductions in vectorial capacity differ, moreover, depending on baseline behavior in the absence of ITNs. Reductions in lifespan and vectorial capacity are strongest for vector species with high baseline survival. Anthropophilic and zoophilic species are affected differently by ITNs; the feeding cycle is lengthened more for anthrophilic species, and the proportion of bites that are diverted onto non-human hosts is higher for zoophilic species. This model suggests that the efficacy of ITNs should be measured as a total reduction in transmission intensity, and that the quantitative effects will differ by species and by transmission intensity. At very high rates of ITN use, ITNs can generate large reductions in transmission intensity that could provide very large reductions in transmission intensity, and effective malaria control in some areas, especially when used in combination with other control measures. At high EIR, ITNs will probably not substantially reduce the parasite rate, but when transmission intensity is low, reductions in vectorial capacity combine with reductions in

  7. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  8. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  9. Cheaper power generation from surplus steam generating capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1996-01-01

    Prior to independence most industries had their own captive power generation. Steam was generated in own medium/low pressure boilers and passed through extraction condensing turbines for power generation. Extraction steam was used for process. With cheaper power made available in Nehru era by undertaking large hydro power schemes, captive power generation in industries was almost abandoned except in sugar and large paper factories, which were high consumers of steam. (author)

  10. The capacity, capabilities and needs of the who BioDoseNet member laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maznyk, N. A.; Wilkins, R. C.; Carr, Z.; Lloyd, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-dosimetry is an essential tool for providing timely assessments of radiation exposure, particularly when physical dosimetry is unavailable or unreliable. For mass-casualty events involving public exposure to ionising radiation, it is paramount to rapidly provide this dose information for medical management of casualties. The dicentric chromosome assay is currently the most reliable accepted method for bio-dosimetry; however, in a mass-casualty scenario, the throughput of this assay will be challenged by its time-consuming nature and the specific expertise required. To address this limitation, many countries have established expertise in cytogenetic bio-dosimetry and started developing surge capabilities through setting up regional networks to deal with emergency situations. To capitalise on this growing expertise and organise it into an internationally coordinated laboratory network, the World Health Organization has created and launched a global bio-dosimetry network (BioDoseNet). In order to determine the existing capacity of BioDoseNet member laboratories, including their expertise and in vivo experience, involvement in national and international activities, problems, needs and prospects, an in-depth survey was conducted. These survey results provide significant information on the current state of emergency cytogenetic bio-dosimetry capabilities around the world. (authors)

  11. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 ± 21 pack years of smoking) ... Secondly, in non-smoking human subjects we have recently shown ... therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of ...

  12. Capacity expansion model of wind power generation based on ELCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Wu, Shengyu

    2018-02-01

    Capacity expansion is an indispensable prerequisite for power system planning and construction. A reasonable, efficient and accurate capacity expansion model (CEM) is crucial to power system planning. In most current CEMs, the capacity of wind power generation is considered as boundary conditions instead of decision variables, which may lead to curtailment or over construction of flexible resource, especially at a high renewable energy penetration scenario. This paper proposed a wind power generation capacity value(CV) calculation method based on effective load-carrying capability, and a CEM that co-optimizes wind power generation and conventional power sources. Wind power generation is considered as decision variable in this model, and the model can accurately reflect the uncertainty nature of wind power.

  13. Prediction model for initial point of net vapor generation for low-flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qi; Zhao Hua; Yang Ruichang

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of the initial point of net vapor generation is significant for the calculation of phase distribution in sub-cooled boiling. However, most of the investigations were developed in high-flow boiling, and there is no common model that could be successfully applied for the low-flow boiling. A predictive model for the initial point of net vapor generation for low-flow forced convection and natural circulation is established here, by the analysis of evaporation and condensation heat transfer. The comparison between experimental data and calculated results shows that this model can predict the net vapor generation point successfully in low-flow sub-cooled boiling

  14. Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets for Protocol Software Generation and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Kindler, Ekkart

    This paper presents the formal definition of Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs). PA-CPNs represent a class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) that are designed to support automated code genera-tion of protocol software. PA-CPNs restrict the structure of CPN models and allow Petri net...... elements to be annotated with so-called pragmatics, which are exploited for code generation. The approach and tool for gen-erating code is called PetriCode and has been discussed and evaluated in earlier work already. The contribution of this paper is to give a formal def-inition for PA-CPNs; in addition...

  15. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  16. Remembering Differently: Use of Memory Strategies among Net-Generation ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarami, Alireza; Mardziah, H. Abdullah; Faiz, S. Abdullah; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Net-generation learners are growing up in an era when much of the learning, communication, socializing and ways of working take place through digital means. Living in this digital era may result in different ways of thinking, ways of approaching learning, strategies, and priorities. The Net-Geners therefore, need new skills and new strategies to…

  17. Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets for Protocol Software Generation and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerland Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Kindler, Ekkart

    2015-01-01

    PetriCode is a tool that supports automated generation of protocol software from a restricted class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) called Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs). Petri-Code and PA-CPNs have been designed with five main requirements in mind, which include the same model...

  18. Pragmatics annotated coloured petri nets for protocol software generation and verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge Fagerland; Kristensen, Lars M.; Kindler, Ekkart

    2016-01-01

    Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs) are a restricted class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) developed to support automated generation of protocol software. The practical application of PA-CPNs and the supporting PetriCode software tool have been discussed and evaluated in earlier papers...

  19. Point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.; Zuber, N.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented directed at predicting the point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling. It is shown that the point of net vapor generation depends upon local conditions--thermal and fluid dynamic. Thus, at low mass flow rates the net vapor generation is determined by thermal conditions, whereas at high mass flow rates the phenomenon is hydrodynamically controlled. Simple criteria are derived which can be used to predict these local conditions for net vapor generation. These criteria are used to determine the vapor void fraction is subcooled boiling. Comparison between the results predicted by this analysis and experimental data presently available shows good agreement for wide range of operating conditions, fluids and geometries. (U.S.)

  20. Power generation capacity planning under budget constraint in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afful-Dadzie, Anthony; Afful-Dadzie, Eric; Awudu, Iddrisu; Banuro, Joseph Kwaku

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A long term stochastic GEP model with budget constraint is developed. • Model suitable for analyzing GEP problems in developing countries. • Model determines optimal mix, size and timing of future generation capacity needs. • A real case study of the Ghana GEP problem was employed. • Insufficient budget leads to costly generation capacity expansion plans. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel multi-period stochastic optimization model for studying long-term power generation capacity planning in developing countries. A stylized model is developed to achieve three objectives: (1) to serve as a tool for determining optimal mix, size and timing of power generation types in the face of budget constraint, (2) to help decision makers appreciate the consequences of capacity expansion decisions on level of unserved electricity demand and its attendant impact on the national economy, and (3) to encourage the habit of periodic savings towards new generation capacity financing. The problem is modeled using a stochastic mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) technique under demand uncertainty. The effectiveness of the model, together with valuable insights derived from considering different levels of budget constraints are demonstrated using Ghana as a case study. The results indicate that at an annual savings equivalent to 0.75% of GDP, Ghana could finance the needed generation capacity to meet approximately 95% of its annual electricity demand between 2016 and 2035. Additionally, it is observed that as financial constraint becomes tighter, decisions on the mix of new generation capacities tend to be more costly compared to when sufficient funds are available.

  1. The determination of the initial point of net vapor generation in flow subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Changqi; Sun Zhongning

    2000-01-01

    The experimental results for the initial point of net vapor generation in up-flow subcooled boiling in an internally-heated annulus are given. The characteristics of the initial point of net vapor generation and the problem on gamma ray attenuation measurement are discussed. The comparison between the data and a calculation model is given, it is showed that the data agree well with the model

  2. Code Generation from Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge

    limited work has been done on transforming CPN model to protocol implementations. The goal of the thesis is to be able to automatically generate high-quality implementations of communication protocols based on CPN models. In this thesis, we develop a methodology for generating implementations of protocols...... third party libraries and the code should be easily usable by third party code. Finally, the code should be readable by developers with expertise on the considered platforms. In this thesis, we show that our code generation approach is able to generate code for a wide range of platforms without altering...... such as games and rich web applications. Finally, we conclude the evaluation of the criteria of our approach by using the WebSocket PA-CPN model to show that we are able to verify fairly large protocols....

  3. Reviewing the Need for Gaming in Education to Accommodate the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekebrede, G.; Warmelink, H. J. G.; Mayer, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of simulations and games in Dutch higher education. This development is based on the perception that students belong to the "gamer generation" or "net generation": a generation that has grown up with computer games and other technology affecting their preferred learning styles, social…

  4. On option purchase agreements for new generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, V.C.

    1996-01-01

    Given the increasing competition in the power generation sector, and the resulting uncertainty surrounding long-term investments in new generation projects, utilities are beginning to hedge their risks using financial instruments called options. The purpose of this paper is to explain, in a tutorial fashion, the issues involved in an option contract for new generation capacity (long-term firm energy). Particular emphasis is placed on the valuation of such options. The concepts are explained with illustrative examples

  5. Demonstration tokamak fusion power plant for early realization of net electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Okano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Shinya, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A demonstration tokamak fusion power plant Demo-CREST is proposed as the device for early realization of net electric power generation by fusion energy. The plasma configuration for Demo-CREST is optimized to satisfy the electric breakeven condition (the condition for net electric power, P e net = 0 MW) with the plasma performance of the ITER reference operation mode. This optimization method is considered to be suitable for the design of a demonstration power plant for early realization of net electric power generation, because the demonstration power plant has to ensure the net electric generation. Plasma performance should also be more reliably achieved than in past design studies. For the plasma performance planned in the present ITER programme, net electric power from 0 to 500 MW is possible with Demo-CREST under the following engineering conditions: maximum magnetic field 16 T, thermal efficiency 30%, NBI system efficiency 50% and NBI current drive power restricted to 200 MW. By replacing the blanket system with one of higher thermal efficiency, a net electric power of about 1000 MW is also possible so that the performance of the commercial plant with Demo-CREST can also be studied from the economic point of view. The development path from the experimental reactor 'ITER' to the commercial plant 'CREST' through the demonstration power plant 'Demo-CREST' is proposed as an example of the fast track concept. (author)

  6. Generation of net electric power with a tokamak reactor under foreseeable physical and engineering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.; Yoshida, T.; Tomabechi, K.

    2004-01-01

    This study reveals for the first time the plasma performance required for a tokamak reactor to generate net electric power under foreseeable engineering conditions. It was found that the reference plasma performance of the ITER inductive operation mode with β N = 1.8, HH = 1.0, andf nGW 0.85 had sufficient potential to achieve the electric break-even condition (net electric power P e net = 0MW) under the following engineering conditions: machine major radius 6.5m ≤ R p ≤ 8.5m, the maximum magnetic field on TF coils B tmax = 16 T, thermal efficiency η e 30%, and NBI system efficiency η NBI = 50%. The key parameters used in demonstrating net electric power generation in tokamak reactors are β N and fη GW . ≥ 3.0 is required for P e net ∼ 600MW with fusion power P f ∼ 3000MW. On the other hand, fη GW ≥ 1.0 is inevitable to demonstrate net electric power generation, if high temperatures, such as average temperatures of T ave > 16 keV, cannot be selected for the reactor design. To apply these results to the design of a tokamak reactor for demonstrating net electric power generation, the plasma performance diagrams on the Q vs P f (energy multiplication factor vs fusion power) space for several major radii (i.e. 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5 m) were depicted. From these figures, we see that a design with a major radius R p ∼ 7.5m seems preferable for demonstrating net electric power generation when one aims at early realization of fusion energy. (author)

  7. Reliability payments to generation capacity in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Pringles, Rolando; Larisson, Carlos; Garcés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Electric power is a critical input to modern economies. Generation adequacy and security of supply in power systems running under competition are currently topics of high concern for consumers, regulators and governments. In a market setting, generation investments and adequacy can only be achieved by an appropriate regulatory framework that sets efficient remuneration to power capacity. Theoretically, energy-only electricity markets are efficient and no additional mechanism is needed. Nonetheless, the energy-only market design suffers from serious drawbacks. Therefore, jointly with the evolution of electricity markets, many remunerating mechanisms for generation capacity have been proposed. Explicit capacity payment was the first remunerating approach implemented and perhaps still the most applied. However, this price-based regulation has been applied no without severe difficulties and criticism. In this paper, a new reliability payment mechanism is envisioned. Capacity of each generating unit is paid according to its effective contribution to overall system reliability. The proposed scheme has many attractive features and preserves the theoretical efficiency properties of energy-only markets. Fairness, incentive compatibility, market power mitigation and settlement rules are investigated in this work. The article also examines the requirements for system data and models in order to implement the proposed capacity mechanism. A numerical example on a real hydrothermal system serves for illustrating the practicability of the proposed approach and the resulting reliability payments to the generation units. - Highlights: • A new approach for remunerating supply reliability provided by generation units is proposed. • The contribution of each generating unit to lessen power shortfalls is determined by simulations. • Efficiency, fairness and incentive compatibility of the proposed reliability payment are assessed

  8. Interconnector capacity allocation in offshore grids with variable wind generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    the interconnector capacity should be allocated for wind generation and for international power trading. The main difficulty arises from the stochastic nature of wind generation: in a case with radial connections to the national coast, the wind park owner has the possibility of aggregating the offshore wind park....... It is concluded that treating offshore generation as a single price zone within the interconnector reduces the wind operator’s ability to pool it with other generation. Furthermore, a single offshore price zone between two markets will always receive the lower spot market price of the neighbouring zones, although...

  9. On the Optimal Design of Distributed Generation Policies: Is Net Metering Ever Optimal?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, David; Sappington, David

    2014-01-01

    Electricity customers who install solar panels often are paid the prevailing retail price for the electricity they generate. We show that this "net metering" policy typically is not optimal. A payment for distributed generation (w) that is below the retail price of electricity (r) will induce the welfare-maximizing level of distributed generation (DG) when centralized generation and DG produce similar (pollution) externalities. However, w can optimally exceed r when DG entails a substantial r...

  10. World nuclear generating capacity and uranium requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The outlook for the world nuclear power industry through 2005 is more positive than some may believe. Installed nuclear electric generating capacity is forecast to grow at an average rate of 2.4 percent per year, and reach 448 gigawatts electric (GWe) by 2005. Consequently, annual world uranium requirements also will grow, reaching over 200 million pounds equivalent U 3 O 8 by 2005. This article presents data and summarizes installed nuclear generating capacity and charts its increase as a function of time through the year 2005. This data is also charted by reactor type as well as reactor status: under construction, planned, or estimated future construction. In a similar fashion, the data is also charted by country and continent. Historical and projected data is also given for capacity factor

  11. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigated whether long-term -tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 ± 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo ( = 64) or -tocopherol (400 IU dL--tocopherol daily, ...

  12. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  13. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S.; Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also

  14. Developing and measuring healthcare capacity and quality in Burundi: LifeNet International’s horizontal conversion franchise model

    OpenAIRE

    Michael F Brooks; Maggie Ehrenfried

    2016-01-01

    In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN) uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and ...

  15. Essays on investment planning in electricity generating capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Jorge

    In the first part of this study we develop and analyze two mathematical models that incorporate a time changing demand for electricity and uncertainty of input prices. The first model highlights the shortcomings in assuming a constant plant utilization under uncertainty of input prices and the effects of such assumption on the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity in a simple two period model. The second model presents sufficient restrictions to the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity problem to allow for a recursive solution. The necessary restrictions are extremely limiting to the extend that we found a solution for very simple scenarios. In our opinion, the problem is better handled in a case by case basis rather than under a general dynamic framework. Following the spirit of our conclusions of the first part of our study, in the second part we provide a methodology to simulate long-term natural gas prices, we analyze the investment prospects of nuclear and natural gas generating capacity in Mexico and provide a constraint approach for the optimal generation of hydroelectric plants in the Mexican hydroelectric system. These three problems belong to the solution of the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity in Mexico. To simulate the uncertainty of natural gas prices, we assume that natural gas prices are the sum of two stochastic processes: short-term and long-term variability. We characterize the short-term variability of natural gas prices using an Exponential General Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (EGARCH) model. The uncertainty of the long-term variability of natural gas prices is based on the long-term natural gas prices scenarios of the National Energy Modeling System of the Energy Information Administration. Equipped with a methodology to simulate long-term natural gas prices, we investigate the investment prospects of nuclear and natural gas generating capacity in Mexico using the levelized

  16. Generation capacity adequacy in deregulated markets : options for Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) is a Calgary-based non-profit organization that conducts studies on energy and related environmental issues to help Canadian business and government organizations. This paper summarized the information in a two volume CERI study report which assessed generation capacity issues in deregulated electricity markets in Canada. The study observed the restructuring experience in several jurisdictions and described how, or if, energy-only markets are succeeding in ensuring capacity additions. Supply-side and demand-side mechanisms have been proposed as solutions to address these problems. Theoretical and practical issues of adequacy that are most relevant from a Canadian perspective were presented. In fully developed energy markets, the price of energy reflects scarcity. When generating resources are abundant prices are low. Since investment decisions are based on price expectations, it is unlikely that deregulated markets in their current state can offer adequate generation for the long term. It was concluded that long-term investment will occur with competitive markets and by adding a capacity mechanism to the market design. tabs., figs

  17. Strong Generative Capacity and the Empirical Base of Linguistic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Ott

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This Perspective traces the evolution of certain central notions in the theory of Generative Grammar (GG. The founding documents of the field suggested a relation between the grammar, construed as recursively enumerating an infinite set of sentences, and the idealized native speaker that was essentially equivalent to the relation between a formal language (a set of well-formed formulas and an automaton that recognizes strings as belonging to the language or not. But this early view was later abandoned, when the focus of the field shifted to the grammar's strong generative capacity as recursive generation of hierarchically structured objects as opposed to strings. The grammar is now no longer seen as specifying a set of well-formed expressions and in fact necessarily constructs expressions of any degree of intuitive “acceptability.” The field of GG, however, has not sufficiently acknowledged the significance of this shift in perspective, as evidenced by the fact that (informal and experimentally-controlled observations about string acceptability continue to be treated as bona fide data and generalizations for the theory of GG. The focus on strong generative capacity, it is argued, requires a new discussion of what constitutes valid empirical evidence for GG beyond observations pertaining to weak generation.

  18. Loading capacity of various filters for lithium fire generated aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Barreca, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium aerosol loading capacity of a prefilter, HEPA filters and a sand and gravel bed filter was determined. The test aerosol was characterized and was generated by burning lithium in an unlimited air atmosphere. Correlation to sodium aerosol loading capacities were made to relate existing data to lithium aerosol loadings under varying conditions. This work is being conducted in support of the fusion reactor safety program. The lithium aerosol was generated by burning lithium pools, up to 45 kgs, in a 340 m 3 low humidity air atmosphere to supply aerosol to recirculating filter test loops. The aerosol was sampled to determine particle size, mass concentrations and chemical species. The dew point and gas concentrations were monitored throughout the tests. Loop inlet aerosol mass concentrations ranged up to 5 gr/m 3 . Chemical compounds analyzed to be present in the aerosol include Li 2 O, LiOH, and Li 2 CO 3 . HEPA filters with and without separators and a prefilter and HEPA filter in series were loaded with 7.8 to 11.1 kg/m 2 of aerosol at a flow rate of 1.31 m/sec and 5 kPa pressure drop. The HEPA filter loading capacity was determined to be greater at a lower flow rate. The loading capacity increased from 0.4 to 2.8 kg by decreasing the flow rate from 1.31 to 0.26 m/sec for a pressure drop of 0.11 kPa due to aerosol buildup. The prefilter tested in series with a HEPA did not increase the total loading capacity significantly for the same total pressure drop. Separators in the HEPA had only minor effect on loading capacity. The sand and gravel bed filter loaded to 0.50 kg/m 2 at an aerosol flow rate of 0.069 m/sec and final pressure drop of 6.2 kPa. These loading capacities and their dependence on test variables are similar to those reported for sodium aerosols except for the lithium aerosol HEPA loading capacity dependence upon flow rate

  19. An Expanded Study of Net Generation Perceptions on Privacy and Security on Social Networking Sites (SNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James P.; Molluzzo, John C.; Doshi, Vijal

    2012-01-01

    Social networking on the Internet continues to be a frequent avenue of communication, especially among Net Generation consumers, giving benefits both personal and professional. The benefits may be eventually hindered by issues in information gathering and sharing on social networking sites. This study evaluates the perceptions of students taking a…

  20. Conceptual design of an electricity generating tritium breeding blanket sector for INTOR/NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A.

    1984-01-01

    A study is made of a fusion reactor power blanket and its associated equipment with the objective of producing a conceptual design for a blanket sector of INTOR, or one of its national variants (e.g. NET), from which electricity could be generated simultaneously with the breeding of tritium. (author)

  1. Electric generating capacity planning: A nonlinear programming approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakin, M.Z.; McFarland, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear programming approach for long-range generating capacity expansion planning in electrical power systems. The objective in the model is the minimization of total cost consisting of investment cost plus generation cost for a multi-year planning horizon. Reliability constraints are imposed by using standard and practical reserve margin requirements. State equations representing the dynamic aspect of the problem are included. The electricity demand (load) and plant availabilities are treated as random variables, and the method of cumulants is used to calculate the expected energy generated by each plant in each year of the planning horizon. The resulting model has a (highly) nonlinear objective function and linear constraints. The planning model is solved over the multiyear planning horizon instead of decomposing it into one-year period problems. This approach helps the utility decision maker to carry out extensive sensitivity analysis easily. A case study example is provided using EPRI test data. Relationships among the reserve margin, total cost and surplus energy generating capacity over the planning horizon are explored by analyzing the model.

  2. Long-term need for new generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1987-03-01

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity by the year 2000. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will not be acceptable to society without solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Technology improvements and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety impacts from electricity generation. 26 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs

  3. Resistive wall tearing mode generated finite net electromagnetic torque in a static plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The MARS-F code [Y. Q. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] is applied to numerically investigate the effect of the plasma pressure on the tearing mode stability as well as the tearing mode-induced electromagnetic torque, in the presence of a resistive wall. The tearing mode with a complex eigenvalue, resulted from the favorable averaged curvature effect [A. H. Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], leads to a re-distribution of the electromagnetic torque with multiple peaking in the immediate vicinity of the resistive layer. The multiple peaking is often caused by the sound wave resonances. In the presence of a resistive wall surrounding the plasma, a rotating tearing mode can generate a finite net electromagnetic torque acting on the static plasma column. Meanwhile, an equal but opposite torque is generated in the resistive wall, thus conserving the total momentum of the whole plasma-wall system. The direction of the net torque on the plasma is always opposite to the real frequency of the mode, agreeing with the analytic result by Pustovitov [Nucl. Fusion 47, 1583 (2007)]. When the wall time is close to the oscillating time of the tearing mode, the finite net torque reaches its maximum. Without wall or with an ideal wall, no net torque on the static plasma is generated by the tearing mode. However, re-distribution of the torque density in the resistive layer still occurs

  4. Net Rotation of the Lithosphere in Mantle Convection Models with Self-consistent Plate Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerault, M.; Coltice, N.

    2017-12-01

    Lateral variations in the viscosity structure of the lithosphere and the mantle give rise to a discordant motion between the two. In a deep mantle reference frame, this motion is called the net rotation of the lithosphere. Plate motion reconstructions, mantle flow computations, and inferences from seismic anisotropy all indicate some amount of net rotation using different mantle reference frames. While the direction of rotation is somewhat consistent across studies, the predicted amplitudes range from 0.1 deg/Myr to 0.3 deg/Myr at the present-day. How net rotation rates could have differed in the past is also a subject of debate and strong geodynamic arguments are missing from the discussion. This study provides the first net rotation calculations in 3-D spherical mantle convection models with self-consistent plate generation. We run the computations for billions of years of numerical integration. We look into how sensitive the net rotation is to major tectonic events, such as subduction initiation, continental breakup and plate reorganisations, and whether some governing principles from the models could guide plate motion reconstructions. The mantle convection problem is solved with the finite volume code StagYY using a visco-pseudo-plastic rheology. Mantle flow velocities are solely driven by buoyancy forces internal to the system, with free slip upper and lower boundary conditions. We investigate how the yield stress, the mantle viscosity structure and the properties of continents affect the net rotation over time. Models with large lateral viscosity variations from continents predict net rotations that are at least threefold faster than those without continents. Models where continents cover a third of the surface produce net rotation rates that vary from nearly zero to over 0.3 deg/Myr with rapide increase during continental breakup. The pole of rotation appears to migrate along no particular path. For all models, regardless of the yield stress and the

  5. Study on onset of nucleate boiling and net vapor generation point in subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Wada, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    The onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and the point of net vapor generation on subcooled flow boiling, focusing on liquid subcooling and liquid velocity were investigated experimentally and analytically. Experiments were conducted using a copper thin-film (35μm) and subcooled water in a range of the liquid velocity from 0.27 to 4.6 m/s at 0.10MPa. The liquid subcoolings were 20, 30 and 40K, respectively. Temperatures at the onset of nucleate boiling obtained in the experiments increased with the liquid subcoolings and the liquid velocities. The increases in the temperature of ONB were represented with the classical stability theory of preexisting nuclei. The measured results of the net vapor generation agreed well with the results of correlation by Saha and Zuber in the range of the present experiments. (J.P.N.)

  6. Onset of a nucleate boiling and incipient point of net vapor generation in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, G.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study on onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and incipient point of net vapor generation (IPNVG) in narrow rectangular channel was presented. Flow direction in the channel was vertical upward. The experimental results indicate that the classical correlations of ONB for conventional channels were not suitable for the present narrow rectangular channel. The wall superheat needed to initiate boiling is found to be higher for the same given values of heat and mass flux. The experimental results of IPNVG indicate that the heat flux, triggering net vapor generation in narrow rectangular channel, is litter lower than that calculated by correlations for conventional channels. The relative prediction error of qIPNVG by Griffith model, Saha model and Sun model ranges from -17.9% to +9.6%. A new correlation was developed to predict the ONB in narrow rectangular channel. The proposed correlation predictions agreed well with the experimental data. (author)

  7. Web 2.0 and the Net Generation - A Critical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, social media and web 2.0 have been hot topics within educational debates and within the research area of networked learning. The latter is evident from symposia and papers from the last years' networked learning conferences, but also European research projects, special issues......, and books have revolved around social media, web 2.0, personal learning environments, student-centred learning, and student-generated content. Alongside these internet developments we have witnessed debates on what schools and universities can do to cater to the 'net-generation' or the 'digital natives' in...

  8. StegNet: Mega Image Steganography Capacity with Deep Convolutional Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional image steganography often leans interests towards safely embedding hidden information into cover images with payload capacity almost neglected. This paper combines recent deep convolutional neural network methods with image-into-image steganography. It successfully hides the same size images with a decoding rate of 98.2% or bpp (bits per pixel of 23.57 by changing only 0.76% of the cover image on average. Our method directly learns end-to-end mappings between the cover image and the embedded image and between the hidden image and the decoded image. We further show that our embedded image, while with mega payload capacity, is still robust to statistical analysis.

  9. Variable capacity utilization, ambient temperature shocks and generation asset valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chung-Li; Dmitriev, Alexandre [Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhu, Wei [Optim Energy, 225 E. John Carpenter Freeway, Irving, TX 75062 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This paper discusses generation asset valuation in a framework where capital utilization decisions are endogenous. We use real options approach for valuation of natural gas fueled turbines. Capital utilization choices that we explore include turning on/off the unit, operating the unit at increased firing temperatures (overfiring), and conducting preventive maintenance. Overfiring provides capacity enhancement which comes at the expense of reduced maintenance interval and increased costs of part replacement. We consider the costs and benefits of overfiring in attempt to maximize the asset value by optimally exercising the overfire option. In addition to stochastic processes governing prices, we incorporate an exogenous productivity shock: ambient temperature. We consider how variation in ambient temperature affects the asset value through its effect on gas turbine's productivity. (author)

  10. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  11. Neural net based determination of generator-shedding requirements in electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Computer Engineering and Science AI WARE Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This paper presents an application of artificial neural networks (ANN) in support of a decision-making process by power system operators directed towards the fast stabilisation of multi-machine systems. The proposed approach considers generator shedding as the most effective discrete supplementary control for improving the dynamic performance of faulted power systems and preventing instabilities. The sensitivity of the transient energy function (TEF) with respect to changes in the amount of dropped generation is used during the training phase of ANNs to assess the critical amount of generator shedding required to prevent the loss of synchronism. The learning capabilities of neural nets are used to establish complex mappings between fault information and the amount of generation to be shed, suggesting it as the control signal to the power system operator. (author)

  12. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve load over many years or decades. CEMs can be computationally complex and are often forced to estimate key parameters using simplified methods to achieve acceptable solve times or for other reasons. In this paper, we discuss one of these parameters -- capacity value (CV). We first provide a high-level motivation for and overview of CV. We next describe existing modeling simplifications and an alternate approach for estimating CV that utilizes hourly '8760' data of load and VG resources. We then apply this 8760 method to an established CEM, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model (Eurek et al. 2016). While this alternative approach for CV is not itself novel, it contributes to the broader CEM community by (1) demonstrating how a simplified 8760 hourly method, which can be easily implemented in other power sector models when data is available, more accurately captures CV trends than a statistical method within the ReEDS CEM, and (2) providing a flexible modeling framework from which other 8760-based system elements (e.g., demand response, storage, and transmission) can be added to further capture important dynamic interactions, such as curtailment.

