WorldWideScience

Sample records for net energy imports

  1. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  2. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  3. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  4. Egypt risks to become net importer of energy toward the year 2000 according to the World Bank. L'Egypte risque de devenir importateur net d'energie vers l'an 2000 selon la banque mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-05-01

    Petroleum exports were about the two-third of the whole goods exports of Egypt in the eighties years, but this part is getting under 50%, because a lower growth of exported volume and because of the reduction of prices. As these kinds of things are continuing during the nineties years and the local petroleum consumption is increasing, Egypt could become a net importer of petroleum products at the end of the century.

  5. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  6. Defining net zero energy buildings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide increasing attention to energy consumption and associated environmental impacts thereof has resulted in a critical attitude towards energy usage of building. Increasing costs of energy and dependence on energy service providers add...

  7. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  8. Net energy analysis: Powerful tool for selecting electric power options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S.

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  9. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  10. Net-Zero Energy Technical Shelter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    Technical shelters are the basic structures for storing electronic and technical equipment, and commonly used for telecommunication base station, windmill, gas station, etc. Due to their high internal heat load density and special operation schedule, they consume more energy than normal residential...... or commercial buildings. On the other hand, it is a big challenge to power the technical shelter in remote area where the grids are either not available or the expansion of grid is expensive. In order to minimize the energy consumption and obtain a reliable and cost-efficient power solution for technical...... shelter, this study will apply the net-zero energy concept into the technical shelter design. The energy conservation can be achieved by proper design of building envelop and optimization of the cooling strategies. Both experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the indoor...

  11. Energy balance framework for Net Zero Energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approaching a Net Zero Energy (NZE) building goal based on current definitions is flawed for two principal reasons - they only deal with energy quantities required for operations, and they do not establish a threshold, which ensures that buildings are optimized for reduced consum...

  12. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, Charles; Gupta, Smita; Torcellini, Paul; Mchugh, Jon; Liu, Bing; Higgins, Cathy; Iplikci, Jessica; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2017-06-30

    The submitted Roundtable discussion covers zero net energy (ZNE) buildings and their expansion into the market as a more widely adopted approach for various building types and sizes. However, the market is still small, and this discussion brings together distinguished researchers, designers, policy makers, and program administrations to represent the key factors making ZNE building more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This roundtable was conducted by the ASHRAE Journal with Bing Liu, P.E., Member ASHRAE, Charles Eley, FAIA, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Smita Gupta, Itron; Cathy Higgins, New Buildings Institute; Jessica Iplikci, Energy Trust of Oregon; Jon McHugh, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Michael Rosenberg, Member ASHRAE; and Paul Torcellini, Ph.D., P.E., NREL.

  13. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  14. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    energy which is then used to drive a heat engine to generate electrical power. Geothermal Power – These systems use thermal energy generated and...stored in the earth as a generating source for electricity. Several pilot installations are investigating this technology by conducting geothermal ...concentrate solar thermal energy which is then used to drive a heat engine to generate electrical power. • Geothermal Power - These systems use thermal energy

  15. Energy performance of net-zero and near net-zero energy homes in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Walter D.

    Net-Zero Energy Homes (NZEHs) are homes that consume no more energy than they produce on site during the course of a year. They are well insulated and sealed, use energy efficient appliances, lighting, and mechanical equipment, are designed to maximize the benefits from day lighting, and most often use a combination of solar hot water, passive solar and photovoltaic (PV) panels to produce their on-site energy. To date, NZEHs make up a miniscule percentage of homes in the United States, and of those, few have had their actual performance measured and analyzed once built and occupied. This research focused on 19 NZEHs and near net-zero energy homes (NNZEHs) built in New England. This set of homes had varying designs, numbers of occupants, and installed technologies for energy production, space heating and cooling, and domestic hot water systems. The author worked with participating homeowners to collect construction and systems specifications, occupancy information, and twelve months of energy consumption, production and cost measurements, in order to determine whether the homes reached their respective energy performance design goals. The author found that six out of ten NZEHs achieved net-zero energy or better, while all nine of the NNZEHs achieved an energy density (kWh/ft 2/person) at least half as low as the control house, also built in New England. The median construction cost for the 19 homes was 155/ft 2 vs. 110/ft2 for the US average, their average monthly energy cost was 84% below the average for homes in New England, and their estimated CO2 emissions averaged 90% below estimated CO2 emissions from the control house. Measured energy consumption averaged 14% below predictions for the NZEHs and 38% above predictions for the NNZEHs, while generated energy was within +/- 10% of predicted for 17 out of 18 on-site PV systems. Based on these results, the author concludes that these types of homes can meet or exceed their designed energy performance (depending on

  16. Import of grey electricity from Germany. The impact of taking over the German E.ON-grid on wind energy in the Netherlands; Import Duitse grijze stroom niet opeens gemakkelijker. Overname Duits net vooralsnog neutraal voor windenergie in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, P.

    2010-03-15

    At the end of 2009 the Dutch Transmission System Operator TenneT took over the German E.ON grid. The question that arises: will the take-over result in lower prices for electricity in the Netherlands? According to experts, the main determining factor is still the market and the effect of the take-over on grey and green electricity is neutral. However, the transport cost will increase due to investments in improvement of the grid. [Dutch] Eind 2009 nam de Nederlandse Transmission System Operator TenneT het Duitse E.ON-net over. De vraag is of de overname leidt tot lagere prijzen voor elektriciteit in Nederland. Volgens deskundigen is vooralsnog de markt bepalend en is de overname neutraal voor groene en grijze stroom. Wel zullen de transportkosten stijgen vanwege investeringen voor verbeteringen van het netwerk.

  17. Fermentative biohydrogen production: Evaluation of net energy gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J.; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany [Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88011 (United States); Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana [Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Most dark fermentation (DF) studies had resorted to above-ambient temperatures to maximize hydrogen yield, without due consideration of the net energy gain. In this study, literature data on fermentative hydrogen production from glucose, sucrose, and organic wastes were compiled to evaluate the benefit of higher fermentation temperatures in terms of net energy gain. This evaluation showed that the improvement in hydrogen yield at higher temperatures is not justified as the net energy gain not only declined with increase of temperature, but also was mostly negative when the fermentation temperature exceeded 25 C. To maximize the net energy gain of DF, the following two options for recovering additional energy from the end products and to determine the optimal fermentation temperature were evaluated: methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD); and direct electricity production via microbial fuel cells (MFC). Based on net energy gain, it is concluded that DF has to be operated at near-ambient temperatures for the net energy gain to be positive; and DF + MFC can result in higher net energy gain at any temperature than DF or DF + AD. (author)

  18. Net energy evaluation of feeds and determination of net energy requirements for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Noblet

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Feeds for pigs can be attributed different energy values according to, first, the step considered in energy utilization (DE: digestible energy, ME: metabolizable energy and NE: net energy and, second, the method used for estimation at each step. Reference methods for evaluating DE content are based on in vivo digestibility measurements; indirect estimates of DE values are obtained from in vitro methods or prediction equations based on chemical characteristics. Methods have also been proposed for estimating urinary energy (and gas energy to a smaller extent in order to calculate ME content from DE value. The NE values originate from energy balance studies (slaughter methods or, more commonly, indirect calorimetry measurements in respiration chambers and their compilation allows the calculation of NE prediction equations based on digestible nutrient contents or DE or ME contents. Such equations are applicable to both ingredients and compound feeds. They may differ between origins according to the fractionation method of organic matter or assumptions such as the NE requirement for maintenance (or fasting heat production. These measurements represent the bases for establishment of energy values in feeding tables. Results indicate that energy digestibility of feeds is negatively affected by dietary fibre content but this negative effect is attenuated with body weight increase, which suggests that feeds should be attributed DE values according to pig BW; in practice, at least two different DE values, one for growing-finishing pigs and one for mature pigs (reproductive sows, are recommended. The energy digestibility of pig feeds can also be affected by feed processing (pelletting, extrusion, etc.. Efficiency of ME utilization for NE averages 74-75% for conventional pig diets but it is directly dependent on diet chemical composition with efficiencies higher for ME from fat (90% or starch (82% than from protein or dietary fibre (60%. The hierarchy

  19. Load Matching and Grid Interaction of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Karsten; Sartori, Igor; Napolitano, Assunta

    2010-01-01

    of seasonal energy storage on-site. Even though the wording “Net Zero Energy Building” focuses on the annual energy balance, large differences may occur between solution sets in the amount of grid interaction needed to reach the goal. The paper reports on the analysis of example buildings concerning the load...... matching and grid interaction. Indices to describe both issues are proposed and foreseen as part of a harmonized definition framework. The work is part of subtask A of the IEA SHCP Task40/ECBCS Annex 52: “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”.......“Net Zero Energy Building” has become a prominent wording to describe the synergy of energy efficient building and renewable energy utilization to reach a balanced energy budget over a yearly cycle. Taking into account the energy exchange with a grid infrastructure overcomes the limitations...

  20. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Westby, R.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes the strategic importance of energy to its mission, and is working to reduce energy consumption and enhance energy self-sufficiency by drawing on local clean energy sources. A joint initiative formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to address military energy use led to a task force to examine the potential for net zero energy military installations, which would produce as much energy on site as they consume in buildings, facilities, and fleet vehicles. This report presents an assessment and planning process to examine military installations for net zero energy potential. Net Zero Energy Installation Assessment (NZEIA) presents a systematic framework to analyze energy projects at installations while balancing other site priorities such as mission, cost, and security.

  1. Criteria for Definition of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartori, Igor; Napolitano, Assunta; Marszal, Anna Joanna

    2010-01-01

    without a clear understanding and countries are enacting policies and national targets based on the concept without a clear definition in place. This paper presents a harmonised framework for describing the relevant characteristics of Net ZEBs in a series of criteria. Evaluation of the criteria......The idea of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) is understood conceptually, as it is understood that the way a Net ZEB is defined affects significantly the way it is designed in order to achieve the goal. However, little agreement exists on a common definition; the term is used commercially...... and selection of the related options becomes a methodology for elaborating sound Net ZEB definitions in a formal, systematic and comprehensive way, creating the basis for legislations and action plans to effectively achieve the political targets. The common denominator for the different possible Net ZEB...

  2. Calculation Tool for Determining the Net Energy Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    for windows are presented. Based on these methods a program has been developed that determines the heat loss coefficient, U, and the total solar energy transmittance, g, for windows compounded of specific window components selected from a database. The program calculates the net energy gain for specific....... A proper and direct way to describe the energy performance of windows is by the net energy gain, E, which expresses the energy balance for the window. It is defined as the solar heat gain transmitted in minus the heat loss transmitted out through the window during the heating season. The net energy gain...... is dependent on both the U-values and the g-values. Beyond this it is dependent on the orientation of the windows and the climate and the actual period. This makes it difficult to choose the glazings and windows that are optimal with regard to energy performance in a given case. These facts have aroused a need...

  3. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  4. A Cellular Approach to Net-Zero Energy Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Amado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic technology and a rapid reduction in its cost confirms the potential of solar power on a large scale. In this context, planning for the deployment of smart grids is among the most important challenges to support the increased penetration of solar energy in urban areas and to ensure the resilience of the electricity system. As part this effort, the present paper describes a cellular approach to a Net-Zero energy concept, based on the balance between the potential solar energy supply and the existing consumption patterns at the urban unit scale. To do that, the Geographical Urban Units Delimitation model (GUUD has been developed and tested on a case study. By applying the GUUD model, which combines Geographic Information Systems (GIS, parametric modelling, and solar dynamic analysis, the whole area of the city was divided into urban cells, categorized as solar producers and energy consumers. The discussion around three theoretical scenarios permits us to explore how smart grids can be approached and promoted from an urban planning perspective. The paper provides insights into how urban planning can be a driver to optimize and manage energy balance across the city if the deployment of smart grids is correctly integrated in its operative process.

  5. Net Balanced Floorplanning Based on Elastic Energy Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    with balanced net delays to increase the safety margins of the design. In this paper, we investigate the properties of floorplanning based on the elastic energy model. The B*-tree, which is based on an ordered binary tree, is used for circuit representation and the elastic energy is used as the cost function...

  6. Denmark's net'zero energy home'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    ; a trampoline sits on the neatly trimmed lawn. But this house is different. Using ecologically benign materials, a rooftop of solar panels, and energy-scrimping designs, the house generates more than enough power to run itself. Inside, a family of five is testing out the ultimate model home. Windows in all four...

  7. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus was chosen as a target of this study to be investigated and analyzed in order to know how energy efficiency strategies could be applied to the building to reduce annual energy consumption. Since this research objective is to develop a strategy to achieve net-zero energy in existing buildings, case study and problem solving methodologies were applied in this research in order to evaluate the building design in a qualitative manner through observations, in addition to a quantitative method through an energy modeling simulation to achieve desirable results which address the problems. After optimizing the building energy performance, an alternative energy simulation was made of the building in order to make an energy comparison analysis, which leads to reliable conclusions. These methodologies and the strategies used in this research can be applied to similar buildings in order to achieve net-zero energy goals.

  8. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Bardi, Ugo; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy fl...

  9. Energy and momentum analysis of the deployment dynamics of nets in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Eleonora M.; Sharf, Inna; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the deployment dynamics of nets in space is investigated through a combination of analysis and numerical simulations. The considered net is deployed by ejecting several corner masses and thanks to momentum and energy transfer from those to the innermost threads of the net. In this study, the net is modeled with a lumped-parameter approach, and assumed to be symmetrical, subject to symmetrical initial conditions, and initially slack. The work-energy and momentum conservation principles are employed to carry out centroidal analysis of the net, by conceptually partitioning the net into a system of corner masses and the net proper and applying the aforementioned principles to the corresponding centers of mass. The analysis provides bounds on the values that the velocity of the center of mass of the corner masses and the velocity of the center of mass of the net proper can individually attain, as well as relationships between these and different energy contributions. The analytical results allow to identify key parameters characterizing the deployment dynamics of nets in space, which include the ratio between the mass of the corner masses and the total mass, the initial linear momentum, and the direction of the initial velocity vectors. Numerical tools are employed to validate and interpret further the analytical observations. Comparison of deployment results with and without initial velocity of the net proper suggests that more complete and lasting deployment can be achieved if the corner masses alone are ejected. A sensitivity study is performed for the key parameters identified from the energy/momentum analysis, and the outcome establishes that more lasting deployment and safer capture (i.e., characterized by higher traveled distance) can be achieved by employing reasonably lightweight corner masses, moderate shooting angles, and low shooting velocities. A comparison with current literature on tether-nets for space debris capture confirms overall

  10. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Han, Gi Ppeum; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-09-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary net energy (NE) concentrations on growth performance and NE intake of growing gilts. Five diets were formulated to contain 9.6, 10.1, 10.6, 11.1, and 11.6 MJ NE/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial with 10 growing pigs (average body weight [BW] = 15.9±0.24 kg) was conducted to determine NE concentrations of 5 diets based on French and Dutch NE systems in a 5×5 replicated Latin square design. A growth trial also was performed with five dietary treatments and 12 replicates per treatment using 60 growing gilts (average BW = 15.9±0.55 kg) for 28 days. A regression analysis was performed to predict daily NE intake from the BW of growing gilts. Increasing NE concentrations of diets did not influence average daily gain and average daily feed intake of growing gilts. There was a quadratic relationship (p = 0.01) between dietary NE concentrations and feed efficiency (G:F), although the difference in G:F among treatment means was relatively small. Regression analysis revealed that daily NE intake was linearly associated with the BW of growing gilts. The prediction equations for NE intake with the BW of growing gilts were: NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.442+(0.562×BW, kg), R 2 = 0.796 when French NE system was used, whereas NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.533+(0.614×BW, kg), R 2 = 0.810 when Dutch NE system was used. Increasing NE concentrations of diets from 9.6 to 11.6 MJ NE/kg have little impacts on growth performance of growing gilts. Daily NE intake can be predicted from the BW between 15 and 40 kg in growing gilts.

  11. Divisia decomposition method and its application to changes of net oil import intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Liao; Zhao-Yi; Ce Wang

    2013-01-01

    The existing oil import dependence index cannot exactly measure the economic cost or scales, and it is difficult to describe the economical aspect of oil security. To measure the foreign dependence of one country's economy and reflect its oil economic security, this paper defines the net oil import intensity as the ratio of net import cost to GDP. By using Divisia Index Decomposition, the change of net oil import intensity in five industrialized countries and five newly industrialized countri...

  12. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton, Net-Kaon, and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program is to study the QCD phase structure, which includes the search for the QCD critical point, over a wide range of chemical potential. Theoretical calculations predict that fluctuations of conserved quantities, such as baryon number (B), charge (Q), and strangeness (S), are sensitive to the correlation length of the dynamical system. Experimentally, higher moments of multiplicity distributions have been utilized to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report recent efficiency-corrected cumulants and cumulants ratios of the net- proton, net-kaon, and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in the years 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants up to the fourth order, as well as their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-c...

  13. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  14. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  15. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that

  16. Net-Zero-Energy Model for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Qin, Rong-Cong; Guo, Jin-Song; Yu, Qiang; Li, Zhe; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang

    2017-01-17

    A large external energy input prevents wastewater treatment from being environmentally sustainable. A net-zero-energy (NZE) wastewater treatment concept based on biomass energy recycling was proposed to avoid wasting resources and to promote energy recycling in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Simultaneously, a theoretical model and boundary condition based on energy balance were established to evaluate the feasibility of achieving NZE in WWTPs; the model and condition were employed to analyze data from 20 conventional WWTPs in China. A total of six WWTPs can currently export excess energy, eight WWTPs can achieve 100% energy self-sufficiency by adjusting the metabolic material allocation, and six municipal WWTPs cannot achieve net-zero energy consumption based on the evaluation of the theoretical model. The NZE model offset 79.5% of the electricity and sludge disposal cost compared with conventional wastewater treatment. The NZE model provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of material regulation for the effective utilization of organic energy from wastewater and promotes engineering applications of the NZE concept in WWTPs.

  17. [Net energy analysis for annual 200 000 ton cassava ethanol production at Guangxi COFCO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Guojun; Sun, Zhenjiang; Shen, Naidong

    2015-02-01

    Guangxi COFCO innovates its annual 200 000 ton cassava ethanol production in recent years. To evaluate the energy input/output of the production process, we used the domestic life cycle model. The calculation results show that the net energy value was 9.56 MJ/L ethanol. Energy input for ethanol production was 51.3% of the total. 61.5% of energy input for ethanol production was used for steam input in ethanol distillation. Energy produced from by-product was 5.03 MJ/L ethanol. Hence, efficient use of raw materials is an important measure to improve the energy efficiency in Guangxi COFCO and energy compensation from byproducts has key impact on the net energy saving.

  18. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. W.

    2010-10-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  19. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  20. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  1. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

    2011-09-01

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  2. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  3. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopko, Joanna [Warsaw University of Technology, The Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Institute of Computer Science, Nowowiejska Street 15/19, Warsaw 00-665 (Poland)

    2015-12-31

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  4. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  5. Geothermal energy: an important resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowling, Carolyn B; Neumann, Klaus; Florea, Lee J

    2016-01-01

    .... Contributions include studies on the feasibility of integrating geological modeling with system design, extraction of low-temperature geothermal energy in underground coal mines, ground-source heat...

  6. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification and catalytic methanation is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and GHG emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects of producing electricity, heat, methanol and methane. The Gas Technology......-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance...... Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw...

  7. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  8. Improvement potential for net energy balance of biodiesel derived from palm oil: A case study from Indonesian practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamahara, Hirotsugu [Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hasanudin, Udin [Department of Agroindustrial Technology, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Widiyanto, Anugerah [International Cooperation Center for Engineering Education Development, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tachibana, Ryuichi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Atsuta, Yoichi; Goto, Naohiro; Daimon, Hiroyuki [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujie, Koichi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Biodiesel derived from palm oil has been recognized as a high-productivity oil crop among the first generation of biofuels. This study evaluated and discussed the net energy balance for biodiesel in Indonesia by calculating the net energy ratio (NER) and net energy production (NEP) form the total energy input and output. The results of the calculation of energy input for the default scenario demonstrated that the primary energy inputs in the biodiesel production lifecycle were the methanol feedstock, energy input during the biodiesel production process, and urea production. These three items amounted to 85% of the total energy input. Next, we considered and evaluated ways to potentially improve the energy balance by utilizing by-products and biogas from wastewater treatment in the palm oil mill. This result emphasized the importance of utilizing the biomass residue and by-products. Finally, we discussed the need to be aware of energy balance issues between countries when biofuels are transported internationally. (author)

  9. Zero Net Energy Myths and Modes of Thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Diamond, Rick; Burke, Bill

    2010-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), and a number of professional organizations have established a target of zero net energy (ZNE) in buildings by 2030. One definition of ZNE is a building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. The push to ZNE is a response to research indicating that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the eighteenth century, resulting in a gradual warming of the Earth?s climate. A review of ZNE policies reveals that the organizations involved frame the ZNE issue in diverse ways, resulting in a wide variety of myths and a divergent set of epistemologies. With federal and state money poised to promote ZNE, it is timely to investigate how epistemologies, meaning a belief system by which we take facts and convert them into knowledge upon which to take action, and the propagation of myths might affect the outcome of a ZNE program. This paper outlines myths commonly discussed in the energy efficiency and renewable energy communities related to ZNE and describes how each myth is a different way of expressing"the truth." The paper continues by reviewing a number of epistemologies common to energy planning, and concludes that the organizations involved in ZNE should work together to create a"collaborative rationality" for ZNE. Through this collaborative framework it is argued that we may be able to achieve the ZNE and greenhouse gas mitigation targets.

  10. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Net-Zero Energy Building Operator Training Program (NZEBOT) was to develop certificate level training programs for commercial building owners, managers and operators, principally in the areas of energy / sustainability management. The expected outcome of the project was a multi-faceted mechanism for developing the skill-based competency of building operators, owners, architects/engineers, construction professionals, tenants, brokers and other interested groups in energy efficient building technologies and best practices. The training program draws heavily on DOE supported and developed materials available in the existing literature, as well as existing, modified, and newly developed curricula from the Department of Engineering Technology & Construction Management (ETCM) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC-Charlotte). The project goal is to develop a certificate level training curriculum for commercial energy and sustainability managers and building operators that: 1) Increases the skill-based competency of building professionals in energy efficient building technologies and best practices, and 2) Increases the workforce pool of expertise in energy management and conservation techniques. The curriculum developed in this project can subsequently be used to establish a sustainable energy training program that can contribute to the creation of new “green” job opportunities in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast region, and workforce training that leads to overall reductions in commercial building energy consumption. Three energy training / education programs were developed to achieve the stated goal, namely: 1. Building Energy/Sustainability Management (BESM) Certificate Program for Building Managers and Operators (40 hours); 2. Energy Efficient Building Technologies (EEBT) Certificate Program (16 hours); and 3. Energy Efficent Buildings (EEB) Seminar (4 hours). Training Program 1 incorporates the following

  11. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy flow to sustain the world's economy and population. We show that a feasible transition pathway requires that the rate of investment in renewable energy should accelerate approximately by an order of magnitude if we are to stay within the range of IPCC recommendations.