  13. Developing and measuring healthcare capacity and quality in Burundi: LifeNet International’s horizontal conversion franchise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and respond to a greater number of the obstacles preventing facilities from providing quality care. Through its Quality Score Card, LN measures improvements in quality of care within its network. This tool has measured consistent and significant improvements in quality of care following LN partnership. Together, these services improve quality of care at East African primary care facilities in ways that issue-specific, “vertical” interventions cannot.

  14. [Relationships amongst work values, job characteristics and job involvement in "net generation" nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sue-Hui; Chiou, Chii-Jun

    2010-04-01

    Children of the so-called "net generation" began joining the nurse workforce from the mid-1990s. Studies on the characteristics of this generation have been done primarily outside of Taiwan, and results may not adequately reflect conditions in Taiwan due to cultural differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationships amongst work values, job characteristics and job involvement in "net generation" nurses. This study employed a cross-sectional design. A randomized sample of 370 nurses born between 1977 and 1985 working in a medical center or a community hospital in Southern Taiwan accepted our invitation to join this study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. (1) Variables including work values, job characteristics, head nurse leadership qualities, job structure and opportunities for in-service education all correlated significantly with job involvement. (2) Regression analysis showed work values, job characteristics, head nurse leadership and religious belief to be significant predictors of job involvement, explaining 22.6% of the variance. This study provides insights that may be of potential value to nursing administrators. We suggest that administrators adopt democratic management practices, build diverse learning methods, strengthen autonomy, completeness, and feedback, and provide appropriate work guidance for nurses to increase job involvement.

  15. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the energy performance, reduce GHG and acid rain precursor emission, and use of biomass for different outputs based on demand. Finally, a sensitivity analysis and a comparative study ar conducted for expected technological improvements and factors that could increase the energy......, methanol and methane. Circulating fluidized bed gasifier and the gas technology institute (GTI) gasifier technologies are used for this quad-generation process. Two different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1...

  16. Use of gas for new generating capacity - The customer's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderman, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the future gas demand for electric power generation in the US. It shows substantial growth along the eastern seaboard which will require pipeline capacity additions in order to serve the load. Many of the existing gas-fired plants fuel will switch to a commodity which will probably not comply with many of the new emissions requirements and that the alternate fuel for new units will be distillate oil. The demand for gas appears to be at the upper end of some of the gas supply scenarios. In serving the industry, there are a number of considerations that the gas transportation sector of the gas industry must identify. Pipelines will be dealing with a new group of organizations which they may or may not be familiar. Some of the real time operational differences that are seen at this point, especially dealing with load response and reliability, are crucial to a successful interface. This paper concludes that the previous levels of interaction must be replaced by a greater level of coordination than both industries have had previously

  17. Thrombin Generating Capacity and Phenotypic Association in ABO Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Romy M W; Mohamed, Abdulrahman B O; Pelkmans, Leonie; Hindawi, Salwa; Hemker, H Coenraad; de Laat, H Bas; Huskens, Dana; Al Dieri, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with blood group O have a higher bleeding risk than non-O blood groups. This could be explained by the lower levels of FVIII and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels in O individuals. We investigated the relationship between blood groups, thrombin generation (TG), prothrombin activation and thrombin inactivation. Plasma levels of VWF, FVIII, antithrombin, fibrinogen, prothrombin and α2Macroglobulin (α2M) levels were determined. TG was measured in platelet rich (PRP) and platelet poor plasma (PPP) of 217 healthy donors and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were calculated. VWF and FVIII levels were lower (75% and 78%) and α2M levels were higher (125%) in the O group. TG is 10% lower in the O group in PPP and PRP. Less prothrombin was converted in the O group (86%) and the thrombin decay capacity was lower as well. In the O group, α2M plays a significantly larger role in the inhibition of thrombin (126%). In conclusion, TG is lower in the O group due to lower prothrombin conversion, and a larger contribution of α2M to thrombin inactivation. The former is unrelated to platelet function because it is similar in PRP and PPP, but can be explained by the lower levels of FVIII.

  18. GeneNetWeaver: in silico benchmark generation and performance profiling of network inference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffter, Thomas; Marbach, Daniel; Floreano, Dario

    2011-08-15

    Over the last decade, numerous methods have been developed for inference of regulatory networks from gene expression data. However, accurate and systematic evaluation of these methods is hampered by the difficulty of constructing adequate benchmarks and the lack of tools for a differentiated analysis of network predictions on such benchmarks. Here, we describe a novel and comprehensive method for in silico benchmark generation and performance profiling of network inference methods available to the community as an open-source software called GeneNetWeaver (GNW). In addition to the generation of detailed dynamical models of gene regulatory networks to be used as benchmarks, GNW provides a network motif analysis that reveals systematic prediction errors, thereby indicating potential ways of improving inference methods. The accuracy of network inference methods is evaluated using standard metrics such as precision-recall and receiver operating characteristic curves. We show how GNW can be used to assess the performance and identify the strengths and weaknesses of six inference methods. Furthermore, we used GNW to provide the international Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM) competition with three network inference challenges (DREAM3, DREAM4 and DREAM5). GNW is available at http://gnw.sourceforge.net along with its Java source code, user manual and supporting data. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. dario.floreano@epfl.ch.

  19. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, Carsten; Wartmann, Sina; Höhne, Niklas; Blok, Kornelis

    2014-01-01

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  20. EDUCATION IN TIMES NET GENERATION: HOW DIGITAL IMMIGRANTS CAN TEACH DIGITAL NATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Viana Chaves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the knowledge society, of the network society or of the informatics society are some names that seem to define the current generation. Net generation is a generic nomenclature which covers all the previous terms. Digital immigrants are the subjects whom were born before the advent of digital technologies and who joined to them. Digital natives are the subjects whom were born in the current generation and that would have special qualities, especially regarding the learning process. Considering all this context, a question arises: how the digital immigrants teach the digital natives? This item justifies itself because there is a meeting of generations, in theory, significantly differentiated. Due to this, it would be necessary to identify the appropriate educational forms according to the presented situation. Our teaching experience convinces us that, yes, we should valorize the information’s technologies and communication, understanding that these are means, not ends. It is important to highlight that any tool causes advances and regressions, a fact that serves to guide our teaching practice.

  1. An approach to prospective consequential life cycle assessment and net energy analysis of distributed electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher; Gilbert, Paul; Raugei, Marco; Mander, Sarah; Leccisi, Enrica

    2017-01-01

    Increasing distributed renewable electricity generation is one of a number of technology pathways available to policy makers to meet environmental and other sustainability goals. Determining the efficacy of such a pathway for a national electricity system implies evaluating whole system change in future scenarios. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and net energy analysis (NEA) are two methodologies suitable for prospective and consequential analysis of energy performance and associated impacts. This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of prospective and consequential LCA and NEA analysis of distributed generation. It concludes that a combined LCA and NEA approach is a valuable tool for decision makers if a number of recommendations are addressed. Static and dynamic temporal allocation are both needed for a fair comparison of distributed renewables with thermal power stations to account for their different impact profiles over time. The trade-offs between comprehensiveness and uncertainty in consequential analysis should be acknowledged, with system boundary expansion and system simulation models limited to those clearly justified by the research goal. The results of this approach are explorative, rather than for accounting purposes; this interpretive remit, and the assumptions in scenarios and system models on which results are contingent, must be clear to end users. - Highlights: • A common LCA and NEA framework for prospective, consequential analysis is discussed. • Approach to combined LCA and NEA of distributed generation scenarios is proposed. • Static and dynamic temporal allocation needed to assess distributed generation uptake.

  2. Photosynthetic Energy Storage for the Built Environment: Modeling Energy Generation and Storage for Net-Zero Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Marck, Eli Morris

    There is a growing need to address the energy demand of the building sector with non-polluting, renewable energy sources. The Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) mandate seeks to reduce the impact of building sector energy consumption by encouraging on-site energy generation as a way to offset building loads. However, current approaches to designing on-site generation fail to adequately match the fluctuating load schedules of the built environment. As a result, buildings produce highly variable and often-unpredictable energy import/export patterns that create stress on energy grids and increase building dependence on primary energy resources. This research investigates the potential of integrating emerging photo-electrochemical (PEC) technologies into on-site generation systems as a way to enable buildings to take a more active role in collecting, storing and deploying energy resources according to their own demand schedules. These artificially photosynthetic systems have the potential to significantly reduce variability in hour-to-hour and day-to-day building loads by introducing high-capacity solar-hydrogen into the built environment context. The Building Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis (BIAP) simulation framework presented here tests the impact of hydrogen based energy storage on NZEB performance metrics with the goal of developing a methodology that makes on-site energy generation more effective at alleviating excessive energy consumption in the building sector. In addition, as a design performance framework, the BIAP framework helps guide how material selection and scale up of device design might tie photo-electrochemical devices into parallel building systems to take full advantage of the potential outputs of photosynthetic building systems.

  3. Mismatch of wind power capacity and generation: causing factors, GHG emissions and potential policy responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subtil Lacerda, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Policies to assure combatting climate change and realising energy security have stimulated a rapid growth in global installed capacity of renewable energy generation. The expansion of power generation from renewables, though, has so far lagged behind the growth in generation capacity. This indicates

  4. Net vapor generation point in boiling flow of trichlorotrifluoroethane at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, R. S.; Lippert, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions at which the void in subcooled boiling starts to undergo a rapid increase were studied experimentally. The experiments were performed in a 12.7 x 9.5 mm rectangular channel. Heating was from a 3.2 mm wide strip embedded in one wall. The pressure ranged from 9.45 to 20.7 bar, mass velocity from 600 to 7000 kg/sq m sec, and subcooling from 16 to 67 C. Photographs were used to determine when detached bubbles first appeared in the bulk flow. Measurements of bubble layer thickness along the wall were also made. Results showed that the point of net vapor generation is close to the occurrence of fully-developed boiling.

  5. Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Yager, Douglas B.; Horton, Radley M.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    2006-01-01

    Federal land managers along with local stakeholders in the Upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado are actively designing and implementing mine waste remediation projects to mitigate the effects of acid mine drainage from several abandoned hard rock metal mines and mills. Local source rocks with high acid neutralization capacity (ANC) within the watershed are of interest to land managers for use in these remediation projects. A suite of representative samples was collected from propylitic to weakly sericitic-altered volcanic and plutonic rocks exposed in outcrops throughout the watershed. Acid-base accounting laboratory methods coupled with mineralogic and geochemical characterization provide insight into lithologies that have a range of ANC and net acid production (NAP). Petrophysical lab determinations of magnetic susceptibility converted to estimates for percent magnetite show correlation with the environmental properties of ANC and NAP for many of the lithologies. A goal of our study is to interpret watershed-scale airborne magnetic data for regional mapping of rocks that have varying degrees of ANC and NAP. Results of our preliminary work are presented here.

  6. FORMATION OF THE SYNTHESIS ALGORITHMS OF THE COORDINATING CONTROL SYSTEMS BY MEANS OF THE AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF PETRI NETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gurskiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The coordinating control system by drives of the robot-manipulator is presented in this article. The purpose of the scientific work is the development and research of the new algorithms for parametric synthesis of the coordinating control systems. To achieve this aim it is necessary to develop the system generating the required parametric synthesis algorithms and performing the necessary procedures according to the generated algorithm. This scientific work deals with the synthesis of Petri net in the specific case with the automatic generation of Petri nets.

  7. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesse

    Under this formulation, both carrying capacity and exchange ratios are endogenously determined (Kinyua and Njoka, 2001), making it possible to empirically estimate the population growth models for Grant's gazelle, Thompson's gazelle and Zebra. (1) for i = 1,…,n-1 j = 1,…,2 and i ≠ j. Here Hit+1, measured in animal units, ...

  8. Estimating the net electricity energy generation and demand using the ant colony optimization approach. Case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toksari, M. Duran

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand based on economic indicators. Forecasting model for electricity energy generation and demand is first proposed by the ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. It is multi-agent system in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve optimization problem. Ant colony optimization electricity energy estimation (ACOEEE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. All equations proposed here are linear electricity energy generation and demand (linear A COEEGE and linear ACOEEDE) and quadratic energy generation and demand (quadratic A COEEGE and quadratic ACOEEDE). Quadratic models for both generation and demand provided better fit solution due to the fluctuations of the economic indicators. The ACOEEGE and ACOEEDE models indicate Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand until 2025 according to three scenarios. (author)

  9. The central government power generating capacity- reforms and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    The alarming resource gap that the states were facing in 1970's has prompted the Central Government to augment the resources for power generation by creating two new entities in November 1975 viz the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC). Few other organisations also exist in central sector which are engaged in power generation like Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC). NTPC being the leading player in the power sector, it can neither be indifferent nor dissociate itself from the reforms sweeping the sector today. The article describes the Central Government's role in power generation, reforms and NTPC and further prospects of NTPC

  10. Fault Diagnosis System of Wind Turbine Generator Based on Petri Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han

    Petri net is an important tool for discrete event dynamic systems modeling and analysis. And it has great ability to handle concurrent phenomena and non-deterministic phenomena. Currently Petri nets used in wind turbine fault diagnosis have not participated in the actual system. This article will combine the existing fuzzy Petri net algorithms; build wind turbine control system simulation based on Siemens S7-1200 PLC, while making matlab gui interface for migration of the system to different platforms.

  11. Estimating capacity of solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokhova, I.I.; Malevskii, Yu.N.; Tsvetkov, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Energy characteristics of a solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) panel without solar-flux concentration are considered. The design of such devices is no simple task. Several fully justified assumptions have been introduced in an attempt to obtain a solution convenient for engineering calculations

  12. Nigeria electricity crisis: Power generation capacity expansion and environmental ramifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and stable electricity is essential in actualizing Nigeria's quest for joining the league of twenty most industrious nations by the year 2020 (vision 20:2020). No country can develop and sustain it development without having a minimum access to electricity for it larger percentage of its population. At present, Nigeria depends petroleum reserves and its aged hydro plant instalments for electricity generation to feed the 40% of its total population that are connected to the national grid. This paper summarizes literature on the current energy issues in Nigeria and introduces the difficulty of the issues involved. The paper also analyses the current (2010) electricity generation as well as the future expansion plans of the Government in 20 years period. The plan includes the introduction of new electrify generation technologies that have not been in used in the base year (2010). The electricity generation system of (including the future expansion plan) was simulated using the LEAP System (Long-range Energy Alternative and Planning). We also investigated the potential environmental impact of siting a nuclear power plant in one of the potential sites based on the site's specific micro-meteorology (land use) and meteorology using the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) models; AERMOD 12345. - Highlights: • This paper scrutinizes literature on Nigeria's energy crisis and presents the policies of the clean technology as solutions. • Only 40% of Nigeria's population is connected to the grid; and this population faces power problems 60% of the time. • Simulation of Nigeria electricity generation system was done. • Air dispersion modellingmodelling for radiological health risk from NPP was done

  13. Optimum capacity determination of stand-alone hybrid generation system considering cost and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper presents a methodology for the installation capacity optimization. ► Hybrid generation system is optimized by application of adaptive genetic algorithm. ► A cost investigation is made under various conditions and component characteristics. ► The optimization scheme is validated to meet the annual power load demand. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to present an optimization methodology for the installation capacity of a stand-alone hybrid generation system, taking into consideration the cost and reliability. Firstly, on the basis of derived steady state models of a wind generator (WG), a photovoltaic array (PV), a battery and an inverter, the hybrid generation system is modeled for the purpose of capacity optimization. Secondly, the power system is analyzed for determining both the system structure and the operation control strategy. Thirdly, according to hourly weather database of wind speed, temperature and solar irradiation, annual power generation capacity is estimated for the system match design in order that an annual power load demand can be met. The capacity determination of a hybrid generation system becomes complicated as a result of the uncertainty in the renewable energy together with load demand and the nonlinearity of system components. Aimed at the power system reliability and the cost minimization, the capacity of a hybrid generation system is optimized by application of an adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) to individual power generation units. A total cost investigation is made under various conditions, such as wind generator power curves, battery discharge depth and the loss of load probability (LOLP). At the end of this work, the capacity of a hybrid generation system is optimized at two installation sites, namely the offshore Orchid Island and Wuchi in Taiwan. The optimization scheme is validated to optimize power capacities of a photovoltaic array, a battery and a wind turbine generator with a relative

  14. Ménage-à-trois: The ratio of bicarbonate to CO2 and the pH regulate the capacity of neutrophils to form NETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maueröder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we identified and characterized the potential of a high ratio of bicarbonate to CO2 and a moderately alkaline pH to render neutrophils prone to undergo neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation. Both experimental settings increased the rate of spontaneous NET release and potentiated the NET-inducing capacity of phorbol esters (PMA, ionomycin, monosodium urate and LPS. In contrast, an acidic environment impaired neutrophil extracellular trap formation both spontaneous and induced. Our findings indicate that intracellular alkalinization of neutrophils in response to an alkaline environment leads to an increase of intracellular calcium and neutrophil activation. We further found that the anion channel blocker DIDS strongly reduced NET formation induced by bicarbonate. This finding suggests that the effects observed are due to a molecular program that renders neutrophils susceptible to neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Inflammatory foci are characterized by an acidic environment. Our data indicates that NET formation is favored by the higher pH at the border regions of inflamed areas. Moreover our findings highlight the necessity for strict pH control during assays of neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

  15. Schema generation in recurrent neural nets for intercepting a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Andreas G

    2010-06-01

    The grasping of a moving object requires the development of a motor strategy to anticipate the trajectory of the target and to compute an optimal course of interception. During the performance of perception-action cycles, a preprogrammed prototypical movement trajectory, a motor schema, may highly reduce the control load. Subjects were asked to hit a target that was moving along a circular path by means of a cursor. Randomized initial target positions and velocities were detected in the periphery of the eyes, resulting in a saccade toward the target. Even when the target disappeared, the eyes followed the target's anticipated course. The Gestalt of the trajectories was dependent on target velocity. The prediction capability of the motor schema was investigated by varying the visibility range of cursor and target. Motor schemata were determined to be of limited precision, and therefore visual feedback was continuously required to intercept the moving target. To intercept a target, the motor schema caused the hand to aim ahead and to adapt to the target trajectory. The control of cursor velocity determined the point of interception. From a modeling point of view, a neural network was developed that allowed the implementation of a motor schema interacting with feedback control in an iterative manner. The neural net of the Wilson type consists of an excitation-diffusion layer allowing the generation of a moving bubble. This activation bubble runs down an eye-centered motor schema and causes a planar arm model to move toward the target. A bubble provides local integration and straightening of the trajectory during repetitive moves. The schema adapts to task demands by learning and serves as forward controller. On the basis of these model considerations the principal problem of embedding motor schemata in generalized control strategies is discussed.

  16. Effect of operating methods of wind turbine generator system on net power extraction under wind velocity fluctuations in fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Hashizume, Takumi [Waseda Univ., Advanced Research Inst. for Science and Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Outa, Eisuke [Waseda Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Yoshiaki [Nippon Inst. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Saitama (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of how a wind turbine generator system is operated is discussed from the viewpoint of net power extraction with wind velocity fluctuation in relation to the scale and the dynamic behaviour of the system. On a wind turbine generator system consisting of a Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, a load generator and a battery, we took up two operating methods: constant tip speed ratio operation for a stand-alone system (Scheme 1) and synchronous operation by connecting a grid (Scheme 2). With our simulation model, using the result of the net extracting power, we clarified that Scheme 1 is more effective than Scheme 2 for small-scale systems. Furthermore, in Scheme 1, the appropriate rated power output of the system under each wind condition can be confirmed. (Author)

  17. Level of hamstrings damage depending on force-generating capacity and creatine kinase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, Gerard; Alomar, Xavier; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Serrano, David; Padullés, Josep Maria; Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna; Rodas Font, Gil; Cusso Calabuig, Roser; Guerrero, M.; Idoate, F.; Balius, Ramon; Cadefau, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to categorize the eccentric exercise-induced hamstrings damage by using easy measurable markers such as force-generating capacity and serum creatine kinase activity Peer Reviewed

  18. Merchant interconnector projects by generators in the EU: Profitability and allocation of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koten, Silvester van

    2012-01-01

    When building a cross-border transmission line (a so-called interconnector) as a for-profit (merchant) project, where the regulator has required that capacity allocation be done non-discriminatorily by explicit auction, the identity of the investor can affect the profitability of the interconnector project and, once operational, the resulting allocation of its capacity. Specifically, when the investor is a generator (hereafter the integrated generator) who also can use the interconnector to export its electricity to a distant location, then, once operational, the integrated generator will bid more aggressively in the allocation auctions to increase the auction revenue and thus its profits. As a result, the integrated generator is more likely to win the auction and the capacity is sold for a higher price. This lowers the allocative efficiency of the auction, but it increases the expected ex-ante profitability of the merchant interconnector project. Unaffiliated, independent generators, however, are less likely to win the auction and, in any case, pay a higher price, which dramatically lowers their revenues from exporting electricity over this interconnector. - Highlights: ► A merchant interconnector owned by an electricity generator needs special attention of regulators. ► Even when allocation of the capacity is done by auctions, the generator will make a large profit. ► The generator will also decrease the allocation of capacity to competitors by bidding aggressively.

  19. Generation of net sediment transport by velocity skewness in oscillatory sheet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Yong; Chen, Genfa; Wang, Fujun; Tang, Xuelin

    2018-01-01

    This study utilizes a qualitative approach and a two-phase numerical model to investigate net sediment transport caused by velocity skewness beneath oscillatory sheet flow and current. The qualitative approach is derived based on the pseudo-laminar approximation of boundary layer velocity and exponential approximation of concentration. The two-phase model can obtain well the instantaneous erosion depth, sediment flux, boundary layer thickness, and sediment transport rate. It can especially illustrate the difference between positive and negative flow stages caused by velocity skewness, which is considerably important in determining the net boundary layer flow and sediment transport direction. The two-phase model also explains the effect of sediment diameter and phase-lag to sediment transport by comparing the instantaneous-type formulas to better illustrate velocity skewness effect. In previous studies about sheet flow transport in pure velocity-skewed flows, net sediment transport is only attributed to the phase-lag effect. In the present study with the qualitative approach and two-phase model, phase-lag effect is shown important but not sufficient for the net sediment transport beneath pure velocity-skewed flow and current, while the asymmetric wave boundary layer development between positive and negative flow stages also contributes to the sediment transport.

  20. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  1. The electricity generation adequacy problem: Assessing dynamic effects of capacity remuneration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hary, Nicolas; Rious, Vincent; Saguan, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Following liberalization reforms, the ability of power markets to provide satisfactory incentives for capacity investments has become a major concern. In particular, current energy markets can exhibit a phenomenon of investment cycles, which generate phases of under and over-capacity, and hence additional costs and risks for generation adequacy. To cope with these issues, new mechanisms, called capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRM), have been (or will be) implemented. This paper assesses the dynamic effects of two CRMs, the capacity market and the strategic reserve mechanism, and studies to what extent they can reduce the investment cycles. Generation costs and shortage costs of both mechanisms are also compared to conclude on their effectivity and economic efficiency. A simulation model, based on system dynamics, is developed to study the functioning of both CRMs and the related investment decisions. The results highlight the benefits of deploying CRMs to solve the adequacy issue: shortages are strongly reduced compared to an energy-only market. Besides, the capacity market appears to be more beneficial, since it experiences fewer shortages and generation costs are lower. These comparisons can be used by policy makers (in particular in Europe, where these two CRMs are mainly debated) to determine which CRM to adopt. - Highlights: •A study of the dynamic effects of CRMs on generation investments is provided. •Capacity market and strategic reserve mechanism are compared. •Both CRMs reduce the cyclical tendencies prone to appear in energy-only market. •The capacity market experiences fewer shortages and generation costs are lower.

  2. NetGen: a novel network-based probabilistic generative model for gene set functional enrichment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duanchen; Liu, Yinliang; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Wu, Ling-Yun

    2017-09-21

    High-throughput experimental techniques have been dramatically improved and widely applied in the past decades. However, biological interpretation of the high-throughput experimental results, such as differential expression gene sets derived from microarray or RNA-seq experiments, is still a challenging task. Gene Ontology (GO) is commonly used in the functional enrichment studies. The GO terms identified via current functional enrichment analysis tools often contain direct parent or descendant terms in the GO hierarchical structure. Highly redundant terms make users difficult to analyze the underlying biological processes. In this paper, a novel network-based probabilistic generative model, NetGen, was proposed to perform the functional enrichment analysis. An additional protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was explicitly used to assist the identification of significantly enriched GO terms. NetGen achieved a superior performance than the existing methods in the simulation studies. The effectiveness of NetGen was explored further on four real datasets. Notably, several GO terms which were not directly linked with the active gene list for each disease were identified. These terms were closely related to the corresponding diseases when accessed to the curated literatures. NetGen has been implemented in the R package CopTea publicly available at GitHub ( http://github.com/wulingyun/CopTea/ ). Our procedure leads to a more reasonable and interpretable result of the functional enrichment analysis. As a novel term combination-based functional enrichment analysis method, NetGen is complementary to current individual term-based methods, and can help to explore the underlying pathogenesis of complex diseases.

  3. Financing investment in new electricity generation capacity in Northwest Europe. Policy brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Current Northwest European electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit and potentially leaves the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. With a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, these markets may not be capable of providing sufficient incentives for investment in generation capacity, because operating hours and scarcity rents for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. There are a number of options available to address this missing money problem. First of all, options should be explored which focus on improving the existing electricity markets. These options include increasing flexibility in both supply and demand improving the profitability of investments, for example by means of removing (implicit) price caps and allowing for long-term contracts. Next to these options which can help increase the revenue for generation investments some form of capacity mechanism such as capacity payments or capacity markets could be introduced. These capacity mechanisms have attracted considerable attention in recent years, both in the literature and in the policy debate, with a number of countries considering the introduction of such mechanisms. However, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have a considerable impact on cross border electricity flows and investment decisions. It might negatively affect security of supply in neighbouring countries and will result in price differences between consumers within a country which have to bear the costs of capacity mechanisms and those outside those countries. Moreover, unilateral capacity mechanisms can disrupt the functioning of the internal energy market. Before the implementation of capacity mechanisms

  4. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    examples to show how reproductive timing Tc and level R0 are shaped by stage dynamics (individual trait changes), selection on the trait, and parent-offspring phenotypic correlation. We also show how population structure can affect dispersion in reproduction among ages and stages. These macroscopic...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...

  5. Short-term optimal wind power generation capacity in liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Roescher, Mark; Larisson, Carlos; Garces, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Mainly because of environmental concerns and fuel price uncertainties, considerable amounts of wind-based generation capacity are being added to some deregulated power systems. The rapid wind development registered in some countries has essentially been driven by strong subsidizing programs. Since wind investments are commonly isolated from market signals, installed wind capacity can be higher than optimal, leading to distortions of the power prices with a consequent loss of social welfare. In this work, the influence of wind generation on power prices in the framework of a liberalized electricity market has been assessed by means of stochastic simulation techniques. The developed methodology allows investigating the maximal wind capacity that would be profitably deployed if wind investments were subject to market conditions only. For this purpose, stochastic variables determining power prices are accurately modeled. A test system resembling the size and characteristics of the German power system has been selected for this study. The expected value of the optimal, short-term wind capacity is evaluated for a considerable number of random realizations of power prices. The impact of dispersing the wind capacity over statistical independent wind sites has also been evaluated. The simulation results reveal that fuel prices, installation and financing costs of wind investments are very influential parameters on the maximal wind capacity that might be accommodated in a market-based manner

  6. The Nuclear option for U.S. electrical generating capacity additions utilizing boiling water reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, T.F.; Wilkins, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The technology status of the Advanced Boiling Water (ABWR) and Simplified Boiling Water (SBWR) reactors are presented along with an analysis of the economic potential of advanced nuclear power generation systems based on BWR technology to meet the projected domestic electrical generating capacity need through 2005. The forecasted capacity needs are determined for each domestic North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. Extensive data sets detailing each NERC region's specific generation and load characteristics, and capital and fuel cost parameters are utilized in the economic analysis of the optimal generation additions to meet this need by use of an expansion planning model. In addition to a reference case, several sensitivity cases are performed with regard to capital costs and fuel price escalation

  7. Analysis of Solar Energy Generation Capacity Using Hesitant Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Coban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an important and reliable source of energy. Better understanding the concepts and relationships of the factors that affect solar energy generation capacity can enhance the usage of solar energy. This understanding can lead investors and governors in their solar power investments. However, solar power generation process is complicated, and the relations among the factors are vague and hesitant. In this paper, a hesitant fuzzy cognitive map for solar energy generation is developed and used for modeling and analyzing the ambiguous relations. The concepts and the relationships among them are defined by using expertsr opinions. Different scenarios are formed and evaluated with the proposed model.