  12. The Sower's way. Quantifying the Narrowing Net-Energy Pathways to a Global Energy Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes

    2016-01-01

    Planning the appropriate renewable energy installation rate should balance two partially contradictory objectives: substituting fossil fuels fast enough to stave-off the worst consequences of climate change while maintaining a sufficient net energy flow to support the world's economy. The upfront energy invested in constructing a renewable energy infrastructure subtracts from the net energy available for societal energy needs, a fact typically neglected in energy projections. Modeling feasible energy transition pathways to provide different net energy levels we find that they are critically dependent on the fossil fuel emissions cap and phase-out profile and on the characteristic energy return on energy invested of the renewable energy technologies. The easiest pathway requires installation of renewable energy plants to accelerate from 0.12TWp/year in 2013 to peak between 6.6 and 10.4 TWp/year, for an early or a late fossil-fuel phase-out respectively in order for emissions to stay within the recommended CO2 ...

  13. Assessing the energy intensities of imports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.J; Noorman, K.J.; Biesiot, W

    Embodied energy intensities denote the amount of energy (direct and indirect) that is required to produce one unit of economic output. These embodied energy intensities should include imports. The energy intensities of imports are in most cases unknown and are therefore often neglected or assumed to

  14. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  15. Importance of energy balance in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    inputs) ones. Energy outputs (EO) are considered as the calorific value of the harvested biomass (main products and sub-products), calculated from the total production (kg/ha) and its corresponding energy coefficient (strongly correlated to the biochemical composition of the products). Based on energy inputs and outputs, energy efficiency can be expressed as (i) net energy produced (NE) (also known as energy gain or energy balance, calculated as EI-EO and expressed as MJ/ha), (ii) the energy output/input ratio (also known as energy efficiency and calculated as EO/EI), and (iii) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI, expressed as kg/MJ). Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  16. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  17. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  18. Predicting Energy Performance of a Net-Zero Energy Building: A Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua; Webb, David

    2016-01-01

    Performance-based building requirements have become more prevalent because it gives freedom in building design while still maintaining or exceeding the energy performance required by prescriptive-based requirements. In order to determine if building designs reach target energy efficiency improvements, it is necessary to estimate the energy performance of a building using predictive models and different weather conditions. Physics-based whole building energy simulation modeling is the most common approach. However, these physics-based models include underlying assumptions and require significant amounts of information in order to specify the input parameter values. An alternative approach to test the performance of a building is to develop a statistically derived predictive regression model using post-occupancy data that can accurately predict energy consumption and production based on a few common weather-based factors, thus requiring less information than simulation models. A regression model based on measured data should be able to predict energy performance of a building for a given day as long as the weather conditions are similar to those during the data collection time frame. This article uses data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) to develop and validate a regression model to predict the energy performance of the NZERTF using two weather variables aggregated to the daily level, applies the model to estimate the energy performance of hypothetical NZERTFs located in different cities in the Mixed-Humid climate zone, and compares these estimates to the results from already existing EnergyPlus whole building energy simulations. This regression model exhibits agreement with EnergyPlus predictive trends in energy production and net consumption, but differs greatly in energy consumption. The model can be used as a framework for alternative and more complex models based on the

  19. Net energy output from harvesting small-diameter trees using a mechanized system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    What amount of extra energy can be generated after subtracting the total energy consumed to produce the biomass energy? Knowing the ratio between energy output and input is a valid question when highly mechanized systems that consume fossil fuels are used to harvest and transport forest biomass for energy. We estimated the net energy generated from mechanical fuel...

  20. Nearly Net-Zero Exergy Districts as Models for Smart Energy Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2017-01-01

    ... Östra Sala backe, which will have a new energy concept. The latter is analysed based on proposals for two phases that aim to reach a net-zero district target based on the quality of energy (exergy...

  1. Prediction of net energy consumption based on economic indicators (GNP and GDP) in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan [Technical Education Faculty, Mechanical Education Department, Energy Section, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kirikkale University, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    The most important theme in this study is to obtain equations based on economic indicators (gross national product - GNP and gross domestic product - GDP) and population increase to predict the net energy consumption of Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to determine future level of the energy consumption and make correct investments in Turkey. In this study, three different models were used in order to train the ANN. In one of them (Model 1), energy indicators such as installed capacity, generation, energy import and energy export, in second (Model 2), GNP was used and in the third (Model 3), GDP was used as the input layer of the network. The net energy consumption (NEC) is in the output layer for all models. In order to train the neural network, economic and energy data for last 37 years (1968-2005) are used in network for all models. The aim of used different models is to demonstrate the effect of economic indicators on the estimation of NEC. The maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 2.322732, 1.110525 and 1.122048 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. R{sup 2} values were obtained as 0.999444, 0.999903 and 0.999903 for training data of Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The ANN approach shows greater accuracy for evaluating NEC based on economic indicators. Based on the outputs of the study, the ANN model can be used to estimate the NEC from the country's population and economic indicators with high confidence for planing future projections. (author)

  2. Energy Use Consequences of Ventilating a Net-Zero Energy House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C.; Payne, W. Vance

    2016-01-01

    A Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to demonstrate that a home similar in size, aesthetics, and amenities to those in the surrounding communities can achieve net-zero energy use over the course of a year while meeting the average electricity and water use needs of a family of four in the United States. The facility incorporates renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including an air-to-air heat pump system, a solar photovoltaic system, a solar thermal domestic hot water system, and a heat recovery ventilation system sized to meet American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2-2010 ventilation requirements. The largest energy end use within the home was space conditioning, which included heat loss through the building envelope, ventilation air supplied by the heat recovery ventilator (HRV), and internal loads. While HRVs are often described as being able to save energy when compared to ventilating without heat recovery, there have been no studies using a full year of measured data that determine the thermal load and energy impacts of HRV-based ventilation on the central heating and cooling system. Over the course of a year, continuous operation of the HRV at the NZERTF resulted in an annual savings of 7 % in heat pump energy use compared with the hypothetical case of ventilating without heat recovery. The heat pump electrical use varied from an increase of 5 % in the cooling months to 36 % savings in the heating months compared with ventilation without heat recovery. The increase in the cooling months occurred when the outdoor temperature was lower than the indoor temperature, during which the availability of an economizer mode would have been beneficial. Nevertheless, the fan energy required to operate the selected HRV at the NZERTF paid for itself in the heat pump energy saved

  3. Energy Use Consequences of Ventilating a Net-Zero Energy House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Payne, W Vance

    2016-03-05

    A Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to demonstrate that a home similar in size, aesthetics, and amenities to those in the surrounding communities can achieve net-zero energy use over the course of a year while meeting the average electricity and water use needs of a family of four in the United States. The facility incorporates renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including an air-to-air heat pump system, a solar photovoltaic system, a solar thermal domestic hot water system, and a heat recovery ventilation system sized to meet American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2-2010 ventilation requirements. The largest energy end use within the home was space conditioning, which included heat loss through the building envelope, ventilation air supplied by the heat recovery ventilator (HRV), and internal loads. While HRVs are often described as being able to save energy when compared to ventilating without heat recovery, there have been no studies using a full year of measured data that determine the thermal load and energy impacts of HRV-based ventilation on the central heating and cooling system. Over the course of a year, continuous operation of the HRV at the NZERTF resulted in an annual savings of 7 % in heat pump energy use compared with the hypothetical case of ventilating without heat recovery. The heat pump electrical use varied from an increase of 5 % in the cooling months to 36 % savings in the heating months compared with ventilation without heat recovery. The increase in the cooling months occurred when the outdoor temperature was lower than the indoor temperature, during which the availability of an economizer mode would have been beneficial. Nevertheless, the fan energy required to operate the selected HRV at the NZERTF paid for itself in the heat pump energy saved

  4. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an NREL assessment of Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to appraise the potential of achieving net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Pacific Command partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency at Hawaii military installations. DOE selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. This paper summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. The analysis shows that MCBH Kaneohe Bay has the potential to make significant progress toward becoming a net zero installation. Wind, solar photovoltaics, solar hot water, and hydrogen production were assessed, as well as energy efficiency technologies. Deploying wind turbines is the most cost-effective energy production measure. If the identified energy projects and savings measures are implemented, the base will achieve a 96% site Btu reduction and a 99% source Btu reduction. Using excess wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen for a fleet and fuel cells could significantly reduce energy use and potentially bring MCBH Kaneohe Bay to net zero. Further analysis with an environmental impact and interconnection study will need to be completed. By achieving net zero status, the base will set an example for other military installations, provide environmental benefits, reduce costs, increase energy security, and exceed its energy goals and mandates.

  5. Energy efficiency based joint cell selection and power allocation scheme for HetNets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Kobia Mensah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous networks (HetNets composed of overlapped cells with different sizes are expected to improve the transmission performance of data service significantly. User equipments (UEs in the overlapped area of multiple cells might be able to access various base stations (BSs of the cells, resulting in various transmission performances due to cell heterogeneity. Hence, designing optimal cell selection scheme is of particular importance for it may affect user quality of service (QoS and network performance significantly. In this paper, we jointly consider cell selection and transmit power allocation problem in a HetNet consisting of multiple cells. For a single UE case, we formulate the energy efficiency of the UE, and propose an energy efficient optimization scheme which selects the optimal cell corresponding to the maximum energy efficiency of the UE. The problem is then extended to multiple UEs case. To achieve joint performance optimization of all the UEs, we formulate an optimization problem with the objective of maximizing the sum energy efficiency of UEs subject to QoS and power constraints. The formulated nonlinear fractional optimization problem is equivalently transformed into two subproblems, i.e., power allocation subproblem of each UE-cell pair, and cell selection subproblem of UEs. The two subproblems are solved respectively through applying Lagrange dual method and Kuhn–Munkres (K-M algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Federal Campuses Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined a zero energy campus as "an energy-efficient campus where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This handbook is focused on applying the EERE definition of zero energy campuses to federal sector campuses. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  7. Understanding the importance of an energy crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtenberg, Abigail Reid

    Human development and energy, in general, and electrical energy, specifically, co-exist seamlessly in high HDI countries where reliability and availability is greater than 99%. In numerous low HDI countries, there is 2-50% electric grid availability with reliability at or below 50% due to load shedding and faults. In Africa, solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric energy production are cited to meet growing demand and increase reliability and availability; however, the capital costs are greater than the ability-to-pay for wide scale implementation. Since the 1970s, the United States has continued to argue over the new sustainable energy infrastructure solution(s); thus resulting in no new infrastructure being built for wide scale implementation. Together the world is facing the daunting task of averting an energy crisis in developed countries and facing energy crises in developing countries. This thesis explores the importance of energy crises: from the past, current, and future. The first part entails arguing that the United States is not on a pathway to prevent an energy crisis based on an analysis of 1986 and 2004 niche and status-quo manufacturing of light-duty vehicles. The second part answers the question of what an energy crisis looks like by exploring and investigating current electrical energy crises in Fort Portal, Uganda. This part used both anthropological and physics education empowerment research to co-design and build for various energy crisis situations in hospitals, schools, and businesses all from locally available materials and expertise. Finally, looking into the US light-duty vehicle's future, I design a new hybrid vehicle powertrain (called transition mode hybrid). This third part describes my new patent as a way to avert an energy crisis in the light-duty transportation sector.

  8. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  10. Beam Energy and System Size Dependence of Dynamical Net Charge Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2008-07-21

    We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu + Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4, 200 GeV, and p + p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub {+-},dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are non-zero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling, but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

  11. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  12. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Study on the global network; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Global network kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the introduction condition of hydrogen as substituting energy and CO2 reduction effect were analyzed using a global energy model. The WE-NET project aims at global-wide introduction of clean energy by converting abundant renewable clean energy into hydrogen transportable to distant consumers all over the world. The study result in fiscal 1996 is as follows. Undeveloped hydroelectric resources in the world are estimated to be 12 trillion kWh/y equivalent to the existing developed one in the world. Since the cost of the hydroelectric power generation projects over 1000MW in the planning stage is estimated to be 0.02-0.05$/kWh lower than that of other renewable energies, such projects are expected as energy source in the initial stage of the practical WE-NET project. The GREEN model was modified by adding a hydrogen analysis function, and extending an analysis period. The modified model allowed evaluation of the long-term important role of hydrogen energy, in particular, the capability of CO2 gas reduction all over the world. 28 refs., 92 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

  14. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Multi-Storey Residential Net Zero Energy Building in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    renewable energy technologies? This analysis adopts the LCC methodology and uses a multi-family Net ZEB to find the answer to this question. Moreover, it looks at the issue from the building owner’s perspective, hence it should be seen as a private economy analysis. The study includes three levels of energy......It is well recognized that in the long run, the implementation of energy efficiency measures is a more cost-optimal solution in contrast to taking no action. However, the Net ZEB concept raises a new issue: how far should we go with energy efficiency measures and when should we start to apply...

  15. Army Net Zero: Energy Roadmap and Program Summary, Fiscal Year 2013 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Army (Army) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through improved energy efficiency and optimized renewable energy strategies at nine installations across the Army's portfolio. Referred to as Net Zero Energy Installations (NZEIs), these projects demonstrate and validate energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies with approaches that can be replicated across DOD and other Federal agencies, setting the stage for broad market adoption. This report summarizes the results of the energy project roadmaps developed by NREL, shows the progress each installation could make in achieving Net Zero Energy by 2020, and presents lessons learned and unique challenges from each installation.

  16. EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-02-01

    CARB is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community scale project consists of 40 housing units --15 apartments and 25 single family residences. The community is pursuing certifications for DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold, and ENERGY STAR for the entire project. Additionally, seven of the 25 homes, along with the four-story apartment building and community center, are being constructed to the Passive House (PH) design standard.

  17. Analyzing sectoral niche formation: The case of net-zero energy buildings in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Mansi; Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Large scale development of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) is seen as a potential solution to deal with future energy challenges in the building sector. This article aims to assess the current status of NZEB development in India by using an integrated framework named Sectoral System Innovation

  18. Evaluation of Model Results and Measured Performance of Net-Zero Energy Homes in Hawaii: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, P.; Kiatreungwattana, K.; Kelly, K. J.

    2013-03-01

    The Kaupuni community consists of 19 affordable net-zero energy homes that were built within the Waianae Valley of Oahu, Hawaii in 2011. The project was developed for the native Hawaiian community led by the Department of Hawaiian Homelands. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled and measured energy performance of the homes. Over the first year of occupancy, the community as a whole performed within 1% of the net-zero energy goals. The data show a range of performance from house to house with the majority of the homes consistently near or exceeding net-zero, while a few fall short of the predicted net-zero energy performance. The impact of building floor plan, weather, and cooling set point on this comparison is discussed. The project demonstrates the value of using building energy simulations as a tool to assist the project to achieve energy performance goals. Lessons learned from the energy performance monitoring has had immediate benefits in providing feedback to the homeowners, and will be used to influence future energy efficient designs in Hawaii and other tropical climates.

  19. How to Define Nearly Net Zero Energy Buildings nZEB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurnitski, Jarek; Allard, Francis; Braham, Derrick

    2011-01-01

    Member States. The directive defines nearly zero energy buildings as a building that has a very high energy performance and requires the calculation of primary energy indicator. The nearly zero of very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable...... sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site nearby. Based on the directive’s definition, nearly zero energy buildings is technically defined through the net zero energy building, which is a building using 0 kWh/(m2a) primary energy. Following the cost-optimality principle......This REHVA Task Force proposes a technical definition for nearly zero energy buildings required in the implementation of the Energy performance of buildings directive recast. Energy calculation framework and system boundaries associated with the definition are provided to specify which energy flows...

  20. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: One Sky Homes — Cottle Zero Net Energy Home, San Jose, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder took home the Grand Winner prize in the Custom Builder category in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards for its high performance building science approach. The builder used insulated concrete form blocks to create the insulated crawlspace foundation for its first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, the first net zero energy new home certified in the state of California.

  2. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  3. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  4. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  5. Demonstration of the Energy Component of the Installation Master Plan Using the Net Zero Energy Planner Tool: Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    fossil fuel based energy to achieve a net zero fossil fuel energy status. Energy goals are achieved through synergy among energy use reduction in... fossil fuel based energy to achieve a net zero fossil fuel energy status. Energy goals will be achieved through synergy among energy use reduction in... fossil fuel use in new and renovated facilities by 2030 and to reduce overall facility energy usage by 30% by 2015 (EISA 2007).

  6. Net energy production associated with pathogen inactivation during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Christopher; Peccia, Jordan

    2011-10-15

    The potential for anaerobic digester energy production must be balanced with the sustainability of reusing the resultant biosolids for land application. Mesophilic, thermophilic, temperature-phased, and high temperature (60 or 70 °C) batch pre-treatment digester configurations have been systematically evaluated for net energy production and pathogen inactivation potential. Energy input requirements and net energy production were modeled for each digester scheme. First-order inactivation rate coefficients for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and bacteriophage MS-2 were measured at each digester temperature and full-scale pathogen inactivation performance was estimated for each indicator organism and each digester configuration. Inactivation rates were found to increase dramatically at temperatures above 55 °C. Modeling full-scale performance using retention times based on U.S. EPA time and temperature constraints predicts a 1-2 log inactivation in mesophilic treatment, and a 2-5 log inactivation in 50-55 °C thermophilic and temperature-phased treatments. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C batch pre-treatment phase resulted in dramatically higher potency, achieving MS-2 inactivation of 14 and 16 logs respectively, and complete inactivation (over 100 log reduction) of E. coli and E. faecalis. For temperatures less than 70 °C, viability staining of thermally-treated E. coli showed significantly reduced inactivation relative to standard culture enumeration. Due to shorter residence times in thermophilic reactors, the net energy production for all digesters was similar (less than 20% difference) with the 60 or 70 °C batch treatment configurations producing the most net energy and the mesophilic treatment producing the least. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C pre-treatment phase can dramatically increase pathogen inactivation performance without decreasing net energy capture from anaerobic digestion. Energy consumption is not a significant barrier against

  7. The sower’s way: quantifying the narrowing net-energy pathways to a global energy transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes; Bardi, Ugo

    2016-09-01

    Planning the appropriate renewable energy (RE) installation rate should balance two partially contradictory objectives: substituting fossil fuels fast enough to stave-off the worst consequences of climate change while maintaining a sufficient net energy flow to support the world’s economy. The upfront energy invested in constructing a RE infrastructure subtracts from the net energy available for societal energy needs, a fact typically neglected in energy projections. Modeling feasible energy transition pathways to provide different net energy levels we find that they are critically dependent on the fossil fuel emissions cap and phase-out profile and on the characteristic energy return on energy invested of the RE technologies. The easiest pathway requires installation of RE plants to accelerate from 0.12 TWp yr-1 in 2013 to peak between 7.3 and 11.6 TWp yr-1 in the late 2030s, for an early or a late fossil-fuel phase-out respectively in order for emissions to stay within the recommended CO2 budget.

  8. A novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor as a potential net energy producer for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shi, Bing-Jing; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One possible way to address both water and energy shortage issues, the two of major global challenges, is to recover energy and water resource from wastewater. Herein, a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed to recover energy from wastewater and meantime harvest clean water for reuse. With the help of the microorganisms in the biocatalysis and biodegradation process, net electricity could be recovered from a low-strength synthetic wastewater after estimating total energy consumption of this system. In addition, high-quality clean water was obtained for reuse. The results clearly demonstrate that, under the optimized operating conditions, it is possible to recover net energy from wastewater, while at the same time to harvest high-quality effluent for reuse with this novel wastewater treatment system.

  9. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  10. Importance of baseline specification in evaluating conservation interventions and achieving no net loss of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J W; Gordon, A; Law, E A; Suttle, K B; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-06-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the effects of the choice of reference frame on whether interventions met stated objectives. We developed 2 models to investigate the implications of setting different frames of reference in regions subject to various biodiversity trends and anthropogenic impacts. First, a general analytic model evaluated offsets against a range of baseline and counterfactual specifications. Second, a simulation model then replicated these results with a complex real world case study: native grassland offsets in Melbourne, Australia. Both models showed that achieving NNL depended upon the interaction between reference frame and background biodiversity trends. With a baseline, offsets were less likely to achieve NNL where biodiversity was decreasing than where biodiversity was stable or increasing. With a no-development counterfactual, however, NNL was achievable only where biodiversity was declining. Otherwise, preventing development was better for biodiversity. Uncertainty about compliance was a stronger determinant of success than uncertainty in underlying biodiversity trends. When only development and offset locations were considered, offsets sometimes resulted in NNL, but not across an entire region. Choice of reference frame determined feasibility and effort required to attain objectives when designing and evaluating biodiversity offset schemes. We argue the choice is thus of fundamental importance for conservation policy. Our results shed light on situations in which biodiversity offsets may

  11. A Net-Zero Energy Home Grows Up: Lessons and Puzzles from 10 Years of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Craig; Norton, Paul

    2016-08-26

    In 2005, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, with support from NREL and other partners, built one of the first homes in the US to achieve net-zero energy based on monitored data. A family of three moved into the house when it was completed and lives there still. The home has been monitored continuously for the past ten years. Although PV production has remained steady, net energy performance has varied each year. The home was a net producer of energy annually in each of the first three years and in the ninth year, but not in years four through eight. Over the years, the PV system provided between 124% and 64% of the home source energy use. Electricity use in the home increased steadily during the first eight years, even though no significant new appliance was introduced into the house, such as a window air conditioner. Miscellaneous electric loads and space heating, both strongly dependent on occupant behavior, appear to be primarily responsible for the observed increase in energy use. An interesting aspect of this case study is how, even within a single family, natural changes in occupant lifestyles over time (e.g., kids growing up, schedules changing) can substantially impact the overall energy intensity of a home. Data from the last ten years will be explored for lessons learned that can improve the way we design low-load homes without sacrificing comfort or convenience for the occupants, and how we can make realistic predictions of long-term energy performance.

  12. Net-Zero Energy Home Grows Up: Lessons and Puzzles from 10 Years of Data; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Craig; Norton, Paul

    2016-05-17

    In 2005, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, with support from NREL and other partners, built one of the first homes in the US to achieve net-zero energy based on monitored data. A family of three moved into the house when it was completed and lives there still. The home has been monitored continuously for the past ten years. Although PV production has remained steady, net energy performance has varied each year. The home was a net producer of energy annually in each of the first three years and in the ninth year, but not in years four through eight. Over the years, the PV system provided between 124% and 64% of the home source energy use. Electricity use in the home increased steadily during the first eight years, even though no significant new appliance was introduced into the house, such as a window air conditioner. Miscellaneous electric loads and space heating, both strongly dependent on occupant behavior, appear to be primarily responsible for the observed increase in energy use. An interesting aspect of this case study is how, even within a single family, natural changes in occupant lifestyles over time (e.g., kids growing up, schedules changing) can substantially impact the overall energy intensity of a home. Data from the last ten years will be explored for lessons learned that can improve the way we design low-load homes without sacrificing comfort or convenience for the occupants, and how we can make realistic predictions of long-term energy performance.

  13. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...

  14. Heat Mismatch of future Net Zero Energy Buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    . NZEBs are characterized by having a greatly reduced energy demand that on an annual basis can be balanced out by an equivalent generation of energy from RES. Most buildings in Denmark are connected electricity grids and around half to district heating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy...... instead of wasting the energy. The objective in this paper is find how large an area of NZEBs is to be built within DH areas and how the heat mismatch of NZEBs influence different types of Danish DH systems. In the analyses nine different scenarios are analyzed. The examination is from a technical......The long-term goal for Denmark is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources (RES) in 2050. To reach this goal energy savings in buildings are essential. Therefore, a focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) have increased...

  15. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  16. Energy dependence of moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-24

    We report the beam energy (sqrt[sNN]=7.7-200  GeV) and collision centrality dependence of the mean (M), standard deviation (σ), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) of the net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions. The measurements are carried out by the STAR experiment at midrapidity (|y|<0.5) and within the transverse momentum range 0.4Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamic phase diagram. The products of the moments, Sσ and κσ2, are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions and are related to the ratios of baryon number susceptibilities of corresponding orders. The products of moments are found to have values significantly below the Skellam expectation and close to expectations based on independent proton and antiproton production. The measurements are compared to a transport model calculation to understand the effect of acceptance and baryon number conservation and also to a hadron resonance gas model.

  17. Net charge changes in the calculation of relative ligand-binding free energies via classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Maria M; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-01-30

    The calculation of binding free energies of charged species to a target molecule is a frequently encountered problem in molecular dynamics studies of (bio-)chemical thermodynamics. Many important endogenous receptor-binding molecules, enzyme substrates, or drug molecules have a nonzero net charge. Absolute binding free energies, as well as binding free energies relative to another molecule with a different net charge will be affected by artifacts due to the used effective electrostatic interaction function and associated parameters (e.g., size of the computational box). In the present study, charging contributions to binding free energies of small oligoatomic ions to a series of model host cavities functionalized with different chemical groups are calculated with classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. Electrostatic interactions are treated using a lattice-summation scheme or a cutoff-truncation scheme with Barker-Watts reaction-field correction, and the simulations are conducted in boxes of different edge lengths. It is illustrated that the charging free energies of the guest molecules in water and in the host strongly depend on the applied methodology and that neglect of correction terms for the artifacts introduced by the finite size of the simulated system and the use of an effective electrostatic interaction function considerably impairs the thermodynamic interpretation of guest-host interactions. Application of correction terms for the various artifacts yields consistent results for the charging contribution to binding free energies and is thus a prerequisite for the valid interpretation or prediction of experimental data via molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis and correction of electrostatic artifacts according to the scheme proposed in the present study should therefore be considered an integral part of careful free-energy calculation studies if changes in the net charge are involved. © The Authors Journal of Computational Chemistry

  18. Importance of Baseline Specification in Evaluating Conservation Interventions and Achieving No Net Loss of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J W; Gordon, A; Law, E A; Suttle, K B; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the effects of the choice of reference frame on whether interventions met stated objectives. We developed 2 models to investigate the implications of setting different frames of reference in regions subject to various biodiversity trends and anthropogenic impacts. First, a general analytic model evaluated offsets against a range of baseline and counterfactual specifications. Second, a simulation model then replicated these results with a complex real world case study: native grassland offsets in Melbourne, Australia. Both models showed that achieving NNL depended upon the interaction between reference frame and background biodiversity trends. With a baseline, offsets were less likely to achieve NNL where biodiversity was decreasing than where biodiversity was stable or increasing. With a no-development counterfactual, however, NNL was achievable only where biodiversity was declining. Otherwise, preventing development was better for biodiversity. Uncertainty about compliance was a stronger determinant of success than uncertainty in underlying biodiversity trends. When only development and offset locations were considered, offsets sometimes resulted in NNL, but not across an entire region. Choice of reference frame determined feasibility and effort required to attain objectives when designing and evaluating biodiversity offset schemes. We argue the choice is thus of fundamental importance for conservation policy. Our results shed light on situations in which biodiversity offsets may

  19. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis-based global net surface energy flux and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    The net surface energy flux is central to the climate system yet observational limitations lead to substantial uncertainty (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2013; Roberts et al., 2016). A combination of satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) adjusted using the latest estimation of the net heat uptake of the Earth system, and the atmospheric energy tendencies and transports from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to estimate surface energy flux globally (Liu et al., 2015). Land surface fluxes are adjusted through a simple energy balance approach using relations at each grid point with the consideration of snowmelt to improve regional realism. The energy adjustment is redistributed over the oceans using a weighting function to avoid meridional discontinuities. Uncertainties in surface fluxes are investigated using a variety of approaches including comparison with a range of atmospheric reanalysis input data and products. Zonal multiannual mean surface flux uncertainty is estimated to be less than 5 Wm-2 but much larger uncertainty is likely for regional monthly values. The meridional energy transport is calculated using the net surface heat fluxes estimated in this study and the result shows better agreement with observations in Atlantic than before. The derived turbulent fluxes (difference between the net heat flux and the CERES EBAF radiative flux at surface) also have good agreement with those from OAFLUX dataset and buoy observations. Decadal changes in the global energy budget and the hemisphere energy imbalances are quantified and present day cross-equator heat transports is re-evaluated as 0.22±0.15 PW southward by the atmosphere and 0.32±0.16 PW northward by the ocean considering the observed ocean heat sinks (Roemmich et al., 2006) . Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res., Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  20. Examples of Nearly Net Zero Energy Buildings Through One-Step and Stepwise Retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2012-01-01

    -step or stepwise retrofit process. The review work is part of a more global Ph.D. project and is used as one of the basement of the future research work. The considered approaches have been sorted in two categories. The first approach has a very high use of energy conservation measures and low use of renewable...... energy production measures. The second approach has a lower use of energy conservation measures (but still high compared to a traditional renovation) and a higher use of renewable energy production measures. A third approach to nearly net zero energy building renovation exists but has not been considered......: a very low use of energy conservation measures and very high use of renewable energy production measures. While the projects from the first category have still a possibility to improve considerably their carbon footprint during an ulterior upgrade, the projects part of the second category seem to have...

  1. Genetic parameters of estimated net energy efficiencies for milk production, maintenance, and body weight change in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttazzoni, L; Mao, I L

    1989-03-01

    Net efficiencies of converting intake energy into energy for maintenance, milk production, and body weight change in a lactation were estimated for each of 79 Holstein cows by a two-stage multiple regression model. Cows were from 16 paternal half-sib families, which each had members in at least two of the six herds. Each cow was recorded for milk yield, net energy intake, and three efficiency traits. These were analyzed in a multitrait model containing the same 14 fixed subclasses of herd by season by parity and a random factor of sires for each of the five traits. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of sire and residual (co)variance components were obtained by an expectation maximization algorithm with canonical transformations. Between milk yield and net energy intake, net energy efficiencies for milk yield, maintenance, and body weight change, the estimated phenotypic correlations were .36, -.02, .08, and -.06, while the genetic correlations were .92, .56, .02, and -.32, respectively. Both genetic and phenotypic correlations were zero between net energy efficiency of maintenance and that of milk yield and .17 between net energy efficiency of body weight change and that of milk yield. The estimated genetic correlation between net efficiency for lactation and milk yield is approximately 60% of that between gross efficiency and milk yield. With a heritability of .32 equivalent.49, net energy efficiency for milk yield may be worth consideration for genetic selection in certain dairy cattle populations.

  2. Energy saving for OpenFlow switch on the NetFPGA platform based on queue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tran Hoang; Luc, Vu Cong; Quan, Nguyen Trung; Thanh, Nguyen Huu; Nam, Pham Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Data centers play an important role in our daily activities. The increasing demand on data centers in both scale and size has led to huge energy consumption that rises the cost of data centers. Besides, environmental impacts also increase considerably due to a large amount of carbon emissions. In this paper, we present a design aimed at green networking by reducing the power consumption for routers and switches. Firstly, we design the Balance Switch on the NetFPGA platform to save consumed energy based on Queue Engineering. Secondly, we design the test-bed system to precisely measure the consumed energy of our switches. Experimental results show that energy saving of our switches is about 30% - 35% of power consumption according to variation of input traffic compared with normal Openflow Switch. Finally, we describe performance evaluations.

  3. Nearly Net-Zero Exergy Districts as Models for Smart Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2017-01-01

    The planning of urban settlements requires a targeted approach towards more sustainable energy, water, and environment systems. This research work analyses the city of Uppsala and a district that is an urban renewal project at the site of former high voltage power lines, namely Östra Sala backe, which will have a new energy concept. The latter is analysed based on proposals for two phases that aim to reach a net-zero district target based on the quality of energy (exergy). An indicator s...

  4. vNet Zero Energy for Radio Base Stations- Balearic Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabater, Pere; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Pol, Andreu Moia

    2016-01-01

    The Balearic Islands have one of the best telecommunications infrastructures in Spain, with more than 1500 Radio Base Stations (RBS) covering a total surface of 4.991,66 km². This archipelago has high energy consumption, with high CO2 emissions, due to an electrical energy production system mainly...... based on coal and fossil fuels which is not an environmentally sustainable scenario. The aim of this study is to identify the processes that would reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, designing a target scenario featuring "zero CO2 emissions" and "100% renewable energies" in RBS....... The energy costs, CO2 emissions and data traffic data used for the study are generated by a sample of RBS from the Balearic Islands. The results are shown in terms of energy performance for a normal and net zero emissions scenarios....

  5. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  6. Transformations, Inc.. Partnering To Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ("Devens"), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ("Easthampton") and Phase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ("Townsend"). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductless air source heat pump systems ("mini-splits"); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  7. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-12-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  8. Redesign of a Rural Building in a Heritage Site in Italy: Towards the Net Zero Energy Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cellura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the ambitious objective of decarbonising the economy, it is mandatory, especially in Europe and in Italy, to include the retrofitting of existing buildings. In a country where a large share of existing buildings have heritage value, it is important to design effective retrofit solutions also in historical buildings. In this context, the paper describes the experience of re-design of an existing rural building located in Sicily, inside the ancient Greeks' “Valley of the Temples”. An energy audit was performed on the building, and its energy uses were thoroughly investigated. A building model was developed in the TRNSYS environment and its performances validated. The validated model was used for redesign studies aimed towards the achievement of the Net Zero Energy Building target. The best performing solutions to be applied to a case study like the Sanfilippo House were those regarding the management of the building, as in the case of the natural ventilation and the energy systems setpoints, that would allow a large impact (up to 10% reductions in energy uses on the energy performances of the building with no invasiveness, and those with very limited invasiveness and high impact on the energy efficiency of the building, as in the lighting scenario (up to 30% energy uses reduction. The most invasive actions can only be justified in the case of high energy savings, as in the case of the insulation of the roof, otherwise they should be disregarded.

  9. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 2: Total Economy Expenditure Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We translate between energetic and economic metrics that characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, we estimate monetary expenditures for the primary energy and net external power ratio (NEPR direct ; NEPR, net external power ratio, a power return ratio of annual energy production divided by annual direct energy inputs within the energy industry. We estimate these on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010. Expressed as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP, f e , GDP , the forty-four country aggregate (composing >90% world GDP worldwide expenditures on energy decreased from a maximum of 10.3% in 1979 to a minimum of 3.0% in 1998 before increasing to a second peak of 8.1% in 2008. While the global f e , GDP fluctuates significantly, global NEPR direct declined from a value of 34 in 1980 to 17 in 1986 before staying in a range between 14 and 16 from 1991 to 2010. In comparing both of these metrics as ratios of power output over power input, one economic ( f e , GDP - 1 and one biophysical (NEPR direct , we see that when the former divided by the latter is below unity, the world was in a low-growth or recessionary state.

  10. Modeling and Optimizing Energy Utilization of Steel Production Process: A Hybrid Petri Net Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is responsible for nearly 9% of anthropogenic energy utilization in the world. It is urgent to reduce the total energy utilization of steel industry under the huge pressures on reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Meanwhile, the steel manufacturing is a typical continuous-discrete process with multiprocedures, multiobjects, multiconstraints, and multimachines coupled, which makes energy management rather difficult. In order to study the energy flow within the real steel production process, this paper presents a new modeling and optimization method for the process based on Hybrid Petri Nets (HPN in consideration of the situation above. Firstly, we introduce the detailed description of HPN. Then the real steel production process from one typical integrated steel plant is transformed into Hybrid Petri Net model as a case. Furthermore, we obtain a series of constraints of our optimization model from this model. In consideration of the real process situation, we pick the steel production, energy efficiency and self-made gas surplus as the main optimized goals in this paper. Afterwards, a fuzzy linear programming method is conducted to obtain the multiobjective optimization results. Finally, some measures are suggested to improve this low efficiency and high whole cost process structure.

  11. Final Technical Report for the Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildings Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeli, Sandy [National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The Commercial Buildings Consortium (CBC) was established in 2009, under the chairmanship of the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), as a supporting organization to the Commercial Buildings Initiative (CBI). The CBI was created by Congress through the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and launched by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 with the goal to “develop and disseminate technologies, practices, and policies for establishment of zero net energy commercial buildings.”. The impact of the CBC since 2009 has been multifold, resulting in increased collaboration, increased innovation, and increased demonstration and deployment. During the project performance period of 2009-2014, the CBC provided an organizational framework for sustained public-private collaboration among more than 600 commercial building professionals, researchers and educators, utilities, and government agencies at federal, state, and local level. The CBC’s research has identified emerging technologies, market strategies, and innovative public and corporate policies to help advance CBI’s zero-net-energy. Finally, the CBC worked in close partnership with DOE’s commercial building teams and the Better Buildings Alliances to identify opportunities for proving out and deploying energy-saving technologies and practices.

  12. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandois, L. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INP, EcoLab - Laboratoire d' ecologie fonctionnelle, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Nicolas, M. [ONF, Direction technique RENECOFOR, Bd de Constance 77300 Fontainebleau (France); VanderHeijden, G. [INRA, centre de Nancy, Equipe BEF, 54280 Champenoux (France); Probst, A., E-mail: anne.probst@ensat.fr [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INP, EcoLab -Laboratoire d' ecologie fonctionnelle, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands.

  13. Travel-related imported infections in Europe, EuroTravNet 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolini, S; Parola, P; Gkrania-Klotsas, E; Caumes, E; Schlagenhauf, P; López-Vélez, R; Burchard, G-D; Santos-O'Connor, F; Weld, L; von Sonnenburg, F; Field, V; de Vries, P; Jensenius, M; Loutan, L; Castelli, F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate travel-associated morbidity in European travellers in 2009 in comparison with 2008, with a particular emphasis on emerging infectious diseases with the potential for introduction into Europe. Diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease from ill returning travelers presenting to 12 core EuroTravNet sites from January to December 2009 were analysed. A total of 6392 patients were seen at EuroTravNet core sites in 2009, as compared with 6957 in 2008. As compared with 2008, there was a marked increase in the number of travellers exposed in North America and western Europe. Respiratory illnesses, in particular pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, influenza-like syndromes, and tuberculosis, were also observed more frequently. A significant increase in reported dengue cases in 2009 as compared with 2008 was observed (n = 172, 2.7% vs. n = 131, 1.90%) (p 0.002). The numbers of malaria and chikungunya cases were also increasing, although not significantly. Two deaths were recorded: visceral leishmaniasis and sepsis in a Sudanese migrant, and Acinetobacter sp. pneumonia in a patient who had visited Spain. This is the most comprehensive study of travel-related illness in Europe in 2009 as compared with 2008. A significant increase in travel-related respiratory and vector-borne infections was observed, highlighting the potential risk for introduction of these diseases into Europe, where competent vectors are present. The number of traveller deaths is probably underestimated. The possible role of the travellers in the emergence of infectious diseases of public health concern is highlighted. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. Importance of Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frydryšková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the massive destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the end of Second World War, the atom was generally taken to be the primary symbol of the new era, the so-called ‘atomic age’, a prototypical modern conjuncture forever oscillating between the agonies of mass death and standardized terror, and the euphoria of tremendous economic transformation through the permanent resolution of the ever increasing need for electrical energy at little or no cost. After Hiroshima the symbolic meaning and presence of the atom crossed and recrossed the lines between popular culture, lived experience, political protest, strategic discourse, modern design, industry, medicine, and agriculture, that it truly became ‘atomic age’ whether one was in the US, France, China or anywhere else. 

  15. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    or multiparous. Feed ration energy values were recalculated by use of NorFor to obtain consistent energy expression in all trials as opposed to the varying feed evaluation systems used in original analysis of trials. Regression analysis with linear and quadratic effects were performed on live weight......The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  16. Net Zero Fort Carson: Integrating Energy, Water, and Waste Strategies to Lower the Environmental Impact of a Military Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Military bases resemble small cities and face similar sustainability challenges. As pilot studies in the U.S. Army Net Zero program, 17 locations are moving to 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases target net z...

  17. 78 FR 54971 - Limitations on the Importation of Net Built-In Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... tax in the hands of the transferor, the first condition for classification as importation property is... condition for classification as importation property is satisfied. Property is importation property only if... property to corporations that are subject to Federal income tax. The proposed regulations affect the...

  18. Determinants of China’s Energy Imports: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xingjun Zhao; Yanrui Wu

    2007-01-01

    Sustained economic growth in China has triggered a surge of energy imports, especially oil imports. This paper investigates the determinants of China’s energy import demand by using cointegraiton and VECM techniques. The findings suggest that, in the long run, growth of industrial production and expansion of transport sectors affect China’s oil imports, while domestic energy output has a substitution effect. Thus, as the Chinese economy industrializes and the automotive sector expands, China’...

  19. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  20. Sex effects on net protein and energy requirements for growth of Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A P; St-Pierre, N R; Fernandes, M H R M; Almeida, A K; Vargas, J A C; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-06-01

    Requirements for growth in the different sexes remain poorly quantified in goats. The objective of this study was to develop equations for estimating net protein (NP G ) and net energy (NE G ) for growth in Saanen goats of different sexes from 5 to 45 kg of body weight (BW). A data set from 7 comparative slaughter studies (238 individual records) of Saanen goats was used. Allometric equations were developed to determine body protein and energy contents in the empty BW (EBW) as dependent variables and EBW as the allometric predictor. Parameter estimates were obtained using a linearized (log-transformation) expression of the allometric equations using the MIXED procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The model included the random effect of the study and the fixed effects of sex (intact male, castrated male, and female; n = 94, 73, and 71, respectively), EBW, and their interactions. Net requirements for growth were estimated as the first partial derivative of the allometric equations with respect to EBW. Additionally, net requirements for growth were evaluated based on the degree of maturity. Monte Carlo techniques were used to estimate the uncertainty of the calculated net requirement values. Sex affected allometric relationships for protein and energy in Saanen goats. The allometric equation for protein content in the EBW of intact and castrated males was log 10 protein (g) = 2.221 (±0.0224) + 1.015 (±0.0165) × log 10 EBW (kg). For females, the relationship was log 10 protein (g) = 2.277 (±0.0288) + 0.958 (±0.0218) × log 10 EBW (kg). Therefore, NP G for males was greater than for females. The allometric equation for the energy content in the EBW of intact males was log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.988 (±0.0323) + 1.240 (±0.0238) × log 10 EBW (kg); of castrated males, log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.873 (±0.0377) + 1.359 (±0.0283) × log 10 EBW (kg); and of females, log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.820 (±0.0377) + 1.442 (±0.0281) × log 10 EBW (kg). The NE G

  1. Sustainable Skyscrapers: Designing the Net Zero Energy Building of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, S.; Bartsch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities of the future will need to increase population density in order to keep up with the rising populations in the limited available land area. In order to provide sufficient power as the population grows, cities must become more energy efficient. Fossil fuels and grid energy will continue to become more expensive as nonrenewable resources deplete. The obvious solution to increase population density while decreasing the reliance on fossil fuels is to build taller skyscrapers that are energy neutral, i.e. self-sustaining. However, current skyscrapers are not energy efficient, and therefore cannot provide a sustainable solution to the problem of increasing population density in the face of depleting energy resources. The design of a net zero energy building that includes both residential and commercial space is presented. Alternative energy systems such as wind turbines, photovoltaic cells, and a waste-to-fuel conversion plant have been incorporated into the design of a 50 story skyscraper that is not reliant on fossil fuels and has a payback time of about six years. Although the current building was designed to be located in San Francisco, simple modifications to the design would allow this building to fit the needs of any city around the world.

  2. Integration of net zero energy building with smart grid to improve regional electrification ratio towards sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Supriadi, Leni; Bintang Koesalamwardi, Ario; Petroceany, Jade; Herzanita, Ayu

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is currently encouraging its physical, social and economy development. Physical development for economic development have to be supported by energy availability. For Indonesia, 90% of electrification ratio is still become an important task that has to be completed by the Government. However, the effort to increase electrification can become an environmental problem if it’s done with BAU scenario. The by-product of electric generation is the GHG, which increasing every year since 2006 from various sectors i.e. industry, housing, commercial, transportation, and energy. Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) is an energy efficient building which can produce energy independently from clean and renewable sources. The energy that is generated by NZEB can be used for the building itself, and can be exported to the central grid. The integration of NZEB and Smart Grid can solve today’s issue on electrification ratio. Literature study will find benchmarks which can be applied in Indonesia along with possible obstacles in applying this technology.