  8. Surface roughness effects on onset of nucleate boiling and net vapor generation point in subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Wada, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    The ability to predict void formation and void fraction in subcooled flow boiling is of importance to the nuclear reactor technology because the presence of voids affects the steady state and transient response of a reactor. The onset of nucleate boiling and the point of net vapor generation on subcooled flow boiling, focusing on surface roughness, liquid subcooling and liquid velocity were investigated experimentally and analytically. Experiments were conducted using a copper thin-film and subcooled water in a range of the liquid velocity from 0.27 to 4.6 m/s at 0.10MPa; the liquid subcoolings were 20, 30 and 40K, respectively. The surface roughness on the test heater was observed by SEM. Experimental results showed that temperatures at the onset nucleate boiling increased with increasing the liquid subcoolings or the liquid velocities. The trend of increase in the temperature at the ONB was in good agreement with the present analytical result based on the stability theory of preexisting nuclei. The measured results for the net vapor generation point agreed well with the results of correlation by Saha and Zuber in the range of the present experiments. The temperature at the ONB decreased with an increasing size of surface roughness, while the NVG-point was independent on the surface roughness. The dependence on the ONB temperature of the roughness size was also represented well by the present analytical model

  9. Generation capacity issues in deregulated markets : a Canadian perspective, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, M.; Brereton, B.; Czamanski, D.; Van Melle, B.; Penman, A.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess generation capacity issues in deregulated electricity markets in Canada. This first volume is based on observations of the restructuring experience in several jurisdictions. It describes how, or if, energy-only markets are succeeding in ensuring capacity additions, and under what conditions. Supply-side and demand-side mechanisms have been proposed as solutions to address these problems. The report focuses on theoretical and practical issues of adequacy that are most relevant from a Canadian perspective. In fully developed energy markets, the price of energy reflects scarcity. Prices are low when generating resources are abundant, and owners make investment decisions based on price expectations. Although deregulated markets may theoretically offer a solution to the capacity adequacy problem, experience has shown that it is not easy to make the rules that make markets operate efficiently. It was concluded that it seems unlikely that deregulated markets in their current state will be able to offer adequate generation for the long term. The challenge lies in moving to competitive markets that encourage long term investment, and adding a capacity mechanism to the market design. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Capacity factor prediction and planning in the wind power generation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgur, Cigdem Z. [Department of Management and Marketing, Richard T. Doermer School of Business and Management Sciences, Indiana - Purdue University, 2101 Coliseum Blvd. East, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 (United States); Jones, Michael [Xcel Energy, Denver, CO 80223 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The common practice to calculate wind generation capacity values relies more on heuristic approximations than true system estimations. In this paper we proposed a more accurate method. In the first part of our analysis, a Monte Carlo simulation was created based on Markov chains to provide an independent estimate of the true behavior of wind farm capacity value as a function of system penetration. With this curve as a baseline, a technique for using beta distributions to model the input variables was adopted. A final step to increase accuracy involved the use of numerical convolution within the program to eliminate summation estimates. (author)

  11. New-generation radiotracers for nAChR and NET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Yushin [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: ding@bnl.gov; Fowler, Joanna [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Advances in radiotracer chemistry and instrumentation have merged to make positron emission tomography (PET) a powerful tool in the biomedical sciences. Positron emission tomography has found increased application in the study of drugs affecting the brain and whole body, including the measurement of drug pharmacokinetics (using a positron-emitter-labeled drug) and drug pharmacodynamics (using a labeled tracer). Thus, radiotracers are major scientific tools enabling investigations of molecular phenomena, which are at the heart of understanding human disease and developing effective treatments; however, there is evidently a bottleneck in translating basic research to clinical practice. In the meantime, the poor ability to predict the in vivo behavior of chemical compounds based on their log P's and affinities emphasizes the need for more knowledge in this area. In this article, we focus on the development and translation of radiotracers for PET studies of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET), two molecular systems that urgently need such an important tool to better understand their functional significance in the living human brain.

  12. Turning the wind into hydrogen: The long-run impact on electricity prices and generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard; Hu, Helen; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production via electrolysis has been proposed as a way of absorbing the fluctuating electricity generated by wind power, potentially allowing the use of cheap electricity at times when it would otherwise be in surplus. We show that large-scale adoption of electrolysers would change the shape of the load-duration curve for electricity, affecting the optimal capacity mix. Nuclear power stations will replace gas-fired power stations, as they are able to run for longer periods of time. Changes in the electricity capacity mix will be much greater than changes to the pattern of prices. The long-run supply price of hydrogen will thus tend to be insensitive to the amount produced. - Research Highlights: → Hydrogen production from electrolysis may offset intermittent wind generation. → The generation capacity mix will change in response to changed demand patterns. → The long-run equilibrium supply curve for hydrogen will be quite flat. → The production cost will be very sensitive to fuel prices paid by generators.

  13. Catering to the Needs of the "Digital Natives" or Educating the "Net Generation"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Jones, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors explore perspectives on the notion of “digital natives” and present a case in which Web 2.0 technologies were introduced to students. They discuss studies critical of the generational metaphor, and argue that it should not be uncritically assumed that there is a gener...

  14. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  15. Prediction of power system frequency response after generator outages using neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M B; Popovic, D P [Electrotechnicki Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1993-09-01

    A new methodology is presented for estimating the frequency behaviour of power systems necessary for an indication of under-frequency load shedding in steady-state security assessment. It is well known that large structural disturbances such as generator tripping or load outages can initiate cascading outages, system separation into islands, and even the complete breakup. The approach provides a fairly accurate method of estimating the system average frequency response without making simplifications or neglecting non-linearities and small time constants in the equations of generating units, voltage regulators and turbines. The efficiency of the new procedure is demonstrated using the New England power system model for a series of characteristic perturbations. The validity of the proposed approach is verified by comparison with the simulation of short-term dynamics including effects of control and automatic devices. (author)

  16. Generation of daily solar irradiation by means of artificial neural net works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Adalberto N.; Tiba, Chigueru; Fraidenraich, Naum [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - CDU, CEP 50.740-540 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The present study proposes the utilization of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as an alternative for generating synthetic series of daily solar irradiation. The sequences were generated from the use of daily temporal series of a group of meteorological variables that were measured simultaneously. The data used were measured between the years of 1998 and 2006 in two temperate climate localities of Brazil, Ilha Solteira (Sao Paulo) and Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul). The estimates were taken for the months of January, April, July and October, through two models which are distinguished regarding the use or nonuse of measured bright sunshine hours as an input variable. An evaluation of the performance of the 56 months of solar irradiation generated by way of ANN showed that by using the measured bright sunshine hours as an input variable (model 1), the RMSE obtained were less or equal to 23.2% being that of those, although 43 of those months presented RMSE less or equal to 12.3%. In the case of the model that did not use the measured bright sunshine hours but used a daylight length (model 2), RMSE were obtained that varied from 8.5% to 37.5%, although 38 of those months presented RMSE less or equal to 20.0%. A comparison of the monthly series for all of the years, achieved by means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (to a confidence level of 99%), demonstrated that of the 16 series generated by ANN model only two, obtained by model 2 for the months of April and July in Pelotas, presented significant difference in relation to the distributions of the measured series and that all mean deviations obtained were inferior to 0.39 MJ/m{sup 2}. It was also verified that the two ANN models were able to reproduce the principal statistical characteristics of the frequency distributions of the measured series such as: mean, mode, asymmetry and Kurtosis. (author)

  17. Contributions of leaf photosynthetic capacity, leaf angle and self-shading to the maximization of net photosynthesis in Acer saccharum: a modelling assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Juan M; Sievänen, Risto; Messier, Christian; Perttunen, Jari; Nikinmaa, Eero; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2012-08-01

    Plants are expected to maximize their net photosynthetic gains and efficiently use available resources, but the fundamental principles governing trade-offs in suites of traits related to resource-use optimization remain uncertain. This study investigated whether Acer saccharum (sugar maple) saplings could maximize their net photosynthetic gains through a combination of crown structure and foliar characteristics that let all leaves maximize their photosynthetic light-use efficiency (ε). A functional-structural model, LIGNUM, was used to simulate individuals of different leaf area index (LAI(ind)) together with a genetic algorithm to find distributions of leaf angle (L(A)) and leaf photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) that maximized net carbon gain at the whole-plant level. Saplings grown in either the open or in a forest gap were simulated with A(max) either unconstrained or constrained to an upper value consistent with reported values for A(max) in A. saccharum. It was found that total net photosynthetic gain was highest when whole-plant PPFD absorption and leaf ε were simultaneously maximized. Maximization of ε required simultaneous adjustments in L(A) and A(max) along gradients of PPFD in the plants. When A(max) was constrained to a maximum, plants growing in the open maximized their PPFD absorption but not ε because PPFD incident on leaves was higher than the PPFD at which ε(max) was attainable. Average leaf ε in constrained plants nonetheless improved with increasing LAI(ind) because of an increase in self-shading. It is concluded that there are selective pressures for plants to simultaneously maximize both PPFD absorption at the scale of the whole individual and ε at the scale of leaves, which requires a highly integrated response between L(A), A(max) and LAI(ind). The results also suggest that to maximize ε plants have evolved mechanisms that co-ordinate the L(A) and A(max) of individual leaves with PPFD availability.

  18. Are you ready for the net generation or the free agent learner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilets, Lynore D

    2011-08-01

    The newest generation of soon to be health care professionals was raised by Father Google and Mother IM. The world has been a connected place for them their entire lives. They are experts at multitasking. They prefer electronic over print news, dictionaries, and maps; cell phones that do more than make phone calls; e-mail exchanges over face-to-face visits; online payments over checks; and credit cards over cash. In this column, I share some information about technology and these digital natives that I, a digital immigrant, have recently discovered. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Net Influence of an Internally Generated Guasi-biennial Oscillation on Modelled Stratospheric Climate and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke David; Newman, Paul A.; Song, InSun

    2013-01-01

    A Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry- Climate Model (GEOSCCM) simulation with strong tropical non-orographic gravity wave drag (GWD) is compared to an otherwise identical simulation with near-zero tropical non-orographic GWD. The GEOSCCM generates a quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) zonal wind signal in response to a tropical peak in GWD that resembles the zonal and climatological mean precipitation field. The modelled QBO has a frequency and amplitude that closely resembles observations. As expected, the modelled QBO improves the simulation of tropical zonal winds and enhances tropical and subtropical stratospheric variability. Also, inclusion of the QBO slows the meridional overturning circulation, resulting in a generally older stratospheric mean age of air. Slowing of the overturning circulation, changes in stratospheric temperature and enhanced subtropical mixing all affect the annual mean distributions of ozone, methane and nitrous oxide. Furthermore, the modelled QBO enhances polar stratospheric variability in winter. Because tropical zonal winds are easterly in the simulation without a QBO, there is a relative increase in tropical zonal winds in the simulation with a QBO. Extratropical differences between the simulations with and without a QBO thus reflect the westerly shift in tropical zonal winds: a relative strengthening of the polar stratospheric jet, polar stratospheric cooling and a weak reduction in Arctic lower stratospheric ozone.

  20. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application. PMID:27550827

  1. Distribution System Augmented by DC Links for Increasing the Hosting Capacity of PV Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Demirok, Erhan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a concept of enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) power generation hosting capacity of distribution networks. Distribution network serving electrical energy to farm settlements was selected as an example for their large roof area available for PV installation. Further, they are cha......This paper presents a concept of enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) power generation hosting capacity of distribution networks. Distribution network serving electrical energy to farm settlements was selected as an example for their large roof area available for PV installation. Further......, they are characterized by long radial feeders. Such feeders suffer from voltage rise and transformer overloading problems as the total number and capacity of the PV installations increase. The distribution network can be augmented by dc distribution links with power electronic converter interfaces to the traditional ac...... distribution systems. It is shown here that the dc links can be used to interconnect the different radial feeders and the excess power thus could be transferred to the nearby industrial load-center....

  2. Environmental and economic appraisal of power generation capacity expansion plan in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, H.; Mulugetta, Y.; Azapagic, A.

    2010-01-01

    The power sector in Nigeria is undergoing structural reforms aimed at improving and expanding the current grid generation capacity and distribution network. The Government has injected huge funds into this sector while also granting licences to private companies for the provision of electricity. It is also aiming to increase electricity generation capacity to 25,000 MW by 2020 from the current installed capacity of 6500 MW while also pledging to connect 75% of the population to the grid from the current 40% by 2025. This paper sets out to analyse the implications of the energy policy in Nigeria and presents the life cycle environmental and economic analysis of the current and future electricity sector. The results show that all the life cycle impacts and economic costs increase significantly over the time-period (2003-2030), but at different rates depending on the types of technologies deployed. Renewables such as large hydro and solar proposed by the Government have a potential to reduce the overall life cycle environmental impacts from the electricity mix, considering their lower environmental impacts compared to fossil-fuels. However, this requires a five-fold increase in grid investments from the current US$1.7 billion per year to US$9.40 billion by 2030.

  3. Improved Taguchi method based contract capacity optimization for industrial consumer with self-owned generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong-Tzer; Peng, Pai-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an improved Taguchi method to determine the optimal contract capacities with SOGUs. ► We solve the highly discrete and nonlinear optimization problem for the contract capacities with SOGUs. ► The proposed improved Taguchi method integrates PSO in Taguchi method. ► The customer using the proposed optimization approach may save up to 12.18% of power expenses. ► The improved Taguchi method can also be well applied to the other similar problems. - Abstract: Contract capacity setting for industrial consumer with self-owned generating units (SOGUs) is a highly discrete and nonlinear optimization problem considering expenditure on the electricity from the utility and operation costs of the SOGUs. This paper proposes an improved Taguchi method that combines existing Taguchi method and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve this problem. Taguchi method provides fast converging characteristics in searching the optimal solution through quality analysis in orthogonal matrices. The integrated PSO algorithm generates new solutions in the orthogonal matrices based on the searching experiences during the evolution process to further improve the quality of solution. To verify feasibility of the proposed method, the paper uses the real data obtained from a large optoelectronics factory in Taiwan. In comparison with the existing optimization methods, the proposed improved Taguchi method has superior performance as revealed in the numerical results in terms of the convergence process and the quality of solution obtained.

  4. Distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency as alternatives to grid capacity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2014-01-01

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economic and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business model of distribution companies under an unbundled power sector paradigm. This paper proposes a market-oriented approach termed as “contract for deferral scheme” (CDS). The scheme outlines how an economically efficient portfolio of distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency can be integrated as network resources to reduce the need for grid capacity and defer demand driven network investments. - Highlights: • The paper explores a practical framework for smart electricity distribution grids. • The aim is to defer large capital investments in the network by utilizing and incentivising distributed generation, demand response, energy efficiency and storage as network resources. • The paper discusses a possible new market model that enables integration of distributed resources as alternative to grid capacity enhancement

  5. On the ergodic capacity of legacy systems in the presence of next generation interference

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2011-11-01

    Next generation wireless systems facilitating better utilization of the scarce radio spectrum have emerged as a response to inefficient rigid spectrum assignment policies. These are comprised of intelligent radio nodes that opportunistically operate in the radio spectrum of existing legacy systems; yet unwanted interference at the legacy receivers is unavoidable. In order to design efficient next generation systems and to minimize their harmful consequences, it is necessary to realize their impact on the performance of legacy systems. In this work, a generalized framework for the ergodic capacity analysis of such legacy systems in the presence of interference from next generation systems is presented. The analysis is built around a model developed for the statistical representation of the interference at the legacy receivers, which is then used to evaluate the ergodic capacity of the legacy system. Moreover, this analysis is not limited to the context of legacy systems, and is in fact applicaple to any interference limited system. Findings of analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  7. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet, E-mail: zivgal1@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Zhou, Changqing, E-mail: czhou27@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-05-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature.

  8. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Changqing; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature

  9. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  10. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  11. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  12. Is the "Net Generation" Ready for Digital Citizenship? Perspectives from the IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013. Policy Brief No. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ryan; Engel, Laura C.; Hastedt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The rise of digital information and communication technologies (ICT) has made the acquisition of computer and information literacy (CIL) a leading factor in creating an engaged, informed, and employable citizenry. However, are young people, often described as "digital natives" or the "net generation," developing the necessary…

  13. Net Acid Production, Acid Neutralizing Capacity, and Associated Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Animas River Watershed Igneous Rocks Near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Choate, LaDonna; Stanton, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from laboratory and field studies involving the net acid production (NAP), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and magnetic mineralogy of 27 samples collected in altered volcanic terrain in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., during the summer of 2005. Sampling focused mainly on the volumetrically important, Tertiary-age volcanic and plutonic rocks that host base- and precious-metal mineralization in the study area. These rocks were analyzed to determine their potential for neutralization of acid-rock drainage. Rocks in the study area have been subjected to a regional propylitic alteration event, which introduced calcite, chlorite (clinochlore), and epidote that have varying amounts and rates of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Locally, hydrothermal alteration has consumed any ANC and introduced minerals, mainly pyrite, that have a high net acid production (NAP). Laboratory studies included hydrogen pyroxide (H2O2) acid digestion and subsequent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titration to determine NAP, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) acid titration experiments to determine ANC. In addition to these environmental rock-property determinations, mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic characteristics of each sample were determined through semiquantitative X-ray diffractometry (Rietveld method), optical mineralogy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence, total carbon-carbonate, and inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric analysis. An ANC ranking was assigned to rock samples based on calculated ANC quantity in kilograms/ton (kg/t) calcium carbonate equivalent and ratios of ANC to NAP. Results show that talus near the southeast Silverton caldera margin, composed of andesite clasts of the Burns Member of the Silverton Volcanics, has the highest ANC (>100 kg/t calcium carbonate equivalent) with little to no NAP. The other units found to have moderate to high ANC include (a) andesite lavas and volcaniclastic rocks of the San Juan

  14. Understanding the generative capacity of analogies as a tool for explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E. David

    1993-12-01

    Psychological studies have typically portrayed analogical reasoning as a process of schema transfer from a familiar domain of understanding to a problem situation. These studies have usually examined analogical reasoning in contexts where (a) individuals possess or have been provided with appropriate, problem-specific schema, (b) the nature of the problem and/or solution is fairly well defined, and (c) ideal analogies are provided or suggested by an outside source. This study examines analogical reasoning in contexts where understanding is generated from loosely organized, incomplete prior knowledge rather than transferred from a well-structured domain of understanding. In addition, participants were asked to create, apply, and modify their own analogies - as opposed to applying a given analogy - as a heuristic for constructing, evaluating, and modifying their explanations for a particular scientific phenomena. The results provide empirical support for the generative properties of analogies; that is, analogies can stimulate new inferences and insight. Furthermore, under specific conditions, individuals can productively harness the generative capacity of their own analogies to advance their conceptual understanding of scientific phenomena.

  15. Influence of the environmental safety indicator on the structure of power generation capacity in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherp, A. [Central European University, Budapest (Hungary); Mikhalevich, A.; Nikitsin, S.; Tkachou, V [Institute of Power Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-07-01

    The largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions in the world (60%) come from the energy sector. Greenhouse gas emissions during the electricity and heat production strongly depend on the fuel mix and combustion technologies, tariff and tax policy, etc. The environmental factor at present is considered as one of the energy security indicators. Specific greenhouse gas emission per unit of heat and electricity produced was chosen as such indicator. The MESSAGE model was used for the Belantsian energy system for analysis of the scenarios by considering possible diversification by type of energy resources and by suppliers. For the considered scenarios specific emissions of CO{sub 2} per unit of heat and electricity produced had been calculated. The tax on fossil fuels burning was taken as an influencing factor on the environmental indicator. Established results show its impact on optimal structure of the generating capacity and greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector. (author)

  16. Electron thermal capacity in plasma generated at cavitation bubble collapse in D-acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenko, B.F.; Pribis, J.

    2004-01-01

    The latest experimental data on nuclear reaction product registration at cavitation bubble collapse in deuterated acetone (C 3 D 6 O) still argue in favour of existence of a new possibility to realize the thermonuclear synthesis. Theoretical description based on numerical solution of simultaneous conservation equations for gaseous and liquid phases also confirms this possibility, although it requires further more precise definitions. In particular, description of electron degrees of freedom in dense nonequilibrium plasma generated at the final stage of bubble collapse need specification. Calculations of electron thermal capacity in the deuterated acetone multiple ionization region at electron temperatures T e ≅ 10 4 K and above and compression range ρ/ρ 0 ≅ 1 - 100 have been fulfilled on the basis of direct numerical solution of equation for chemical potential. (author)

  17. On the exergetic capacity factor of a wind – Solar power generation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    production. In this paper, a detailed exergetic analysis aiming to identify the overall Exergetic Capacity Factor (ExCF) for a wind – solar power generation system was done. ExCF, as a new parameter, can be used for better classification and evaluation of renewable energy sources (RES). All the energy...... and exergy characteristics of wind and solar energy were examined in order to identify the variables that affect the power output of the hybrid system. A validated open source PV optimization tool was also included in the analysis, It was shown that parameters as e.g. air density or tracking losses, low......In the recent years, exergy analysis has become a very important tool in the evaluation of systems’ efficiency. It aims on minimizing the energy related-system losses and therefore maximizing energy savings and helps society substantially to move towards sustainable development and cleaner...

  18. Electron Thermal Capacity in Plasma Generated at Cavitation Bubble Collapse in D-acetone

    CERN Document Server

    Kostenko, B F

    2004-01-01

    The latest experimental data on nuclear reaction product registration at cavitation bubble collapse in deuterated acetone (C$_3$D$_6$O) still argue in favour of existence of a new possibility to realize the thermonuclear synthesis. Theoretical description based on numerical solution of simultaneous conservation equations for gaseous and liquid phases also confirms this possibility, although it requires further more precise definitions. In particular, description of electron degrees of freedom in very dense nonequilibrium plasma generated at the final stage of bubble collapse needs specification. In the present paper, calculations of electron thermal capacity in the deuterated acetone multiple ionization region at electron temperatures $T_e \\simeq 10^4 $ K and above and compression range $\\rho/\\rho_0 \\simeq 1 \\div 100$ have been fulfilled on the basis of direct numerical solution of equation for chemical potential.

  19. Capacity payment impact on gas-fired generation investments under rising renewable feed-in — A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hach, Daniel; Spinler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We assess the effect of capacity payments on investments in gas-fired power plants in the presence of different degrees of renewable energy technology (RET) penetration. Low variable cost renewables increasingly make investments in gas-fired generation unprofitable. At the same time, growing feed-in from intermittent RETs amplifies fluctuations in power generation, thus entailing the need for flexible buffer capacity—currently mostly gas-fired power plants. A real options approach is applied to evaluate investment decisions and timing of a single investor in gas-fired power generation. We investigate the necessity and effectiveness of capacity payments. Our model incorporates multiple uncertainties and assesses the effect of capacity payments under different degrees of RET penetration. In a numerical study, we implement stochastic processes for peak-load electricity prices and natural gas prices. We find that capacity payments are an effective measure to promote new gas-fired generation projects. Especially in times of high renewable feed-in, capacity payments are required to incentivize peak-load investments. - Highlights: • We assess capacity payments under the specific focus of the influence of different degrees of renewable feed-in. • We use a real options approach to analyze investment decision and timing. • Our model reflects stochastic gas prices and stochastic electricity prices. • The case study shows the value of capacity payments to investors especially under high renewable feed-in.

  20. Is there a "net generation" in veterinary medicine? A comparative study on the use of the Internet and Web 2.0 by students and the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhaven, Christoph; Tipold, Andrea; Fischer, Martin R; Ehlers, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    Informal and formal lifelong learning is essential at university and in the workplace. Apart from classical learning techniques, Web 2.0 tools can be used. It is controversial whether there is a so-called net generation amongst people under 30. To test the hypothesis that a net generation among students and young veterinarians exists. An online survey of students and veterinarians was conducted in the German-speaking countries which was advertised via online media and traditional print media. 1780 people took part in the survey. Students and veterinarians have different usage patterns regarding social networks (91.9% vs. 69%) and IM (55.9% vs. 24.5%). All tools were predominantly used passively and in private, to a lesser extent also professionally and for studying. The use of Web 2.0 tools is useful, however, teaching information and media skills, preparing codes of conduct for the internet and verification of user generated content is essential.

  1. Economic risks of the capacity expansion of electric power generation: impact of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva G, R.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty and risks are inherent to the electric systems planning. The long period of construction that is characteristic of the electric sector works, as well as the long useful life of the generation assets and electric power transmission, they force to plan the expansion of the electric systems along horizons from 10 to 25 years. In periods so long of time it is impossible to predict with certainty the elements of the environment that could influence in the taking of decisions, like they are: the growth and the distribution of the electric power demand, the readiness and fuel prices; the investment costs of the technological options of generation and transmission, as well as the duration of the construction of future projects of new capacity addition. All expansion plan that will be propose, will be exposed to the uncertainty of the environment, gives place to risks or undesirable consequences. The nature of the risks, the strategies to delimit them and the outlines to assign them between the different interested parts and the diverse economic agents, depend in great measure of the legal and normative mark of the sector. In this work these topics are approached inside the reference mark of the Mexican public service of electric power. (Author)

  2. Building the Capacity for Climate Services: Thoughts on Training Next Generation Climate Science Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Brugger, J.; Gordon, E. S.; Barsugli, J. J.; Rangwala, I.; Travis, W.

    2015-12-01

    For more than a decade, stakeholder needs assessments and reports, including the recent National Climate Assessment, have pointed out the need for climate "science translators" or "science integrators" who can help bridge the gap between the cultures and contexts of researchers and decision-makers. Integration is important for exchanging and enhancing knowledge, building capacity to use climate information in decision making, and fostering more robust planning for decision-making in the context of climate change. This talk will report on the characteristics of successful climate science integrators, and a variety of models for training the upcoming generation of climate science integrators. Science integration characteristics identified by an experienced vanguard in the U.S. include maintaining credibility in both the scientific and stakeholder communities, a basic respect for stakeholders demonstrated through active listening, and a deep understanding of the decision-making context. Drawing upon the lessons of training programs for Cooperative Extension, public health professionals, and natural resource managers, we offer ideas about training next generation climate science integrators. Our model combines training and development of skills in interpersonal relations, communication of science, project implementation, education techniques and practices - integrated with a strong foundation in disciplinary knowledge.

  3. Optimal balance between energy demand and onsite energy generation for robust net zero energy buildings considering future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotireddy, R.R.; Hoes, P.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Net-zero energy buildings have usually very low energy demand, and consequently heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are designed and controlled to meet this low energy demand. However, a number of uncertainties in the building use, operation and external conditions such as

  4. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

  5. A stochastic dynamic model for optimal timing of investments in new generation capacity in restructured power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Korpaas, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the power generation investment problem for a decentralised and profit-maximising investor operating in a restructured and competitive power system. In particular, we look at how uncertainty influences the optimal timing of investments in new power generation capacity. A real options approach is used to take long-term uncertainty in load growth, and its influence on future electricity prices, into account in the investment optimisation. In order to value the operational flexibility of a new power plant we use an electricity price model, where the spot price is a function of load level and installed generation capacity, in addition to short-term uncertainties and temporal fluctuations in the market. The investor's income from a capacity payment, which also can depend on the system's total capacity balance, can also be represented. Hence, with the optimisation model we can analyse power plant profitability and optimal timing of new investments under different market designs. In a case study from the Nordic electricity market we analyse the effect of uncertainty on optimal investment timing. We also examine how a fixed or variable capacity payment would influence the investment decision, and discuss the system consequences of the resulting investment strategies. (author)

  6. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  7. MX 8: the next generation high capacity system for the transport of fresh MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potelle, F.; Issard, H.

    1998-01-01

    The choice of reprocessing policy was made a long time ago in France, leading to the development of an advanced Pu recycling industry. In 1987, Saint Laurent was the first French reactor to be loaded with fresh MOX fuel. Transnucleaire, then in charge of transport packaging development, created the FS 69 concept, derived from the classical RCC concept for the transport of UO 2 fresh fuel. On the other hand, Cogema, as the main actor in the field of fuel cycle and thus in transport matters, developed the associated security truck and security caisson in order to provide the transport system with the acceptable Physical Protection devices required by French Authorities. As a whole, the security truck and the FS 69 have now been used for more than ten years with a remarkable level of efficiency and safety. Indeed, more than 600 fresh MOX fuel elements have been delivered, without any incident, both regarding safety or fuel integrity requirements. But, as a matter of fact, the replacement of FS 69 transport system is now scheduled for several reasons. First of all, the burnups achieved with UO 2 fuel progressed together with its enrichment within the last ten years, and the MOX 'equivalence' also implies that its Pu content be increased to enhance its reactor performances: from 5.25 % of Pu content today, the MOX fuel will reach 7% tomorrow, and almost 10% the day after tomorrow. Lastly, the reprocessing/recycling policy has been confirmed and amplified, leading to an increasing number of 'moxified' reactors. As a consequence, the French utility (EDF), the fuel designer (Fragema, the joint venture between Framatome and Cogema), the fuel manufacturer (Cogema), and the transporter (Transnucleaire) joined in a specific working group devoted to the development of the MX 8, the next generation high capacity system for the land transport of MOX fuel. (authors)

  8. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  9. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking: effect of long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo (n = 64) or alpha-tocopherol (400 IU

  10. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Gabi; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas; Hopman, Maria T E

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. METHODS: Lung function and

  11. Investigation the foam dynamics capacity of SDS in foam generator by affecting the presence of organic and inorganic contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Bode; Siswarni, M. Z.; Sianipar, Yosef C. H.; Sinaga, Tongam M. A.; Bestari, Imam

    2017-05-01

    The effect of negative charge SDS monomer on its foam capacity with the presence of contaminants was investigated in foam generator. Generally, surfactant with higher concentration has higher foam capacity. The higher concentration will increase the number of monomer then increase the micelles in liquid phase. Increasing the number of monomer with the negative charge is a potential to increase interaction with metal ion with positive charge in solution. The presence of inorganic compound as metal ion with positive charge and organic compound (colloid) as particle of coffee impacting to generate the foam lamella with monomer is evaluated. Foam dynamic capacity of only SDS with variation of CMC, 1 x; 2 x; 3 x have the height 7.5, 8.0 and 8.3 cm respectively with the different range time were investigated. The Height of foam dynamic capacity with the presence of 20 ppm Cd2+ ion contaminant was 8.0, 8.3 and 8.4 cm at the same CMC variation of SDS. The presence of metal ion contaminant within the foam was confirmed by AAS. The black coffee particles and oil as contaminant decreased the foam capacity significantly in comparing to metal ions.