  3. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......Organic farming (OF) principles include the idea of reducing dependence of fossil fuels, but little has been achieved on this objective so far in Danish OF. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an average 39 ha cash crop farm were calculated and alternative crop rotations for bio......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  4. China as a net food importer: opportunity or threat for global food partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractGood health and food safety are important for Chinese people. The 1.5 billion Chinese wants to be sure that their food meets international quality standards. Business advice and know-how to upgrade national food industry is welcomed as well as innovative ways to avoid inflation because

  5. On the importance of PURE - Public Understanding of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars; Kandpal, Tara C.

    2013-09-15

    Public understanding of science (PUS) is a central concept among science communicators. Public understanding of renewable energy (PURE) is proposed as an important sub-concept of PUS. The aim of this paper is to interest and invite renewable energy scientists to join a PURE research project. Four separate important questions for a PURE research project can be identified: (A) Is PURE important? (B) Which issues of PURE are the most important ones, according to renewable energy scientists? (C) What understanding of renewable energy has the general public today, worldwide? (D) How to achieve PURE?.

  6. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  7. Scoping study for compact high-field superconducting net energy tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, R. T.; Greenwald, M.; Freidberg, J. P.; Wolfe, S. M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Brunner, D.; Sorbom, B. N.; Whyte, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    The continued development and commercialization of high temperature superconductors (HTS) may enable the construction of compact, net-energy tokamaks. HTS, in contrast to present generation low temperature superconductors, offers improved performance in high magnetic fields, higher current density, stronger materials, higher temperature operation, and simplified assembly. Using HTS along with community-consensus confinement physics (H98 =1) may make it possible to achieve net-energy (Q>1) or burning plasma conditions (Q>5) in DIII-D or ASDEX-U sized, conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. It is shown that, by operating at high plasma current and density enabled by the high magnetic field (B>10T), the required triple products may be achieved at plasma volumes under 20m3, major radii under 2m, with external heating powers under 40MW. This is at the scale of existing devices operated by laboratories, universities and companies. The trade-offs in the core heating, divertor heat exhaust, sustainment, stability, and proximity to known plasma physics limits are discussed in the context of the present tokamak experience base and the requirements for future devices. The resulting HTS-based design space is compared and contrasted to previous studies on high-field copper experiments with similar missions. The physics exploration conducted with such HTS devices could decrease the real and perceived risks of ITER exploitation, and aid in quickly developing commercially-applicable tokamak pilot plants and reactors.

  8. Transformations, Inc.: Partnering to Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ('Devens'), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ('Easthampton') andPhase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ('Townsend'). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductlessair source heat pump systems ('mini-splits'); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  9. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects for a new concept of biomass based quad-generation plant producing power, heat......, methanol and methane. Circulating fluidized bed gasifier and the gas technology institute (GTI) gasifier technologies are used for this quad-generation process. Two different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.......3 and 7.2. The lowest limit corresponds to the wood chips-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim...

  10. Forest cockchafer larvae as methane production hotspots in soils and their importance for net soil methane fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Murphy, Paul; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Certain groups of soil invertebrates, namely scarab beetles and millipedes, are capable of emitting considerable amounts of methane due to methanogens inhabiting their gut system. It was already pointed out in the early 1990's, that these groups of invertebrates may represent a globally important source of methane. However, apart from termites, the importance of invertebrates for the soil methane budget is still unknown. Here, we present preliminary results of a laboratory soil incubation experiment elucidating the influence of forest cockchafer larvae (Melolontha hippocastani FABRICIUS) on soil methane cycling. In January/February 2016, two soils from two different management systems - one from a pine forest (extensive use) and one from a vegetable field (intensive use) - were incubated for 56 days either with or without beetle larvae. Net soil methane fluxes and larvae methane emissions together with their stable carbon isotope signatures were quantified at regular intervals to estimate gross methane production and gross methane oxidation in the soils. The results of this experiment will contribute to testing the hypothesis of whether methane production hotspots can significantly enhance the methane oxidation capacity of soils. Forest cockchafer larvae are only found in well-aerated sandy soils where one would usually not suspect relevant gross methane production. Thus, besides quantifying their contribution to net soil methane fluxes, they are also ideal organisms to study the effect of methane production hotspots on overall soil methane cycling. Funding support: Reintegration grant of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) (#57185798).

  11. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  12. Net energy payback and CO2 emissions from three midwestern wind farms: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO2 analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO2 analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data. A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data. The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO2 emissions, in tonnes of CO2 per GW eh, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  13. Nearly Net-Zero Exergy Districts as Models for Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The planning of urban settlements requires a targeted approach towards more sustainable energy, water, and environment systems. This research work analyses the city of Uppsala and a district that is an urban renewal project at the site of former high voltage power lines, namely Östra Sala backe, which will have a new energy concept. The latter is analysed based on proposals for two phases that aim to reach a net-zero district target based on the quality of energy (exergy. An indicator set with five main categories is introduced based on per capita values to enable a comparable basis between the scales of the city and the district, including exergy per capita as a new indicator. The present status of Uppsala is further analysed based on Sankey diagrams to provide insight into the present urban metabolism of the city. The results indicate that the best practice values of Östra Sala backe based on phase two can achieve significant savings in per capita values, which include 5.5 MWh of energy usage, 6.1 MWh of exergy consumption, 33 m3 of water consumption, 22 kg of waste generation, and 4.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. Additional scenarios for Uppsala indicate that the district can be about 10 years ahead of the city’s existing performance.

  14. Chapter 21: Estimating Net Savings - Common Practices. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.

  15. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the

  16. Higher moments of net kaon multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies for the search of QCD Critical Point at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Amal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the measurements of the various moments mean (M, standard deviation (σ skewness (S and kurtosis (κ of the net-Kaon multiplicity distribution at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC in an effort to locate the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as also to the correlation length of the system. A non-monotonic behavior of these variable indicate the presence of the critical point. In this work we also present the moments products Sσ, κσ2 of net-Kaon multiplicity distribution as a function of collision centrality and energies. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments of net-Kaons and their products have been compared with it0s Poisson expectation and with simulations from AMPT which does not include the critical point. From the measurement at all seven available beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for √sNN below 200 GeV.

  17. ASAS centennial paper: net energy systems for beef cattle--concepts, application, and future models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Oltjen, J W

    2008-10-01

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the 1400s. Lavoisier established relationships among O(2) use, CO(2) production and heat production in the late 1700s, and the laws of thermodynamics and law of Hess were discovered during the 1840s. Those discoveries established the fundamental bases for nutritional energetics and enabled the fundamental entity ME = retained energy + heat energy to be established. Objectives became: 1) to establish relationships between gas exchange and heat energy, 2) to devise bases for evaluation of foods that could be related to energy expenditures, and 3) to establish causes of energy expenditures. From these endeavors, the basic concepts of energy partitioning by animals were developed, ultimately resulting in the development of feeding systems based on NE concepts. The California Net Energy System, developed for finishing beef cattle, was the first to be based on retained energy as determined by comparative slaughter and the first to use 2 NE values (NE(m) and NE(g)) to describe feed and animal requirements. The system has been broadened conceptually to encompass life cycle energy requirements of beef cattle and modified by the inclusion of numerous adjustments to address factors known to affect energy requirements and value of feed to meet those needs. The current NE system remains useful but is empirical and static in nature and thus fails to capture the dynamics of energy utilization by diverse animals as they respond to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, efforts were initiated to develop dynamic simulation models that captured the underlying biology and thus were sensitive to variable genetic and environmental conditions. Development of a series of models has been described to show examples of the conceptual evolution of dynamic, mechanistic models and their applications. Generally with each new system, advances in prediction accuracy came about by adding new terms to conceptually validated models

  18. Turbulence induces metabolically costly behaviors and inhibits food capture in oyster larvae, causing net energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Specht, Jaclyn A; Adams, Diane K; Christman, Adam J

    2017-10-01

    Planktotrophic invertebrate larvae require energy to develop, disperse and settle successfully, and it is unknown how their energetics are impacted by turbulence. Ciliated larvae gain metabolic energy from their phytoplankton food to offset the energetic costs of growth, development and ciliary activity for swimming and feeding. Turbulence may affect the energetic balance by inducing behaviors that alter the metabolic costs and efficiency of swimming, by raising the encounter rate with food particles and by inhibiting food capture. We used experiments and an empirical model to quantify the net rate of energy gain, swimming efficiency and food capture efficiency for eyed oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) in turbulence. At dissipation rates representative of coastal waters, larvae lost energy even when food concentrations were very high. Both feeding activity and turbulence-induced behaviors incurred high metabolic costs. Swimming efficiency was concave up versus dissipation rate, suggesting that ciliary activity for food handling became more costly while swimming became more efficient with turbulence intensity. Though counter-intuitive, swimming may have become more efficient in turbulence because vorticity-induced rotation caused larvae to swim more horizontally, which requires less effort than swimming vertically against the pull of gravity. Overall, however, larvae failed to offset high activity costs with food energy gains because turbulence reduced food capture efficiency more than it enhanced food encounter rates. Younger, smaller larvae may have some energetic advantages, but competent larvae would lose energy at turbulence intensities they experience frequently, suggesting that turbulence-induced starvation may account for much of oysters' high larval mortality. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Design of advanced solar homes aimed at net-zero annual energy consumption in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athienitis, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    This paper overviews the design of three sustainable low or net-zero energy solar homes in Canada. The major features of the houses are: 1. direct gain passive solar design that emphasizes utilization of distributed thermal mass in the equatorial-facing part of the ground floor; 2. a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal system (BIPV/T); 3. a two-stage ground-source heat pump used to heat/cool air in the house or an air source heat pump using BIPV/T air as the source to heat a storage tank; 4. a floor heating system integrated in the floor mass of the direct gain zone; 5. a multizone programmable thermostat.

  20. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-08-01

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application.

  1. Preliminary Design of a Solar Photovoltaic Array for Net-Zero Energy Buildings at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate photovoltaic (solar electric systems) systems for a single building at NASA Langley as a representative case for alternative sustainable power generation. Building 1250 in the Science Directorate is comprised of office and laboratory space, and currently uses approximately 250,000 kW/month of electrical power with a projected use of 200,000 kW/month with additional conservation measures. The installation would be applied towards a goal for having Building 1250 classified as a net-zero energy building as it would produce as much energy as it uses over the course of a year. Based on the facility s electrical demand, a photovoltaic system and associated hardware were characterized to determine the optimal system, and understand the possible impacts from its deployment. The findings of this investigation reveal that the 1.9 MW photovoltaic electrical system provides favorable and robust results. The solar electric system should supply the needed sustainable power solution especially if operation and maintenance of the system will be considered a significant component of the system deployment.

  2. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for biohydrogen production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the energy and environmental aspects of producing biohydrogen for bitumen upgrading from a life cycle perspective. Three technologies are studied for biohydrogen production; these include the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier, and fast pyrolysis. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered including forest residue (FR), whole forest (WF), and agricultural residue (AR). The fast pyrolysis pathway includes two cases: truck transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of bio-oil. The net energy ratios (NERs) for nine biohydrogen pathways lie in the range of 1.3-9.3. The maximum NER (9.3) is for the FR-based pathway using GTI technology. The GHG emissions lie in the range of 1.20-8.1 kg CO₂ eq/kg H₂. The lowest limit corresponds to the FR-based biohydrogen production pathway using GTI technology. This study also analyzes the intensities for acid rain precursor and ground level ozone precursor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY AND SEEKING FOR NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan Nesimioglu, Serife

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, energy poverty and as a result of this energy import dependency and its possible negative results have been examined by taking European Union (EU) into consideration. This analysis has two aims: the first one is questioning the European Unions’ energy security from supply perspective and the second one is investigating the solutions produced by European Union to get away or at least to reduce its energy import dependency. To guarantee its energy supply security at affordable pr...

  4. Energy Budget: Earth's Most Important and Least Appreciated Planetary Attribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lin; Bethea, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The energy budget involves more than one kind of energy. People can sense this energy in different ways, depending on what type of energy it is. We see visible light using our eyes. We feel infrared energy using our skin (such as around a campfire). We know some species of animals can see ultraviolet light and portions of the infrared spectrum. NASA satellites use instruments that can "see" different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to observe various processes in the Earth system, including the energy budget. The Sun is a very hot ball of plasma emitting large amounts of energy. By the time it reaches Earth, this energy amounts to about 340 Watts for every square meter of Earth on average. That's almost 6 60-Watt light bulbs for every square meter of Earth! With all of that energy shining down on the Earth, how does our planet maintain a comfortable balance that allows a complex ecosystem, including humans, to thrive? The key thing to remember is the Sun - hot though it is - is a tiny part of Earth's environment. Earth's energy budget is a critical but little understood aspect of our planetary home. NASA is actively studying this important Earth system feature, and sharing data and knowledge about it with the education community.

  5. A Governance Perspective on Net Zero Energy Building Niche Development in India: The Case of New Delhi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Mansi; Hoppe, T.; Bressers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The net zero-energy building (NZEB) concept has recently gained prominence worldwide. Large scale adoption and implementation of NZEBs would potentially contribute greatly to greening of the building sector. However, it is still at a nascent stage of niche formation. This paper aims to assess the

  6. Procedure to determine module distribution within a solar array to increase the net energy collection in a solar competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás.; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    In solar vehicle competition, the available space for installation of the solar panel in the car is limited. In order to optimize space, it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows, even if they cause reduction of efficiency in the overall photoelectric generation. Shadow patterns arise from the relative position of the sun to the earth, and the relative position of the vehicle towards both of them. Since vehicle, earth and sun are moving in semi-predictable patterns, computer simulations can cross and match data from such sources to forecast generation behavior. The outputs of such simulations are shadow patterns on the surface of the vehicle, indicating locations that are suitable or unsuitable to install solar cells. This paper will show the design procedure of the solar panel for a Challenger Class solar vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013, intended to increase the net energy collection. The results obtained, illustrate how the employment of a computational tool can help in the acquisition of both qualitative and quantitative information, related to shadows position and their impact on energy collection. With data inputs such as vehicle geometry and its relative position towards the route, the tool was used to evaluate different possible configurations of solar panel module distribution and select the ones that are more convenient to the given scenario. Therefore, this analysis allows improving the solar panel design by considering important variables that were often overlooked.

  7. Cost Control Best Practices for Net Zero Energy Building Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-02-01

    For net zero energy (NZE) buildings to become the norm in commercial construction, it will be necessary to design and construct these buildings cost effectively. While industry leaders have developed workflows (for procurement, design, and construction) to achieve cost-effective NZE buildings for certain cases, the expertise embodied in those workflows has limited penetration within the commercial building sector. Documenting cost control best practices of industry leaders in NZE and packaging those strategies for adoption by the commercial building sector will help make the business case for NZE. Furthermore, it will promote market uptake of the innovative technologies and design approaches needed to achieve NZE. This paper summarizes successful cost control strategies for NZE procurement, design, and construction that key industry users (such as building owners, architects, and designers) can incorporate into their everyday workflows. It will also evaluate the current state of NZE economics and propose a path forward for greater market penetration of NZE buildings. By demonstrating how to combine NZE technologies and design approaches into an overall efficiency package that can be implemented at minimal (zero, in certain cases) incremental capital cost, the domain of NZE design and construction can be expanded from a niche market to the commercial construction mainstream.

  8. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  9. Importance of geothermal energy and its environmental effects in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Akpinar, Adem [Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    Geothermal energy, a relatively benign energy source when compared with other energy sources due to reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, is used for electricity generation and direct utilization. Turkey has a place among the first seven countries in the world in the abundance of geothermal resources, but it has only used about 4% of its potential. The paper presents the status of energy needs and renewables, potential, utilization and the importance of geothermal energy in Turkey. It also gives a comparison between geothermal energy and other energy sources regarding environmental issues. It is estimated that if the geothermal heating potential alone in Turkey is used, 5 million residences will be heated and as a result, releases of 48 million ton/year CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere will be prevented. In addition to this, if the other geothermal potential (i.e. electricity) is used it will provide considerable environmental benefits. Therefore, it is expected that geothermal energy development will significantly speed up in the future. (author)

  10. The potential of net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) concept at design stage for healthcare buildings towards sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazli Abdellah, Roy; Asrul Nasid Masrom, Md; Chen, Goh Kai; Mohamed, Sulzakimin; Omar, Roshartini

    2017-11-01

    The focus on net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) has been widely analysed and discussed particularly when European Union Parliament are progressively moving towards regulation that promotes the improvement of energy efficiency (EE). Additionally, it also to reduce energy consumption through the recast of the EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) in which all new buildings to be “nearly Zero-Energy” Buildings by 2020. Broadly, there is a growing trend to explore the feasibility of net zero energy in healthcare sector as the level energy consumption for healthcare sector is found significantly high. Besides that, healthcare buildings energy consumption also exceeds of many other nondomestic building types, and this shortcoming is still undetermined yet especially for developing countries. This paper aims to review the potential of NZEBs in healthcare buildings by considering its concept in design features. Data are gathered through a comprehensive energy management literature review from previous studies. The review is vital to encourage construction players to increase their awareness, practices, and implementation of NZEBs in healthcare buildings. It suggests that NZEBs concept has a potential to be adapted in healthcare buildings through emphasizing of passive approach as well as the utilization of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy systems in buildings. This paper will provide a basis knowledge for construction key players mainly architects to promote NZEBs concept at design stage for healthcare buildings development.

  11. Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling using Space, Energy and Angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    For challenging radiation transport problems, hybrid methods combine the accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the global information present in deterministic methods. One of the most successful hybrid methods is CADIS Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling. This method uses a deterministic adjoint solution to construct a biased source distribution and consistent weight windows to optimize a specific tally in a Monte Carlo calculation. The method has been implemented into transport codes using just the spatial and energy information from the deterministic adjoint and has been used in many applications to compute tallies with much higher figures-of-merit than analog calculations. CADIS also outperforms user-supplied importance values, which usually take long periods of user time to develop. This work extends CADIS to develop weight windows that are a function of the position, energy, and direction of the Monte Carlo particle. Two types of consistent source biasing are presented: one method that biases the source in space and energy while preserving the original directional distribution and one method that biases the source in space, energy, and direction. Seven simple example problems are presented which compare the use of the standard space/energy CADIS with the new space/energy/angle treatments.

  12. Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production; Peltobioenergian tuotanto Suomessa. Potentiaali, energiasuhteet ja nettoenergia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, H.

    2012-11-01

    Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production were studied in this thesis. Special attention was paid to indirect energy inputs and how to treat them in energy analysis. Manufacturing of machines and agrochemicals and production of seeds are examples of indirect energy inputs.The bioenergy potential of the Finnish field crop production could be as large as 12 - 22 TWh, or 3 - 5% of the total energy consumption in Finland in 2008. The major part of this energy would originate from straw and biomass like reed canary grass cultivated for energy use. However, only 0.5 TWh of the potential is utilized. The output/input energy ratios of the studied field crops varied from 3 to 18, being highest (18) for reed canary grass and second highest (7) for sugar beet and grass cultivated for silage. The energy ratio of cereals and oil seed crops varied from 3 to 5 if only the yield of seeds was considered. If the yield of straw and stems was also taken into account the energy ratios would have been almost twofold. The energy ratios for Finnish wheat and barley were as high as those gained in Italian and Spanish conditions, respectively. However, the energy ratios of maize, elephant grass and giant reed were even over 50 in Central and Southern Europe. Plants that use the C4 photosynthesis pathway and produce high biomass yields thrive best in warm and sunny climate conditions. They use nitrogen and water more sparingly than C3 plants typically thriving in the cooler part of the temperate zone. When evaluating energy ratios for field crops it should be kept in mind that the maximal energy potential of the energy crop is the heating value of the dry matter at the field gate. Transportation of the crop and production of liquid fuels and electricity from biomass lowers the energy ratio. A comparison of field energy crops to a reforested field suggested that fast growing trees, as hybrid aspen and silver birch, would yield almost as

  13. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on promotion of international cooperation in the WE-NET project in fiscal 1996. The WE-NET project aims at development of the total system for hydrogen production, transport, storage and utilization, and construction of the earth-friendly innovative global clean energy network integrating elemental technologies. Since the standpoint is different between latent resource supplying countries and technology supplying countries, the WE-NET project should be constantly promoted under international understanding and cooperation. The committee distributed the annual summary report prepared by NEDO to overseas organizations, and made positive PR activities in the 11th World Conference and others. The committee made the evaluation on the improvement effect of air pollution by introducing a hydrogen vehicle in combination with Stanford University, and preparation of PR video tapes for hydrogen energy. Preliminary arrangement of Internet home pages, establishment of a long-term vision for international cooperation, and proposal toward the practical WE-NET are also made. 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Dossier Autarky. Own energy first. Without the net. Bureaucracy hinders self supply; Het Dossier Autarkie. Eigen energie eerst. Los van het net. Bureaucratie belemmert zelfvoorziening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilmaker, R.

    2010-08-20

    Autarky in the field of energy is technically feasible and economically increasingly more attractive. The government makes it difficult for citizens to generate decentralized renewable energy with its bureaucracy and legislation. [Dutch] Autarkie op energiegebied is technisch mogelijk en ook economisch steeds aantrekkelijker bij stijgende rekeningen voor nutsvoorzieningen. De overheid maakt het burgers met bureaucratie en wetgeving echter lastig om decentraal duurzame energie op te wekken.

  15. Apparent metabolizable and net energy values of corn and soybean meal for broiler breeding cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Liu, G H; Liao, R B; Chang, Y L; Huang, X Y; Wu, Y B; Yang, H M; Yan, H J; Cai, H Y

    2017-01-01

    The AME and net energy (NE) values of 4 corn varieties, including 2 normal corn varieties (Zheng Dan 958 and Xian Yu 335), and one each of waxy corn and sweet corn, and 2 soybean meal samples including regular (RSBM) and dehulled soybean meal (DSBM), were determined in 2 experiments for broiler breeding cocks using the indirect calorimetry method. The 4 test diets in Experiment 1 consisted of each test corn, which replaced 40% of the corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the test diets in Experiment 2 contained 25% RSBM or DSBM, which was used to replace the corn basal diet. Thirty (Experiment 1) or 18 (Experiment 2) 50-week-old Arbor Acre (AA) broiler breeding cocks were used in a completely randomized design. After a 7 d dietary adaptation period, 6 birds as replicates from each treatment were assigned to individual respiration chambers for energy measurement via gaseous exchange and total excreta collection for 10 d. In Experiment 1, the AME, ME intake (MEI), retained energy (RE), NE, and NE:AME ratio values were higher (P < 0.001) in the test diets as compared with the corn-soybean meal basal diet. The AME and NE values in the sweet corn diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those values in the other 3 test diets. The heat production (HP), fasting heat production (FHP), and respiration quotient (RQ) were not influenced by the various experimental diets. The respective AME and NE values were 3,785, 3,775, 3,738, and 3,997 kcal/kg (DM basis), and 2,982, 3,006, 2,959, and 3,146 kcal/kg (DM basis) for Zheng Dan 958, Xian Yu 335, waxy corn, and sweet corn. Birds fed a corn basal diet in Experiment 2 had higher AME, MEI, RE, NE, and NE:AME ratio values (P < 0.001). Soybean meal substitution had no effect on HP, FHP, or RQ. The average AME and NE content was 2,492 and 1,581 kcal/kg (DM basis) for RSBM, and 2,580 and 1,654 kcal/kg (DM basis) for DSBM, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Net electron energy gain induced by superluminal phase velocity and subluminal group velocity of a laser in a plasma channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Yao, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2017-08-01

    We examine electron dynamics induced by laser-plasma interaction in a two-dimensional plasma channel, taking into action the laser phase velocity as well as the group velocity. The coupled effects of phase velocity, group velocity, and plasma channel on electron dynamics are discussed in detail. The superluminal phase velocity and the corresponding subluminal group velocity of the laser result in rich and complex electron dynamics, which are depicted in the plane of the phase velocity and plasma charge density. For weak superluminosity of the phase velocity, the effects of the phase velocity and the group velocity can be neglected. For moderate superluminosity of the phase velocity, a cross-over region can exist, where the highly energetic electron could be found and the net energy gain is several times greater than the energy gain in vacuum. For strong superluminosity of the phase velocity, the dephasing rate increases and thus limits the electron energy gain from the laser. However, the asymmetric laser pulse, attributed by the superluminal phase velocity and the subluminal group velocity, results in the electron getting adjustable net energy gain from the laser. The electron oscillations are no longer limited by the charge density threshold and the electron can always get net energy from the laser. These electron dynamics can also be modified by adjusting the polarization of the laser.

  17. Energy Behavior Change and Army Net Zero Energy; Gaps in the Army’s Approach to Changing Energy Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    messenger approach provides only self-reinforcing information. Related is the eighth problem, which is human nature that supports complacency by only...Sustainability, and energy conservation programs. For example, the Army National Guard maintains a sustainability Facebook page as does the Assistant 67

  18. The Relationship Between Renewable Energy Production and Energy Imports Among Countries in the European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehaun, Sarah J.

    Most European countries must import fossil fuels due to a lack of domestic supplies but, in the interest of having a secure energy supply that is not susceptible to disruptions, would like to decrease their dependence on imports. It is possible that increasing renewable energy production could achieve this objective, in addition to providing environmental benefits. This analysis examines whether there is a relationship between renewable energy production and non-renewable energy imports, using data on European Union member countries and Norway from 1990-2014. Previous literature on the relationship between renewables and imports is scarce but provides suggestive evidence that production of renewables could lower import dependence, even if it cannot fully substitute for fossil fuels. However, the results of this analysis provide no evidence to support this position. Instead, I find that as renewable energy production increases, fossil fuel imports also increase.

  19. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit - In a humid, temperate climate: Lessons from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.1 Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft2). The retrofit design, which uses local prevailing winds to aid ventilation and cooling and incorporates envelope and lighting elements that reduce the need for cooling, was initially on track to use about 50% less energy than the current building, exceeding the CBP’s 30% savings goal. With the addition of building-mounted solar electric panels, the retrofitted building is projected to achieve net-zero annual energy use. Achieving net-zero energy addressed an emerging challenge to the university – how to lower energy usage and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuel in the face of already-high energy prices that are forecast to double by 2040. Not only will the retrofit dramatically reduce Kuykendall Hall’s annual energy costs, but the project lays the groundwork for new campus policies and processes and low-energy design approaches and is building a campus knowledge base on low-energy practices. This project is a model of integrated design and building delivery that will be replicated in future projects on the campus.

  20. A Nearly Net-Zero Exergy District as a Model for Smarter Energy Systems in the Context of Urban Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kılkış, Şiir

    2017-01-01

    The planning of urban settlements requires a targeted approach towards more sustainable energy, water, and environment systems. This research work analyses the city of Uppsala and a district that is an urban renewal project at the site of former high voltage power lines, namely Östra Sala backe, which will have a new energy concept. The latter is analysed based on proposals for two phases that aim to reach a net-zero district target based on the quality of energy (exergy). An indicator set...

  1. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  2. The importance of surface finish to energy performance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Geoff B.; Gentle Angus R.; Arnold Matthew D.; Gali Marc A.; Cortie Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Power generation in solar energy systems, thermal control in buildings and mitigation of the Urban Heat Island problem, are all sensitive to directional response to incoming radiation. The radiation absorption and emission profile also plays a crucial role in each system's response and depends strongly on surface finish. This important sensitivity needs wider recognition in materials data sheets, system modeling, plus in materials and environmental engineering. The impact of surface roughness...

  3. Federal R&D Agenda for Net Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    indicate a gap between design intent and construction that results in reduced energy performance (Torcellini et al. 2006). Building energy efficiency is...occupant, building, or community needs and preferences. New technologies that maximize building energy efficiency and minimize operational energy use...including low-income home energy assistance program, weatherization assistance, state energy programs, state building energy efficiency codes incentives and

  4. High-Energy Neutrino Searches in the Mediterranean Sea: probing the Universe with antares and km3net-arca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchner, Antoine; "> antares, net- and in particular its high-energy component arca.

  5. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  6. Water and energy link in the cities of the future - achieving net zero carbon and pollution emissions footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, V

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the link between water conservation, reclamation, reuse and energy use as related to the goal of achieving the net zero carbon emission footprint in future sustainable cities. It defines sustainable ecocities and outlines quantitatively steps towards the reduction of energy use due to water and used water flows, management and limits in linear and closed loop water/stormwater/wastewater management systems. The three phase water energy nexus diagram may have a minimum inflection point beyond which reduction of water demand may not result in a reduction of energy and carbon emissions. Hence, water conservation is the best alternative solution to water shortages and minimizing the carbon footprint. A marginal water/energy chart is developed and proposed to assist planners in developing future ecocities and retrofitting older communities to achieve sustainability.

  7. A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks using fuzzy Petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Fu, Xiao; Cai, Yuanli; Vuran, Mehmet C

    2011-01-01

    A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm considers the residual energy, number of the neighbors and centrality of each node for cluster formation, which is critical for well-balanced energy dissipation of the network. In the algorithm, a knowledge-based inference approach using fuzzy Petri nets is employed to select cluster heads, and then the fuzzy reasoning mechanism is used to compute the degree of reliability in the route sprouting tree from cluster heads to the base station. Finally, the most reliable route among the cluster heads can be constructed. The algorithm not only balances the energy load of each node but also provides global reliability for the whole network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively prolongs the network lifetime and reduces the energy consumption.

  8. Investigation of the impact of using thermal mass with the net zero energy town house in Toronto using TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, O.; Fung, A.; Tse, H.; Zhang, D. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Since buildings in Canada account for 30 per cent of the country's total energy consumption, it has become necessary to find ways to reduce the overall energy use in buildings. Heating and cooling loads in buildings can be effectively reduced by using the thermal mass incorporated into the building envelope, particularly in climates where a large daily temperature fluctuations exist. Thermal mass is defined as any building material that has a high heat storage capacity that can be integrated into the structural fabric of the building to use the passive solar energy for heating or cooling purposes. Concrete slabs, bricks and ceramic blocks are some of the commonly used materials. This study analyzed the impact of using thermal mass with a highly insulated building envelope such as that used in Low Energy or Net Zero housing. In particular, TRNSYS was used to simulate a Net Zero Energy Town House located in Toronto, in which a ground source heat pump was integrated with an infloor radiant heating system. The simulation revealed that for colder climates such as in Canada, thermal mass can replace some of the insulation while still providing excellent results in terms of the reductions in daily indoor temperature fluctuations. The impact of thermal mass during the winter was more significant when compared with summer, possibly because of the unique construction and orientation of the Net Zero Energy House. The optimum thickness of the concrete slab was determined to be 6 inches for the winter season and 4 inches for summer. The optimum location for the thermal mass was found to be right next to the gypsum wallboard that forms the interior part of the wall. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  9. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  10. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  11. Comparing Apples to Apples: Why the Net Energy Analysis Community Needs to Adopt the Life-Cycle Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we know which energy technologies or resources are worth pursuing and which aren’t? One way to answer that question is to compare the energy return of a certain technology—i.e., how much energy is remaining after accounting for the amount of energy expended in the production and delivery process. Such energy return ratios (the most famous of which is energy return on investment (EROI fall within the field of net energy analysis (NEA, and provide an easy way to determine which technology is “better”; i.e., higher Energy Return Ratios (ERRs are, certeris paribus, better than lower ERRs. Although useful as a broad measure of energy profitability, comparisons can also be misleading, particularly if the units being compared are different. For example, the energy content of electricity produced from a photovoltaic cell is different than the energy content of coal at the mine-mouth, yet these are often compared directly within the literature. These types of inconsistencies are common within the NEA literature. In this paper, we offer life cycle assessment (LCA and the LCA methodology as a possible solution to the persistent methodological issues within the NEA community, and urge all NEA practitioners to adopt this methodology in the future.

  12. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system......The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...

  13. The political importance of energy cooperation between Germany and Denmark on the European Union energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszel Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Denmark and Germany have similar goals of energy transition. Both states are going to implement a policy that is aimed at the transition from a fossil fuel-based system towards a renewable energy system with variable renewables generation. The main objective of the German energy transition is to cover more than 80% of the energy consumption with renewables by 2050. For comparison, Denmark is going to build a fossil fuel-free system, which would be able to cover 100% of energy consumption with renewables by 2050. To this end, stronger cooperation between Germany and Denmark could enhance the position of both countries on the EU energy market. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of the energy cooperation between Germany and Denmark. It is crucial to answer the question of how both states could build a stronger energy position and which tools would be useful in this regard. Denmark is the world’s leader in the deployment of wind power, which is also implemented in the northern part of Germany. For this reason, both states have similar challenges with respect to the stabilisation of electricity systems. The current and prospective integration of energy systems of both countries is also important for the improvement of energy security. It is also crucial to answer the questions whether the energy integration will have political implications for both countries, and whether stronger energy cooperation between Germany and Denmark will strengthen the competitive advantage of German economy in the EU.

  14. Chapter 7: Renewable Energy Options and Considerations for Net Zero Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Samuel

    2017-03-15

    This chapter focuses on renewable energy options for military installations. It discusses typical renewable technologies, project development, and gives examples. Renewable energy can be combined with conventional energy sources to provide part or all of the energy demand at an installation. The appropriate technology mix for an installation will depend on site-specific factors such as renewable resources, energy costs, local energy policies and incentives, available land, mission compatibility, and other factors. The objective of this chapter is to provide basic background information and resources on renewable energy options for NATO leaders and energy personnel.

  15. Federal Existing Buildings Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined zero energy buildings as "an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This handbook is focused on applying the EERE definition of zero energy buildings to existing buildings in the federal sector. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  16. Federal New Buildings Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined zero energy buildings as "an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This document is focused on applying EERE’s definition of zero energy buildings to federal sector new buildings. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  17. Demonstrate Energy Component of the Installation Master Plan Using Net Zero Installation Virtual Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    selections from the MILP optimization 26 2-25 The cluster optimization analysis page. Here, the District Hot Water alternative is expanded to show...VAV Variable Air Volume VFD Variable Frequency Drive XML Extensible Markup Language XPS Extruded Polystyrene xvi 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION...Installations Directive, which expanded the Net Zero Initiative beyond the pilot installations to all permanent Army installations. The U.S. Navy is

  18. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to discuss the economical and the environmental analysis of a net zero energy (NZE tourist village in Alexandria, Egypt, by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. The hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for the proposed tourist village under the study. The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels (58.09% solar energy penetration, 1000 kW of wind turbines (41.34% wind energy penetration, 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator (only 0.57% diesel generator penetration in addition to 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each. The levelized cost of energy (COE from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh and the total net present cost (NPC of this system is $15,383,360. Additionally, the maximum renewable energy fraction is 99.1% and the amount of GHG emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparison with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system. In addition to this, the achieved percentage of the capacity shortage and the unmet load in the optimal HRES is only 0% for both.

  19. Toward Net Energy Buildings: Design, Construction, and Performance of the Grand Canyon House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcomb, J. D.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.

    1999-06-23

    The Grand Canyon house is a joint project of the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the U.S. National Park Service and is part of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 13 (Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings). Energy consumption of the house, designed using a whole-building low-energy approach, was reduced by 75% compared to an equivalent house built in accordance with American Building Officials Model Energy Code and the Home Energy Rating System criteria.

  20. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  1. Globally sourced mineral commodities used in U.S. Navy SEAL gear—An illustration of U.S. net import reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jamie; Nassar, Nedal T.; Gambogi, Joseph; Baker, Michael S.; Jarvis, Michael T.

    2018-01-25

    A U.S. Navy SEAL (an acronym for sea, air, land) carries gear containing at least 23 nonfuel mineral commodities for which the United States is greater than 50 percent net import reliant. The graphics display the leading world producers of selected nonfuel mineral commodities used to manufacture U.S. Navy SEAL gear. SEALs are members of the U.S. Navy's special operations forces.

  2. Applicability of energy-positive net-zero water management in Alaska: technology status and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D; Guo, Tianjiao; Gassie, Lucien; Dotson, Aaron

    2017-11-22

    Challenges of water and wastewater management in Alaska include the potential need for above-grade and freeze-protected piping, high unit energy costs and, in many rural areas, low population density and median annual income. However, recently developed net-zero water (NZW), i.e., nearly closed-loop, direct potable water reuse systems, can retain the thermal energy in municipal wastewater, producing warm treated potable water without the need for substantial water re-heating, heat pumping or transfer, or additional energy conversion. Consequently, these systems are projected to be capable of saving more energy than they use in water treatment and conveyance, in the temperate USA. In this paper, NZW technology is reviewed in terms of potential applicability in Alaska by performing a hypothetical case study for the city of Fairbanks, Alaska. Results of this paper study indicate that in municipalities of Alaska with local engineering and road access, the use of NZW systems may provide an energy-efficient water service option. In particular, case study modeling suggests hot water energy savings are equivalent to five times the energy used for treatment, much greater savings than in mid-latitudes, due largely to the substantially higher energy needed for heating water from a conventional treatment system and lack of need for freeze-protected piping. Further study of the applicability of NZW technology in cold regions, with expanded evaluation in terms of system-wide lifecycle cost, is recommended.

  3. Review on importance of energy efficiency in hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that lately tourism has become one of the most significant economic activities, and hospitality as its main key part there is a need to observe constant market trend changes in order to achieve business improvements for hoteliers. Modern technologies in hospitality influence on cost reduction, increase of profit and competitiveness, and finally on enhancing guests' satisfaction. The usage of modern technologies in rational use of energy is of strategic importance for every hotel company due to reduction of costs, strengthens of competitiveness, increases of productivity, and on the other side, becomes a strategic tool which influences on business efficiency improvement. Therefore, there is a natural need and feeling of those who are stakeholders of tourism and hospitality to inform themselves about new technologies. The aim of this article is to provide insight into the latest trends, necessities and current issues in the field of for rational use of energy in all areas of hotel operations, which will result in the creation of high-quality services and provide full customer satisfaction.

  4. The importance of surface finish to energy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Geoff B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power generation in solar energy systems, thermal control in buildings and mitigation of the Urban Heat Island problem, are all sensitive to directional response to incoming radiation. The radiation absorption and emission profile also plays a crucial role in each system's response and depends strongly on surface finish. This important sensitivity needs wider recognition in materials data sheets, system modeling, plus in materials and environmental engineering. The impact of surface roughness on thermal response of natural and man-made external environments is examined. Important examples will be given of the role of surface finish within each class. Total emittance links to the way surface finish influences directional emittance E(θ. Smooth surface thermal emittance on PV module covers, many solar absorbers, some roof paints, polished concrete, and glass windows can be up to 15% different from insulator results based on fully diffuse models of the same material. Widespread evidence indicates smooth metals and low-E solar absorber surfaces cool faster, and smooth insulators slower than previously thought. Matt paint is cooler than low sheen paint under the same solar heating impacts and normal concrete cooler than polished. Emittance for water is the prime environmental example of oblique impacts as it reflects strongly at oblique incidence, which leads to a significant drop in E(θ. Ripples or waves however raise water's average emittance. A surprise in this work was the high sensitivity of total E and its angular components to roughness in the depth range of 0.1–0.8 μm, which are well under ambient thermal IR wavelengths of 3–30 μm but common in metal finishing. Parallel energy flows such as evaporation and convective cooling vary if emittance varies. Thermal image analysis can provide insights into angular radiative effects.

  5. Integration of renewable energies and nuclear power into North African Energy Systems: An analysis of energy import and export effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supersberger, Nikolaus, E-mail: nikolaus.supersberger@giz.de [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy, P.O. Box 10 04 80, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Fuehrer, Laura, E-mail: laura.fuhrer@sciences-po.org [Sciences Po Paris, College Universitaire, Campus de Menton, du College Chemin du College, 06500 Menton (France)

    2011-08-15

    The North African countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt have been and are currently experiencing rapid growth in energy demand. This development confronts their political leaders with the question of how to expand or diversify their countries' generation capacities. In this context, renewable energies and nuclear power constitute options that have rarely been exploited so far in the region. This article analyzes the drawbacks and benefits of both alternatives, with a special focus on import and export dynamics. When attempting to make the strategic decision between renewables and atomic power, North African regional specifics and circumstances have to be taken into account. Hence, in a first step, the article characterizes the energy systems of the North African countries and presents scenarios for their future development. In a second step, it scrutinizes the energy challenges these states face in terms of domestic concerns and foreign affairs. Finally, a case study of Algeria is used to demonstrate how renewable energies, but not nuclear power, are able to respond to North African energy challenges. - Research Highlights: > Using nuclear power would require fuel imports over the entire operation time. > Hence, energy exporters (Algeria, Libya) would become dependent on fuel imports. > Renewable energies can make North African countries less fuel import dependent. > Nuclear technologies would have to be imported over the whole life cycle of plants. > Domestic production for renewables technologies could be established after a first phase of technology imports.

  6. Beam energy dependence of moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-29

    We report the first measurements of the moments--mean (M), variance (σ(2)), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ)--of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from sqrt[sNN]=7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, σ(2)/M, Sσ, and κσ(2), with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBDs). The Sσ values deviate from the Poisson baseline and are close to the NBD baseline, while the κσ(2) values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models.

  7. Excess heat production of future net zero energy buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    buildings in Denmark are connected to electricity grids and around half are connected to districtheating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy systems enables them to send and receive energy from these systems. This paper’s objective is to examine how excess heat production from NZEBs...... excess heat production from solar thermal collectors. The main findings are that the excess heat from NZEBs can benefit DH systems by decreasing the production from production units utilizing combustible fuels. In DH areas where the heat demand in summer months is already covered by renewable energy......Denmark’s long-term energy goal is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources by 2050. To reach this goal, energy savings in buildings is essential. Therefore, the focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and netzeroenergybuildings (NZEBs) has increased. Most...

  8. Federal R&D Agenda for Net Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). If current trends continue, buildings worldwide will become the top energy consumers by 2025, and are likely to use as much energy as industry and transportation combined by 2050...

  9. Federal Research and Development Agenda for Net-Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). If current trends continue, buildings worldwide will become the top energy consumers by 2025, and are likely to use as much energy as industry and transportation combined by 2050...

  10. Successfully Implementing Net-Zero Energy Policy through the Air Force Military Construction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    performance and building energy efficiency requirements of prior EOs. The stated objectives of the policy are to “create a clean energy economy that...White House, 2009, p. 1). The EO creates specific goals for all federal agencies regarding building energy efficiency , greenhouse gas emissions...reduction, water conservation and protection, and solid waste reduction (The White House, 2009). The 14 building energy efficiency goals require the

  11. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  12. Net ecosystem exchange and energy fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique in a western Siberian bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alekseychik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies of ecosystem–atmosphere exchange involving eddy covariance data have been conducted in Siberia, with none in the western Siberian middle taiga. This work provides the first estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2 and energy budgets in a typical bog of the western Siberian middle taiga based on May–August measurements in 2015. The footprint of measured fluxes consisted of a homogeneous mixture of tree-covered ridges and hollows with the vegetation represented by typical sedges and shrubs. Generally, the surface exchange rates resembled those of pine-covered bogs elsewhere. The surface energy balance closure approached 100 %. Net CO2 uptake was comparatively high, summing up to 202 gC m−2 for the four measurement months, while the Bowen ratio was seasonally stable at 28 %. The ecosystem turned into a net CO2 source during several front passage events in June and July. The periods of heavy rain helped keep the water table at a sustainably high level, preventing a usual drawdown in summer. However, because of the cloudy and rainy weather, the observed fluxes might rather represent the special weather conditions of 2015 than their typical magnitudes.

  13. On Productions of Net-Baryons in Central Au-Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of net-baryons (baryons minus antibaryons produced in central gold-gold (Au-Au collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV are analyzed in the framework of a multisource thermal model. Each source in the model is described by the Tsallis statistics to extract the effective temperature and entropy index from the transverse momentum distribution. The two parameters are used as input to describe the rapidity distribution and to extract the rapidity shift and contribution ratio. Then, the four types of parameters are used to structure some scatter plots of the considered particles in some three-dimensional (3D spaces at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, which are expected to show different characteristics for different particles and processes. The related methodology can be used in the analyses of particle production and event holography, which are useful for us to better understand the interacting mechanisms.

  14. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates...... versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment...... weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids...

  15. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit: Lessons from the University of Hawaii at Manoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  16. Conceptual net energy output for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass through biorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; X.S. Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive information in the retrievable literature on pilot scale process and energy data using promising process technologies and commercially scalable and available capital equipment for lignocellulosic biomass biorefining. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the energy efficiency of selected sugar platform biorefinery process...