  12. Analysis of the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In lingual orthodontic therapy, effective torque control of the incisors is crucial due to the biomechanical particularities associated with the point of force application and the tight link between third order deviations and vertical tooth position. Aim The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to analyze the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation (WIN) in combination with different finishing archwire dimensions. Methods Using a typodont of the upper arch carrying the WIN appliance, slot filling and undersized individualized β-titanium archwires were engaged. Horizontal forces ranging from 0 to 100 cN were applied at the central incisor by means of spring gauges. The resulting angular deviations were recorded and the corresponding torque moments were calculated. Results For fullsize archwires (0.018”×0.018” β-titanium and 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium), an initial torque play of 0-2° had to be overcome prior to the development of an effective torque moment. Thereafter, a linear correlation between torque angle and torque moment developed for both archwire dimensions with steeper slopes calculated for the specimens with the larger dimension. A torque moment of 2 Nmm required for effective torque correction was noted after a minimum of 2-3° of twist for the 0.018”×0.018” β-titanium wires as compared to 2-4° for the 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium study sample. When undersized archwires were analyzed (0.0175”×0.0175” β-titanium), the measured torque play ranged from 5-7°. After 8-12° of torque angle, the threshold of 2 Nmm was reached. A linear relationship between twist angle and torque moment in which the steepness of the slopes was generally flatter than the ones calculated for the slot filling archwires was noted. Conclusions Given the high precision of the bracket slot-archwire-combination provided with the WIN appliance, an effective torque control can be clinically

  13. A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ozcan

    2004-04-01

    To develop a novel colorimetric and automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A new generation, more stable, colored 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS(*+)) was employed. The ABTS(*+) is decolorized by antioxidants according to their concentrations and antioxidant capacities. This change in color is measured as a change in absorbance at 660 nm. This process is applied to an automated analyzer and the assay is calibrated with Trolox. The novel assay is linear up to 6 mmol Trolox equivalent/l, its precision values are lower than 3%, and there is no interference from hemoglobin, bilirubin, EDTA, or citrate. The method developed is significantly correlated with the Randox- total antioxidant status (TAS) assay (r = 0.897, P total antioxidant capacity.

  14. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  15. The gross- and net-irrigation requirements of crops and model farms with different root zone capacities at ten locations in Denmark 1990-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Damme, Loraine; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    abstraction permits for irrigation. Here we present estimates of the gross and net irrigation water requirements for a range of agricultural crops and model farms in 10 locations across Denmark for the years 1990-2015. We generally found higher values for the irrigation requirement than previous studies...... conducted 40 years ago. The annual irrigation water requirement varied according to farm type (dairy, arable/pig and potatoes), location,soil type and especially year with more than 300%. Abstraction permits based on average values are deemed less suitable as they may restrict farmers’ production in one out...

  16. Word-Decoding Skill Interacts with Working Memory Capacity to Influence Inference Generation during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen; Freed, Erin; Long, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine predictions derived from a proposal about the relation between word-decoding skill and working memory capacity, called verbal efficiency theory. The theory states that poor word representations and slow decoding processes consume resources in working memory that would otherwise be used to execute high-level…

  17. An electrical betweenness approach for vulnerability assessment of power grids considering the capacity of generators and load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Bu-han; Zhang, Zhe; Yin, Xiang-gen; Wang, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Most existing research on the vulnerability of power grids based on complex networks ignores the electrical characteristics and the capacity of generators and load. In this paper, the electrical betweenness is defined by considering the maximal demand of load and the capacity of generators in power grids. The loss of load, which reflects the ability of power grids to provide sufficient power to customers, is introduced to measure the vulnerability together with the size of the largest cluster. The simulation results of the IEEE-118 bus system and the Central China Power Grid show that the cumulative distributions of node electrical betweenness follow a power-law and that the nodes with high electrical betweenness play critical roles in both topological structure and power transmission of power grids. The results prove that the model proposed in this paper is effective for analyzing the vulnerability of power grids.

  18. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-01-01

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  19. The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2014-05-01

    In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics

  20. Comparisons of recent growth in actual demand, planned demand, and planned generating capacity at U. S. electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, A.E. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

    1994-12-01

    During the winter of 1993, a number of U.S. electric utilities and some regional power pools discovered that current load exceeded generating capacity. Load restrictions followed, as entire regions-not just isolated utilities or even states-cut back. Was 1993 a typical, or simply a preview of the future If a preview, how did this shortage occur For a number of years, utilities, regulatory agencies, and power pools have been planning to add capacity at a much lower rate than the rate at which load has been growing. The National Electricity Reliability Council (NERC) has projected that eight of it's nine regions will have demand growth exceed capacity growth. The only region where capacity is growing faster is in the Texas Region. There are four reasons behind this shortage: excess capacity in the 1980's, disbelief in current forecasts, passage of the Clean Air act bringing stricter regulation on power plants, and the herd mentality where utilities have all delayed new plant construction.

  1. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  2. The social underpinnings of absorptive capacity: the moderating effects of structural holes on innovation generation based on external knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Tortoriello, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Building on absorptive capacity and social network research, in this paper I investigate how individuals inside the organization use external knowledge to generate innovations. Through original sociometric data collected from 276 scientists, researchers, and engineers from the Research and Development division of a large multinational high-tech company, I show that the effects of external knowledge on individuals' innovativeness are contingent upon individuals' position in the internal social...

  3. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  4. ertCPN: The adaptations of the coloured Petri-Net theory for real-time embedded system modeling and automatic code generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wattanapong Kurdthongmee

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A real-time system is a computer system that monitors or controls an external environment. The system must meet various timing and other constraints that are imposed on it by the real-time behaviour of the external world. One of the differences between a real-time and a conventional software is that a real-time program must be both logically and temporally correct. To successfully design and implement a real-time system, some analysis is typically done to assure that requirements or designs are consistent and that they satisfy certain desirable properties that may not be immediately obvious from specification. Executable specifications, prototypes and simulation are particularly useful in real-time systems for debugging specifications. In this paper, we propose the adaptations to the coloured Petri-net theory to ease the modeling, simulation and code generation process of an embedded, microcontroller-based, real-time system. The benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by use of our prototype software tool called ENVisAge (an Extended Coloured Petri-Net Based Visual Application Generator Tool.

  5. Production of electricity through biomass gasification system downdraft and generator group with a capacity of 50 kVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio Luiz Figueiredo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests performed with an internal combustion engine adapted to MWM Otto cycle, coupled to an electricity generator with a capacity of 50 kVA, fed exclusively with synthesis gas from a biomass gasifier downdraft, using wood eucalyptus. Also featured are the characteristics and efficiency of the generator set, in order to assess the feasibility of applying the system in remote locations, where biomass is available and the system of conventional electric power transmission is hampered by distance. The synthesis gas generated showed the average composition of 16,9% H2, 20% CO, 10,9% CO2, CH4, 2% and 50,1% N2. The performance of the span was monitored by applying loads of 0, 7, 13, 20,1 and 26,4 kW, the generator, keeping the average voltage of 222 V and currents of 0, 18,5, 33, 51, 84 and 67 A.

  6. Title:Distributed Generation Storage, Demand Response, and Energy Efficiency as Alternatives to Grid Capacity Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Poudineh, R.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economics and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business mode...

  7. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  8. Experience of research, design, capacity, and operation with forced flow steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, G.; McDonald, B.N.; Pocock, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    The forced flow steam generators in operation in six American nuclear power plants show an excellent operational behaviour. The concept for this type of steam generator has been developed in the USA, and it has been successfully tested over several years regarding its suitability for PWRs of a larger size. The results concerning construction, materials and water chemistry for this steam generator, which will be used for the first time in the FRG in the nuclear power station Muelheim-Kaerlich, have confirmed the high reliability of this high-efficiency component. (orig./LN) [de

  9. Regulatory Approaches for Adding Capacity to Existing Hydropower Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kazerooni, Borna [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    In 2015, hydroelectric generation accounted for more than 6 percent of total net electricity generation in the United States and 46 percent of electricity generation from all renewables. The United States has considerable hydroelectric potential beyond what is already being developed. Nearly 7 GW of this potential is found by adding capacity to existing hydropower facilities. To optimize the value of hydroelectric generation, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Vision Study highlights the importance of adding capacity to existing facilities. This report provides strategic approaches and considerations for Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licensed and exempt hydropower facilities seeking to increase generation capacity, which may include increases from efficiency upgrades. The regulatory approaches reviewed for this report include capacity and non-capacity amendments, adding capacity during relicensing, and adding capacity when converting a license to a 10-MW exemption.

  10. On the ergodic capacity of legacy systems in the presence of next generation interference

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ø ien, Geir Egil

    2011-01-01

    Next generation wireless systems facilitating better utilization of the scarce radio spectrum have emerged as a response to inefficient rigid spectrum assignment policies. These are comprised of intelligent radio nodes that opportunistically operate

  11. For the definition of capacity effects of electricity generation from wind power and solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltschmitt, M.

    1996-01-01

    It is the objective of this contribution to define the calculable really available output of a fluctuating electricity generation from wind energy and solar radiation. Apart from that, the methods for determining the really available output are explained, as far as they are necessary for understanding the definitions. Exemplified on a simulated large-scale regenerative electricity generation in Germany, in addition, some defined values are calculated and discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Benefit Evaluation of Wind Turbine Generators in Wind Farms Using Capacity-Factor Analysis and Economic-Cost Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, L.; Yeh, T-H.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent price spike of the international oil and the concern of global warming, the development and deployment of renewable energy become one of the most important energy policies around the globe. Currently, there are different capacities and hub heights for commercial wind turbine gen...... height for WTGs that have been installed in Taiwan. Important outcomes affecting wind cost of energy in comparison with economic results using the proposed economic-analysis methods for different WFs are also presented.......Due to the recent price spike of the international oil and the concern of global warming, the development and deployment of renewable energy become one of the most important energy policies around the globe. Currently, there are different capacities and hub heights for commercial wind turbine...... generators (WTGs). To fully capture wind energy, different wind farms (WFs) should select adequate capacity of WTGs to effectively harvest wind energy and maximize their economic benefit. To establish selection criterion, this paper first derives the equations for capacity factor (CF) and pairing performance...

  13. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  14. Seismic capacities of masonry walls at the big rock point nuclear generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, D.A.; Bunon, H.; Jenkins, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation to determine the ability of selected concrete block walls in the vicinity of essential equipment to withstand seismic excitation was conducted. The seismic input to the walls was developed in accordance with the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) site-specific response spectra for the site. Time-history inputs to the walls were determined from the response of the turbine building complex. Analyses were performed to determine the capacities of the walls to withstand both in-plane and transverse seismic loads. Transverse load capacities were determined from time-history analyses of nonlinear two-dimensional analytical models of the walls. Separate inputs were used at the tops and bottoms of the walls to reflect the amplification through the building. The walls were unreinforced vertically with one exception, and have unsupported heights as high as 20'-8''. Also, cantilever walls as high as 11'-2'' were included in the evaluation. Factors of safety based on stability of the walls were determined for the transverse response, and on code allowable stresses (Reference 1) for the in-plane response

  15. A hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach to predict hourly energy consumption and generation by a cluster of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garshasbi, Samira; Kurnitski, Jarek; Mohammadi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The energy consumption and renewable generation in a cluster of NZEBs are modeled by a novel hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach and used for the prediction of instantaneous and cumulative net energy balances and hourly amount of energy taken from and supplied to the central energy grid. - Highlights: • Hourly energy consumption and generation by a cluster of NZEBs was simulated. • Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach were employed. • Dampening effect of energy used by a cluster of buildings was demonstrated. • Hourly amount of energy taken from and supplied to the grid was simulated. • Results showed that NZEB cluster was 63.5% grid dependant on annual bases. - Abstract: Employing a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach, energy consumption and renewable energy generation in a cluster of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) was thoroughly investigated with hourly simulation. Moreover, the cumulative energy consumption and generation of the whole cluster and each individual building within the simulation space were accurately monitored and reported. The results indicate that the developed simulation algorithm is able to predict the total instantaneous and cumulative amount of energy taken from and supplied to the central energy grid over any time period. During the course of simulation, about 60–100% of total daily generated renewable energy was consumed by NZEBs and up to 40% of that was fed back into the central energy grid as surplus energy. The minimum grid dependency of the cluster was observed in June and July where 11.2% and 9.9% of the required electricity was supplied from the central energy grid, respectively. On the other hand, the NZEB cluster was strongly grid dependant in January and December by importing 70.7% and 76.1% of its required energy demand via the central energy grid, in the order given. Simulation results revealed that the cluster was 63

  16. Capacity expansion of stochastic power generation under two-stage electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Salvador; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    are first formulated from the standpoint of a social planner to characterize a perfectly competitive market. We investigate the effect of two paradigmatic market designs on generation expansion planning: a day-ahead market that is cleared following a conventional cost merit-order principle, and an ideal...... of stochastic power generating units. This framework includes the explicit representation of a day-ahead and a balancing market-clearing mechanisms to properly capture the impact of forecast errors of power production on the short-term operation of a power system. The proposed generation expansion problems...... market-clearing procedure that determines day-ahead dispatch decisions accounting for their impact on balancing operation costs. Furthermore, we reformulate the proposed models to determine the optimal expansion decisions that maximize the profit of a collusion of stochastic power producers in order...

  17. A small capacity co generative gas-turbine plant in factory AD 'Komuna' - Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Armenski, Slave; Tashevski, Done

    2000-01-01

    The factory AD 'Komuna' -Skopje (Macedonia), has two steam block boilers, type ST 800 for steam production for process and space heating. The factory satisfies the electricity needs from the national grid. By the use of natural gas like fuel it is possible to produce electrical energy in its own co generative gas turbine plant. In this article, a co generative plant with small-scale gas turbine for electricity production is analyzed . The gas from gas turbine have been introduce in the steam block boiler. Also, a natural gas consumption, the electricity production, total investment and payback period of investment are determined. (Authors)

  18. Agricultural net primary production in relation to that liberated by the extinction of Pleistocene mega-herbivores: an estimate of agricultural carrying capacity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Field, Christopher B, E-mail: chris.doughty@ouce.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cfield@ciw.edu [Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Mega-fauna (defined as animals > 44 kg) experienced a global extinction with 97 of 150 genera going extinct by {approx} 10 000 years ago. We estimate the net primary production (NPP) that was liberated following the global extinction of these mega-herbivores. We then explore how humans, through agriculture, gradually appropriated this liberated NPP, with specific calculations for 800, 1850, and 2000 AD. By 1850, most of the liberated NPP had been appropriated by people, but NPP was still available in the Western US, South America and Australia. NPP liberated following the extinction of the mega-herbivores was {approx} 2.5% ({approx}1.4 (between 1.2 and 1.6) Pg yr{sup -1} of 56 Pg C yr{sup -1}; Pg: petagrams) of global terrestrial NPP. Liberated NPP peaked during the onset of agriculture and was sufficient for sustaining human agriculture until {approx} 320 (250-500) years ago. Humans currently use {approx} 6 times more NPP than was utilized by the extinct Pleistocene mega-herbivores.

  19. Agricultural net primary production in relation to that liberated by the extinction of Pleistocene mega-herbivores: an estimate of agricultural carrying capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Field, Christopher B

    2010-01-01

    Mega-fauna (defined as animals > 44 kg) experienced a global extinction with 97 of 150 genera going extinct by ∼ 10 000 years ago. We estimate the net primary production (NPP) that was liberated following the global extinction of these mega-herbivores. We then explore how humans, through agriculture, gradually appropriated this liberated NPP, with specific calculations for 800, 1850, and 2000 AD. By 1850, most of the liberated NPP had been appropriated by people, but NPP was still available in the Western US, South America and Australia. NPP liberated following the extinction of the mega-herbivores was ∼ 2.5% (∼1.4 (between 1.2 and 1.6) Pg yr -1 of 56 Pg C yr -1 ; Pg: petagrams) of global terrestrial NPP. Liberated NPP peaked during the onset of agriculture and was sufficient for sustaining human agriculture until ∼ 320 (250-500) years ago. Humans currently use ∼ 6 times more NPP than was utilized by the extinct Pleistocene mega-herbivores.

  20. Optimizing Capacities of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in a Small Autonomous Power System Considering Uncertainty in Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  1. Angiostatin generating capacity and anti-tumour effects of D-penicillamine and plasminogen activators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot-Besseling, R. de; Ruers, T.J.M.; Lamers-Elemans, I.L.; Maass, C.N.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Westphal, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upregulation of endogenous angiostatin levels may constitute a novel anti-angiogenic, and therefore anti-tumor therapy. In vitro, angiostatin generation is a two-step process, starting with the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin by plasminogen activators (PAs). Next, plasmin excises

  2. GIS approach to the definition of capacity and generation ceilings of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Bravo, Javier; Garcia Casals, Xavier; Pinedo Pascua, Irene

    2007-01-01

    There are no discrepancies about the advantages of achieving a sustainable energy system based on locally available natural resources. However, supporters of green energy generation system were lacking some scientific and consistent study to defend their proposals. In order to have such a study, Greenpeace commissioned Technology Research Institute at the Pontificia Comillas University to carry out a study to assess ceilings for the potential and generation of renewable technologies in Spain. It demonstrates firstly a far greater renewable potential than the targets set by long term policies, and secondly, the viability of meeting the entire electricity demand projected for 2050. GIS was used to add the geographical dimension to the original project in order to generate a technical analysis linked to the specific constrictions imposed by territory (natural and anthropogenic) and not just designed to cover a certain demand. Therefore, GIS spatial analysis took into account local conditions producing a more accurate assessment than evaluations made upon 'virtual' electrical spaces. This approach could be applied to other small scale general studies in order to assess the maximum contribution of renewable energy sources to particular energy generation mix and to help set development policies supporting high participation of renewable technologies

  3. Distributed generation hosting capacity calculation of MV distribution feeders in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Oguz, Emre Utku; Bizkevelci, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Integration of distributed generation into distribution networks introduces new challenges to distribution system operators while the penetration level increases. One of the challenges is the voltage rise issue as a part of the steady-state analysis of DGs during planning and operational stages. ...

  4. Constant Power Generation of Photovoltaic Systems Considering the Distributed Grid Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    With an imperative demand of clean and reliable electricity generation in some countries, the increasing adoption of new photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to expand the transmission/distributed lines. However, the potential cost brought by such extensions...

  5. Gas-to-power market and investment incentive for enhancing generation capacity: An analysis of Ghana's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Jorik; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    2016-01-01

    Ghana's electricity generation capacity is currently insufficient to meet demand, making power outages and load shedding common. The resulting impact is potentially devastating for the country's growth prospects. Traditionally, lack of an affordable and reliable fuel supply for power generation, coupled with ineffective institutions and an unfavourable investment climate, have resulted in Ghana's electricity sector performing poorly. In light of the 2007 discovery of natural gas reserves in Ghanaian waters, this paper examines whether domestic gas could advance the performance of the electricity sector, and if so, how. The results of our analysis show that utilization of gas reserves in Ghana's gas-to-power market is an economically superior strategy compared to an export-oriented utilization scheme. The lack of an effective regulatory framework for investment, skill shortages, and an inefficient electricity pricing structure continue to be the main constraining factors. Our analysis also considers possible approaches to modification of the electricity tariff in order to send the right signal to potential investors in generation capacity, without compromising the affordability of power supply. - Highlights: •We examine if domestic gas can improve the Ghanaian electricity sector performance. •We compare domestic gas-to-power market utilisation versus gas export. •It shows that gas-to-power market is more economical compared to gas export. •Ineffective investment regime, skill shortage and inefficient tariffs are barriers.

  6. Cost base for hydropower plants : with a generating capacity of more than 10 000 kw : price level 1 January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapgaard, Jan

    2012-07-25

    This manual has been prepared as a tool for calculation of average foreseeable contractor costs (civil works) and supplier costs (mechanical and electrical equipment) for large hydroelectric power plants with an early phase generating capacity of more than 10 000 kw. These costs will depend on a number of conditions which may vary from plant to plant, and this requires that the user to have a sound technical knowledge. This applies in particular to the civil works associated with the hydropower plant. The manual is a supplement to our cost base for smaller hydropower projects (Manual No. 2/2010)(au)

  7. Determinants of the costs of carbon capture and sequestration for expanding electricity generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanni, Emily; Richards, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    This study models the costs of electricity generation with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), from generation at the power plant to carbon injection at the reservoir, examining the economic factors that affect technology choice and CCS costs at the individual plant level. The results suggest that natural gas and coal prices have profound impacts on the carbon price needed to induce CCS. To extend previous analyses we develop a 'cost region' graph that models technology choice as a function of carbon and fuel prices. Generally, the least-cost technology at low carbon prices is pulverized coal, while intermediate carbon prices favor natural gas technologies and high carbon prices favor coal gasification with capture. However, the specific carbon prices at which these transitions occur is largely determined by the price of natural gas. For instance, the CCS-justifying carbon price ranges from $27/t CO 2 at high natural gas prices to $54/t CO 2 at low natural gas prices. This result has important implications for potential climate change legislation. The capital costs of the generation and CO 2 capture plant are also highly important, while pipeline distance and criteria pollutant control are less significant.

  8. Next generation capacity building for the GEOSS community - an European approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and futher develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the new integrated approach to capacity building engaging the various actors involved in the entire value-chain from data providers to decision-makers. A presentation of the general approach together with concrete pilot cases will be included.In this work it will be shown how we integrate new technological development and societial change enabling GEO and GEOSS to adapt to the current environment. The result is important for better decision-making and better use of our limited resources to manage our planet.

  9. Electrochemically Smart Bimetallic Materials Featuring Group 11 Metals: In-situ Conductive Network Generation and Its Impact on Cell Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Esther [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Our results for this program “Electrochemically smart bimetallic materials featuring Group 11 metals: in-situ conductive matrix generation and its impact on battery capacity, power and reversibility” have been highly successful: 1) we demonstrated material structures which generated in-situ conductive networks through electrochemical activation with increases in conductivity up to 10,000 fold, 2) we pioneered in situ analytical methodology to map the cathodes at several stages of discharge through the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to elucidate the kinetic dependence of the conductive network formation, and 3) we successfully designed synthetic methodology for direct control of material properties including crystallite size and surface area which showed significant impact on electrochemical behavior.

  10. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.

    1984-01-01

    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor

  11. Transmission capacity and market power: the effect on a dominant generation firm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, David M.; Carey, Janis M.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the effect of transmission on a firm's market power by analyzing the optimal dispatch for a dominant firm in a short-run regional electricity generation market. Application of our research to Colorado shows that the dominant firm can strategically congest transmission into the region to receive a maximum price 54.9% of the time. When it does not get the maximum price, the dominant firm can receive an 11.6% average markup over the competitive price. We show how the threat of entry across an enhanced transmission grid can increase competition and limit market power in Colorado. (Author)

  12. US central station nuclear electric generating units: significant milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Listings of US nuclear power plants include significant dates, reactor type, owners, and net generating capacity. Listings are made by state, region, and utility. Tabulations of status, schedules, and orders are also presented

  13. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  14. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  15. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  16. Electron transfer capacity dependence of quinone-mediated Fe(III) reduction and current generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae L17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Liang; Liu, Tongxu; Yuan, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fangbai; Zhou, Shungui; Li, Yongtao

    2013-06-01

    Quinone groups in exogenous electron shuttles can accelerate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from bacteria to insoluble terminal electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) oxides and electrodes, which are important in biogeochemical redox processes and microbial electricity generation. However, the relationship between quinone-mediated EET performance and electron-shuttling properties of the quinones remains incompletely characterized. This study investigates the effects of a series of synthetic quinones (SQs) on goethite reduction and current generation by a fermenting bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae L17. In addition, the voltammetric behavior and electron transfer capacities (ETCs) of SQ, including electron accepting (EAC) and donating (EDC) capacities, is also examined using electrochemical methods. The results showed that SQ can significantly increase both the Fe(III) reduction rates and current outputs of L17. Each tested SQ reversibly accepted and donated electrons as indicated by the cyclic voltammograms. The EAC and EDC results showed that Carmine and Alizarin had low relative capacities of electron transfer, whereas 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-HNQ), and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (5-HNQ) showed stronger relative ETC, and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQC) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) had high relative ETC. Enhancement of microbial goethite reduction kinetics and current outputs by SQ had a good linear relationship with their ETC, indicating that the effectiveness of quinone-mediated EET may be strongly dependent on the ETC of the quinones. Therefore, the presence of quinone compounds and fermenting microorganisms may increase the diversity of microbial populations that contribute to element transformation in natural environments. Moreover, ETC determination of different SQ would help to evaluate their performance for microbial EET under anoxic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  17. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  18. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  19. Generation of clinical grade dendritic cells with capacity to produce biologically active IL-12p70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigalke Iris

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For optimal T cell activation it is desirable that dendritic cells (DCs display peptides within MHC molecules as signal 1, costimulatory molecules as signal 2 and, in addition, produce IL-12p70 as signal 3. IL-12p70 polarizes T cell responses towards CD4+ T helper 1 cells, which then support the development of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We therefore developed new maturation cocktails allowing DCs to produce biologically active IL-12p70 for large-scale cancer vaccine development. Methods After elutriation of leukapheresis products in a closed bag system, enriched monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for six days to generate immature DCs that were then matured with cocktails, containing cytokines, interferon-gamma, prostaglandin E2, and a ligand for Toll-like receptor 8, with or without poly (I:C. Results Mature DCs expressed appropriate maturation markers and the lymph node homing chemokine receptor, CCR7. They retained full maturity after culture for two days without maturation cocktails and following cryopreservation. TLR ligand stimulation induced DCs capable of secreting IL-12p70 in primary cultures and after one day of coculture with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts, mimicking an encounter with T cells. DCs matured with our new cocktails containing TLR8 ligand, with or without poly (I:C, induced alloresponses and stimulated virus-specific T cells after peptide-pulsing. DCs matured in cocktails containing TLR8 ligand without poly (I:C could also be loaded with RNA as a source of antigen, whereas DCs matured in cocktails containing poly (I:C were unable to express proteins following RNA transfer by electroporation. Conclusion Our new maturation cocktails allowed easy DC harvesting, stable maturation and substantial recoveries of mature DCs after cryopreservation. Our procedure for generating DCs is easily adaptable for GMP-compliance and yields IL-12p70-secreting DCs suitable for development of cancer vaccines using

  20. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  1. Evaluation of ultimate load bearing capacity of the primary containment of a typical first generation 220 MWe Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Ray, I.; Roy, R.; Garg, R.P.; Verma, U.S.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the Inner Containment Structure (ICS) of a typical first generation 220 MWe Indian PHWR for the purpose of evaluating its ultimate load bearing capacity (ULBC) beyond postulated design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The first generation ICS of Indian PHWRs are made of cylindrical wall capped with prestressed/reinforced cellular containment slab, which is connected monolithically to outer containment (OC) Wall to provide clamping effect during postulated DBA scenario. This paper discusses the simulation of construction sequence in analytical model, which is a very important aspect from point of view of capturing the residual stresses generated in the structure. The methodology adopted for the non-linear analysis of the prestressed concrete ICS including the various issues, viz. behaviour of concrete under compression and tension, tension stiffening, cracked shear modulus etc. have also been discussed in this paper. The effect of accident temperature on ULBC has been studied and discussed in this paper. This paper also discusses the study of mesh sensitivity of the finite element (FE) discretisation on ULBC of ICS in the non-linear range. Based on the detailed analysis, the factor of safety of the ICS beyond postulated DBA scenario has been evaluated. (authors)

  2. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  3. A time consistent risk averse three-stage stochastic mixed integer optimization model for power generation capacity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisciella, P.; Vespucci, M.T.; Bertocchi, M.; Zigrino, S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multi-stage stochastic optimization model for the generation capacity expansion problem of a price-taker power producer. Uncertainties regarding the evolution of electricity prices and fuel costs play a major role in long term investment decisions, therefore the objective function represents a trade-off between expected profit and risk. The Conditional Value at Risk is the risk measure used and is defined by a nested formulation that guarantees time consistency in the multi-stage model. The proposed model allows one to determine a long term expansion plan which takes into account uncertainty, while the LCoE approach, currently used by decision makers, only allows one to determine which technology should be chosen for the next power plant to be built. A sensitivity analysis is performed with respect to the risk weighting factor and budget amount. - Highlights: • We propose a time consistent risk averse multi-stage model for capacity expansion. • We introduce a case study with uncertainty on electricity prices and fuel costs. • Increased budget moves the investment from gas towards renewables and then coal. • Increased risk aversion moves the investment from coal towards renewables. • Time inconsistency leads to a profit gap between planned and implemented policies.

  4. No Neuromuscular Side-Effects of Scopolamine in Sensorimotor Control and Force-Generating Capacity Among Parabolic Fliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Krause, Anne; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Scopolamine is used to counteract motion sickness in parabolic flight (PF) experiments. Although the drug's anticholinergic properties effectively impede vomiting, recent studies document other sensory side-effects in the central nervous system that may considerably influence sensorimotor performance. This study aimed to quantify such effects in order to determine if they are of methodological and operational significance for sensorimotor control. Ten subjects of a PF campaign received a weight-sex-based dose of a subcutaneous scopolamine injection. Sensorimotor performance was recorded before medication, 20min, 2h and 4h after injection in four space-relevant paradigms: balance control in one-leg stance with eyes open (protocol 1) and closed as well as force-generating capacity in countermovement jumps and hops (protocol 2). Postural sway, forces and joint angles were recorded. Neuromuscular control was assessed by electromyography and peripheral nerve stimulation; H-reflexes and M-waves were used to monitor spinal excitability of the Ia afferent reflex circuitry and maximal motor output. (1) H-reflex amplitudes, latencies and functional reflexes remained unchanged after scopolamine injection. (2) M-waves, neuromuscular activation intensities and antagonistic muscle coordination did not change with scopolamine administration. (3) Balance performance and force-generating capacity were not impeded by scopolamine. We found no evidence for changes in sensorimotor control in response to scopolamine injection. Sensory processing of daily relevant reflexes, spinal excitability, maximal motor output and performance parameters were not sensitive to the medication. We conclude that scopolamine administration can be used to counteract motion sickness in PF without methodological and operational concerns or interference regarding sensorimotor skills associated with neuromuscular control.