  17. Bacterial growth laws reflect the evolutionary importance of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A

    2015-01-13

    We are interested in the balance of energy and protein synthesis in bacterial growth. How has evolution optimized this balance? We describe an analytical model that leverages extensive literature data on growth laws to infer the underlying fitness landscape and to draw inferences about what evolution has optimized in Escherichia coli. Is E. coli optimized for growth speed, energy efficiency, or some other property? Experimental data show that at its replication speed limit, E. coli produces about four mass equivalents of nonribosomal proteins for every mass equivalent of ribosomes. This ratio can be explained if the cell's fitness function is the the energy efficiency of cells under fast growth conditions, indicating a tradeoff between the high energy costs of ribosomes under fast growth and the high energy costs of turning over nonribosomal proteins under slow growth. This model gives insight into some of the complex nonlinear relationships between energy utilization and ribosomal and nonribosomal production as a function of cell growth conditions.

  18. Energy Management: An Important Component of Quality Control in School Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Peter B.

    1984-01-01

    The cost of energy will continue to rise. Energy conservation, by reducing usage, will at least maintain energy costs. Energy management is an important part of the school food service manager's job. Guidelines are provided. (MLF)

  19. Energy Consumption Evaluation for Wireless Sensor Network Nodes Based on Queuing Petri Net

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Zhou, H. Y.; D. C. Zuo; Hou, K. M.; Xie, H. P.; Zhou, P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large scale of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and the huge density of WSN nodes, classical performance evaluation techniques face new challenges in view of the complexity and diversity in WSN applications. This paper presents a “state-event-transition” formal description for WSN nodes and proposes an event-driven QPN-based modeling technique to simulate the energy behaviors of nodes. Besides, the framework architecture of a dedicated energy evaluation platform has been introduced, ...

  20. Regression analysis to predict growth performance from dietary net energy in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitikanchana, S; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; White, B J

    2015-06-01

    Data from 41 trials with multiple energy levels (285 observations) were used in a meta-analysis to predict growth performance based on dietary NE concentration. Nutrient and energy concentrations in all diets were estimated using the NRC ingredient library. Predictor variables examined for best fit models using Akaike information criteria included linear and quadratic terms of NE, BW, CP, standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, fat, ash, and their interactions. The initial best fit models included interactions between NE and CP or SID Lys. After removal of the observations that fed SID Lys below the suggested requirement, these terms were no longer significant. Including dietary fat in the model with NE and BW significantly improved the G:F prediction model, indicating that NE may underestimate the influence of fat on G:F. The meta-analysis indicated that, as long as diets are adequate for other nutrients (i.e., Lys), dietary NE is adequate to predict changes in ADG across different dietary ingredients and conditions. The analysis indicates that ADG increases with increasing dietary NE and BW but decreases when BW is above 87 kg. The G:F ratio improves with increasing dietary NE and fat but decreases with increasing BW. The regression equations were then evaluated by comparing the actual and predicted performance of 543 finishing pigs in 2 trials fed 5 dietary treatments, included 3 different levels of NE by adding wheat middlings, soybean hulls, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 8 to 9% oil), or choice white grease (CWG) to a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Diets were 1) 30% DDGS, 20% wheat middlings, and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 2) 20% wheat middlings and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 3) a corn-soybean meal diet (medium energy); 4) diet 2 supplemented with 3.7% CWG to equalize the NE level to diet 3 (medium energy); and 5) a corn-soybean meal diet with 3.7% CWG (high energy). Only small differences were observed

  1. HAWC Analysis of the Crab Nebula Using Neural-Net Energy Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Samuel; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The HAWC (High-Altitude Water-Cherenkov) experiment is a TeV γ-ray observatory located 4100 m above sea level on the Sierra Negra mountain in Puebla, Mexico. The detector consists of 300 water-filled tanks, each instrumented with 4 photomuliplier tubes that utilize the water-Cherenkov technique to detect atmospheric air showers produced by cosmic γ rays. Construction of HAWC was completed in March, 2015. The experiment's wide field of view (2 sr) and high duty cycle (> 95 %) make it a powerful survey instrument sensitive to pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and other γ-ray sources. The mechanisms of particle acceleration at these sources can be studied by analyzing their energy spectra. To this end, we have developed an event-by-event energy-reconstruction algorithm employing an artificial neural network to estimate energies of primary γ rays. The Crab Nebula, the brightest source of TeV photons, makes an excellent calibration source for this technique. We will present preliminary results from an analysis of the Crab energy spectrum using this new energy-reconstruction method. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  2. Prototyping Energy Efficient Thermo-Magnetic & Induction Hardening for Heat Treat & Net Shape Forming Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquil Ahmad

    2012-08-03

    Within this project, Eaton undertook the task of bringing about significant impact with respect to sustainability. One of the major goals for the Department of Energy is to achieve energy savings with a corresponding reduction in carbon foot print. The use of a coupled induction heat treatment with high magnetic field heat treatment makes possible not only improved performance alloys, but with faster processing times and lower processing energy, as well. With this technology, substitution of lower cost alloys for more exotic alloys became a possibility; microstructure could be tailored for improved magnetic properties or wear resistance or mechanical performance, as needed. A prototype commercial unit has been developed to conduct processing of materials. Testing of this equipment has been conducted and results demonstrate the feasibility for industrial commercialization.

  3. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  4. Towards a Net Zero Building Cluster Energy Systems Analysis for US Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    available technologies [2] related to the building envelope, ventilation, advanced “low exergy ” heating and cooling systems, central energy plants...built or retrofitted to “passive house” requirements and using advanced “low exergy ” systems to satisfy remaining heating and cooling needs. The

  5. A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Dierckxsens, Carlos; Mendes, Goncalo; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo Ferreira

    2011-03-18

    A large project is underway at Alameda County's twenty-year old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources including a seven-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a four-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion will add approximately 2 MW of NaS batteries, and undetermined wind capacity and a concentrating solar thermal system. This ongoing effort by a progressive local government with considerable Federal and State support provides some excellent lessons for the struggle to lower building carbon footprint. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) finds true optimal combinations of equipment and operating schedules for microgrids that minimize energy bills and/or carbon emissions without 2 of 12 significant searching or rules-of-thumb prioritization, such as"efficiency first then on-site generation." The results often recommend complex systems, and sensitivities show how policy changes will affect choices. This paper reports an analysis of the historic performance of the PV system and fuel cell, describes the complex optimization applied to the battery scheduling, and shows how results will affect the jail's operational costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. DER-CAM is used to assess the existing and proposed DER equipment in its ability to reduce tariff charges.

  6. Importance of configurational contributions to the free energy of nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Posselt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective simulation method based on the Wang-Landau Monte Carlo algorithm is used in order to demonstrate the significance of the configurational contributions to the free energy of embedded nanoclusters. Starting from the most stable cluster configuration the simulation provides all geometrically different, but simply connected and sufficiently compact configurations of a nanocluster of a given size and the respective formation energies. The knowledge of these data allows the calculation of the free formation and free binding energy of the cluster at T ≠ 0. The method is applied to coherent Cu clusters in bcc-Fe. It is shown that even at moderate temperatures the configurational contributions to the free formation and binding energy must not be neglected. The dependence of the monomer free binding energy on clusters size is found to change significantly with increasing temperature which has a considerable effect on the pathway of cluster evolution. Therefore, present investigations provide an essential contribution to the improvement of the input parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and rate theory used in multi-scale simulations of the nanostructure evolution. The calculation scheme developed in this work is rather general and applicable to many types of embedded nanoclusters. Compared to the method of overlapping distributions hitherto used in some cases to determine the configurational part of the free energy the new method has major advantages. Various tests are performed in order verify the presented approach and to compare with the results of the other calculation procedure. A roadmap is proposed to include the vibrational contributions to the free energy of the clusters within the framework of the method employed in this work.

  7. Net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities on slopes computed by the energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo; Qian, Ping

    1990-01-01

    Energy balance components obtained over five grass-covered sloping surfaces near Manhattan, KS, using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique with the instruments mounted horizontally were compared with calculated values when the instruments were mounted parallel to the surfaces. Hourly values of the components changed when the instruments were parallel to the surfaces. The changes were larger at low solar angles (spring and fall) and on steeper slopes. An area average of daylight totals, assuming that all aspects were equally represented, changed only 0.1 percent on June 6 and 2.3 percent on October 11. The calculations, extended to steeper slopes, indicated small changes in the daylight totals for slopes of less than 10 deg.

  8. Staged Z-pinch for the production of high-flux neutrons and net energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; Rostoker, Norman; Ney, Paul

    2017-12-05

    A fusible target is embedded in a high Z liner, ohmically heated and then shock wave heated by implosion of an enveloping high Z liner. The target is adiabatically heated by compression, fusibly ignited and charged-particle heated as it is being ignited. A shock front forms as the liner implodes which shock front detaches from the more slowly moving liner, collides with the outer surface of the target, accelerates inward, rapidly heating the target, adiabatically compressing the target and liner and amplifying the current to converge the liner mass toward a central axis thereby compressing the target to a fusion condition when it begins to ignite and produce charged particles. The charged particles are trapped in a large magnetic field surrounding the target. The energy of the charged particles is deposited into the target to further heat the target to produce an energy gain.

  9. Fiscal Year 2013 Net Zero Energy-Water-Waste Portfolio for Fort Leonard Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater Management Implement and achieve objectives from USEPA Army Policy Army Sustainable Design and Development Policy, December 2013...facilities with follow-up projects, ERDC/CERL SR-14-11 54 and established stormwater management requirements. EO 13514 extend- ed water reduction...EnEff Stadt (a comprehen- sive approach to urban areas with local and district heating networks), the World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance

  10. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  11. Importance of IMF low growth, environmental problem, and energy informationalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hong Kon [Korea Institute of Industry and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The advancement of industry implies a high degree of entire industrial structure. The activation of industry in Korea follows the increase of fossil fuel-oriented energy consumption and it implies the increase of carbon dioxide emission. Therefore, the conversion to strategic industrial structure, which reduces energy consumption and increases efficiency, is needed for the continuous and reliable economic development. The foreign advanced industrial technology information can be a measure to protect from the risk and to take a chance in the period of retrenchment and low growth due to IMF.

  12. The Importance of Seedlings Quality in Timber and Bio-energy Production on marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Margarita; Repmann, Frank; Gerwin, Werner

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issues that the forest sector is facing is to achieve a balance between the demand for biomass &wood production and the need to preserve the sustainability and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. The purposes of the new approaches are to ensure more efficient management of ecosystems and implement intensive forestry that will increase biomass production & timber yields. To achieve this, we need to determine the macroeconomic potential of the various options available, including the use of biotechnology and genetics. The success of the forests plantations capacity may be solved through forest certification, based on: a) Stabilization of the forests and soils structure. b) Hierarchy of biomass production in the forest's management process. c) Οrganization and implementation of effective plantation on marginal lands. d) Maintenance or increase of forest productivity by introducing new items as and when they are required. It is important to evaluate of the influence of factors such as the quality of soils of plantation areas, the utilization of the genetic resources and the management of forest operations with the environmental economic criteria such as net present value of benefits (NPV) and the corresponding flow annuities (EACF).The existing evaluations studies showed that the quality of the plantation areas has the most influence and through validated quality seed production can generate an increase in the NPV up to 73%. The importance of seedlings quality in timber and bio-energy production on marginal lands based on the literature it is estimated according to the heredity of the characteristics of the wood structure (except shrinkage). This clearly indicate that seedlings with the appropriate morphological characteristics can significantly improve the growth performance and help to support the development of biomass plantations oriented in tailor-made timber and bio-energy production.

  13. Importance of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Cover for Energy Balance partition in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Van De Giesen, N.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface characteristics are the main control on hydrologic processes, the driver of most livelihoods, in semi arid West Africa. We use the energy and water balance measured with two eddy-covariance towers, coupled with a dense network of small, wireless meteorological stations in a small (3.5 km2) catchment to understand these relationships. Time series of monthly averages of soil moisture, rainfall, air temperature, cloud cover, components of net radiation, wind speed, and NDVI are presented in relation to the evaporative fraction and energy balance. We found that both latent and sensible heat fluxes are greater over mixed forest and savanna areas compared agricultural land. Sensible heat is found to be most different between the two land-covers at the end of the year, when the grass and vegetation is dry, and latent heat is found to be most different at the beginning of the year, when bare ground dominates. Further examination shows that soil moisture and vegetation indexes provide the main controls on evaporative fraction. These findings have implications for modeling the evaporation over large regions based on remotely sensed land surface temperature. The site is characteristic of the contrasts in vegetation and moisture availability present in the rocky escarpments found in Northern Benin and Southeastern Burkina Faso. Historically these sites are important in location for village choice and land use designation. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of vegetation for climate regulation and may provide support to local farmers for improving the resilience of natural resources and livelihood security.

  14. Examples of Important Ongoing Research Topics for Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to address some challenges related to offshore wind energy. A first example shows some results from an ongoing project on accurate computation of wave loads on monopole foundations. The effects of wave nonlinearity and bottom slope are examined and detailed CFD computations...

  15. A Game Theoretic Framework for Green HetNets Using D2D Traffic Offload and Renewable Energy Powered Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias

    2015-08-26

    This chapter investigates the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green communications in LTE heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Two game theoretic concepts are studied and analyzed in order to perform dynamic HetNet base station (BS) on/off switching. The first approach is a coalition-based method whereas the second is based on the Nash bargaining solution. Afterwards, a method for coupling the BS on/off switching approach with D2D collaborative communications is presented and shown to lead to increased energy efficiency. The savings are additionally increased when a portion of the small cell BSs in a HetNet are powered by renewable energy sources. Different utility functions, modeling the game theoretic framework governing the energy consumption balance between the cellular network and the mobile terminals (MTs), are proposed and compared, and their impact on MT quality of service (QoS) is analyzed.

  16. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  17. Towards a Net Zero Building Cluster Energy Systems Analysis for a Brigade Combat Team Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    building enve- lope, ventilation, advanced “low exergy ” heating and cooling systems, central energy plants with co- This material is declared a work of the...from the mains increases from centralized to decentralized by 21% or 4.3 GWh/yr. The fact that heat is a local commodity with a lower exergy factor...and electricity is a non-local commod- ity with an exergy factor of 1 that cannot be stored easily like heat, indicates that this is a good path to

  18. Solar Sustainable Heating, Cooling and Ventilation of a Net Zero Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Skrupskelis, Martynas; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    Present work addresses the heating, cooling and ventilation concerns of the Technical University of Denmark’s house, Fold, for Solar Decathlon Europe 2012. Various innovative approaches are investigated, namely, utilization of ground, photo-voltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels and phase change materials...... by the embedded pipes which are coupled with the ground. Ventilation is mainly used to control the humidity and to remove sensory and chemical pollution. PV/T panels enable the house to be a “plus” energy house. PV/T also yields to a solar fraction of 63% and 31% for Madrid and Copenhagen, respectively...

  19. Neural nets with varying topology for high-energy particle recognition: an outlook of computational dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Antonio L.; Messi, Roberto; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Basti, Gianfranco

    1993-09-01

    With respect to Rosenblatt linear perceptron, a classical limitation theorem demonstrated by M. Minsky and S. Papert is discussed. This theorem, '$PSIOne-in-a-box', ultimately concern the intrinsic limitations of parallel calculations in pattern calculations in pattern recognition problems. We demonstrate a possible solution of this limitation problem by substituting the static definition of characteristic functions and of their domains in the 'geometrical' perceptron, with their dynamic definition. This dynamics consists in the mutual redefinition of the characteristic function and of its domain depending on the matching with the input. We show an application of this 'dynamic' perceptron scheme in particle tracks recognition in high energy physics. Actually, this algorithm is being used for real time automatic triggering of ADONE e+e- storage ring (Frascati, Rome) to evaluate the neutron time-like electromagnetic form factor in the context of 'Fenice' collaboration by Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN).

  20. Demonstration of the Energy Component of the Installation Master Plan Using the Net Zero Energy Planner Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-07

    solutions such as solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, wind energy, bio -mass (wood chips, etc.), bio -gas, or synthetic gas are considered as part of the...from four sources (natural gas, biogas, diesel/fuel oil, and bio - mass). This should allow the installation to maintain critical functions even under...distribution system. • Storm drainage system. • Wastewater system (sewers). • Natural gas distribution system. • Petroleum, Oils, and lubricants (POL – fuel

  1. Import Substitution: the Boarders of the Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N. Shvets

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes issues of import substitution in national production and determination of its effective scale considering the country's involvement to international division of labor and an important role of interstate cooperation in today's globalized world. The relevance of the study relies on the fact, that unfavorable global economic and politic situation in 2014-2015 raised concerns among the Russian authorities and the society in general about the stability of the economy and the necessity to increase its independence and self-sustainability. Sectoral economic sanctions imposed by western developed countries could potentially lead to disruptions in the supply of components and equipment that ensure the operation of power facilities. Currently power companies are influenced by the external economic situation and the devaluation of the national currency. As the result, goods of foreign manufacture have become significantly more expensive and opportunities for power companies to realize their investing and repair programs have been reduced. Thereby there is a high importance of developing the substitution-oriented production of the high-tech electric equipment within the Russian Federation's territory. Import substitution issues are closely related to the governmental industrial policy. The programs of the national production development need huge investments and that's why issues of economic effectiveness evaluation are highly relevant. But balances between economy's specialization and diversification, import substitution and export orientation are also highly important. Such measures directed at artificial import rationing as sanctions against foreign goods, creating favorable competitive environment for national producers, governmental grants could in prospect lead to a stagnation of the economy.

  2. The importance of monitoring renewable energy plants: three case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarin, Renato

    2017-11-01

    Many renwable energy plants are put into operation without providing a monitoring system to evaluate their performance over time. Then if is often difficult to realise the bad working of the system and the loss of efficiency results in an economic loss. Three quite different examples are reported to illustrate how real performance can be lower than designed due respectively: 1. To bad settings of the parameters; 2. To a hurried commissioning that did not reveal the mistakes in the design of the plant; 3. To a failure of a single component over time.

  3. Contrasting Strategies of Photosynthetic Energy Utilization Drive Lifestyle Strategies in Ecologically Important Picoeukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly H. Halsey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency with which absorbed light is converted to net growth is a key property for estimating global carbon production. We previously showed that, despite considerable evolutionary distance, Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae and Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae share a common strategy of photosynthetic energy utilization and nearly identical light energy conversion efficiencies. These findings suggested that a single model might be appropriate for describing relationships between measures of phytoplankton production. This conclusion was further evaluated for Ostreococcus tauri RCC1558 and Micromonas pusilla RCC299 (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae, two picoeukaryotes with contrasting geographic distributions and swimming abilities. Nutrient-dependent photosynthetic efficiencies in O. tauri were similar to the previously studied larger algae. Specifically, absorption-normalized gross oxygen and carbon production and net carbon production were independent of nutrient limited growth rate. In contrast, all measures of photosynthetic efficiency were strongly dependent on nutrient availability in M. pusilla. This marked difference was accompanied by a diminished relationship between Chla:C and nutrient limited growth rate and a remarkably greater efficiency of gross-to-net energy conversion than the other organisms studied. These results suggest that the cost-benefit of decoupling pigment concentration from nutrient availability enables motile organisms to rapidly exploit more frequent encounters with micro-scale nutrient patches in open ocean environments.

  4. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 9. Investigation of innovative and leading technologies; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 9. Kakushinteki sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The WE-NET Project is a long-term project designed to ensure that an energy network technology using hydrogen becomes a reality not later than 2020. So the project cannot remain effective unless constant efforts are made to foresee future trends of technology and optimize it as the making of entire system for the project. In this project, new technologies which are not up for development are also investigated. Their feasibility should be studied, if necessary. From the foregoing point of view, new technologies are studied, collected and evaluated. Thus, useful suggestions and proposals may be made as to the course for the project to follow, as well as its research and development. Proposals highly evaluated up to FY 1995 are the hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling`s engine, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration technology for liquefaction of hydrogen, solar thermal hydrogen production with iron sponge technology, and hydrogen producing technology with photocatalyst. Conceptual investigation themes in FY 1996 are the hydrogen internal-combustion Stirling engine, solar thermal hydrogen production, phototransformation process, and high-temperature steam electrolysis. 9 figs., 54 tabs.

  5. The effects of substitution of incandescent light bulbs over the energy net; Os efeitos da substituicao de lampadas incandescentes sobre a rede eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Juergen [A-Eberle GmbH (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Fluorescent compact lamps and LED light require reactors to work. Analyzing the consumed power by these lamps, complex effects with no positive consequences over the electric energy net is observed. In the context of the harmonics, should be considered mainly the reactive power of distortion. The article clarifies the related concepts and presents practical examples.

  6. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  7. Energy neutral: the human foot and ankle subsections combine to produce near zero net mechanical work during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Worster, Kate; Bruening, Dustin A

    2017-11-13

    The human foot and ankle system is equipped with structures that can produce mechanical work through elastic (e.g., Achilles tendon, plantar fascia) or viscoelastic (e.g., heel pad) mechanisms, or by active muscle contractions. Yet, quantifying the work distribution among various subsections of the foot and ankle can be difficult, in large part due to a lack of objective methods for partitioning the forces acting underneath the stance foot. In this study, we deconstructed the mechanical work production during barefoot walking in a segment-by-segment manner (hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank). This was accomplished by isolating the forces acting within each foot segment through controlling the placement of the participants' foot as it contacted a ground-mounted force platform. Combined with an analysis that incorporated non-rigid mechanics, we quantified the total work production distal to each of the four isolated segments. We found that various subsections within the foot and ankle showed disparate work distribution, particularly within structures distal to the hindfoot. When accounting for all sources of positive and negative work distal to the shank (i.e., ankle joint and all foot structures), these structures resembled an energy-neutral system that produced net mechanical work close to zero (-0.012 ± 0.054 J/kg).