  5. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production: A thermodynamic energy balance of a model system to demonstrate net energy feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babson, David M.; Bellman, Karen; Prakash, Shaurya; Fennell, Donna E.

    2013-01-01

    During anaerobic digestion, organic matter is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, and organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia. Generally, ammonia is recycled as a fertilizer or removed via nitrification–denitrification in treatment systems; alternatively it could be recovered and catalytically converted to hydrogen, thus supplying additional fuel. To provide a basis for further investigation, a theoretical energy balance for a model system that incorporates anaerobic digestion, ammonia separation and recovery, and conversion of the ammonia to hydrogen is reported. The model Anaerobic Digestion-Bioammonia to Hydrogen (ADBH) system energy demands including heating, pumping, mixing, and ammonia reforming were subtracted from the total energy output from methane and hydrogen to create an overall energy balance. The energy balance was examined for the ADBH system operating with a fixed feedstock loading rate with C:N ratios (gC/gN) ranging from 136 to 3 which imposed corresponding total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations of 20–10,000 mg/L. Normalizing total energy potential to the methane potential alone indicated that at a C:N ratio of 17, the energy output was greater for the ADBH system than from anaerobic digestion generating only methane. Decreasing the C:N ratio increased the methane content of the biogas comprising primarily methane to >80% and increased the ammonia stripping energy demand. The system required 23–34% of the total energy generated as parasitic losses with no energy integration, but when internally produced heat and pressure differentials were recovered, parasitic losses were reduced to between 8 and 17%. -- Highlights: •Modeled an integrated Anaerobic Digestion-Bioammonia to Hydrogen (ADBH) system. •Demonstrated positive net energy produced over a range of conditions by ADBH. •Demonstrated significant advantages of dual fuel recovery for energy gain by >20%. •Suggested system design considerations for energy recovery with

  6. The Economics of Zero-Rating and Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Somogyi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies zero-rating, an emerging business practice consisting in a mobile internet service provider (ISP) excluding the data generated by certain content providers (CPs) from its consumers' monthly data cap. Being at odds with the principle of net neutrality, these arrangements have recently attracted regulatory scrutiny all over the word. I analyze zero-rating incentives of a monopolistic ISP facing a capacity constraint in a two-sided market where consumption provides utility for...

  7. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  8. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, photon yield of O2 evolution, photosynthetic capacity, and carotenoid composition during the midday depression of net CO2 uptake in Arbutus unedo growing in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmig-Adams, B; Adams, W W; Winter, K; Meyer, A; Schreiber, U; Pereira, J S; Krüger, A; Czygan, F C; Lange, O L

    1989-03-01

    During the "midday depression" of net CO2 exchange in the mediterranean sclerophyllous shrub Arbutus unedo, examined in the field in Portugal during August of 1987, several parameters indicative of photosynthetic competence were strongly and reversibly affected. These were the photochemical efficiency of photosystem (PS) II, measured as the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as the photon yield and the capacity of photosynthetic O2 evolution at 10% CO2, of which the apparent photon yield of O2 evolution was most depressed. Furthermore, there was a strong and reversible increase in the content of the carotenoid zeaxanthin in the leaves that occurred at the expense of both violaxanthin and β-carotene. Diurnal changes in fluorescence characteristics were interpreted to indicate three concurrent effects on the photochemical system. First, an increase in the rate of radiationless energy dissipation in the antenna chlorophyll, reflected by changes in 77K fluorescence of PSII and PSI as well as in chlorophyll a fluorescence at ambient temperature. Second, a state shift characterized by an increase in the proportion of energy distributed to PSI as reflected by changes in PSI fluorescence. Third, an effect lowering the photon yield of O2 evolution and PSII fluorescence at ambient temperature without affecting PSII fluorescence at 77K which would be expected from a decrease in the activity of the water splitting enzyme system, i.e. a donor side limitation.

  9. Improving nuclear utility generation capacity, understanding the sources of forced outage and learning how to prevent them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, D.L.; Todreas, N.E.; Angus, V.T.

    1998-01-01

    MIT and PECO Energy have completed a detailed examination of the sources of forced outages at the Limerick Generating Station (LGS) Boiling Water Reactor Class IV (BWR IV) site over a five year period and contrasted that information to similar BWR IV utilities in the United States over the same period. Each forced outage was attributed to one system and assigned causal codes of equipment versus human factors and failure attributes such as weak design, poor craftsmanship, and worn parts. It was found that fifty four percent of the lost power at LGS was the result of Balance of Plant failures. Industry wide data identifies fifty nine percent of the lost power as attributed to Balance of Plant failures. Balance of Plant systems are those systems not included in the primary and safety related system category. Considering failure causal factors, forty six percent of the lost power at the utility under study was the result of equipment factors such as weak design or worn parts. Significantly, the study showed a high variance between those systems which caused significant forced outage at the two sister LGS units. This demonstrated the infrequent nature of plant forced outages within a given system. This was supported by the observation that dominant systems attributing to forced outage at LGS were not equally represented in industry data. It is suggested that for individual utilities to dramatically improve unit capability factors with regard to Balance of Plant systems, they must learn from industry wide experiences and develop cooperative means of exchanging lessons learned among similarly designed plants and systems. With the broad knowledge base of system failures, current designs must be frequently assessed and altered until each system poses an acceptable level of risk to generation capacity. (author)

  10. Eccentric Contraction-Induced Muscle Injury: Reproducible, Quantitative, Physiological Models to Impair Skeletal Muscle's Capacity to Generate Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jarrod A; Lowe, Dawn A

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of muscle regeneration an experimental injury model is required. Advantages of eccentric contraction-induced injury are that it is a controllable, reproducible, and physiologically relevant model to cause muscle injury, with injury being defined as a loss of force generating capacity. While eccentric contractions can be incorporated into conscious animal study designs such as downhill treadmill running, electrophysiological approaches to elicit eccentric contractions and examine muscle contractility, for example before and after the injurious eccentric contractions, allows researchers to circumvent common issues in determining muscle function in a conscious animal (e.g., unwillingness to participate). Herein, we describe in vitro and in vivo methods that are reliable, repeatable, and truly maximal because the muscle contractions are evoked in a controlled, quantifiable manner independent of subject motivation. Both methods can be used to initiate eccentric contraction-induced injury and are suitable for monitoring functional muscle regeneration hours to days to weeks post-injury.

  11. Capacity payments in imperfect electricity markets: Need and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that a variety of imperfections in wholesale 'energy-only' electricity markets lead to generators earning net revenues that are inadequate to support investment in a least cost portfolio of generating capacity and to satisfy consumer preferences for reliability. Theoretical and numerical examples are used to illustrate the sources of this 'missing money' problem. Improvements in 'energy-only' wholesale electricity markets, especially those that improve pricing when capacity is fully utilized, can reduce the magnitude of the missing money problem. However, these improvements are unlikely to fully ameliorate it. Forward capacity obligations and associated auction mechanisms to determine capacity prices are necessary to restore appropriate wholesale market prices and associated investment incentives to support the optimal portfolio of generating investments. The deficiencies of the original capacity payment mechanisms adopted in the US are discussed and the necessary improvements identified. (author)

  12. An evaluation of effects of large-scale introduction of renewable power on capacities and operation modes of power generation systems in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yabe, Kuniaki; Bando, Shigeru; Nagai, Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to establish a methodology to adequately evaluate an optimal power generation mix in Japan taking into account load frequency control (LFC) capacity and operation modes of power plants in case of a large-scale introduction of photovoltaic and wind power. For this purpose, the authors gave such an improvement to the MM-OPG model, a power generation mix optimization model, which it can deal with different operation modes of pumped hydro power in addition to those of thermal power sources. Using the model, the authors calculated the optimal power generation mix and its corresponding operation modes of Japan's power systems in 2030 with additional insights to 2020, and obtained the following results. (1) Introduction of photovoltaic and wind can be substituted for a limited capacity of conventional power sources. The introduction of 150 GW that consists of 108GW of photovoltaic and 42GW of wind in 2030 can replace no greater than 0.5 GW of conventional power sources. (2) The introduction of the renewables will affect the operation patterns of thermal and pumped hydro power generation. The capacity factor of variable speed pumped hydro will be much greater than that of fixed speed pumped hydro since the former can supply LFC at pump modes as well as generation modes. The capacity factor of LNG combined cycle plants decreases from 43% to 29% in the case with the introduction of 150GW of renewables in 2030. On the same assumption, the average cost of power generation excluding the renewables increases by up to 0.55 JPY/kWh in 2030. (author)

  13. An experimental study of the enhanced heating capacity of an electric heat pump (EHP) using the heat recovered from a gas engine generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Min; Chang, Se Dong [HAC R and D Laboratory, LG Electronics, 327-23 Gasan-Dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 153-802 (Korea); Lee, Jaekeun; Hwang, Yujin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Changjeon-Dong, Keumjeong-Ku, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the effect of recovered heat on the heating capacity of an Electric Heat Pump (EHP), which is supplied with electric power and recovered heat from a gas engine generator system. Two methods of supplying recovery heat are examined: (i) to the refrigerant with the discharge line heat exchanger (HEX), and (ii) to the refrigerant of the evaporator with the sub-evaporator. Heating capacity, input power and coefficient of performance (COP) were investigated and compared for each heat recovery method. Conclusively, we found that the second method was most reasonable to recover wasted heat and increased system COP by 215%. (author)

  14. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  16. Generation adequacy in Ontario : Essential updates on the state of generation capacity and the latest efforts to solve the supply crunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2-day comprehensive conference on 'Generation Adequacy in Ontario' provides information to answer questions on how the province's electricity market will change in the near to longer term and how to amend your business strategy to keep pace with the rapid changes taking place. Information from an outstanding faculty of industry leaders and experts on critical issues, including: Ontario's Energy Policy: what is changing and how will generation adequacy be impacted?; Current planning strategies being designed, coordinated and implemented to increase electricity supply in the province; Examining existing generation assets and the requirements for the future in order to increase supply; Importing power from surrounding jurisdictions: what are the opportunities and what are the challenges?; Incenting new generation by improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry; Decommissioning coal-fired generation: how will this government initiative play out and what will replace these plants?; Green power alternatives: what role will they play in the future of Ontario's electricity industry?

  17. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  18. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  19. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  20. Co-generation of hydrogen from nuclear and wind: the effect on costs of realistic variations in wind capacity and power prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.

    2005-01-01

    Can electricity from high-capacity nuclear reactors be blended with the variable output of wind turbines to produce electrolytic hydrogen competitively? Future energy hopes and emissions reduction scenarios place significant reliance on renewables, actually meaning largely new wind power both onshore and offshore. The opportunity exists for a synergy between high capacity factor nuclear plants and wind power using hydrogen by both as a 'currency' for use in transportation and industrial processing. But this use of hydrogen needs to be introduced soon. To be competitive with alternative sources, hydrogen produced by conventional electrolysis requires low-cost electricity (likely <2.5 Cent US/kW.h). One approach is to operate interruptibly allowing an installation to sell electricity when the grid price is high and to make hydrogen when it is low. Our previous studies have shown that this could be a cost-competitive approach with a nuclear power generator producing electricity around 3 Cent US/kW.h. Although similar unit costs are projected for wind-generated electricity, idleness of the hydrogen production (electrolysis) facility due to the variability of wind generated electricity imposes a serious cost penalty. This paper reports our latest results on the potential economics of blending electricity from nuclear and wind sources by using wind-generated power, when available, to augment the current through electrolysis equipment that is primarily nuclear-powered. A voltage penalty accompanies the higher current. A 10% increase in capital cost for electrolysis equipment enables it to accommodate the higher rate of hydrogen generation, while still being substantially cheaper than the capital cost of wind-dedicated electrolysis. Real-time data for electricity costs have been combined with real-time wind variability in our NuWind model. The variability in wind fields between sites was accommodated by assuming an average wind speed that produced an average electricity

  1. Electricity investments and development of power generation capacities: an approach of the drivers for investment choices in Europe regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoai-Tehrani, Bianka

    2014-01-01

    In a context of growing energy prices and climate change mitigation, the thesis addresses the issues of investments in power generation capacities and in particular nuclear capacities. Given that the Generation IV of nuclear reactors is supposed to be ready in 2040 for industrial deployment, the purpose of the thesis is to study the conditions for electricity investments in France and Europe within this horizon, in order to assess development perspectives for nuclear energy and for potential emergence of Generation IV on the European market. To do so, it is necessary to study the mechanisms at stake in investment choices taking into account all power generating technologies. Economic theory usually bases the choice on long-term economic rationality, which does not allow explain the actual choices observed in European electricity mix. The objective of the research work is thus to identify investment choice drivers and to propose an approach describing the behavior of investors in a more realistic way. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted to explore the question. It combines a historical analysis of drivers evolution according to historical context, a structural analysis of these drivers to identify favorable scenarios for future nuclear reactors, a value creation approach to replicate investors' preferences in those scenarios, and last, a value option approach focusing on nuclear technologies and comparing competitiveness of Generation IV reactors with current reactors. As a result, only strong climate policy combined to government support to nuclear energy could allow industrial development of Generation IV, while high progress of renewables does not lessen the attractiveness of nuclear energy.On a international level, such analysis could be broaden by taking into account the drivers specific to each area of the world, such as highly growing demand in developing countries. (author)

  2. Electricity investments and development of power generation capacities: An approach of the drivers for investment choices in Europe regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoai-Tehrani, Bianka

    2014-01-01

    In a context of growing energy prices and climate change mitigation, the thesis addresses the issues of investments in power generation capacities and in particular nuclear capacities. Given that the Generation IV of nuclear reactors is supposed to be ready in 2040 for industrial deployment, the purpose of the thesis is to study the conditions for electricity investments in France and Europe within this horizon, in order to assess development perspectives for nuclear energy and for potential emergence of Generation IV on the European market. To do so, it is necessary to study the mechanisms at stake in investment choices taking into account all power generating technologies. Economic theory usually bases the choice on long-term economic rationality, which does not allow explain the actual choices observed in European electricity mix. The objective of the research work is thus to identify investment choice drivers and to propose an approach describing the behavior of investors in a more realistic way. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted to explore the question. It combines a historical analysis of drivers evolution according to historical context, a structural analysis of these drivers to identify favorable scenarios for future nuclear reactors, a value creation approach to replicate investors' preferences in those scenarios, and last, a value option approach focusing on nuclear technologies and comparing competitiveness of Generation IV reactors with current reactors. As a result, only strong climate policy combined to government support to nuclear energy could allow industrial development of Generation IV, while high progress of renewables does not lessen the attractiveness of nuclear energy. On a international level, such analysis could be broaden by taking into account the drivers specific to each area of the world, such as highly growing demand in developing countries. (author)

  3. Influence of alumina phases on the molybdenum adsorption capacity and chemical stability for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes-Silva, Cecilia C.; Ferreira, Thiago dos Santos; Paula, Carolina M. de; Otubo, Larissa, E-mail: cecilia.guedes@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Flavio M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGC/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2016-07-15

    Technetium-{sup 99m} is the clinically most used radionuclide worldwide. Although many techniques can be applied to separate {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used method is the column chromatography with alumina as stationary phase. However, the alumina nowadays used has limited adsorption capacity of molybdate ions which implies the need to develop or improve materials to produce high specific activity generators. In this paper, alumina was obtained by a solid state method and heat treatments at different conditions. The powders had a microstructure with porous particles of γ, δ, θ and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases as well as specific surface area between 36 and 312 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Most interesting results were reached by powders calcined at 900 deg C for 5 hours which had high chemical stability and a molybdenum adsorption capacity of 92.45 mg Mo per g alumina. (author)

  4. A case study: The economic cost of net metering in Maryland: Who bears the economic burden?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.; Cross, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Maryland legislature approved net-metering legislation for residential consumer generators with photovoltaic systems during 1997. Before the legislation passed, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) examined its potential economic impact on both the affected utilities and consumer ratepayers--with and without net-metered PV systems. The MEA discovered that the impact on the affected utility is minimal when the net-metered PV capacity is limited to a small percentage of utility peak load. The analysis also determined that the cost burden on other customers under a net-metered scenario is likewise limited. For Maryland's largest investor-owned utility, the maximum amount of any cross-subsidy (or cost) on a per customer basis is 46 cents annually. Furthermore, their analysis showed that when distribution system savings and environmental externalities are incorporated, net-metered customers may actually subsidize other utility customers. The MEA analysis also determined that about 50% of the value of the energy produced is lost if net metering is not available to those customers with grid tied PV systems. Over the long term, most if not all of any potential cost is borne by other residential customers, not utility shareholders. Finally, the additional cost burden to the utility under net metering--compensating the consumer at the retail rate versus the avoided cost rate--is less than expected when one considers the administrative costs associated with a dual-metered billing approach

  5. Effect of operating methods of wind turbine-generator system on net power extraction under wind speed fluctuations in fields; Hendo fukyoka deno doryoku chushutsu kara mita furyoku hatsuden system no unten seigyoho ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    2000-01-25

    The effect of operating methods of wind turbine-generator system on net power extraction under wind speed fluctuations is discussed in relation to the dynamic behavior of the system. The system is composed of a Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine and a load generator. In this paper, two types of operating method are examined; constant tip speed ratio operation for stand-alone power systems (Scheme 1) and synchronous operation for utility power systems (Scheme 2). The computed results of the net extracting power using our dynamic simulation model show that the dominant factor of power extraction in Scheme 1 is the dynamic characteristics of rotational components and that it is important to select the appropriate rated wind speed in Scheme 2. Thus, it is concluded that a conformable operating method and rated power output of the system exist for each wind condition. In particular, small-scale systems, which are smaller than approximately 10 kW-system range, are desirable to be operated under a constant tip speed ratio as stand-alone power systems. (author)

  6. Effects of Net Metering on the Use of Small-Scale Wind Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T. L.; Pedden, M.; Gagliano, T.

    2002-11-01

    Factors such as technological advancements, steadily decreasing costs, consumer demand, and state and federal policies are combining to make wind energy the world's fastest growing energy source. State and federal policies are facilitating the growth of the domestic, large-scale wind power market; however, small-scale wind projects (those with a capacity of less than 100 kilowatts[kW]) still face challenges in many states. Net metering, also referred to as net billing, is one particular policy that states are implementing to encourage the use of small renewable energy systems. Net metering allows individual, grid-tied customers who generate electricity using a small renewable energy system to receive credit from their utility for any excess power they generate beyond what they consume. Under most state rules, residential, commercial, and industrial customers are eligible for net metering; however, some states restrict eligibility to particular customer classes. This paper illustrates how net metering programs in certain states vary considerably in terms of how customers are credited for excess power they generate; the type and size of eligible technologies and whether the utility; the state, or some other entity administers the program. This paper focuses on10 particular states where net metering policies are in place. It analyzes how the different versions of these programs affect the use of small-scale wind technologies and whether some versions are more favorable to this technology than others. The choice of citizens in some states to net meter with photovoltaics is also examined.

  7. Changing Consumption Behavior of Net Generation and the Adoption of Streaming Music Services : Extending the Technology Acceptance Model to Account for Streaming Music Services

    OpenAIRE

    Delikan, Mehmet Deniz

    2010-01-01

    The rise of the streaming music services and the decreasing importance of physical distribution is an inevitable change that the industry has been facing, which is resulting from the so-called internet revolution over the past few years. Through years, the music business has already shifted to online platform with the birth of file sharing. Today, a generation who had grown up digital came to age. Members of this generation have different consumption habits than before, and have different mot...

  8. High-Capacity Wireless Signal Generation and Demodulation in 75- to 110-GHz Band Employing All-Optical OFDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We present a radio-frequency (RF) and bit-rate scalable technique for multigigabit wireless signal generation based on all-optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and photonic up-conversion. Coherent detection supported by digital signal processing is used for signal demodulatio...

  9. A dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic mode output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-04-01

    An overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) mode output is designed and presented, by using a kind of coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with large transversal dimension and small distance between inner and outer conductors. The generator works in dual-mode operation mechanism. The electron beam synchronously interacts with 7π/8 mode of quasi-TEM, at the meanwhile exchanges energy with 3π/8 mode of TM01. The existence of TM01 mode, which is traveling wave, not only increases the beam-wave interaction efficiency but also improves the extraction efficiency. The large transversal dimension of coaxial SWS makes its power capacity higher than that of other reported millimeter-wave devices and the small distance between inner and outer conductors allows only two azimuthally symmetric modes to coexist. The converter after the SWS guarantees the mode purity of output power. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 400 kV and beam current is 3.8 kA, the generation of microwave at 32.26 GHz with an output power of 611 MW and a conversion efficiency of 40% is obtained. The power percentage carried by TEM mode reaches 99.7% in the output power.

  10. A dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic mode output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-04-15

    An overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) mode output is designed and presented, by using a kind of coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with large transversal dimension and small distance between inner and outer conductors. The generator works in dual-mode operation mechanism. The electron beam synchronously interacts with 7π/8 mode of quasi-TEM, at the meanwhile exchanges energy with 3π/8 mode of TM{sub 01}. The existence of TM{sub 01} mode, which is traveling wave, not only increases the beam-wave interaction efficiency but also improves the extraction efficiency. The large transversal dimension of coaxial SWS makes its power capacity higher than that of other reported millimeter-wave devices and the small distance between inner and outer conductors allows only two azimuthally symmetric modes to coexist. The converter after the SWS guarantees the mode purity of output power. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 400 kV and beam current is 3.8 kA, the generation of microwave at 32.26 GHz with an output power of 611 MW and a conversion efficiency of 40% is obtained. The power percentage carried by TEM mode reaches 99.7% in the output power.

  11. Net-VISA used as a complement to standard software at the CTBTO: initial operational experience with next-generation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, R. J.; Arora, N. S.; Kushida, N.; Kebede, F.; Feitio, P.; Tomuta, E.

    2017-12-01

    The International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has reached out to the broader scientific community through a series of conferences, the later one of which took place in June 2017 in Vienna, Austria. Stemming out of this outreach effort, after the inception of research and development efforts in 2009, the NET-VISA software, following a Bayesian modelling approach, has been elaborated to improve on the key step of automatic association of joint seismic, hydro-acoustic, and infrasound detections. When compared with the current operational system, it has been consistently shown on off-line tests to improve the overlap with the analyst-reviewed Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by ten percent for an average of 85% overlap, while the inconsistency rate is essentially the same at about 50%. Testing by analysts in realistic conditions on a few days of data has also demonstrated the software performance in finding additional events which qualify for publication in the REB. Starting in August 2017, the automatic events produced by the software will be reviewed by analysts at the CTBTO, and we report on the initial evaluation of this introduction into operations.

  12. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  13. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  14. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  15. Cost base for small-scale hydropower plants : with a generating capacity of up to 10 000 kw : price level 1 January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapgaard, Jan

    2012-07-25

    This manual has been prepared as a tool for calculation of average foreseeable contractor costs (civil works) and supplier costs (mechanical and electrical equipment) for large hydroelectric power plants with an early phase generating capacity of up to 10 000 kw. These costs will depend on a number of conditions which may vary from plant to plant, and this requires that the user to have a sound technical knowledge. This applies in particular to the civil works associated with the hydropower plant. The manual is a supplement to our cost base for larger hydropower projects (Manual No. 1/2012) (au)

  16. Additional generation capacity or steam demand administration?; Capacidad adicional de generacion o administracion de demanda de vapor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauchu Lima, Alberto; Plauchu Alcantara, Jorge Alberto [Plauchu Consultores, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The authors have presented in seminars XVIII and XIX of ATPAE papers on subjects on Demand in Steam Systems and on the Supply of Consulting Services, respectively, and this paper is a contribution that retaking both subjects, tries to motivate the interest in generally underestimated areas of opportunity in energy programs. It is intention of this paper to invite the spokesmen to this Seminar and of the futures ones to deepen and to offer continuity and pursuit of an event to the nest one, on subjects of permanent interest and to incorporate contributions of new experiences, criteria and technologies. One exhorts to professionals and technicians interested in the rational and economic administration of the energy to deepen into the real conditions, abilities and capacities of the equipment in the steam power plants and to the study of better options of its use, adaptation and operation. In order to exemplify the previous matter two cases of industrial plants in which real and satisfactorily and economically solved problems, were very different from the ones that the proprietors of those facilities originally raised when soliciting the support of consulting services. Notice is made that in both cases capacity problems were contemplated, after the study and recommended actions it was demonstrated they handle their demands without augmenting the installed capacity, with avoided investments and increased efficiency. Finally the determinant is emphasized that can be the function of the consultant in the approach of his services and the direction towards orientation to right solutions. [Spanish] Los autores han expuesto en los seminarios XVIII y XIX de ATPAE trabajos sobre temas de Demanda en Sistemas de Vapor y Prestacion de Servicios de Consultoria, respectivamente y la presente es una contribucion que retomando ambos temas, pretende motivar el interes en areas de oportunidad generalmente subestimadas en programas de energia. Es intencion de este trabajo invitar a los

  17. Papers of a Canadian Institute conference on generation adequacy in Ontario : essential updates on the state of generation capacity and the latest efforts to solve the supply crunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The issue of power generation and supply in Ontario was addressed at this conference which provided critical information on power supply and the Ontario government's plans for easing the power supply crisis. The state of existing generation assets and the feasibility of potential supply additions were also discussed. Specific issues such as pricing regulations, as well as broader issues such as market conditions and current energy policies were assessed. Planning, investment and issues such as demand-side management were discussed. The role of government, directions for the future, and the phasing out of coal power plants were important focal points. Nuclear power, water power and the search for reliable sources of supply were examined, including the possibility of importing hydro electricity. In addition, key objectives such as clean air strategies and the development of a renewable energy strategy were discussed and various options were identified. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 8 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Reduced-Capacity Inrush Current Suppressor Using a Matrix Converter in a Wind Power Generation System with Squirrel-Cage Induction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Shibata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the reduced capacity of the inrush current suppressor using a matrix converter (MC in a large-capacity wind power generation system (WPGS with two squirrel-cage induction machines (SCIMs. These SCIMs are switched over depending on the wind speed. The input side of the MC is connected to the source in parallel. The output side of the MC is connected in series with the SCIM through matching transformers. The modulation method of the MC used is direct duty ratio pulse width modulation. The reference output voltage of the MC is decided by multiplying the SCIM current with the variable control gain. Therefore, the MC performs as resistors for the inrush current. Digital computer simulation is implemented to confirm the validity and practicability of the proposed inrush current suppressor using PSCAD/EMTDC (power system computer-aided design/electromagnetic transients including DC. Furthermore, the equivalent resistance of the MC is decided by the relationship between the equivalent resistance and the capacity of the MC. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed inrush current suppressor can suppress the inrush current perfectly.

  19. Increased cross-bridge recruitment contributes to transient increase in force generation beyond maximal capacity in human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Chung, Jae-Hoon; Canan, Benjamin D; Fedorov, Vadim V; Whitson, Bryan A; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2018-01-01

    Cross-bridge attachment allows force generation to occur, and rate of tension redevelopment (k tr ) is a commonly used index of cross-bridge cycling rate. Tension overshoots have been observed briefly after a slack-restretch k tr maneuver in various species of animal models and humans. In this study, we set out to determine the properties of these overshoots and their possible underlying mechanism. Utilizing human cardiac trabeculae, we have found that tension overshoots are temperature-dependent and that they do not occur at resting states. In addition, we have found that myosin cross-bridge cycle is vital to these overshoots as inhibition of the cycle results in the blunting of the overshoots and the magnitude of the overshoots are dependent on the level of myofilament activation. Lastly, we show that the number of cross-bridges transiently increase during tension overshoots. These findings lead us to conclude that tension overshoots are likely due to a transient enhancement of the recruitment of myosin heads into the cross-bridge cycling, regulated by the myocardium, and with potential physiological significance in determining cardiac output. We show that isolated human myocardium is capable of transiently increasing its maximal force generation capability by increasing cross-bridge recruitment following slack-restretch maneuver. This process can potentially have important implications and significance in cardiac contraction in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How much will BC rely on incoming LNG and locally produced natural gas to fuel future generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boychuk, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC) works with public utilities to determine where resource additions are needed in order to ensure safe, reliable and convenient service to utility customers. All public utilities in the province are required to file resource plans in order to enhance the effectiveness of the BCUC and to protect ratepayers from poor utility expenditure decisions. The BCUC also ensures that utilities have adequate supply to meet demand. This paper outlined energy policy actions plans for the province of British Columbia. The BCUC will regulate BC hydro rates and will review the Vancouver Island Generation Project (VIGP) to determine if it is the most cost-effective means to reliably meet power needs on the island. Electricity distributors will acquire new supply on a least-cost basis, with regulatory oversight by BCUC. The role of the private sector in developing new electricity generation was also discussed, along with alternative energy development opportunities, such as the potential liquefied natural gas (LNG) import project by Galveston at Kitimat and WestPac Terminals' project at Prince Rupert

  1. Compatibility of the Educational Systems and Capacity to Generate the Same set of Skills for the Future Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin POPESCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the educational systems in varied countries seems endless. There are different viewpoints from one country to another; yet, as the demand on the labour market has become global and, implicitly, the access to the jobs has been extended, the question naturally rises, to what extent are the educational systems convergent and can they generate an identical offer, based on similar skills of the candidates from different countries, aspects which should create equal employment opportunities. In the given context, it is of the utmost importance to create unitary educational systems, across wide geographical spaces, meant to answer such an evolution on economic-social and geo-strategic levels. Also, the educationprovidershave to customizetheiroffer in a proper way in orderto meetthe dynamical demands of employers.