  8. Relative importance of climate changes at different time scales on net primary productivity-a case study of the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Zhang, Mingyang; Lin, Zhenshan

    2017-10-05

    Climate changes are considered to significantly impact net primary productivity (NPP). However, there are few studies on how climate changes at multiple time scales impact NPP. With MODIS NPP product and station-based observations of sunshine duration, annual average temperature and annual precipitation, impacts of climate changes at different time scales on annual NPP, have been studied with EEMD (ensemble empirical mode decomposition) method in the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China, during 2000-2013. Moreover, with partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, the relative importance of climatic variables for annual NPP has been explored. The results show that (1) only at quasi 3-year time scale do sunshine duration and temperature have significantly positive relations with NPP. (2) Annual precipitation has no significant relation to NPP by direct comparison, but significantly positive relation at 5-year time scale, which is because 5-year time scale is not the dominant scale of precipitation; (3) the changes of NPP may be dominated by inter-annual variabilities. (4) Multiple time scales analysis will greatly improve the performance of PLSR model for estimating NPP. The variable importance in projection (VIP) scores of sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale, and precipitation at quasi 5-year time scale are greater than 0.8, indicating important for NPP during 2000-2013. However, sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale are much more important. Our results underscore the importance of multiple time scales analysis for revealing the relations of NPP to changing climate.

  9. Net-energy analysis of integrated food and bioenergy systems exemplified by a model of a self-sufficinet system of dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from...... the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system...

  10. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  11. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  12. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  13. Net-energy analysis of integrated food and bioenergy systems exemplified by a model of a self-sufficient system of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Ville Markussen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evaluated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy farming context in four different scenarios: 1 vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, 2 biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, 3 bioethanol from rye grain and whey, and 4 a combination of 1 and 2. When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: How to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services, and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and co-products from the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat and food were calculated separately. Further, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize co-products within the system. This approach resulted in a transparent assessment of the net-contribution to society, which is easy to interpret. We conclude that if 20% of land is used for energy crops, farm-gate energy self-sufficiency can be achieved at the cost of 17% reduction in amount of food produced. These results demonstrate the strong limitations for (organic agriculture in providing both food and surplus energy.

  14. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 2. Research on promotion of international cooperation (research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on the basic research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies, and ISO/TC197. As for the standardization, in relation to the hydrogen station in the WE-NET second phase research, the laws related to handling of gaseous hydrogen, and the basic issues on facility and safe handling were studied. As for ISO/TC197, the following draft standards were examined: Fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, fuel tank for liquid hydrogen vehicles, container for liquid hydrogen transport, specification of hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel supply facility for air ports, gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen mixture fuel system for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel connector for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel tank for vehicles, and basic items for hydrogen system safety. Final examination of the fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, and the specification of hydrogen fuel was finished, and these are scheduled to be registered for ISO. (NEDO)

  15. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  16. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption...... in Denmark. In the conclusion, these results are discussed in a broader international perspective and it is concluded that more research in this field is necessary. In relation to energy policy, it is argued that it is not a question of technology efficiency or behaviour, as both have to be included...

  17. US energy strategies: Some options for eliminating oil imports by the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, E. G.; Carlson, E. G.; Entingh, D. J.; Fearnsides, J. J.; Foreman, R. P.; Fraize, W. E.; Gray, D.; Lay, R. K.; Leigh, J. G.; Lytton, M.

    1981-04-01

    Topic areas discussed include: reasonable choices which eliminate the need for oil imports; potential domestic liquid fuel supplies; capital requirements for increased domestic liquid fuel supplies; potential for reducing liquid fuels demand; and domestic natural gas. Other domestic energy resources and future domestic energy demands are discussed.

  18. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  19. Breaking the Poverty-Energy Nexus : Perspectives and Problems of Renewable Energies in Developing Countries with High Fuel Import Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Content of the Diploma Thesis:In our seemingly modern world, more than 2 billion people still have no access to modern energy services, relying instead on traditional biomass sources like fuelwood, charcoal and animal dung. This has severe implications for the day-to-day life of the majority of poor people in developing countries because energy is vitally linked to numerous important dimensions of development: economic productivity, health, nutrition, education, gender, agricultural productio...

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF RECYCLING AND REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS IN ASSURING OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development implies development of economic activities so as to ensure rational use of resources and environmental protection. In the context of limited resources, a great importance have the reuse and recycling. But these processes take place with other consumptions, especially by energy. The energy efficiency is a way to ensure the performance and competitiveness, and, in the some time, a condition for reducing of greenhouse gases emissions and of financial costs to consumers. This article reflects some aspects of the need to reduce energy consumption in the production process of recycling (considering the structure of production costs and the importance of innovation management in this process.

  1. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  2. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no choa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was aimed at developing the WE-NET as a joint project worldwide by taking concrete measures such PR activities to obtain international understanding and cooperation of WE-NET based on the survey/grasp of researches of research institutes in each country and the developmental trend of hydrogen energy in each of the main countries. Implementing a `long-term vision for the WE-NET international cooperation,` the following measures were taken in fiscal 1997. PR activities were positively developed which coped with the worldwide increasing interest in WE-NET such as delivery to overseas institutions of the fiscal 1996 survey report in English summarized by NEDO and information exchanges, and participation in international conferences and presentation of the research results. From a standpoint of positively proceeding with the international technical information exchange, the following were conducted following fiscal 1996: 1) the evaluation study jointly made with Stanford University of effects of reducing air pollution by introducing hydrogen cars, 2) survey on the U.S. hydrogen project, and 3) preparation for opening of the WE-NET internet home pages. 17 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Comparison of growth and efficiency of dietary energy utilization by growing pigs offered feeding programs based on the metabolizable energy or the net energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J; Patience, J F; Boyd, R D

    2016-04-01

    The NE system describes the useful energy available for growth better than the ME system. The use of NE in diet formulation should maintain growth performance and carcass parameters when diets contain a diversity of ingredients. This study compared the growth performance of pigs on diets formulated using either the ME or the NE system. A total of 944 gilts and 1,110 castrates (40.8 ± 2.0 kg initial BW) were allotted to group pens and assigned to 1 of 5 different feeding programs according to a randomized complete block design. The 5 treatments included: a corn-soybean meal control diet (CTL), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), formulated to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-DC) and a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-DC). When required, fat was added as an energy source. Pigs were harvested at an average BW of 130.3 ± 4.0 kg. Growth performance was not affected by treatment ( = 0.581, = 0. 177, and = 0.187 for ADG, ADFI, and G:F, respectively). However, carcass growth decreased with the addition of coproducts except for the NE-D treatment ( = 0.016, = 0.001, = 0.018, = 0.010, and = 0.010 for dressing percentage, HCW, carcass ADG, back fat, and loin depth, respectively). Carcass G:F and lean percentage did not differ among treatments ( = 0.109 and = 0.433, respectively). On the other hand, NE intake decreased ( = 0.035) similarly to that of carcass gain, suggesting a relationship between NE intake and energy retention. Calculations of NE per kilogram of BW gain differed among treatments ( = 0.010), but NE per kilogram of carcass was similar among treatments ( = 0.640). This suggests that NE may be better than ME at explaining the carcass results

  4. Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pethig, Ruediger; Wittlich, Christian [Sigen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2009-08-15

    We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between energy and the consumption good. We calculate the effects of variations in individual policy parameters, especially on energy prices and welfare costs, and determine the impact of exogenous fossil-fuel price shocks on the economy. (orig.)

  5. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  6. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate. Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [BA-PIRC/ Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, J. [BA-PIRC/ Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  7. Net-zero Building Cluster Simulations and On-line Energy Forecasting for Adaptive and Real-Time Control and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiwang

    Buildings consume about 41.1% of primary energy and 74% of the electricity in the U.S. Moreover, it is estimated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory that more than 1/4 of the 713 GW of U.S. electricity demand in 2010 could be dispatchable if only buildings could respond to that dispatch through advanced building energy control and operation strategies and smart grid infrastructure. In this study, it is envisioned that neighboring buildings will have the tendency to form a cluster, an open cyber-physical system to exploit the economic opportunities provided by a smart grid, distributed power generation, and storage devices. Through optimized demand management, these building clusters will then reduce overall primary energy consumption and peak time electricity consumption, and be more resilient to power disruptions. Therefore, this project seeks to develop a Net-zero building cluster simulation testbed and high fidelity energy forecasting models for adaptive and real-time control and decision making strategy development that can be used in a Net-zero building cluster. The following research activities are summarized in this thesis: 1) Development of a building cluster emulator for building cluster control and operation strategy assessment. 2) Development of a novel building energy forecasting methodology using active system identification and data fusion techniques. In this methodology, a systematic approach for building energy system characteristic evaluation, system excitation and model adaptation is included. The developed methodology is compared with other literature-reported building energy forecasting methods; 3) Development of the high fidelity on-line building cluster energy forecasting models, which includes energy forecasting models for buildings, PV panels, batteries and ice tank thermal storage systems 4) Small scale real building validation study to verify the performance of the developed building energy forecasting methodology. The outcomes of

  8. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  9. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  10. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-01

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ~0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ~10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  11. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-01-01

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10–50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy. PMID:28211467

  12. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-17

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  13. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 2. Examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku shuishin no tame no chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the results of examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation, and examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, conducted in the FY 1998 continuously from the previous year, with the object to realize the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project. In the FY 1998, the English version of the 1997 annual summary report was distributed to a total of about 150 overseas organizations. The WE-NET project activities were presented to the 12th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, International Joint Power Generation Conference held in 1998 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Energy Conversion Systems and Related Technologies. For the examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, the contracting party of Japan for the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement with IEA has been shifted from the government of Japan to NEDO. NEDO has been representing Japan for various workshops on the tasks. The hydrogen projects conducted by Germany and USA were also surveyed. The WE-NET project homepage was opened in June, 1998. (NEDO)

  14. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Conceptual design of the total system; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on the conceptual design of the total system for the WE-NET project in 1996. Basic conditions are as follows: solid polymer water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbine power generation, hydrogen transport/storage through ammonia medium, power generation scale of 1000-4000MW (2-5 yen/kWh), and transport distance of 5000-20000km between supply and consumption places. The system efficiency was estimated to be 68% and 23% at an ammonia arrival time and power sending end, respectively, and it was dependent on a transport distance, while no power generation scale. The power cost was estimated to be 7 yen/Mcal and 33 yen/kWh, respectively. The system efficiency at a sending end was lower by 15% and 2% than that of the liquid hydrogen and methanol system, while the power cost was higher by 0 and 8 yen/kWh, respectively. It was necessary for loss reduction of this ammonia system to develop a new high-efficiency ammonia synthesis process, and hydrogen separation (decomposition/refining) process. 80 figs., 52 tabs.

  15. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 4. Development of hydrogen production technology; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen production technology as a part of the WE-NET project. For the solid polymer water electrolysis method higher in efficiency and lower in cost than the previous methods, 5 companies have developed element technologies for improving electrolysis cells and synthesis technologies of hot solid polymer electrolyte based on each proper catalyst electrode production method. In fiscal 1996, the initial study on large-scale systems by middle laboratory cells was made as well as improvement of electrolysis performance by small laboratory cells and endurance tests. Among the previous methods such as a hot press method (bonding of an ion exchange membrane to an electrode), an electroless plating method (preparation of porous surface onto a membrane electrode assembly), a zero gap method (preparation of high-efficiency high-current density cells), and a sintered porous electrode method (carrying of the mixture of catalytic powder and ion exchange resin-dissipated solution onto sintered metallic porous electrode surface), the former two methods were adopted for development of bench-scale cells as effective promising methods. 192 refs., 183 figs., 108 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    Energy production during February 1994 totaled 5.3 quadrillion Btu, a 2.2% increase over February 1993. Coal production increased 9%, natural gas rose 2.5%, and petroleum decreased 3.6%; all other forms of energy production combined were down 3%. Energy consumption during the same period totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.1% above February 1993. Natural gas consumption increased 5.8%, petroleum 5.2%, and coal 2.3%; consumption of all other energy forms combined decreased 0.7%. Net imports of energy totaled 1.4 quadrillion Btu, 16.9% above February 1993; petroleum net imports increased 10.1%, natural gas net imports were down 4.9%, and coal net exports fell 43.7%. This document is divided into: energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, international energy, appendices (conversion factors, etc.), and glossary.

  17. Integrating net-zero energy and high-performance green building technologies into contemporary housing in a cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Yoklic; Mark Knaebe; Karen Martinson

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research project are (1) to show how the sustainable resources of forest biomass, solar energy, harvested rainwater, and small-diameter logs can be integrated to a system that provides most or all of the energy and water needs of a typical cold climate residential household, and (2) to effectively interpret the results and convey the sustainable...

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community, Ithaca, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community and builder AquaZephyr in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community-scale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments, and 25 single family residences that range in size from 1,250 ft2–1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 to $235,000. The community is pursing DOE Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH), US Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold, and ENERGY STAR certifications for the entire project.

  19. The importance of geospatial data to calculate the optimal distribution of renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Paula; Masó, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Specially during last three years, the renewable energies are revolutionizing the international trade while they are geographically diversifying markets. Renewables are experiencing a rapid growth in power generation. According to REN21 (2012), during last six years, the total renewables capacity installed grew at record rates. In 2011, the EU raised its share of global new renewables capacity till 44%. The BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India and China) accounted for about 26% of the total global. Moreover, almost twenty countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa have currently active markets in renewables. The energy return ratios are commonly used to calculate the efficiency of the traditional energy sources. The Energy Return On Investment (EROI) compares the energy returned for a certain source and the energy used to get it (explore, find, develop, produce, extract, transform, harvest, grow, process, etc.). These energy return ratios have demonstrated a general decrease of efficiency of the fossil fuels and gas. When considering the limitations of the quantity of energy produced by some sources, the energy invested to obtain them and the difficulties of finding optimal locations for the establishment of renewables farms (e.g. due to an ever increasing scarce of appropriate land) the EROI becomes relevant in renewables. A spatialized EROI, which uses variables with spatial distribution, enables the optimal position in terms of both energy production and associated costs. It is important to note that the spatialized EROI can be mathematically formalized and calculated the same way for different locations in a reproducible way. This means that having established a concrete EROI methodology it is possible to generate a continuous map that will highlight the best productive zones for renewable energies in terms of maximum energy return at minimum cost. Relevant variables to calculate the real energy invested are the grid connections between

  20. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  1. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance

    2016-01-01

    A 2715 ft2 (252 m2), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft-2, 51.7 kWh m-2), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft-2, 24.7 kWh m-2) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W-1h-1 (2.95 W W-1), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W-1h-1 (4.63 W W-1). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W-1h-1 (2.09 W W-1), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W-1h-1 (2.65 W W-1). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively.

  2. On the necessity of improving the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances in net-zero energy buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Endrit; Jusselme, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    There is now clear evidence regarding the extensive use of furniture and appliances in daily human life, but there is less evidence of their impact on the environment. Responding to this gap in knowledge, this study focuses on an assessment of the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances as used in highly energy efficient buildings. Their primary energy, non-renewable energy and global warming potential indicators have been assessed by extending the boundaries of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study beyond the building itself. In conclusion, we found that furniture and appliances were responsible for around 30% of greenhouse gas emissions and non-renewable energy consumption and 15% of primary energy consumption comparing to the overall impacts of the building. Since embodied impacts represent the largest values, the process for labelling the appliances' energy efficiency should encompass a life-cycle point of view, not just a usage point of view as the case currently. Among office appliances, computer equipment was ranked as the highest impacting element, especially laptops and monitors. As for domestic appliances, refrigerators and electric ovens had the biggest impacts. Concerning furniture, the greatest impacts were from office and kitchen cabinets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Importance of Nonlinear Aeroelasticity and Energy Efficiency in Design of Flying Wing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Mardanpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency plays important role in aeroelastic design of flying wing aircraft and may be attained by use of lightweight structures as well as solar energy. NATASHA (Nonlinear Aeroelastic Trim And Stability of HALE Aircraft is a newly developed computer program which uses a nonlinear composite beam theory that eliminates the difficulties in aeroelastic simulations of flexible high-aspect-ratio wings which undergoes large deformation, as well as the singularities due to finite rotations. NATASHA has shown that proper engine placement could significantly increase the aeroelastic flight envelope which typically leads to more flexible and lighter aircraft. The areas of minimum kinetic energy for the lower frequency modes are in accordance with the zones with maximum flutter speed and have the potential to save computational effort. Another aspect of energy efficiency for High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE drones stems from needing to minimize energy consumption because of limitations on the source of energy, that is, solar power. NATASHA is capable of simulating the aeroelastic passive morphing maneuver (i.e., morphing without relying on actuators and at as near zero energy cost as possible of the aircraft so as the solar panels installed on the wing are in maximum exposure to sun during different time of the day.

  4. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  5. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  6. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  7. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  8. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, Atse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375268456; Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We

  9. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Olesen, Jørgen E; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990–2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50–70% reduction...

  10. Detection potential of the KM3NeT detector for high-energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; et al., [Unknown; Decowski, P.; Kooijman, P.; Lim, G.; Palioselitis, D.; Presani, E.; de Wolf, E.

    2013-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope data provided evidence for a high-intensity emission of high-energy gamma rays with a E−2 spectrum from two large areas, spanning 50° above and below the Galactic centre (the "Fermi bubbles"). A hadronic mechanism was proposed for this gamma-ray

  11. Detection Potential of the KM3NeT Detector for High-Energy Neutrinos from the Fermi Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ageron, M.; Kooijman, P.; Zuniga, J.

    2013-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope data provided evidence for a high-intensity emission of high-energy gamma rays with a E 2 spectrum from two large areas, spanning 50 above and below the Galactic centre (the ‘‘Fermi bubbles’’). A hadronic mechanism was proposed for this gamma-ray

  12. Detection potential of the KM3NeT detector for high-energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Alexandri, M.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. Assis; Aubert, J-J; Bakke, R.; Ball, A. E.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; de Bel, M.; Belias, A.; Bellou, N.; Berbee, E.; Berkien, A.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bigourdan, B.; Billault, M.; Rookhuizen, H. Boer; Bonori, M.; Borghini, M.; Bou-Cabo, H. M.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bradbury, S.; Brown, A.; Bruni, F.; Brunner, J.; Brunoldi, M.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Diaz-Aldagalan, D. Calvo; Calzas, A.; Canals, M.; Capone, A.; Carr, J.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Chaleil, Th.; Chateau, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Choqueuse, D.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Chronis, G.; Ciaffoni, O.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Cohen, F.; Colijn, F.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Craig, J.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; D'Amico, A.; Damy, G.; De Asmundis, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, P.; Delagnes, E.; De Rosa, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drogou, J.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Durand, G. A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S.; Espinosa, V.; Etiope, G.; Favali, P.; Felea, D.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fotiou, A.; Fritsch, U.; Gajanana, D.; Garaguso, R.; Gasparini, G. P.; Gasparoni, F.; Gautard, V.; Gensolen, F.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Gialas, I.; Giordano, V.; Giraud, J.; Gizani, N.; Gleixner, A.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Graf, K.; Grasso, D.; Grimaldi, A.; Groenewegen, R.; Guede, Z.; Guillard, G.; Guilloux, F.; Habel, R.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; van Heerwaarden, J.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hillebrand, T.; van de Hoek, M.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hoessl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Imbesi, M.; Jamieson, A.; Jansweijer, P.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U. F.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kiskiras, Y.; Klein, Remko; Kok, H.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Kopper, C.; Korporaal, A.; Koske, P.; Kouchner, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Laan, M.; La Fratta, C.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Le Provost, H.; Lim, G.; Llorens, C. D.; Lloret, J.; Loehner, H.; Lo Presti, D.; Lotrus, P.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lykousis, V.; Malyshev, D.; Mangano, S.; Marcoulaki, E. C.; Margiotta, A.; Marinaro, G.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markopoulos, E.; Markou, C.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Marvaldi, J.; Masullo, R.; Maurin, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Monmarthe, E.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Motz, H.; Moudden, Y.; Mul, G.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, Ch; Neff, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Orlando, A.; Palioselitis, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Papazoglou, I. A.; Pavalas, G. E.; Peek, H. Z.; Perkin, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Priede, I. G.; Psallidas, A.; Rabouille, C.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Reito, S.; Resvanis, L. K.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.; Rose, J.; Roux, J.; Rovelli, A.; Russo, A.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schmelling, J-W; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schroeder, K.; Schuller, J-P; Schussler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Sparnocchia, S.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Staller, T.; Stavrakakis, S.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, A.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tonoiu, D.; Toscano, S.; Touramanis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Traverso, P.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urbano, F.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Werneke, P.; White, R. J.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zhukov, V.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; de Boer, R.A.

    A recent analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope data provided evidence for a high-intensity emission of high-energy gamma rays with a E-2 spectrum from two large areas, spanning 50 above and below the Galactic centre (the "Fermi bubbles"). A hadronic mechanism was proposed for this gamma-ray

  13. Importance of foreign investors for Russian power industry in prospect of energy revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslava N. Zubkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses current state of Russian electric power industry and the main problems of its development in the future of global energy revolution, which will lead to a significant increase in share of renewable energy in global production and consumption of energy and use of industrial energy storage, and will make it possible to change the structure of the industry and significantly reduce electricity prices. Traditional energy generation displacement by renewables associated with emergence of new, more cost effective technologies. Producers of “disruptive technologies” receive advantages over importers of innovations, which are especially noticeable during the formation of the new technological wave. Considering possibilities of effective development of Russian power industry, it is important to take into account the realities, including high level of depreciation of equipment, lack of capital and technologies. Currently, in the field of technology in the power industry innovative economies of Japan, USA, UK, Canada, as well as dynamically developing economy of China are leading. The high level of patent activity in these countries is caused by presence of infrastructure which promotes the commercialization of new technologies and free access to investment capital. In Russia technological exports in power sector occurs mainly due to foreign projects of Rosatom. Operation of foreign-made equipment which accounts for a significant proportion of fixed assets and problems with the development and introduction of competitive technologies are complicated by the lack of investment in domestic market. For maintenance of imported equipment Russian companies have to buy spare parts abroad and to enter into service contracts with foreign suppliers. High depreciation of fixed assets also determines the need for new investment inflows into the sector. Thus the existing dependence on foreign investors is supposed to increase. In the short term

  14. Importance of foreign investors for Russian power industry in prospect of energy revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslava N. Zubkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses current state of Russian electric power industry and the main problems of its development in the future of global energy revolution, which will lead to a significant increase in share of renewable energy in global production and consumption of energy and use of industrial energy storage, and will make it possible to change the structure of the industry and significantly reduce electricity prices. Traditional energy generation displacement by renewables associated with emergence of new, more cost effective technologies. Producers of “disruptive technologies” receive advantages over importers of innovations, which are especially noticeable during the formation of the new technological wave. Considering possibilities of effective development of Russian power industry, it is important to take into account the realities, including high level of depreciation of equipment, lack of capital and technologies. Currently, in the field of technology in the power industry innovative economies of Japan, USA, UK, Canada, as well as dynamically developing economy of China are leading. The high level of patent activity in these countries is caused by presence of infrastructure which promotes the commercialization of new technologies and free access to investment capital. In Russia technological exports in power sector occurs mainly due to foreign projects of Rosatom. Operation of foreign-made equipment which accounts for a significant proportion of fixed assets and problems with the development and introduction of competitive technologies are complicated by the lack of investment in domestic market. For maintenance of imported equipment Russian companies have to buy spare parts abroad and to enter into service contracts with foreign suppliers. High depreciation of fixed assets also determines the need for new investment inflows into the sector. Thus the existing dependence on foreign investors is supposed to increase. In the short term

  15. Determination of the net energy content of canola meal from Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung Min; Adewole, Deborah; Nyachoti, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n=6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700 g/kg of the basal diet and 300 g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. On the importance of commodity and energy price shocks for the macroeconomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Paul S.