  2. Recovery of community genomes to assess subsurface metabolic potential: exploiting the capacity of next generation sequencing-based metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, K. C.; Thomas, B.; Miller, C. S.; Sharon, I.; Wilkins, M. J.; VerBerkmoes, N. C.; Handley, K. M.; Lipton, M. S.; Hettich, R. L.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    , the capacity to oxidize complex organic carbon, as well as lack of membrane bound electron transport chains and an incomplete citric acid cycle. We propose that these organisms grow cryptically on residual biomass from previous biostimulation experiments and thus demonstrate that resource utilization and turnover in the aquifer can be decoupled from existing acetate amendment and external terminal electron accepting processes. In addition to the first recovery of multiple genomes from these novel candidate divisions, our community genomic approach uncovered viral diversity not yet observed at the site, with the reconstruction of six phage genomes and the presence of CRISPR loci detected in bacterial genomes from diverse lineages. These findings have implications for predictive ecosystem modeling, highlighting the importance of integrating the response, adaptation, as well as biological and geochemical feedback mechanisms existing within complex subsurface communities to long term organic carbon amendment.

  3. Symmetric Cryptosystem Based on Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein ‎ A. Lafta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this wok, a novel approach based on ordinary Petri net is used to generate private key . The reachability marking  of petri net is used as encryption/decryption key to provide more complex key . The same ordinary Petri Nets models  are used for the sender(encryption and  the receiver(decryption.The plaintext has been permutated  using  look-up table ,and XOR-ed with key to generate cipher text

  4. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  5. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  6. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  7. Rapid increase in resistance to third generation cephalosporins, imipenem and co-resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae from isolated from 7,140 blood-cultures (2010-2014) using EARS-Net data in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracil-García, Belén; Oteo-Iglesias, Jesús; Cuevas-Lobato, Óscar; Lara-Fuella, Noelia; Pérez-Grajera, Isabel; Fernández-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Campos, José

    2017-10-01

    An analysis was made about the evolution of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, imipenem, and other antibiotics in invasive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) according to the Spanish EARS-Net database (2010-2014). Forty-two hospitals from 16 Autonomous Communities with an approximate population coverage of 33% participated. A total 7,140 pneumoniae corresponding to the same number of patients were studied. Overall resistance percentages (I+R) were: cefotaxime 15.8%, ceftazidime 13.7%, imipenem 1.7%, ciprofloxacin 20.1%, tobramycin 14.1%, gentamicin 10.4%, and amikacin 1.9%. Resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins increased from 9.8% (2010) to 19% (2014); to ciprofloxacin from 15.4% (2010) to 19.6% (2014); to gentamicin from 6.2% (2010) to 10.3% (2014) and to tobramycin from 7.1% (2010) to 14.2% (2014) (presistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides increased from 3.3% (2010) to 9.7% (2014) (pResistance to imipenem also increased from 0.27% (2010) to 3.46% (2014) (presistant to imipenem, of which 104 (86%) produced carbapenemases: 74 OXA-48, 14 VIM, 9 KPC (6 KPC-2 and 3 KPC-3), 6 IMP, and 1 GES. Over the 5 year period (2010-2014), resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins in invasive K. pneumoniae in Spain has doubled. The combined resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides has tripled, and imipenem resistance has increased almost 13 times, mostly due to the spread of carbapenemase-producing isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  9. Comprehensive assessment of the effective scope of modernization of thermal power plants to substantiate the rational structure of the generating capacities for the future until 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, F. V.; Erokhina, I. V.; Makarova, A. S.; Khorshev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The article deals with issues of technical and economic substantiation of priorities and scopes of modernizing the existing thermal power plants (TPPs) in Russia to work out long-term forecasts of the development of the industry. The current situation in the TPP modernization trends is analyzed. The updated initial figures of the capital and operation costs are presented and the obtained estimates of the comparative efficiency of various investment decisions on modernization and equipment replacement at gas-and-oil-burning and coal-fired TPPs with regard to the main zones of the national Unified Power System (UPS) of Russia are cited. The results of optimization of the generating capacity structure underlie a study of alternative TPP modernization strategies that differ in the scope of switching to new technologies, capital intensity, and energy efficiency (decrease in the average heat rate). To provide an integral economic assessment of the above strategies, the authors modified the traditional approach based on determination of the overall discounted costs of power supply (least-cost planning) supplemented with a comparison by the weighted average wholesale price of the electricity. A method for prediction of the wholesale price is proposed reasoning from the direct and dual solutions of the optimization problem. The method can be adapted to various combinations of the mechanisms of payment for the electricity and the capacity on the basis of marginal and average costs. Energy and economic analysis showed that the opposite effects of reduction in the capital investment and fuel saving change in a nonlinear way as the scope of the switch to more advanced power generation technologies at the TPPs increases. As a consequence, a strategy for modernization of the existing power plants rational with respect to total costs of the power supply and wholesale electricity prices has been formulated. The strategy combines decisions on upgrade and replacement of the equipment

  10. Needs for Flexibility in Energy Systems Caused by the Increasing Share of Variable Renewable Energy Generation in 2020, 2030 and 2050 Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Maule, Petr

    scenarios are the baseline scenarios from3. Variable renewable energy generation is analysed using the CorWind tool developed at DTU Wind Energya. In addition to analysing VRE generation, the variability of net load (electricity consumption subtracted by VRE generation) is analysed. Compared to 2014...... consumption). However, there is always some probability that the aggregate VRE generation is zero, so the highest possible net load is determined by peak consumption. This may raise questions considering the incentives to hold enough other generation capacity to meet the rare peak net load. Compared...... to the hourly ramp rates in consumption, the increasing VRE generation increases the ramp rates in the aggregate net load only moderately in the future scenarios; STD of the net load ramp rate in 2050 is expected to be 14% higher than in 2014. However, while ramp rates in consumption happen usually at well...

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  12. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  13. The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Cherrelle; Reneses Guillén, Javier; Frías Marín, Pablo; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering is commonly known as a practice by which owners of distributed generation (DG) units may offset their electricity consumption from the grid with local generation. The increasing number of prosumers (consumers that both produce and consume electricity) with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation combined with net-metering results in reduced incomes for many network utilities worldwide. Consequently, this pushes utilities to increase charges per kW h in order to recover costs. For non-PV owners, this could result into inequality issues due to the fact that also non-PV owners have to pay higher chargers for their electricity consumed to make up for netted costs of PV-owners. In order to provide insight in those inequality issues caused by net-metering, this study presents the effects on cross-subsidies, cost recovery and policy objectives evolving from different applied netmetering and tariff designs for a residential consumer. Eventually this paper provides recommendations regarding tariffs and metering that will result in more explicit incentives for PV, instead of the current implicit incentives which are present to PV owners due to net-metering. - Highlights: • Network users are frequently charged by energy charging and fixed charging. • Net-metering with energy charging causes potential problems for DSO cost recovery. • Increasing rolling credit timeframes amplify net-metering impacts on cost recovery. • Observed capacity charging can incentivize local storage and self-consumption. • PV owners should receive direct incentives in order to avoid cross subsidization

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 4. Development of motive power generation technology; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 4. Doryoku hassei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-4, the development of a motive power generation technology. The objective is to build a 100-kW class single cylinder hydrogen-argon circulating diesel system. For a hydrogen injection valve being the key to the system, development was made on the conventional hydraulic system with quick compression, expansion, and electronics control. Discussions were given on an exhaust gas condenser and a gas-liquid separator to handle gas mixture with low steam concentration. In order to assure the mechanical strength to deal with the argon working gas, super-chargers and expansion turbines were also discussed. When the hydrogen injection pressure is increased from 20 to 25 MPa in the basic test, the combustion speed has increased, and the indicated thermal efficiency has been improved. The same effect was obtained also when the oxygen/argon ratio was increased. Although the thermal loss increases if the oxygen/argon ratio is increased, the loss in the indicated thermal efficiency is compensated by the gain derived from increasing the combustion speed. When argon is used as the working gas, the temperatures in parts of the combustion chamber rise much higher than that in the case of a light oil diesel system. Therefore, discussions were given on materials and structures that can withstand elevated temperatures, and assessments and tests were performed on high-temperature lubricants. (NEDO)

  15. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  16. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  17. Production capacity as a remedy for profit generator A capacidade de produção como recurso gerador de ganhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Tamborlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The gradual growth of the flexography market generates different expectations in organizations of this segment. To ensure the fulfillment of the demand and ensure its market share, it is important to know the real productive capacity of its plant. The research aimed to identify the capacity of the sector recording a stereotype workshop the city of Blumenau/SC. Was defined as qualitative research, objective descriptive and as in the investigation, the research is characterized as action research. Data were collected from the daily monitoring of the processes performed in the recording industry, observing the development of activities, recording information in reports and informal interviews with employees. Thus, the data were triangulated and presented in tables and figures. The results of this investigation was identified the bottleneck of production as well as the existence of hours shutdowns for lack of service, and made ​​suggestions to optimize production capacity, as well as strategies to increase earnings.O crescimento gradativo do mercado de flexografia gera diversas expectativas nas organizações deste segmento. Para garantir o atendimento da demanda e garantir a sua fatia de mercado, é importante conhecer a real capacidade produtiva da sua unidade de produção. A pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar a capacidade de produção do setor de gravação de uma clicheria da cidade de Blumenau/SC. Foi definida como pesquisa qualitativa, de objetivo descritivo e quanto aos procedimentos de investigação, a pesquisa se caracterizou como pesquisa-ação. Os dados foram coletados a partir do acompanhamento diário dos processos realizados no setor de gravação, observação do desenvolvimento das atividades, registro das informações em relatórios e entrevistas informais com os funcionários. Dessa forma, os dados obtidos foram triangulados e apresentados em figuras e tabelas. Como resultados desta investigação, foi identificado o

  18. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  19. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  20. Perspectives on Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lynn; Milligan, Anastasia Trekles

    2008-01-01

    Lynn Zimmerman and Anastasia Trekles Milligan examine technological communication from the perspectives of two instructors, one a digital immigrant and the other a digital native. Today's students are digital natives, reared in a world permeated by interactive technology; as a result, they are used to a model of communication that is significantly…

  1. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  2. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  3. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  4. The Schmehausen cable net cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaich, J.; Mayr, G.; Weber, P.; Jasch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The prototype of a large cable net shell as a natural-draught cooling tower for the THTR-300 is presented. Results of wind tunnel tests and calculations are given, and the capacity is discussed. Design features of the main components are presented in illustrations and are described with regard to the construction process of the cooling tower. Finally, it is shown that the cable net cooling tower is a suitable construction for large dimensions and caving-in or seismic areas. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  6. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  7. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  8. The retained capacity of Lutzomya longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva to transmit Leishmania chagasi (Cunha & Chagas after eight years (64 generations in a closed laboratory colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de N. A. Gonçalves

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed Lutzomyia longipalpis colony, from Ceará has been used to transmit Leishmania chagasi isolated from a fox in Pará state. The last time this colony was successfully used in similar transmission experiments was eight years (64 generations ago indicating that this colony of Lu. longipalpis has fully maintained its vectorial capacity in spite of such a long period of maintainance in the laboratory.Lutzomyia longipalpis foi alimentado através de membrana com uma suspensão de macerado de fígado e baço em sangue desfibrinado de coelho. Este material foi originário de um hamster infectado com Leishmania chagasi, realimentado em hamsters limpos, transmitindo os parasitos em duas ocasiões. Esta mesma colônia de Lu. longipalpis, do Ceará, foi usada para a primeira transmissão há oito anos e 64 gerações atrás e não teve a capacidade vetorial diminuída.

  9. CPN Tools for Editing, Simulating, and Analysing Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, Anne Vinter; Wells, Lisa Marie; Lassen, Henry Michael

    2003-01-01

    elements. The tool features incremental syntax checking and code generation which take place while a net is being constructed. A fast simulator efficiently handles both untimed and timed nets. Full and partial state spaces can be generated and analysed, and a standard state space report contains...

  10. Impact of electrical intertie capacity on carbon policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, J.; Niet, T.; Lyseng, B.; Palmer-Wilson, K.; Keller, V.; Moazzen, I.; Pitt, L.; Wild, P.; Rowe, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the potential cost and emissions reductions that result from an increase in electricity transmission capacity between Canada's two westernmost provinces: Alberta, a fossil fuel dominated jurisdiction, and British Columbia, a predominantly hydroelectric jurisdiction. A bottom-up model is used to find the least cost electricity generation mix in Alberta and British Columbia under different carbon policies. The long-term evolution of the electricity system is determined by minimizing net present cost of electricity generation for the time span of 2010–2060. Different levels of intertie capacity expansion are considered together with a variety of carbon tax and carbon cap scenarios. Results indicate that increased intertie capacity reduces the cost of electricity and emissions under carbon pricing policies. However, the expandable intertie does not encourage greater adoption of variable renewable generation. Instead, it is used to move low-cost energy from the United States to Alberta. The optimal intertie capacity and cost reduction of increased interconnectivity increases with more restrictive carbon policies. - Highlights: • A techno-economic optimization model is used to examine electricity generation in western Canada. • Interprovincial electricity transmission can decrease carbon abatement costs. • Market conditions can reduce the expected synergy between storage hydroelectricity and variable renewable generation. • Inconsistent carbon policies between regions mean emissions are moved, not avoided.

  11. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  12. Propagation characteristic of THz wave in camouflage net material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hailong; Wang, Jiachun; Chen, Zongsheng; Lin, Zhidan; Zhao, Dapeng; Liu, Ruihuang

    2017-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) radar system, with excellent potentials such as high-resolution and strong penetration capability, is promising in the field of anti-camouflage. Camouflage net is processed by cutting the camouflage net material, which is fabricated on pre-processing substrate by depositing coatings with camouflage abilities in different bands, such as visible, infrared and radar. In this paper, we concentrate on the propagation characteristic of THz wave in camouflage net material. Firstly, function and structure of camouflage net were analyzed. Then the advantage and appliance of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was introduced. And the relevant experiments were conducted by utilizing THz-TDS. The results obtained indicate that THz wave has better penetration capacity in camouflage net material, which demonstrates the feasibility of using THz radar to detect those targets covered with camouflage net.

  13. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  14. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  15. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  16. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  17. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  18. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  19. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  1. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  2. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  3. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  4. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks Using PhyloNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Zhu, Jiafan; Nakhleh, Luay

    2018-07-01

    PhyloNet was released in 2008 as a software package for representing and analyzing phylogenetic networks. At the time of its release, the main functionalities in PhyloNet consisted of measures for comparing network topologies and a single heuristic for reconciling gene trees with a species tree. Since then, PhyloNet has grown significantly. The software package now includes a wide array of methods for inferring phylogenetic networks from data sets of unlinked loci while accounting for both reticulation (e.g., hybridization) and incomplete lineage sorting. In particular, PhyloNet now allows for maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference of phylogenetic networks from gene tree estimates. Furthermore, Bayesian inference directly from sequence data (sequence alignments or biallelic markers) is implemented. Maximum parsimony is based on an extension of the "minimizing deep coalescences" criterion to phylogenetic networks, whereas maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference are based on the multispecies network coalescent. All methods allow for multiple individuals per species. As computing the likelihood of a phylogenetic network is computationally hard, PhyloNet allows for evaluation and inference of networks using a pseudolikelihood measure. PhyloNet summarizes the results of the various analyzes and generates phylogenetic networks in the extended Newick format that is readily viewable by existing visualization software.

  5. Distributed evaluation of stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, A.; Buchholz, Peter; Lehnert, Ralf; Pioro, Micha

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present on the distributed performance evaluation and model checking of systems specified by stochastic Petri nets. The approaches discussed rely on an explicit state-space generation and target at the usage of clusters of workstations. We present results for systems with several

  6. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  7. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  8. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  9. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  10. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  11. Current Status and Future Prospect of K-NET and KiK-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Nakamura, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2014-12-01

    During 18 years since the deployment of K-NET following the Kobe earthquake, our attention has mainly focused on rapidity of the data collection and an unfailing and reliable observation. In this presentation, we review three generations of the instruments employed by K-NET and KiK-net from these two points of view.At beginning of the 2000's, we newly developed the second generation instruments (K-NET02, K-NET02A, KiK-net06) to replace the first generation instruments (K-NET95, SMAC-MDK) employed when the networks were constructed in the 1990's. These instruments have an automatic dial-out function. It takes typically 2-5 s to establish communication and a few seconds to send the pre-trigger data. After that, data is available typically within a 1.5 s delay. Not only waveform data but also strong motion indexes such as real-time intensity, PGA, PGV, PGD, and response spectra are continuously sent once a second.After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have developed the third generation instruments (K-NET11, KiK-net11) and have replaced almost half of the all stations country wide. Main improvement of this instrument is more unfailing and reliable observation. Because we have often experienced very large ground motions (e.g. 45 records exceeding gravity), the maximum measureable range was expanded from 2000 gal to 4000 gal for the second generation instrument, and to 8000 gal for the third. For the third generation instrument, in case of power failure, observation (including transmission of data) works for seven days thanks to the backup battery, while for the second generation instruments it works only for one day. By adding an oblique component to the three-component accelerometers, we could automatically distinguish shaking data from noise such as electric pulses which may cause a false alarm in EEW. Implementation to guarantee the continuity of observation under severe conditions such as during the Tohoku earthquake is very important, as well as a highly efficient

  12. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    dimensions of 2.8 x 0.7 x 4.6 inches make for a very good tool for TwiddleNet missions. Its Lithium -ion battery with 1200 mAh energy gives approximately...Wireless Connectivity IrDA, Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11b Battery Lithium ion Approximate Dimensions (in) 2.8 x 0.7 x 4.6 Weight (oz) 6.2 ROM 128 MB...designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well

  13. Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A D; Mac Suibhne, N; Saad, D; Payne, D N

    2016-03-06

    This issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Part A represents a summary of the recent discussion meeting 'Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch'. The purpose of the meeting was to establish the nature of the capacity crunch, estimate the time scales associated with it and to begin to find solutions to enable continued growth in a post-crunch era. The meeting confirmed that, in addition to a capacity shortage within a single optical fibre, many other 'crunches' are foreseen in the field of communications, both societal and technical. Technical crunches identified included the nonlinear Shannon limit, wireless spectrum, distribution of 5G signals (front haul and back haul), while societal influences included net neutrality, creative content generation and distribution and latency, and finally energy and cost. The meeting concluded with the observation that these many crunches are genuine and may influence our future use of technology, but encouragingly noted that research and business practice are already moving to alleviate many of the negative consequences. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  15. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  16. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  17. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.P. Turner; W.D. Ritts; B.E. Law; W.B. Cohen; Z. Yan; T. Hudiburg; J.L. Campbell; M. Duane

    2007-01-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5x105 km2 ) in the Western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history...

  18. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, P I; Svendsen, M S; Salado, J; Bochsen, L; Kristensen, A T

    2008-02-01

    Transfusion based on the Thrombelastograph (TEG) results reduces transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and in liver transplantation. Taking the pivotal role of thrombin generation in the coagulation process into consideration, the clinical utility of the TEG may, in part, depend on its reflection of the dynamics of thrombin generation. The kinetics of thrombin generation of platelets stored for 2 and 7 days, respectively, was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) and the lag time (min), time to peak (ttPeak; min), peak (nm thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P < 0.0001) as did the CAT peak thrombin generation and the TEG MTG (P = 0.0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies, secondary to impaired thrombin generation.

  19. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  20. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  1. An essay pertaining to the supply and price of natural gas as fuel for electric utilities and independent power producers; and, the related growth of non-utility generators to meet capacity shortfalls in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact natural gas and petroleum prices have on how the electric power industry decides to meet increasing demand for electric power. The topics of the paper include the pricing impact of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, the BTU parity argument, electric utility capacity shortfalls in 1993, the growth of the non-utility generator and the independent power developer market, natural gas as the desired fuel of the decade, the financial strategy in acquiring natural gas reserves, the cost and availability of natural gas supplies for non-utility generators, and the reluctance of the gas producers to enter long term contracts

  2. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic system based on condition turbogenerator Petri nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachur, S.A.; Shakhova, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    A stochastic model of the automated monitoring systems and process control turbine generator based on Petri nets, allowing to detect local changes in the state of the stator windings of turbogenerator, is presented in the paper [ru

  4. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  5. High-Capacity 60 GHz and 75–110 GHz Band Links Employing All-Optical OFDM Generation and Digital Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    The performance of wireless signal generation and detection at millimeter-wave frequencies using baseband optical means is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Multigigabit wireless signal generation is achieved based on all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and photo......The performance of wireless signal generation and detection at millimeter-wave frequencies using baseband optical means is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Multigigabit wireless signal generation is achieved based on all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...... scalability and bit-rate transparency of our proposed approach, we experimentally demonstrated generation and detection in the 60 GHz and 75–110 GHz band of an all-optical OFDM quadrature phase shift keying, with two and three subcarriers, for a total bit rate over 20 Gb/ s....

  6. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  7. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.

    2008-01-01

    thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation...... (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P

  8. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  9. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 3. annual conference on generation adequacy in Ontario : strategies to increase capacity to ensure a reliable electricity supply in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for the discussion of issues related to generation adequacy in Ontario. Members of the electricity industry as well as members from governmental and non-governmental agencies discussed a variety of recommendations for cost-effective reliable energy in Ontario. Issues related to the overhaul or replacement of nuclear power reactors and coal-fired generators in the province were reviewed. The status of various wind power projects in the province was examined along with issues related to interconnected power systems. Best practices for the planning and execution of electricity infrastructure projects were also reviewed, and issues related to stakeholder involvement in electricity generation projects were discussed. The discussions also described recent developments in electricity generation in various jurisdictions in Canada and the United States. The conference featured 19 presentations, of which 7 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  11. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports

  12. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports. (author)

  13. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  14. Net metering and net feed-in tariff for embedded solar PV in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available the business case for the PV owner is de-risked at the same time. The concept differs from the also widely known “net metering” approach in the sense that it stimulates embedded PV as part of the overall power-generation fleet, regardless of what the specific...

  15. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide, there were 249 power reactors in operation at the end of 1980, with a net electrical capacity of about 142 GW. In Canada the ten reactors in operation had a combined capacity of about 5.5 GW. Another 14 under construction will produce an additional 9.9 GW. Four Canadian reactors were in the world's top ten in terms of capacity factor in 1980, and six were in the top ten in terms of lifetime performance. Data tabulated for the Canadian reactors are: location, power, operator, date of first power. For the rest of the world, a table gives the number of reactors of each type and their capacity. (N.D.H.)

  16. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  17. Modulated error diffusion CGHs for neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Pieter J. E.; Casasent, David P.

    1990-05-01

    New modulated error diffusion CGHs (computer generated holograms) for optical computing are considered. Specific attention is given to their use in optical matrix-vector, associative processor, neural net and optical interconnection architectures. We consider lensless CGH systems (many CGHs use an external Fourier transform (FT) lens), the Fresnel sampling requirements, the effects of finite CGH apertures (sample and hold inputs), dot size correction (for laser recorders), and new applications for this novel encoding method (that devotes attention to quantization noise effects).

  18. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  19. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  20. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  1. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  2. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  3. Comparison and assessment of electricity generation capacity for different types of PV solar plants of 1MW in Soko banja, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Tomislav M.; Milosavljević Dragana D.; Radivojević Aleksandar R.; Pavlović Mila A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives the results of the electricity generated by the fixed, one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant of 1 MW with flat PV panels made of monocrystalline silicon which is to be built in the area of Soko banja (spa in Serbia). Further on follows a description of the functioning of the fixed and one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant. For the calculation of the electricity generated by these plants PVGIS program from the Internet was used. Calculations have shown ...

  4. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  5. 47 CFR 32.7210 - Operating investment tax credits-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating investment tax credits-net. 32.7210....7210 Operating investment tax credits—net. (a) This account shall be charged and Account 4320, Unamortized Operating Investment Tax Credits—Net, shall be credited with investment tax credits generated from...

  6. Sirio.NET: A new tool for managing results in eddy current inspection of steam generators and heat exchangers; Sirio.NET: Una nueva herramienta para la gestion de resultados en las inspecciones por Corrientes Inducidas de los Generadores de Vapor y Cambiadores de Calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, M.; Marquez, A.; Rodriguez, A. L.

    2014-07-01

    The results management and control of the inspections by currents induced of tube bundles of components such as steam generators, heat exchangers, etc., by the large volume of data generated, requires the use of highly specialized tools of information management, based on database structures. (Author)

  7. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  8. Improvement of small-signal stability of power system by controlling doubly fed induction generators of a large-capacity wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Adachi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many wind turbine generations have been installed into power systems around the world, where in recent years doubly fed induction generator (DFIG attracts a lot of attentions because of its efficiency and controllability. However, the DFIG is connected to the power system through inverters and originally does not have an ability to release the kinetic energy of the rotor or resorb the surplus power of the power system as the kinetic energy. Therefore, it has not been made clear how the DFIGs have an influence on small-signal stability in power systems. In this paper, we propose a control scheme of the DFIG and analyse its effect on the small-signal stability of the power system by eigenvalue calculations and time-domain simulations.

  9. The promise of downlink MU-MIMO for high-capacity next generation mobile broadband networks based on IEEE 802.16 m

    OpenAIRE

    Papathanassiou Apostolos; Davydov Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The dramatic increase of the demand for mobile broadband services poses stringent requirements on the performance evolution of currently deployed mobile broadband networks, such as Mobile WiMAX Release 1 and 3GPP LTE Release 8. Although the combination of single-user multiple-input multiple-output (SU-MIMO) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) provide the appropriate technologies for improving the downlink performance of third generation (3G) code division multip...

  10. Comparison and assessment of electricity generation capacity for different types of PV solar plants of 1MW in Soko banja, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Tomislav M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of the electricity generated by the fixed, one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant of 1 MW with flat PV panels made of monocrystalline silicon which is to be built in the area of Soko banja (spa in Serbia. Further on follows a description of the functioning of the fixed and one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant. For the calculation of the electricity generated by these plants PVGIS program from the Internet was used. Calculations have shown that fixed PV solar plant power of 1 MW, solar modules of monocrystalline silicon yield 1130000 kWh power output, one-axis tracking PV solar plant yields 1420000 kWh, and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant yields 1450000 kWh of electricity. Electricity generated by the fixed PV solar plant could satisfy 86% of the annual needs for the electricity of the „Zdravljak“ hotel and the special „Novi stacionar“ hospital in Soko banja.

  11. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  12. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  13. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  14. Do generation firms in restructured electricity markets have incentives to support social-welfare-improving transmission investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauma, Enzo E.; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the incentives that generation firms have in restructured electricity markets for supporting long-term transmission investments. In particular, we study whether generation firms, which arguably play a dominant role in the restructured electricity markets, have the incentives to fund or support incremental social-welfare-improving transmission investments. We examine this question in a two-node network and explore how such incentives are affected by the ownership of financial transmission rights (FTRs) by generation firms. In the analyzed two-node network, we show both (1) that the net exporter generation firm has the correct incentives to increase the transmission capacity incrementally up to a certain level and (2) that, although a policy that allocates FTRs to the net exporter generation firm can be desirable from a social point of view, such a policy would dilute the net-importer-generation-firm's incentives to support transmission expansion. Moreover, if all FTRs were allocated or auctioned off to the net exporter generation firm, then it is possible to increase both consumer surplus and social welfare while keeping the net exporter generation firm revenue neutral. (author)

  15. Stuttering interneurons generate fast and robust inhibition onto projection neurons with low capacity of short term modulation in mouse lateral amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Song

    Full Text Available The stuttering interneurons (STi represent one minor subset of interneuron population and exhibit characteristic stuttering firing upon depolarization current injection. While it has been long held that the GABAergic inhibitory transmission largely varies with the subtype identity of presynaptic interneurons, whether such a rule also applies to STi is largely unknown. Here, by paired recording of interneuron and their neighboring projection neuron in lateral amygdala, we found that relative to the fast spiking and late spiking interneurons, the STi-evoked unitary postsynaptic currents onto the projection neurons had markedly larger amplitude, shorter onset latency and faster rising and decay kinetics. The quantal content and the number of vesicles in the readily releasable pool were also larger in synapses made by STi versus other interneurons. Moreover, the short-term plasticity, as reflected by the paired pulse depression and depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, was the least prominent in the output synapses of STi. Thus, the fast and robust inhibition together with its low capacity of short term modulation may suggest an important role for STi in preventing the overexcitation of the projection neurons and thus gating the information traffic in amygdala.

  16. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  17. ROOT.NET: Using ROOT from .NET languages like C# and F#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    ROOT.NET provides an interface between Microsoft's Common Language Runtime (CLR) and .NET technology and the ubiquitous particle physics analysis tool, ROOT. ROOT.NET automatically generates a series of efficient wrappers around the ROOT API. Unlike pyROOT, these wrappers are statically typed and so are highly efficient as compared to the Python wrappers. The connection to .NET means that one gains access to the full series of languages developed for the CLR including functional languages like F# (based on OCaml). Many features that make ROOT objects work well in the .NET world are added (properties, IEnumerable interface, LINQ compatibility, etc.). Dynamic languages based on the CLR can be used as well, of course (Python, for example). Additionally it is now possible to access ROOT objects that are unknown to the translation tool. This poster will describe the techniques used to effect this translation, along with performance comparisons, and examples. All described source code is posted on the open source site CodePlex.

  18. ROOT.NET: Using ROOT from .NET languages like C and F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G

    2012-01-01

    ROOT.NET provides an interface between Microsoft's Common Language Runtime (CLR) and .NET technology and the ubiquitous particle physics analysis tool, ROOT. ROOT.NET automatically generates a series of efficient wrappers around the ROOT API. Unlike pyROOT, these wrappers are statically typed and so are highly efficient as compared to the Python wrappers. The connection to .NET means that one gains access to the full series of languages developed for the CLR including functional languages like F (based on OCaml). Many features that make ROOT objects work well in the .NET world are added (properties, IEnumerable interface, LINQ compatibility, etc.). Dynamic languages based on the CLR can be used as well, of course (Python, for example). Additionally it is now possible to access ROOT objects that are unknown to the translation tool. This poster will describe the techniques used to effect this translation, along with performance comparisons, and examples. All described source code is posted on the open source site CodePlex.

  19. High capacity wireless data links in the W-band using hybrid photonics-electronic techniques for signal generation and detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Seamless convergence of fiber-optic and the wireless networks is of great interest for enabling transparent delivery of broadband services to users in different locations, including both metropolitan and rural areas. Current demand of bandwidth by end-users, especially using mobile devices...... latest findings and experimental results on the W-band, specifically on its 81–86GHz sub-band. These include photonic generation of millimeter-wave carriers and transmission performance of broadband signals on different types of fibers and span lengths....

  20. Net load forecasting for high renewable energy penetration grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Nonnenmacher, Lukas; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss methods for net load forecasting and their significance for operation and management of power grids with high renewable energy penetration. Net load forecasting is an enabling technology for the integration of microgrid fleets with the macrogrid. Net load represents the load that is traded between the grids (microgrid and utility grid). It is important for resource allocation and electricity market participation at the point of common coupling between the interconnected grids. We compare two inherently different approaches: additive and integrated net load forecast models. The proposed methodologies are validated on a microgrid with 33% annual renewable energy (solar) penetration. A heuristics based solar forecasting technique is proposed, achieving skill of 24.20%. The integrated solar and load forecasting model outperforms the additive model by 10.69% and the uncertainty range for the additive model is larger than the integrated model by 2.2%. Thus, for grid applications an integrated forecast model is recommended. We find that the net load forecast errors and the solar forecasting errors are cointegrated with a common stochastic drift. This is useful for future planning and modeling because the solar energy time-series allows to infer important features of the net load time-series, such as expected variability and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Net load forecasting methods for grids with renewable energy generation are discussed. • Integrated solar and load forecasting outperforms the additive model by 10.69%. • Net load forecasting reduces the uncertainty between the interconnected grids.

  1. NetProt: Complex-based Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Wong, Limsoon

    2017-08-04

    Protein complex-based feature selection (PCBFS) provides unparalleled reproducibility with high phenotypic relevance on proteomics data. Currently, there are five PCBFS paradigms, but not all representative methods have been implemented or made readily available. To allow general users to take advantage of these methods, we developed the R-package NetProt, which provides implementations of representative feature-selection methods. NetProt also provides methods for generating simulated differential data and generating pseudocomplexes for complex-based performance benchmarking. The NetProt open source R package is available for download from https://github.com/gohwils/NetProt/releases/ , and online documentation is available at http://rpubs.com/gohwils/204259 .

  2. Replacement of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) envelope gene with a truncated HIV envelope gene in MLV generates a virus with impaired replication capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack, Ursula; Schnierle, Barbara S.

    2003-01-01

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV) capsid particles can be efficiently pseudotyped with a variant of the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) containing the surface glycoprotein gp120-SU and a carboxyl-terminally truncated transmembrane (TM) protein, with only seven cytoplasmic amino acids. MLV/HIV pseudotyped vector particles acquire the natural host tropism of HIV-1 and their entry is dependent on the presence of CD4 and an appropriate co-receptor on the surface of the target cell. We describe here the construction of chimeric MLV/HIV proviruses containing the truncated HIV envelope gene. The MLV/HIV provirus was generated by direct replacement of the MLV envelope gene with HIV Env coding sequences either with or without the additional inclusion of the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE). Chimeric MLV/HIV particles could be generated from transfected 293T cells and were able to infect CD4/CXCR4-positive target cells. However, the second round of infection of target cells was severely impaired, despite the fact that the WPRE element enhanced the amount of viral mRNA detected. Viral particles released from infected cells showed reduced HIV Env incorporation, indicating that additional factors required for efficient replication of MLV/HIV pseudotyped viruses are missing

  3. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  4. Design and realization of reports of database in VC++. net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Haijun; Shen Liren; Liu Dekang

    2006-01-01

    The design and realization of reports of database on the basis of VC ++ . net is presented. In the first, report template using word format files is introduced, and the method of filling the data table up according to the database is expatiated. The function of preview and printing calling word software is analyzed. The key code of how to generate reports automatically with Visual C ++ . net is given. (authors)

  5. The promise of downlink MU-MIMO for high-capacity next generation mobile broadband networks based on IEEE 802.16 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dramatic increase of the demand for mobile broadband services poses stringent requirements on the performance evolution of currently deployed mobile broadband networks, such as Mobile WiMAX Release 1 and 3GPP LTE Release 8. Although the combination of single-user multiple-input multiple-output (SU-MIMO and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA provide the appropriate technologies for improving the downlink performance of third generation (3G code division multiple access (CDMA-based mobile radio systems and, thus, address the current mobile internet requirements, a fundamental paradigm shift is required to cope with the constantly increasing mobile broadband data rate and spectral efficiency requirements. Among the different technologies available for making the paradigm shift from current to next-generation mobile broadband networks, multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO constitutes the most promising technology because of its significant performance improvement advantages. In this article, we analyze the performance of MU-MIMO under a multitude of deployment scenarios and system parameters through extensive system-level simulations which are based on widely used system-level evaluation methodologies. The target mobile broadband system used in the simulations is IEEE 802.16 m which was recently adopted by ITU-R as an IMT-Advanced technology along with 3GPP LTE-Advanced. The results provide insights into different aspects of MU-MIMO with respect to system-level performance, parameter sensitivity, and deployment scenarios, and they can be used by the mobile broadband network designer for maximizing the benefits of MU-MIMO in a scenario with specific deployment requirements and goals.

  6. Talkin' 'bout My Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickes, Persis C.

    2010-01-01

    The monikers are many: (1) "Generation Y"; (2) "Echo Boomers"; (3) "GenMe"; (4) the "Net Generation"; (5) "RenGen"; and (6) "Generation Next". One name that appears to be gaining currency is "Millennials," perhaps as a way to better differentiate the current generation from its…

  7. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  8. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  9. CERN on the net

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    As all eyes turn to the LHC in the run-up to the big switch-on, online media are providing a keyhole into the deepest corners of CERN. From YouTube to blogs, communicating ideas has never before had the capacity to reach so many people. A wide range of websites comment on CERN.Blogs, YouTube, social networking, podcasting, Twitter, SecondLife, Flickr…. it’s easy to get lost in the ever expanding world of Web 2.0. But it’s also hard to ignore the fact that these web facilities are becoming a central part of everyday life, whether it’s for finding information, sharing interests with friends, keeping up to date with news, or simply for entertainment. CERN’s profile on these sites is also increasing, but as with everything on the Internet there is a huge range in the quality of information available, stretching from officially endorsed sites all the way to the plain ridiculous! This is our guide to some of the best CERN conte...

  10. Diagnostic throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace and optimal aircraft trajectory generation based on capacity prediction and controller workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyun

    Today's National Airspace System (NAS) is approaching its limit to efficiently cope with the increasing air traffic demand. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) with its ambitious goals aims to make the air travel more predictable with fewer delays, less time sitting on the ground and holding in the air to improve the performance of the NAS. However, currently the performance of the NAS is mostly measured using delay-based metrics which do not capture a whole range of important factors that determine the quality and level of utilization of the NAS. The factors affecting the performance of the NAS are themselves not well defined to begin with. To address these issues, motivated by the use of throughput-based metrics in many areas such as ground transportation, wireless communication and manufacturing, this thesis identifies the different factors which majorly affect the performance of the NAS as demand (split into flight cancellation and flight rerouting), safe separation (split into conflict and metering) and weather (studied as convective weather) through careful comparison with other applications and performing empirical sensitivity analysis. Additionally, the effects of different factors on the NAS's performance are quantitatively studied using real traffic data with the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for various sectors and centers of the NAS on different days. In this thesis we propose a diagnostic tool which can analyze the factors that have greater responsibility for regions of poor and better performances of the NAS. Based on the throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace, it was found that weather and controller workload are the major factors that decrease the efficiency of the airspace. Also, since resources such as air traffic controllers, infrastructure and airspace are limited, it is becoming increasingly important to use the available resources efficiently. To alleviate the impact of the weather and controller

  11. Structural analysis of the NET toroidal field coils and conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.; Collier, D.; Gori, R.

    1989-01-01

    The NET toroidal field coils will utilise A15-type superconductor at 4.2 K to generate fields up to 11.5 T. The superconductor strands themselves are sensitive to strain, which causes degradation of their current carrying capacity, and thus the detailed behaviour of the coil conductor must be analysied so that the strian can be minimised. This analysis must include the manufacturing processes of the conductor as well as the normal and abnormal loperational loads. The conductor will be insulated and bonded by glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin, with limited bonding shear strength, and the overall support of the complete coil system must be designed to reduce these shear stresses. The coils will be subjected to pulse loads form the poloidal field coils, and analysis of the slip between the various coil components, such as conductors and the coil case, giving rise to frictional heating and possible loss of superconducting properties is another important factor, which has been investigated by a number of stress analyses. The manufacturing, thermal and normal magnetic loads on the coils and the analysis leading to the proposed structural design are described. In addition to the normal operating conditions, there is a range of abnormal load conditions which could result from electrical or mechanical faults on the coils. The effect of these potential faults has been analysed and the coil design modified to prevent catastrophic structural failure. (author). 13 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  12. What Do Capacity Deployment Rates Tell Us about the Efficiency of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources Support Measures in Greece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Papadelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback effects. These negative effects may stem from saturation of the grid’s ability to absorb an increased amount of RES-E power, the inability of regulatory bodies to cope with the larger workload due to the increased number of projects requesting permits or from rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the primary rationale for feed-in tariffs (FITs and other fiscal support schemes is that increased deployment of RES-E technologies will lead to reductions in costs and increases in efficiency. As a result, the efficiency of an RES-E support policy should be also judged by its ability to capitalize on cost reductions. Overall, we present an approach to facilitate ongoing assessments of the efficiency of support measures for RES-E deployment. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the FIT support policy in Greece as a case study. In particular, the RES-E support policy in Greece has been recently revised through tariff cuts and a moratorium on new production licenses. We aim to demonstrate that if publicly available data are appropriately monitored, a policy revision can take place in a timelier and less disruptive manner.

  13. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  14. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  15. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  16. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotty, R.M.; Perry, A.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of net energy from nuclear power plants is dependent on a large number of variables and assumptions. The energy requirements as they relate to reactor type, concentration of uranium in the ore, enrichment tails assays, and possible recycle of uranium and plutonium were examined. Specifically, four reactor types were considered: pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and heavy water reactor (CANDU). The energy requirements of systems employing both conventional (current) ores with uranium concentration of 0.176 percent and Chattanooga Shales with uranium concentration of 0.006 percent were determined. Data were given for no recycle, uranium recycle only, and uranium plus plutonium recycle. Starting with the energy requirements in the mining process and continuing through fuel reprocessing and waste storage, an evaluation of both electrical energy requirements and thermal energy requirements of each process was made. All of the energy, direct and indirect, required by the processing of uranium in order to produce electrical power was obtained by adding the quantities for the individual processes. The energy inputs required for the operation of a nuclear power system for an assumed life of approximately 30 years are tabulated for nine example cases. The input requirements were based on the production of 197,100,000 MWH(e), i.e., the operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant for 30 years with an average plant factor of 0.75. Both electrical requirements and thermal energy requirements are tabulated, and it should be emphasized that both quantities are needed. It was found that the electricity generated far exceeded the energy input requirements for all the cases considered

  17. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  18. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  19. The operational performance of “net zero energy building”: A study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhihua; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wang, Chendong; Chen, Guanyi; Du, Tao; Li, Yasong; Zuo, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Choose energy efficiency technology in office building to implement “nZEB”. • Simulate its energy consumption. • Study on the operational performance. • Optimize its running. - Abstract: There is no lack of studies on “net zero energy buildings” (“nZEB”). However, the vast majority of these studies focus on theories and simulation. The actual operational performance of “net zero energy building” during occupation has been largely overlooked by previous studies. This study aims to investigate the operational performance of net “zero energy buildings” via the case study of an office building in Tianjin, China. Using simulation, the energy consumption of the building at design phase was estimated and a solar photovoltaic (PV) system was selected. A whole year operation of the occupied building showed that energy consumption of the case building was much higher than the energy generated from the solar PV system. This was mainly due to three issues. Firstly, the equipment was different in terms of category, quantity and running time between operation and design stages, leading to considerable underestimate of energy consumption at the design stage. Secondly, the operational strategies need to be further improved in order to regulate users’ behaviors. Thirdly, the efficiency of solar PV system was substantially reduced due to poor atmospheric environment (i.e. haze weather). Therefore, during the design process of “net zero energy buildings”, it is imperative to ensure that the energy simulation accurately reflects how the building will actually operate once occupied. The research also revealed other barriers to the design and implementation of “nZEB” in China, such as extra efforts required for effective communicating the capacity of the HVAC design and systems to clients, and the increased cost of “nZEB” (e.g. solar PV system) particularly for public buildings. Finally, the solar radiation intensity of standard

  20. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  1. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  2. Father Google and Mother IM: Confessions of a Net Gen Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Carie

    2005-01-01

    To bridge the technology cultural gap between many faculty and administrators and the youngest generation of college students, this author, a recent graduate, reveals what being a "Net Gener" really means and how that can translate to the classroom. She discusses what she considers the basic principles that guide the Net Generation: (1)…

  3. Systems for the calculation of electrical parameters and energy efficiency for high-capacity hydroelectric generators; Sistemas para el calculo de parametros electricos y eficiencia energetica para generadores hidroelectricos de gran capacidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Martinez, Oscar Alfonso; Pascacio de los Santos, Alberth; Perez Abad, Carlos Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Leon Rivera, Nicolas [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has developed important hydroelectrical power projects in Mexico. Most of them are located in the Santiago River Hydrological System in Nayarit, Mexico. A total of 27 projects with a capacity of 4,300 MW are considered but only 32% of them have been carried out. One of the most ambitious projects that continue in process of construction is the Hydroelectrical Plant La Yesca. This project will conclude in late 2012 and consists of two electric generators of 375 MW, 17 kV. It will be second in power and the third in electrical generation at the system. According to national and international standards, a set of static and dynamic tests must be performed in these generators before commissioning, to ensure their proper operation. Winding stator high voltage endurance test, three phase sudden short circuit test and energy efficiency calculation are some of the most important tests to be performed in a new electrical generator. These tests are difficult to perform on-site due to the equipment capacity required, so very few companies in the world can conduct them. In Mexico no one has the necessary infrastructure for testing in high capacity hydroelectric generators such as those from La Yesca, so the Laboratorio de Pruebas a Equipos y Materiales (LAPEM) has invested in projects to improve this project in order to meet the needs of the Mexican electricity sector. This paper is a description of the systems developed for the calculation of electrical parameters and energy efficiency for this class of generators. [Spanish] En los ultimos anos, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha desarrollado importantes proyectos hidroelectricos en Mexico. La mayor parte se ubican en el Sistema Hidrologico del Rio Santiago en Nayarit, Mexico. Se consideran un total de 27 proyectos con capacidad de 4300 MW, pero solo 32 % de ellos se han llevado a cabo. Uno de los proyectos mas ambiciosos que continua en proceso de

  4. Effects of self-carbon dioxide-generation material for active packaging on pH, water-holding capacity, meat color, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in beef during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Kim, Gap-Don; Kim, Geun-Bae; Jin, Sang Keun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-08-01

    Active packaging refers to the mixing of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. The aim of this study was to develop an easy and cheap active packaging for beef. Beef loin samples were divided into three packaging groups (C, ziplock bag packaging; T1, vacuum packaging; T2, active packaging) and stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity was significantly (P packaging using self-CO 2 -generation materials can extend the shelf life similarly to that observed with vacuum packaging, and that the active packaging method can improve the quality characteristics of beef during cold storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  6. Setting a price for solar net-metering in California

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering programs are an effective policy tool for promoting investment in solar photovoltaics, yet little attention has been paid to the rate at which excess energy generation is credited until recently. Like most States, California customers who participate in net-metering receive a credit for excess generation at the current retail rate for electricity. This buy-back rate does not take into account the value of solar energy to the utility or the costs to the customer of purchasing an...

  7. Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kędzia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet The paper offers a critical evaluation of the power and usefulness of an automatic prompt system based on the extended Relaxation Labelling algorithm in the process of (manual mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet. To this end the results of manual mapping – that is inter-lingual relations between plWN and PWN synsets – are juxtaposed with the automatic prompts that were generated for the source language synsets to be mapped. We check the number and type of inter-lingual relations introduced on the basis of automatic prompts and the distance of the respective prompt synsets from the actual target language synsets.

  8. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  9. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  10. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  11. Economic risks of the capacity expansion of electric power generation: impact of the nuclear energy; Riesgos economicos de la expansion de la capacidad de generacion de energia electrica: impacto de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva G, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Uncertainty and risks are inherent to the electric systems planning. The long period of construction that is characteristic of the electric sector works, as well as the long useful life of the generation assets and electric power transmission, they force to plan the expansion of the electric systems along horizons from 10 to 25 years. In periods so long of time it is impossible to predict with certainty the elements of the environment that could influence in the taking of decisions, like they are: the growth and the distribution of the electric power demand, the readiness and fuel prices; the investment costs of the technological options of generation and transmission, as well as the duration of the construction of future projects of new capacity addition. All expansion plan that will be propose, will be exposed to the uncertainty of the environment, gives place to risks or undesirable consequences. The nature of the risks, the strategies to delimit them and the outlines to assign them between the different interested parts and the diverse economic agents, depend in great measure of the legal and normative mark of the sector. In this work these topics are approached inside the reference mark of the Mexican public service of electric power. (Author)

  12. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  13. Revenue Generation Capacity in Developing Countries: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or inhibit economic growth through its effects on decisions regarding resource allocation on public investment ..... the index of openness measure (export plus import divided by GDP) capturing the effects of ...... A PhD Thesis, University of.

  14. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  15. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  16. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  17. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  18. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  19. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  20. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  1. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  2. Darlington steam generator life assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinski, E.; Dymarski, M.; Maruska, C.; Cartar, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Darlington Nuclear Generating Station belonging to Ontario Hydro is one of the most modern and advanced nuclear generating stations in the world. Four reactor units each generate 881 net MW, enough to provide power to a major city, and representing approximately 20% of the Ontario grid. The nuclear generating capacity in Ontario represents approximately 60% of the grid. In order to look after this major asset, many proactive preventative and predictive maintenance programs are being put in place. The steam generators are a major component in any power plant. World wide experience shows that nuclear steam generators require specialized attention to ensure reliable operation over the station life. This paper describes the Darlington steam generator life assurance program in terms of degradation identification, monitoring and management. The requirements for chemistry control, surveillance of process parameters, surveillance of inspection parameters, and the integration of preventative and predictive maintenance programs such as water lancing, chemical cleaning, RIHT monitoring, and other diagnostics to enhance our understanding of life management issues are identified and discussed. We conclude that we have advanced proactive activities to avoid and to minimize many of the problems affecting other steam generators. An effective steam generator maintenance program must expand the knowledge horizon to understand life limiting processes and to analyze and synthesize observations with theory. (author)

  3. Installed capacity in New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discussed capacity issues related to the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). The NYISO's market volume was approximately $11 billion in 2005, and it was responsible for providing 32,075 MW of electricity at peak load to its users. Regulatory uncertainty is currently discouraging investment in new generating resources. All load serving entities are required to contract for sufficient capacity in order to meet their capacity obligations. Market participants currently determine capacity and energy revenues. The NYISO market allows suppliers to recover variable costs for providing ancillary services, and the economic value of the revenue source governs decisions made in the wholesale electricity market. The installed capacity market was designed as a spot auction deficiency auction. Phased-in demand curves are used to modify the installed capacity market's design. A sloped demand curve mechanism is used to value capacity above the minimum requirement for both reliability and competition. Participation in the day-ahead market enhances competition and exerts downward pressure on energy and ancillary service market prices. It was concluded that the market structures and design features of the installed capacity markets recognize the need for system reliability in addition to encouraging robust competition and recognizing energy price caps and regulatory oversights. tabs., figs

  4. Competitiveness and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Potential Electricity Generating Options in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    2008-01-01

    As part of analysis of options needed to generate additional 6-8 TWh of electrical energy for Croatian consumers by the end of next decade, a comparison between natural gas combined cycle plants jointly with wind electricity generator and nuclear power plants has been performed. The choice is a real challenge, but it is logical that the criteria for optimal option are maximal net cash flow and minimal carbon dioxide emission. Since the comparison has to include analysis of discounted net cash flow during plants operating period (including total life time period and period of most insensitive capital return) and since foreseen potential long term fuel cost variations (gas, uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment) contain substantial uncertainties, the best method is to calculate discounted net cash flow with probabilistic method. Prognosis for long term nuclear fuel cycle and gas costs is included in the analyses. Results, obtained in form of probabilistic distributions, showed that selection of option with nuclear plant would doubtlessly result in higher net cash flow for the investor, and of course, in lower CO 2 emissions. Effect of plant selection to net cash flow and CO 2 emissions is additionally analyzed by comparing systems containing wind and gas plants versus system with gas plants only. The difference is less pronounced in case when wind generators have low capacity factors (similar to experienced for wind plants already operating on Adriatic coast). (author)

  5. .net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  6. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  7. On bar growth and decay during interannual net offshore migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Ranasinghe, R.; Roelvink, J.A.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple bar systems often show a cyclic net offshore directed migration with return periods on the order of years. Generally, a bar is generated near the shoreline, grows in height and width, while migrating offshore before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf zone. Based on a

  8. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  9. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  10. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  11. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  12. Leveraging Microgrids for Capturing Uncertain Distribution Network Net Load Ramping

    OpenAIRE

    Majzoobi, Alireza; Khodaei, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a flexibility-oriented microgrid optimal scheduling model is proposed to mitigate distribution network net load variability caused by large penetration distributed solar generation. The distributed solar generation variability, which is caused by increasing adoption of this technology by end-use consumers, is mainly addressed by electric utilities using grid reinforcement. Microgrids, however, provide viable and local solutions to this pressing challenge. The proposed model, wh...

  13. Hydrodynamic characteristics of knotted and knotless purse seine netting panels as determined in a flume tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Xu, Liuxiong; Hu, Fuxiang

    2018-01-01

    Nylon (PA) netting is widely used in purse seines and other fishing gears due to its high strength and good sinking performance. However, hydrodynamic properties of nylon netting of different characteristics are poorly understood. This study investigated hydrodynamic characteristics of nylon netting of different knot types and solidity ratios under different attack angles and flow velocities. It was found that the hydrodynamic coefficient of netting panels was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio, attack angle, knot type and twine construction. The solidity ratio was found to positively correlate with drag coefficient when the netting was normal to the flow (CD90), but not the case when the netting was parallel to the flow (CD0). For netting panels inclined to the flow, the inclined drag coefficient had a negative relationship with the solidity ratio for attack angles between 0° and 50°, but a positive relationship for attack angles between 50° and 90°. The lift coefficient increased with the attack angle, reaching the culminating point at an attack angle of 50°, before subsequent decline. We found that the drag generated by knot accounted for 15-25% of total drag, and the knotted netting with higher solidity ratio exhibited a greater CD0, but it was not the case for the knotless netting. Compared to knotless polyethylene (PE) netting, the drag coefficients of knotless PA netting were dominant at higher Reynolds number (Re>2200).

  14. Hydrodynamic characteristics of knotted and knotless purse seine netting panels as determined in a flume tank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    Full Text Available Nylon (PA netting is widely used in purse seines and other fishing gears due to its high strength and good sinking performance. However, hydrodynamic properties of nylon netting of different characteristics are poorly understood. This study investigated hydrodynamic characteristics of nylon netting of different knot types and solidity ratios under different attack angles and flow velocities. It was found that the hydrodynamic coefficient of netting panels was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio, attack angle, knot type and twine construction. The solidity ratio was found to positively correlate with drag coefficient when the netting was normal to the flow (CD90, but not the case when the netting was parallel to the flow (CD0. For netting panels inclined to the flow, the inclined drag coefficient had a negative relationship with the solidity ratio for attack angles between 0° and 50°, but a positive relationship for attack angles between 50° and 90°. The lift coefficient increased with the attack angle, reaching the culminating point at an attack angle of 50°, before subsequent decline. We found that the drag generated by knot accounted for 15-25% of total drag, and the knotted netting with higher solidity ratio exhibited a greater CD0, but it was not the case for the knotless netting. Compared to knotless polyethylene (PE netting, the drag coefficients of knotless PA netting were dominant at higher Reynolds number (Re>2200.

  15. A Controlled Design of Ripple-Like Polyamide-6 Nanofiber/Nets Membrane for High-Efficiency Air Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichao; Liu, Hui; Zuo, Fenglei; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The filtration capacity of fibrous media for airborne particles is restricted by their thick diameter, low porosity, and limited frontal area. The ability to solve this problem would have broad technological implications for various air filtration applications; despite many past efforts, it remains a great challenge to achieve. Herein, a facile and scalable strategy to fabricate the ripple-like polyamide-6 nanofiber/nets (PA-6 NF/N) air filter via combining electrospinning/netting technique with receiving substrate design is demonstrated. This proposed approach allows the scaffold filaments to orderly embed into 2D PA-6 nanonets layer with Steiner-tree structures and nanoscale diameter of ≈20 nm, resulting in the ripple-like membrane with extremely small pore size, highly porous structure, and hugely extended frontal surface, by facilely adjusting its pleat span and pleat pitch. These unique structural advantages enable the ripple-like PA-6 NF/N filter to filtrate the ultrafine particles with high removal efficiency of 99.996%, low air resistance of 95 Pa, and robust quality factor of >0.11 Pa -1 ; using its superlight weight of 0.9 g m -2 and physical sieving manner. This approach has the potentialities to give rise to a novel generation of filter media displaying enhanced filtration capacity for various applications thanks to their nanoscale features and designed macrostructures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  17. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  18. Accelerating the Worldwide Adoption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes: Strengthening Commitment and Capacity Comment on "The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Jones, Alexandra; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-10-29

    In their recent article Roache and Gostin outline why governments and public health advocates should embrace soda taxes. The evidence is strong and continues to grow: such taxes can change consumer behavior, generate significant revenue and incentivize product reformulation. In essence, such taxes are an important and now well-established instrument of fiscal and public health policy. In this commentary we expand on their arguments by considering how the worldwide adoption of such taxes might be further accelerated. First, we identify where in the world taxes have been implemented to date and where the untapped potential remains greatest. Second, drawing upon recent case study research on country experiences we describe several conditions under which governments may be more likely to make taxation a political priority in the future. Third, we consider how to help strengthen the technical and legal capacities of governments to design and effectively administer taxes, with emphasis on low- and middle-income countries. We expect the findings to be most useful to public health advocates and policy-makers seeking to promote healthier diets and good nutrition. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  19. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  20. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  1. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  2. Possibilistic Fuzzy Net Present Value Model and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Appadoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cash flow values and the interest rate in the net present value (NPV model are usually specified by either crisp numbers or random variables. In this paper, we first discuss some of the recent developments in possibility theory and find closed form expressions for fuzzy possibilistic net present value (FNPV. Then, following Carlsson and Fullér (2001, we discuss some of the possibilistic moments related to FNPV model along with an illustrative numerical example. We also give a unified approach to find higher order moments of FNPV by using the moment generating function introduced by Paseka et al. (2011.

  3. Towards new information resources for public health--from WordNet to MedicalWordNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellbaum, Christiane; Hahn, Udo; Smith, Barry

    2006-06-01

    In the last two decades, WordNet has evolved as the most comprehensive computational lexicon of general English. In this article, we discuss its potential for supporting the creation of an entirely new kind of information resource for public health, viz. MedicalWordNet. This resource is not to be conceived merely as a lexical extension of the original WordNet to medical terminology; indeed, there is already a considerable degree of overlap between WordNet and the vocabulary of medicine. Instead, we propose a new type of repository, consisting of three large collections of (1) medically relevant word forms, structured along the lines of the existing Princeton WordNet; (2) medically validated propositions, referred to here as medical facts, which will constitute what we shall call MedicalFactNet; and (3) propositions reflecting laypersons' medical beliefs, which will constitute what we shall call the MedicalBeliefNet. We introduce a methodology for setting up the MedicalWordNet. We then turn to the discussion of research challenges that have to be met to build this new type of information resource. We build a database of sentences relevant to the medical domain. The sentences are generated from WordNet via its relations as well as from medical statements broken down into elementary propositions. Two subcorpora of sentences are distinguished, MedicalBeliefNet and MedicalFactNet. The former is rated for assent by laypersons; the latter for correctness by medical experts. The sentence corpora will be valuable for a variety of applications in information retrieval as well as in research in linguistics and psychology with respect to the study of expert and non-expert beliefs and their linguistic expressions. Our work has to meet several considerable challenges. These include accounting for the distinction between medical experts and laypersons, the social issues of expert-layperson communication in different media, the linguistic aspects of encoding medical knowledge, and

  4. 基于有效容量分布的含风电场电力系统随机生产模拟%Power System Probabilistic Production Simulation With Wind Generation Based on Available Capacity Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹斌; 李冬

    2012-01-01

    The power system operation simulation including large wind turbine generations, which is based on the Monte Carlo method, is of good accuracy and extensive adaptability. However, the computation time of the simulation is long and this limits its application. The other theoretical methodologies have some disadvantages, for example, the wind turbine generations could not be described precisely, or it is difficult to deal with the multi wind farms and the correlations among them. In order to overcome these disadvantages, a probabilistic production simulation algorithm for power systems including wind farms was proposed based on available capacity distribution. The time-varying characteristics of the load and wind turbines were considered in the algorithm. The auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) time series model was applied to simulate the wind speed, and the cumulants method was used to calculate the available capacity distribution. The proposed algorithm could better describe the characteristics of the wind turbine generations, and is of high computing efficiency. Multi wind farms and their correlations are taken into consideration in the algorithm, and the probability and the energy of the abandoned wind power caused by the limitation of the minimum output can be calculated. The effectiveness of the method was verified based on the data of IEEE-RTS system.%基于蒙特卡罗(MonteCarlo)方法的含大规模风力发电的电力系统模拟虽然具有较好的精度和广泛的适应性,但其过大的时间开销限制了其应用。而现有的理论计算方法则存在风力发电描述不够准确、难以处理多风电场及其相关性等问题。针对此现状,提出了一种基于发电机组有效容量分布的含风电场的电力系统随机生产模拟算法。该算法保留了负荷和风电机组的时变特性,采用时间序列白回归移动平均(auto-regressive movingaverage,ARMA)模型模拟风速,使用半不变量

  5. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  6. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  7. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  8. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  9. La capacidad de absorción para la innovación: estudio de caso en la Generación Distribuida Cubana; The absorptive capacity for innovation: study case on Cuban´s distributed generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lourdes Filgueiras Sainz de Rozas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la necesidad de formar las concepciones sobre el tratamiento de la innovación como resultado del proceso continuo de aprendizaje organizacional devenido de la integración y re-configuración de conocimientos impregnados en personas, procesos, sistemas y prácticas de gestión; como plataforma para el estudio de los mecanismos desde los cuales se construye e incrementa la capacidad de absorción. Se propone un modelo conceptual para explicar la capacidad de innovar en una organización, estableciendo sus componentes esenciales, determinándose un conjunto de variables que permiten construir indicadores empíricos para evaluar tal capacidad y su impacto en el nivel de desempeño organizacional. La aplicación se desarrolla en la Generación Distribuida en base a Grupos Electrógenos de Fuel, con insuficiencias en la actitud estrategia hacia la innovación, el aprendizaje organizacional y el entorno, que limitaban la asimilación de las tecnologías adquiridas en los años 2005-2008.  In this paper are made considerations about the need to form conceptions respect to treatment of innovation as a result of an organizational learning process become continuous integration and re-configuration ofembedded knowledge in people, processes, systems and the practices of management, as platform to study the mechanisms through which the absorptive capacity is built and increased. It is proposed a conceptualmodel to explain the innovation capability at a company and establish its essential components, by identifying a set of variables to construct empirical measures to evaluate such capacity and its impact on thelevel of organizational performance. The research was developed at the Cuban´s distributed generation by fuel oil engines´ plants; these organizations presented insufficiency with strategic attitude to innovation,learning and environment, which limited the assimilation of the acquired technologies on years 2005-2008.

  10. Application of modified Martinez-Silva algorithm in determination of net cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Łukasz; Grobelna, Iwona

    2016-12-01

    In the article we present the idea of modifications of Martinez-Silva algorithm, which allows for determination of place invariants (p-invariants) of Petri net. Their generation time is important in the parallel decomposition of discrete systems described by Petri nets. Decomposition process is essential from the point of view of discrete system design, as it allows for separation of smaller sequential parts. The proposed modifications of Martinez-Silva method concern the net cover by p-invariants and are focused on two important issues: cyclic reduction of invariant matrix and cyclic checking of net cover.

  11. Professional ASP.NET 4.5 in C# and VB

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylord, Jason N; Rastogi, Pranav; Miranda, Todd; Hanselman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The all-new approach for experienced ASP.NET professionals! ASP.NET is Microsoft's technology for building dynamically generated web pages from database content. Originally introduced in 2002, ASP.NET has undergone many changes in multiple versions and iterations as developers have gained a decade of experience with this popular technology. With that decade of experience, this edition of the book presents a fresh, new overhauled approach. A new focus on how to build ASP.NET sites and applications relying on field-tested reliable methodsIntegration of ""One A

  12. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  13. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  14. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  15. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  16. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  17. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  18. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  19. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  20. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  1. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  2. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  3. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: net recovery and transport intensity indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NET in-vessel vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.

    1991-02-01

    The CFFTP/Spar In-vessel Vehicle System concept for in-vessel remote maintenance of the NET/ITER machine is described. It comprises a curved deployable boom, a vehicle which can travel on the boom and an end effector or work unit mounted on the vehicle. The stowed boom, vehicle, and work unit are inserted via the equatorial access port of the torus. Following insertion the boom is deployed and locked in place. The vehicle may then travel along the boom to transport the work unit to any desired location. A novel feature of the concept is the deployable boom. When fully deployed, it closely resembles a conventional curved truss structure in configuration and characteristics. However, the joints of the truss structure are hinged so that it can fold into a compact package, of less than 20% of deployed volume for storage, transportation and insertion into the torus. A full-scale 2-metre long section of this boom was produced for demonstration purposes. As part of the concept definition the work unit for divertor handling was studied to demonstrate that large payloads could be manipulated within the confines of the torus using the in-vessel vehicle system. Principal advantages of the IVVS are its high load capacity and rigidity, low weight and stowed volume, simplicity of control and operation, and its relatively high speed of transportation

  5. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  6. Effects of Channel Geometry and Coolant Fluid on Thermoelectric Net Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Channel geometry has a strong influence on the heat transfer coefficient and cooling energy input in a heat sink. The net power output in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be defined as power generation minus the required cooling energy in TEG. This study aims to evaluate the net power generat......, and the maximum net power output occurs at smaller Reynolds number when the channel hydraulic diameter reduces....... generation in TEG for different size of hydraulic diameter of plate-fin heat sink and over a wide range of Reynolds number. The particular focus of this study is to find optimal Reynolds number in each considered channel hydraulic diameter and to explore optimal channel hydraulic diameter for maximum TEG net...

  7. A Method of Sample Models of Program Construction in Terms of Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Kharitonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a method of automated construction of Petri nets simulating the behaviour of imperative programs is considered from the formal point of view. Petri net samples with certain characteristics are necessary in programming new algorithms for program analysis; in particular, they can be used for developing or optimizing algorithms of Petri nets compositions and decompositions, building the reachability tree, checking invariants and so on. The generation process consists of two stages. At the first stage, construction templates for a resulting net and parameters for construction are described. With the help of these parameters it is possible to regulate the final size and the absolute or relative amount of certain structures in the resulting net. At the second stage, iterative process of automated net construction is used for Petri net generation of any size, limited only by an available computer memory. In the first section of the article the minimum necessary definitions are given and a new version of Petri nets composition operation by places is introduced. Commutative and associative properties of introduced binary operation allow to synchronize any number of Petri nets in arbitrary order. Then construction template is defined as a marked Petri net with input and output interfaces and rules for templates composition using this interfaces. A number of construction templates can be united in a collection, for which the evolution rules are defined. The completeness property of a collection guarantees that the collection evolution results in a Petri net that simulates the imperative program behavior. The article provides a version of the construction templates complete collection and an example of Petri net simulating sequential imperative program construction.

  8. Prediction of transverse asymmetries in MHD ducts with zero net Hall current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swean, T.F. Jr.; Oliver, D.A.; Maxwell, C.D.; Demetriades, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    A new class of fluid-electrical asymmetries in MHD generator channel flow are predicted. It is shown that the existence of interelectrode asymmetries is not confined to generators in which there exists a nonzero net axial current, but rather they are induced even in the case of the Faraday generators. Also demonstrated is the impact of these asymmetries upon the generator and diffuser flow. It is concluded that in MHD generators, the net axial current in the cross plane is identically zero, while at any given point in the plane, the local Hall current density is in general nonzero

  9. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  10. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to discuss the economical and the environmental analysis of a net zero energy (NZE tourist village in Alexandria, Egypt, by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. The hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for the proposed tourist village under the study. The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels (58.09% solar energy penetration, 1000 kW of wind turbines (41.34% wind energy penetration, 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator (only 0.57% diesel generator penetration in addition to 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each. The levelized cost of energy (COE from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh and the total net present cost (NPC of this system is $15,383,360. Additionally, the maximum renewable energy fraction is 99.1% and the amount of GHG emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparison with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system. In addition to this, the achieved percentage of the capacity shortage and the unmet load in the optimal HRES is only 0% for both.

  11. Conceptual design of a demonstration reactor for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Y.; Hiwatari, R.; Okano, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ise, H.; Nomoto, Y.; Kuroda, T.; Mori, S.; Shinya, K.

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual study on a demonstration plant for electric power generation, named Demo-CREST, was conducted based on the consideration that a demo-plant should have capacities both (1) to demonstrate electric power generation in a plant scale with moderate plasma performance, which will be achieved in the early stage of the ITER operation, and foreseeable technologies and materials and (2) to have a possibility to show an economical competitiveness with advanced plasma performance and high performance blanket systems. The plasma core was optimized to be a minimum size for both net electric power generation with the ITER basic plasma parameters and commercial-scale generation with advance plasma parameters, which would be attained by the end of ITER operation. The engineering concept, especially the breeding blanket structure and its maintenance scheme, is also optimized to demonstrate the tritium self-sustainability and maintainability of in-vessel components. Within the plasma performance as planned in the present ITER program, the net electric power from 0 MW to 500 MW is possible with the basic blanket system under the engineering conditions of maximum magnetic field 16 T, NBI system efficiency 50%, and NBI current drive power restricted to 200 MW. Capacities of stabilization of reversed shear plasma and the high thermal efficiency are additional factors for optimization of the advanced blanket. By replacing the blanket system with the advanced one of higher thermal efficiency, the net electric power of about 1000 MW is also possible so that the economic performance toward the commercial plant can be also examined with Demo-CREST. (author)

  12. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  13. Liberating Leadership Capacity: Pathways to Educational Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Linda; Zimmerman, Diane P.; Gardner, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    During the past quarter century, conceptions of leadership have evolved in concert with breakthrough discoveries in science and generative learning. "Liberating Leadership Capacity" captures these new ideas through the integration of the authors' earlier works in constructivist leadership and leadership capacity. What emerges is a…

  14. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Maribu, K.M.; Wangensteen, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating investments in decentralized renewable power generation under price un certainty. The analysis is applicable for a client with an electricity load and a renewable resource that can be utilized for power generation. The investor has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one local power generating unit, with the objective to maximize the profits from the opportunity. Renewable electricity generation can serve local load when generation and load coincide in time, and surplus power can be exported to the grid. The problem is to find the price intervals and the capacity of the generator at which to invest. Results from a case with wind power generation for an office building suggests it is optimal to wait for higher prices than the net present value break-even price under price uncertainty, and that capacity choice can depend on the current market price and the price volatility. With low price volatility there can be more than one investment price interval for different units with intermediate waiting regions between them. High price volatility increases the value of the investment opportunity, and therefore makes it more attractive to postpone investment until larger units are profitable. (author)

  15. Implications of water constraints for electricity capacity expansion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Iyer, G.; Forman, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    U.S. electricity generation is vulnerable to water supply since water is required for cooling. Constraints on the availability of water will therefore necessitate adaptive planning by the power generation sector. Hence, it is important to integrate restrictions in water availability in electricity capacity planning in order to better understand the economic viability of alternative capacity planning options. The study of the implications of water constraints for the U.S. power generation system is limited in terms of scale and robustness. We extend previous studies by including physical water constraints in a state-level model of the U.S. energy system embedded within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM-USA). We focus on the implications of such constraints for the U.S. electricity capacity expansion, integrating both supply and demand effects under a consistent framework. Constraints on the availability of water have two general effects across the U.S. First, water availability constraints increase the cost of electricity generation, resulting in reduced electrification of end-use sectors. Second, water availability constraints result in forced retirements of water-intensive technologies such as thermoelectric coal- and gas- fired technologies before the end of their natural lifetimes. The demand for electricity is then met by an increase in investments in less water-dependent technologies such as wind and solar photovoltaic. Our results show that the regional patterns of the above effects are heterogeneous across the U.S. In general, the impacts of water constraints on electricity capacity expansion are more pronounced in the West than in the East. This is largely because of lower water availability in the West compared to the East due to lower precipitation in the Western states. Constraints on the availability of water might also have important implications for U.S. electricity trade. For example, under severe constraints on the availability of water

  16. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  17. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  18. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  19. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  20. TFTR generator load assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.

    1975-10-01

    Typical experimental load demands on the TFTR generators are illustrated based on the electrical characteristics of the field coils, the coil leads, the main bus work, the various auxiliary bus work, the rectifiers, and transformers. The generator MW capacities are shown to be adequate for the proposed experimental operations with allowances made for variations in the final designs. The generator MVA capacities are shown to be adequate provided portions of the TF and EF rectifiers are freewheeled at selected times

  1. SpectralNET – an application for spectral graph analysis and visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Stuart L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graph theory provides a computational framework for modeling a variety of datasets including those emerging from genomics, proteomics, and chemical genetics. Networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, or other objects of study can be represented as graphs of nodes (vertices and interactions (edges that can carry different weights. SpectralNET is a flexible application for analyzing and visualizing these biological and chemical networks. Results Available both as a standalone .NET executable and as an ASP.NET web application, SpectralNET was designed specifically with the analysis of graph-theoretic metrics in mind, a computational task not easily accessible using currently available applications. Users can choose either to upload a network for analysis using a variety of input formats, or to have SpectralNET generate an idealized random network for comparison to a real-world dataset. Whichever graph-generation method is used, SpectralNET displays detailed information about each connected component of the graph, including graphs of degree distribution, clustering coefficient by degree, and average distance by degree. In addition, extensive information about the selected vertex is shown, including degree, clustering coefficient, various distance metrics, and the corresponding components of the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian eigenvectors. SpectralNET also displays several graph visualizations, including a linear dimensionality reduction for uploaded datasets (Principal Components Analysis and a non-linear dimensionality reduction that provides an elegant view of global graph structure (Laplacian eigenvectors. Conclusion SpectralNET provides an easily accessible means of analyzing graph-theoretic metrics for data modeling and dimensionality reduction. SpectralNET is publicly available as both a .NET application and an ASP.NET web application from http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/resources/. Source code is

  2. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  3. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  4. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  5. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  6. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  7. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  8. Numerical modelling of new rockfall interception nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boetticher, Albrecht; Volkwein, Axel; Wendeler, Corinna

    2010-05-01

    The design and certification of effective rockfall protection barriers is mainly achieved through 1:1 prototype testing. In order to reduce development costs of a prototype it is recommended that pre-studies using numerical simulations are performed. A large component to modelling rockfall protection systems is the numerical simulation of the nets. To date there exist several approaches to model the different mesh types such as ring nets or diagonal meshes (Nicot 1999, Cazzani et al. 2002, Volkwein 2004). However, the consideration of chain link meshes has not yet been realised. Chain link meshes are normally found as standard fence structures. However, they also exist in setups using high-strength steel and wire bundles. These variants show an enormous capacity to retain loads e.g. rockfalls, and at the same time are very efficient due to their low demand of steel material. The increasing application of chain link mesh in barrier systems requires an accurate model is available to complete prototype studies. A new approach now aims to perform a Finite Element simulation of such chain link meshes. The main challenge herein is to achieve the net deformation behaviour that is observed in field tests also in the simulation. A simulation using simple truss elements would not work since it neglects the out-of-plane-height of the mesh construction providing important reserves for local and global high deformations. Thus addressing this, a specially developed Discrete Element is able to reconstruct the mechanical behaviour of the single chain wire (bundles). As input parameters it utilises typical properties such as longitudinal and transversal mesh widths, and break loads resulting from in-plane-tension tests and steel strength. The single chain elements then can be combined to a complete mesh (e.g. 130 x 65 mm, 3 - 4 mm wire with a strength of 1770 N-mm2). Combining these elements with a supporting structure consisting of posts, ropes and energy absorbers, enables the

  9. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  10. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  11. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  12. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  13. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  14. Capacity choices in liberalised electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, Fidel; Marin, Pedro L.; Siotis, Georges

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of investment in electricity generation in the context of a liberalised market. We use the main results derived from a theoretical model where firms invest strategically to simulate the Spanish electricity system with real-world data. Our results indicate that, under reasonable parameter constellations regarding the number of agents, the level of capacity resulting from private decisions falls well short of the social optimum. Last, we show that two regulatory mechanisms that have been used to generate additional incentives for private agents to install capacity (capacity payment and price-adder) are ineffective and/or prohibitively costly.

  15. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  16. Near net shape of powder metallurgy rhenium parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Downs, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a description of the stages of processing necessary to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium component through the use of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) to form a complex shape will be explained. This method was primarily developed for the production of the 440 N and 490 N liquid apogee engine combustion chambers used in satellite positioning systems. The CIP to NNS process has been used in the manufacture and production of other rhenium aerospace components as well. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) to a near net shape utilizing a one or two-part mandrel greatly reduces the quantity of rhenium required to produce the component, and also significantly reduces the number of secondary machining operations necessary to complete the manufacturing process. Further, the developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium manufacturing techniques have generated significant savings in the area of both time and budget. Overall, cost declined by as much as 35 % for the quantity of rhenium chambers, and manufacturing time was decreased by 30-40 %. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber was reduced by approximately 70 %, with a subsequent reduction of nearly 50 % in secondary machining operation schedules. Thus, it is apparent that the overall savings provided by the production of near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium components will be more than merely another aspect of any project involving high temperature applications, it will constitute significant benefit. (author)

  17.  NET and NETosis – new phenomenon in immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matoszka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Neutrophils are one of the first cells of the immune system recruited to the site of infection, representing the host’s most effective and numerous front-line defenders. Recently, a novel antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been described: upon activation, they release DNA and a subset of their granule content, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. These extracellular, chromatin structures, which contain histones and neutrophil granule proteins, can trap and kill a broad spectrum of microbes, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Some of the pathogens, which are trapped and exposed to high local concentrations of antimicrobial compounds, employ strategies against NET binding, including surface modification and/or degradation of NET by DNases. It has been suggested that NETs are formed during active cell death, recently named NETosis. New data indicate that this novel mechanism of cell death requires interaction between three processes – reactive oxygen species generation, histone citrullination and autophagy – and significantly differs from previously known types of cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, the release of nuclear chromatin was also described for other types of cells – mast cells and eosinophils. Mast cells, like neutrophils, under certain conditions release nuclear chromatin and may undergo a similar active cell death program, while eosinophils release only mitochondrial chromatin, and its release does not lead to the death of these cells.

  18. Estimation of livestock appropriation of net primary productivity in Texas Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Washington-Allen; Jody Fitzgerald; Stephanie Grounds; Faisar Jihadi; John Kretzschmar; Kathryn Ramirez; John Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The ecological state of US Drylands is unknown. This research is developing procedures to determine the impact of the ecological footprint of grazing livestock on the productive capacity of US Drylands. A pilot geodatabase was developed for the state of Texas that includes 2002 data for county boundaries, net primary productivity (NPP) derived from the Moderate...

  19. Energy management for vehicle power net with flexible electric load demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Koot, M.W.T.; Jager, de A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The electric power demand in road vehicles increases rapidly and to supply all electric loads efficiently, energy management (EM) turns out to be a necessity. In general, EM exploits the storage capacity of a buffer connected to the vehicle's power net, such that energy is stored or retrieved at

  20. Support to SciDev.Net | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC funding for SciDev.Net (SDN), will enhance the not-for profit organization's ability to provide reliable and authoritative information about science and technology in the developing world as it transitions to a self-sustaining business. The funding will continue to support SDN's service and capacity-building activities, ...

  1. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  2. MANTLE SOURCES OF GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS: GEOLOGY-PHYSICAL SIGNS AND FORECAST-SEARCHING CRITERIONS OF MAPPING; REGULARITY OF AN OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING CAPACITY AS UNLOADING REFLEX OF MANTLE HYDROCARBON-SYSTEMS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH

    OpenAIRE

    Тімурзіїв, А.І.

    2017-01-01

    In the conditions of the developed uncertainty concerning the nature of primary sources (donors) and the generation focal (reactionary chambers) of deep hydrocarbons, questions of the nature of donors and the sources of generation of deep hydrocarbons systems, the mechanism and ways of generation and in-source mobilization of hydrocarbons in the top mantle of the Earth and evacuation (vertical migration) of hydrocarbon-systems from the generation sources in the mantle of the Earth into the ac...

  3. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  4. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  5. Self generation, small generation, and embedded generation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee for electric power restructuring has been directed to examine issues regarding cogeneration and small-scale, on-site generation and how they will fit within the framework of the bilateral contract market. The Committee will also have to deal with issues of generation embedded in a distribution system. The Committee has defined cogeneration as the simultaneous production of electricity and useful thermal energy. Self-generation has been defined as small-scale power generation by an end-user, while embedded generation has been defined as a generation facility that is located within a distribution utility but is not directly connected to the transmission system. The Committee has postponed its decision on whether embedded generation will be eligible to participate under the bilateral contract market for electricity. This report discusses general issues such as the physical support of generation, market support of generation, transition issues and policy issues. It also discusses generation support issues such as operating reserves, transmission tariff issues, and distribution tariffs. Market support issues such as transmission access for generation sales were also considered, along with market access for generation sales, and net metering for behind the meter generation. 7 refs., 1 tab

  6. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  7. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  8. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  9. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  10. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  11. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  12. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  13. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  14. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  15. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  16. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  17. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  18. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net...

  19. Prediction of net energy consumption based on economic indicators (GNP and GDP) in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2007-01-01

    The most important theme in this study is to obtain equations based on economic indicators (gross national product-GNP and gross domestic product-GDP) and population increase to predict the net energy consumption of Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to determine future level of the energy consumption and make correct investments in Turkey. In this study, three different models were used in order to train the ANN. In one of them (Model 1), energy indicators such as installed capacity, generation, energy import and energy export, in second (Model 2), GNP was used and in the third (Model 3), GDP was used as the input layer of the network. The net energy consumption (NEC) is in the output layer for all models. In order to train the neural network, economic and energy data for last 37 years (1968-2005) are used in network for all models. The aim of used different models is to demonstrate the effect of economic indicators on the estimation of NEC. The maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 2.322732, 1.110525 and 1.122048 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. R 2 values were obtained as 0.999444, 0.999903 and 0.999903 for training data of Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The ANN approach shows greater accuracy for evaluating NEC based on economic indicators. Based on the outputs of the study, the ANN model can be used to estimate the NEC from the country's population and economic indicators with high confidence for planing future projections

  20. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  1. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  2. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  3. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that

  4. Opportunities and Benefits for Increasing Transmission Capacity between the US Eastern and Western Interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Acevedo, Armando L.

    Historically, the primary justification for building wide-area transmission lines in the US and around the world has been based on reliability and economic criteria. Today, the influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, transmission needs, load diversity, and grid flexibility requirements drives interest in high capacity wide-area transmission. By making use of an optimization model to perform long-term (15 years) co-optimized generation and transmission expansion planning, this work explored the benefits of increasing transmission capacity between the US Eastern and Western Interconnections under different policy and futures assumptions. The model assessed tradeoffs between investments in cross-interconnection HVDC transmission, AC transmission needs within each interconnection, generation investment costs, and operational costs, while satisfying different policy compliance constraints. Operational costs were broken down into the following market products: energy, up-/down regulation reserve, and contingency reserve. In addition, the system operating flexibility requirements were modeled as a function of net-load variability so that the flexibility of the non-wind/non-solar resources increases with increased wind and solar investment. In addition, planning reserve constraints are imposed under the condition that they be deliverable to the load. Thus, the model allows existing and candidate generation resources for both operating reserves and deliverable planning reserves to be shared throughout the interconnections, a feature which significantly drives identification of least-cost investments. This model is used with a 169-bus representation of the North American power grid to design four different high-capacity wide-area transmission infrastructures. Results from this analysis suggest that, under policy that imposes a high-renewable future, the benefits of high capacity transmission between the Eastern and

  5. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  6. Net climate change mitigation of the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael; Spalding-Fecher, Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has allowed industrialized countries to buy credits from developing countries for the purpose of meeting targets under the Kyoto Protocol. In principle, the CDM simply shifts the location of emission reductions, with no net mitigation impact. Departing from this zero-sum calculus, the Cancun Agreements reached at the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2010 called for “one or more market-based mechanisms” capable of “ensuring a net decrease and/or avoidance of global greenhouse gas emissions”, an intention reiterated at COP 17 and COP 18. This article explores the extent to which the CDM may or may not already lead to such a “net decrease.” It finds that the CDM's net mitigation impact likely hinges on the additionality of large-scale power projects, which are expected to generate the majority of CDM credits going forward. If these projects are truly additional and continue to operate well beyond the credit issuance period, they will decrease global greenhouse gas emissions. However, if they are mostly non-additional, as research suggests, they could increase global greenhouse gas emissions. The article closes with a discussion of possible means to increase mitigation benefit. - Highlights: • The CDM's method for assessing additionality remains controversial and contested. • We develop two scenarios of the net emissions impact of the CDM. • The integrity of the CDM hinges on the emissions impact of power supply projects. • Additionality is hard to demonstrate with confidence for most power-supply projects. • A number of options are available to increase the mitigation benefit of the CDM

  7. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  8. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  9. Capacity planning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Briony

    2011-01-01

    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  10. CellNet: Network Biology Applied to Stem Cell Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Morris, Samantha A.; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Daley, George Q.; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for improving cell derivations. Analyzing expression data from 56 published reports, we found that cells derived via directed differentiation more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts than products of direct conversion, as reflected by the establishment of target cell-type gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Furthermore, we discovered that directly converted cells fail to adequately silence expression programs of the starting population, and that the establishment of unintended GRNs is common to virtually every cellular engineering paradigm. CellNet provides a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type and a rational strategy to guide enhanced cellular engineering. PMID:25126793

  11. Short term clearing of capacity markets : an alternative approach to capacity pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghi, Ariobarzan; Torbaghan, Shahab Shariat; Gibescu, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    In the presence of increasing penetration from renewable energy sources, several control areas in Europe and the US have introduced Capacity Remuneration Mechanisms (CRMs) to ensure sufficient investment in firm electricity generation capacity. However, due to their long-term focus, these mechanisms

  12. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  13. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M and O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide

  14. StreamNet, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bruce; Roger, Phil; Butterfield, Bart (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Gladstone, OR)

    2001-09-01

    The StreamNet Project is a cooperative project that provides basic fishery management data in a consistent format across the Columbia Basin region, with some data from outside the region. Specific categories of data are acquired from the multiple data generating agencies in the Columbia Basin, converted into a standardized data exchange format (DEF) and distributed to fish researchers, managers and decision makers directly or through an on-line data retrieval system (www.streamnet.org). The project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. This cooperative effort is composed of a region-wide project administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) that is responsible for project management, regional data management and data delivery (Region), plus seven contributing projects within the data generating entities: Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG); Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW); Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS); and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The contributing projects are funded through the StreamNet contract but work within their respective agencies and are referred to here as the agency's StreamNet project (for example, ''IDFG StreamNet'' for Idaho's project). The StreamNet Project provides an important link in the chain of data flow in the Columbia Basin, with specific emphasis on data collected routinely over time by management agencies. Basic fish related data are collected in the field by the various state, tribal and federal agencies in the basin for purposes related to each agency's individual mission and responsibility. As a result, there often is a lack of standardization among agencies in field methodology or data management. To be

  15. StreamNet, annual report FY 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    The StreamNet Project is a cooperative project that provides basic fishery management data in a consistent format across the Columbia Basin region, with some data from outside the region. Specific categories of data are acquired from the multiple data generating agencies in the Columbia Basin, converted into a standardized data exchange format (DEF) and distributed to fish researchers, managers and decision makers directly or through an on-line data retrieval system (www.streamnet.org). The project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. This cooperative effort is composed of a region-wide project administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) that is responsible for project management, regional data management and data delivery (Region), plus seven contributing projects within the data generating entities: Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG); Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW); Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS); and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The contributing projects are funded through the StreamNet contract but work within their respective agencies and are referred to here as the agency's StreamNet project (for example, ''IDFG StreamNet'' for Idaho's project). The StreamNet Project provides an important link in the chain of data flow in the Columbia Basin, with specific emphasis on data collected routinely over time by management agencies. Basic fish related data are collected in the field by the various state, tribal and federal agencies in the basin for purposes related to each agency's individual mission and responsibility. As a result, there often is a lack of standardization among agencies in field methodology or data management. To be able to utilize data for comparison or

  16. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  17. Reliability modelling of repairable systems using Petri nets and fuzzy Lambda-Tau methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, J.; Odoom, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is developed which uses Petri nets instead of the fault tree methodology and solves for reliability indices utilising fuzzy Lambda-Tau method. Fuzzy set theory is used for representing the failure rate and repair time instead of the classical (crisp) set theory because fuzzy numbers allow expert opinions, linguistic variables, operating conditions, uncertainty and imprecision in reliability information to be incorporated into the system model. Petri nets are used because unlike the fault tree methodology, the use of Petri nets allows efficient simultaneous generation of minimal cut and path sets

  18. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  19. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  20. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.