    Although higher commodity prices are commonly thought to presage higher rates of inflation, the existing literature suggests that the predictive power of commodity prices for inflation has waned since the 1980s. In the first chapter, I show that this result can be overturned using state-of-the-art forecast combination methods. Moreover, commodity prices are shown to contain predictive information not contained in the leading principal components of a broad set of macroeconomic and financial variables. These improved inflation forecasts are of little value, however, for predicting actual Fed policy decisions. The remaining two chapters study the effect of energy price shocks on U.S. consumer and business expenditures. In the second chapter, I show that there is no statistical support for the presence of asymmetries in the response of real consumption to energy price increases and decreases. This finding has important implications for empirical and theoretical models of the transmission of energy price shocks. I then quantify the direct effect on real consumption of (1) unanticipated changes in discretionary income, (2) shifts in precautionary savings, and (3) changes in the operating cost of energy-using durables. Finally, I trace the declining importance of energy price shocks relative to the 1970s to changes in the composition of U.S. automobile production and the declining overall importance of the U.S. automobile sector. An alternative source of asymmetry is the response of nonresidential fixed investment to energy price shocks. In the third chapter, I show that the apparent asymmetry in the estimated responses of business fixed investment in equipment and structures is largely an artifact (1) of the aggregation of mining-related expenditures by the oil, natural gas, and coal mining industry and all other expenditures, and (2) of ignoring an exogenous shift in investment caused by the 1986 Tax Reform Act. Once symmetry is imposed and miningrelated expenditures

  17. On the impact of D2D traffic offloading on energy efficiency in green LTE-A HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2014-08-11

    In this paper, the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications in the long term evolution (LTE) and LTE-advanced (LTE-A) cellular systems is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. In addition, an energy-efficient approach for putting base stations in sleep mode in an LTE-A heterogeneous network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s base stations. The presented techniques are investigated in the framework of orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking resource allocation and intercell interference into account. Results show that the proposed approach leads to energy savings for both the operator and the MTs, while leading to enhanced quality of service for mobile users. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Dissipation of energy during the respiratory cycle: conditional importance of ergotrauma to structural lung damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, John J

    2017-11-16

    To describe and put into context recent conceptual advances regarding the relationship of energy load and power to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Investigative emphasis regarding VILI has almost exclusively centered on the static characteristics of the individual tidal cycle - tidal volume, plateau pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and driving pressure. Although those static characteristics of the tidal cycle are undeniably important, the 'dynamic' characteristics of ventilation must not be ignored. To inflict the nonrupturing damage we identify as VILI, work must be performed and energy expended by high stress cycles applied at rates that exceed the capacity of endogenous repair. Machine power, the pace at which the work performing energy load is applied by the ventilator, has received increasing scrutiny as a candidate for the proximate and integrative cause of VILI. Although the unmodified values of machine-delivered energy or power (which are based on airway pressures and tidal volumes) cannot serve unconditionally as a rigid and quantitative guide to ventilator adjustment for lung protection, bedside consideration of the dynamics of ventilation and potential for ergotrauma represents a clear conceptual advance that complements the static parameters of the individual tidal cycle that with few exceptions have held our scientific attention.

  19. Evaluation of a dipstick test for the rapid diagnosis of imported malaria among patients presenting within the network TropNetEurop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelinek, T.; Grobusch, M. P.; Harms, G.

    2001-01-01

    Lack of experience on the part of involved laboratory personnel frequently complicates swift diagnosis of imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic areas. Diagnostic tools based on the dipstick principle for the detection of plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 have been marketed for several years

  20. Sentinel surveillance of imported dengue via travellers to Europe 2012 to 2014: TropNet data from the DengueTools Research Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Andreas; Muñoz, Jose; Schunk, Mirjam; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Cramer, Jakob; Calleri, Guido; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Angheben, Andrea; Zoller, Thomas; Visser, Leo; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Genton, Blaise; Castelli, Francesco; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Matteelli, Alberto; Rochat, Laurence; Sulleiro, Elena; Kurth, Florian; Gobbi, Federico; Norman, Francesca; Torta, Ilaria; Clerinx, Jan; Poluda, David; Martinez, Miguel; Calvo-Cano, Antonia; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Hatz, Christoph; Franco, Leticia

    2017-01-05

    We describe the epidemiological pattern and genetic characteristics of 242 acute dengue infections imported to Europe by returning travellers from 2012 to 2014. The overall geographical pattern of imported dengue (South-east Asia > Americas > western Pacific region > Africa) remained stable compared with 1999 to 2010. We isolated the majority of dengue virus genotypes and epidemic lineages causing outbreaks and epidemics in Asia, America and Africa during the study period. Travellers acted as sentinels for four unusual dengue outbreaks (Madeira, 2012-13; Luanda, 2013; Dar es Salaam, 2014; Tokyo, 2014). We were able to characterise dengue viruses imported from regions where currently no virological surveillance data are available. Up to 36% of travellers infected with dengue while travelling returned during the acute phase of the infection (up to 7 days after symptom onset) or became symptomatic after returning to Europe, and 58% of the patients with acute dengue infection were viraemic when seeking medical care. Epidemiological and virological data from dengue-infected international travellers can add an important layer to global surveillance efforts. A considerable number of dengue-infected travellers are viraemic after arrival back home, which poses a risk for dengue introduction and autochthonous transmission in European regions where suitable mosquito vectors are prevalent. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  1. Net energy of hemp hulls and processed hemp hull products fed to growing pigs and the comparison of net energy determined via indirect calorimetry and calculated from prediction equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the NE of hemp hulls (HH), extruded HH (EHH), and a blended product of HH with pea (HHP) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC) and to determine effects of dietary fiber on heat production (HP) and fasting HP (FHP). Twenty-four growing barrows with an average initial BW of 22.9 ± 1.75 kg were individually housed in adjustable metabolism crates. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was prepared. Three additional diets were formulated to contain a constant ratio of corn and soybean meal and each of the test ingredients. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 16 d including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine to determine DE and ME of experimental diets. Pigs were then moved into IC chambers to determine HP and FHP. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM was greater ( < 0.01) in the HHP diet than in the HH and EHH diets but less ( < 0.01) than in the basal diet. Similarly, the ATTD of GE in the basal diet was greater ( < 0.01) compared with the HH, EHH, and HHP diets. The DE, ME, and NE of the basal diet were greater ( < 0.01) than those of the HH, EHH, and HHP diets. No significant differences were observed for the HP (on average, 1,904 kcal/kg DM) and FHP (on average, 1,320 kcal/kg DM) among treatments. However, the retained energy of pigs fed the basal diet (1,763 kcal/kg DM) was greater ( < 0.05) than for those fed the HH (1,501 kcal/kg DM) and HHP (1,482 kcal/kg DM) diets. The NE:ME ratio tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.10) for the basal diet (0.85) than for the HH (0.82), EHH (0.82), and HHP (0.83) diets. The NE of HH, EHH, and HHP determined by the IC method were 2,375, 2,320, and 2,399 kcal/kg DM, respectively, whereas values calculated using published prediction equations were 2,308, 2,161, and 2,278 kcal/kg DM, respectively. However there was no difference between determined and

  2. On the Importance of Morphing Deformation Scheduling for Actuation Force and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland De Breuker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphing aircraft offer superior properties as compared to non-morphing aircraft. They can achieve this by adapting their shape depending on the requirements of various conflicting flight conditions. These shape changes are often associated with large deformations and strains, and hence dedicated morphing concepts are developed to carry out the required changes in shape. Such intricate mechanisms are often heavy, which reduces, or even completely cancels, the performance increase of the morphing aircraft. Part of this weight penalty is determined by the required actuators and associated batteries, which are mainly driven by the required actuation force and energy. Two underexposed influences on the actuation force and energy are the flight condition at which morphing should take place and the order of the morphing manoeuvres, also called morphing scheduling. This paper aims at highlighting the importance of both influences by using a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV with different morphing mechanisms as an example. The results in this paper are generated using a morphing aircraft analysis and design code that was developed at the Delft University of Technology. The importance of the flight condition and a proper morphing schedule is demonstrated by investigating the required actuation forces for various flight conditions and morphing sequences. More importantly, the results show that there is not necessarily one optimal flight condition or morphing schedule and a tradeoff needs to be made.

  3. Importance and Challenges of Electrochemical in Situ Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy for Energy Conversion Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodnik, Nejc; Dehm, Gerhard; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2016-09-20

    The foreseeable worldwide energy and environmental challenges demand renewable alternative sources, energy conversion, and storage technologies. Therefore, electrochemical energy conversion devices like fuel cells, electrolyzes, and supercapacitors along with photoelectrochemical devices and batteries have high potential to become increasingly important in the near future. Catalytic performance in electrochemical energy conversion results from the tailored properties of complex nanometer-sized metal and metal oxide particles, as well as support nanostructures. Exposed facets, surface defects, and other structural and compositional features of the catalyst nanoparticles affect the electrocatalytic performance to varying degrees. The characterization of the nanometer-size and atomic regime of electrocatalysts and its evolution over time are therefore paramount for an improved understanding and significant optimization of such important technologies like electrolyzers or fuel cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) are to a great extent nondestructive characterization tools that provide structural, morphological, and compositional information with nanoscale or even atomic resolution. Due to recent marked advancement in electron microscopy equipment such as aberration corrections and monochromators, such insightful information is now accessible in many institutions around the world and provides huge benefit to everyone using electron microscopy characterization in general. Classical ex situ TEM characterization of random catalyst locations however suffers from two limitations regarding catalysis. First, the necessary low operation pressures in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-9) mbar for TEM are not in line with typical reaction conditions, especially considering electrocatalytic solid-liquid interfaces, so that the active state cannot be assessed. Second, and somewhat related, is the lack of time resolution for the

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for the hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 1. Investigations and researched on system assessment; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 1. System hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-1. Technologies drawing attentions relate to fuel cell driven automobiles and hybrid automobiles in the field of utilizing hydrogen derived from reproducible energies and fossil energies, and fuel cell co-generation and micro gas turbine co-generation in the field of electric power generation. Hydrogen reformed from gasoline on board the automobile as the fuel for fuel cell driven automobiles, hydrogen as a by-product of coke furnace off-gas (COG), and reproducible energy hydrogen have the same fuel consumption performance as in the hybrid automobiles. Particularly the COG is low in cost, and has large supply potential. Liquefied hydrogen is as promising as compressed hydrogen in view of the cost for automotive hydrogen supply stations. What has high economic performance as the self-sustaining systems for islands are photovoltaic and wind power generation, and the system using hydrogen as the secondary energy. Since much of the reproducible energies is used for electric power demand in Japan, the by-product hydrogen and the reformed hydrogen in an amount of 9.3 billion Nm{sup 3}/year would take care of majority of the demand in view of the short time period. For a longer time span, hydrogen originated from the reproduced energies in the Pan-Pacific Region should be introduced. (NEDO)

  5. The importance of moisture buffering for indoor climate and energy conditions of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2007-01-01

    A new Nordic test method specifies a test protocol for determination of the so-called Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) of building materials. But how important is moisture buffering to determine the indoor humidity condition of buildings? The paper will present the new MBV-definition. Although...... buffering to save energy by reducing the requirement for ventilation in periods, and still maintain the same quality of the indoor climate? The paper will outline some possibilities for analytical/numerical calculations, and will answer some of the posed questions on the probable benefit of taking moisture...

  6. The importance of gap states for energy level alignment at hybrid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racke, D.A.; Kelly, L.L.; Monti, O.L.A., E-mail: monti@u.arizona.edu

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The electronic structure of CuPc on related layered van der Waals materials is compared. • Gap states need to be considered to understand energy level alignment. • Hybrid interfaces require new models of the interfacial electronic structure. - Abstract: Energy level alignment and electronic structure at organic semiconductor interfaces must be controlled to ensure efficient carrier harvesting or injection in next-generation organic optoelectronic technologies. In this context, hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor interfaces exhibit particularly rich physics. Here, we show that states in the band gap of the inorganic layered van der Waals dichalcogenide SnS{sub 2} play an important role in determining energy level alignment at the hybrid interface with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). By taking advantage of the closely related CuPc film growth on SnS{sub 2} and the well-studied interface of CuPc/HOPG, we are able to trace spectroscopic differences to the fundamentally different electronic interactions across the two interfaces. We provide a detailed picture of the role of gap states at the hybrid interface and shed light on the electronic properties of inorganic semiconductors in general and metal dichalcogenides in particular.

  7. Monthly energy review: September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Energy production during June 1996 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.5% decrease from the level of production during June 1995. Energy consumption during June 1996 totaled 7.1 quadrillion Btu, 2.7% above the level of consumption during June 1995. Net imports of energy during June 1996 totaled 1.6 quadrillion Btu, 4.5% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Statistics are presented on the following topics: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  9. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  10. Importance of excitation and trapping conditions in photosynthetic environment-assisted energy transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Montiel, Roberto de J; Kassal, Ivan; Torres, Juan P

    2014-09-11

    It has been argued that excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic complexes is efficient because of a balance between coherent evolution and decoherence, a phenomenon called environment-assisted quantum transport (ENAQT). Studies of ENAQT have usually assumed that the excitation is initially localized on a particular chromophore, and that it is transferred to a reaction center through a similarly localized trap. However, these assumptions are not physically accurate. We show that more realistic models of excitation and trapping can lead to very different predictions about the importance of ENAQT. In particular, although ENAQT is a robust effect if one assumes a localized trap, its effect can be negligible if the trapping is more accurately modeled as Förster transfer to a reaction center. Our results call into question the suggested role of ENAQT in the photosynthetic process of green sulfur bacteria and highlight the subtleties associated with drawing lessons for designing biomimetic light-harvesting complexes.

  11. On the importance of local orbitals using second energy derivatives for d and f electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Ferenc; Tran, Fabien; Blaha, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The all-electron linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) methods are among the most accurate to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of density functional theory for periodic solids. In the LAPW methods, the unit cell is partitioned into spheres surrounding the atoms, inside which the wave functions are expanded into spherical harmonics, and the interstitial region, where the wave functions are expanded in Fourier series. Recently, Michalicek et al. (2013) reported an analysis of the so-called linearization error, which is inherent to the basis functions inside the spheres, and advocated the use of local orbital basis functions involving the second energy derivative of the radial part (HDLO). In the present work, we report the implementation of such basis functions into the WIEN2k code, and discuss in detail the improvement in terms of accuracy. From our tests, which involve atoms from the whole periodic table, it is concluded that for ground-state properties (e.g., equilibrium volume) the use of HDLO is necessary only for atoms with d or f electrons in the valence and large atomic spheres. For unoccupied states which are not too high above the Fermi energy, HDLO systematically improve the band structure, which may be of importance for the calculation of optical properties.

  12. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 9. Research and evaluation of innovative and leading technologies; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 (kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to make useful suggestions and proposals for the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project and thereby to promote the research and development activities, the innovative and leading technologies have been studied, investigated and evaluated. In FY 1998, a total of 6 proposals were collected, and evaluated to prioritize for the conceptual studies. These are related to methanol-fueled power generation turbine system, conceptual design of high-efficiency production system for high-efficiency solar cell by the 10 GW/y scale production process, investigation of potential of wind power, CO2 recycling methanol fuel cell, investigation of catalysis materials for hydrogen combustion and catalytic combustion systems, development of reversible high-temperature steam electrolysis cell/solid oxide fuel cell by the synthesis from aqueous solutions, and mobile heat recovery hydrogen production system. Promising technologies to be reflected on the WE-NET project were examined, based on the new technologies acquired from the research and investigation so far. As a result, two candidates were selected; hydrogen liquefaction by magnetic refrigeration technology, and catalytic combustion gas turbine. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 4 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen production technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 4 suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a WE-NET subtask, a study has been conducted of the solid polyelectrolyte water electrolysis method by which higher efficiency and lower cost hydrogen production is expected than in the conventional hydrogen production method. Production methods of electrode, electrolyte, etc. were studied. In the electroless plating method, the manufacturing process of membrane-electrode assemblies was realized in a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} by the porous-surfaced method by studying manufacturing conditions for slurry membrane/membrane assembly/electroless plating processes. In the hot-press method, the refining degree and dispersibility of iridium dioxide powder were studied to improve characteristics of anode catalyst. A method was developed to form polyelectrolyte coatings homogeneously on the surface of electrode layer catalytic powder, and a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} was realized. Beside the performance test using large single cells, FS was conducted to discuss optimum operating conditions and optimum structures of plants. Both methods indicated the performance exceeding the energy conversion efficiency of 90%, a WE-NET target, at current density of 1A/cm{sup 2} and electrolysis temperature of 80degC. A key was found to a bench-scale development (electrode area of 2500 cm{sup 2}, about 5 layers) to be planned in fiscal 1998. 136 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Importance of light scattering properties of cloud particles on calculating the earth energy cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Nagao, T. M.; Ishimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth is an open system, and the energy cycle of the Earth is not always a certain amount. In other words, the energy cycle in the nature is imbalance. A better understanding of the earth energy cycle is very important to study global climate change. the IPCC-AR4 reported that the cloud in the atmosphere are still characterized by large uncertainties in the estimation of their effects on energy sysle of the Earth's atmosphere. There are two types of cloud in the atmosphere, which are Cirrus and warm water cloud. In order to strongly reflect visible wavelength from sun light, thick water cloud has the effect of cooling the earth surface. When Cirrus is compared to water cloud, temperature is almost lower. Thus, there is a feature that Cirrus is easy to absorb long-wave radiation than warm water cloud. However, in order to quantitatively evaluate the reflection and absorption characteristics of cloud on remote senssing application and energy cycle of the imbalance of nature, it is necessary to obtain the scattering properties of cloud particles. Since the shapes of the water cloud particle are close to spherical, scattering properties of the particles can be calculated accurately by the Mie theory. However, Cirrus particles have a complex shape, including hexagonal, plate, and other non- spherical shapes. Different from warm water cloud partical, it is required to use several different light scattering methods when calculating the light scattering properties of the non-spherical Cirrus cloud particals. Ishimoto et al. [2010, 2012] and Masuda et al. [2012] developed the Finite-Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and Improved Geometrical-Optics Method (IGOM) for the solution of light scattering by non-spherical particles. Nakajima et al [1997,2009] developed the LIght Scattering solver for Arbitral Shape particle (Lisas)-Geometrical-Optics Method (GOM) and Surface Integral Equations Method of Müller-type (SIEMM) to calculate the light scattering properties for

  15. Quantifying the statistical importance of utilizing regression over classic energy intensity calculations for tracking efficiency improvements in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [ORNL; Wenning, Thomas J. [ORNL; Guo, Wei [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, manufacturing facilities account for about 32% of total domestic energy consumption in 2014. Robust energy tracking methodologies are critical to understanding energy performance in manufacturing facilities. Due to its simplicity and intuitiveness, the classic energy intensity method (i.e. the ratio of total energy use over total production) is the most widely adopted. However, the classic energy intensity method does not take into account the variation of other relevant parameters (i.e. product type, feed stock type, weather, etc.). Furthermore, the energy intensity method assumes that the facilities’ base energy consumption (energy use at zero production) is zero, which rarely holds true. Therefore, it is commonly recommended to utilize regression models rather than the energy intensity approach for tracking improvements at the facility level. Unfortunately, many energy managers have difficulties understanding why regression models are statistically better than utilizing the classic energy intensity method. While anecdotes and qualitative information may convince some, many have major reservations about the accuracy of regression models and whether it is worth the time and effort to gather data and build quality regression models. This paper will explain why regression models are theoretically and quantitatively more accurate for tracking energy performance improvements. Based on the analysis of data from 114 manufacturing plants over 12 years, this paper will present quantitative results on the importance of utilizing regression models over the energy intensity methodology. This paper will also document scenarios where regression models do not have significant relevance over the energy intensity method.

  16. Monthly energy review, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This is an overview of the May energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Energy production during February 1997 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu, a 1.9% decrease from the level of production during February 1996. Coal production increased 1.2%, natural gas production decreased 2.9%, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 2.1%. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.3% from the level of production during February 1996. Energy consumption during February 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.0% below the level of consumption during February 1996. Consumption of petroleum products decreased 4.4%, consumption of natural gas was down 3.5%, and consumption of coal fell 2.2%. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 6.7% from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during February 1997 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.1% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 12.7% and net imports of natural gas were up 7.4%. Net exports of coal fell 12.1% from the level in February 1996. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  17. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  18. The importance of temperature dependent energy gap in the understanding of high temperature thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we show the importance of temperature dependent energy band gap, E g (T), in understanding the high temperature thermoelectric (TE) properties of material by considering LaCoO3 (LCO) and ZnV2O4 (ZVO) compounds as a case study. For the fix value of band gap, E g , deviation in the values of α has been observed above 360 K and 400 K for LCO and ZVO compounds, respectively. These deviation can be overcomed by consideration of temperature dependent band gap. The change in used value of E g with respect to temperature is ∼4 times larger than that of In As. This large temperature dependence variation in E g can be attributed to decrement in the effective on-site Coulomb interaction due to lattice expansion. At 600 K, the value of ZT for n and p-doped, LCO is ∼0.35 which suggest that it can be used as a potential material for TE device. This work clearly suggest that one should consider the temperature dependent band gap in predicting the high temperature TE properties of insulating materials.

  19. Importance of material parameters and strain energy function on the wall stresses in the left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdadfar, Sareh; Navarro, Laurent; Sundnes, Joakim; Maleckar, Molly M; Avril, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    Patient-specific estimates of the stress distribution in the left ventricles (LV) may have important applications for therapy planning, but computing the stress generally requires knowledge of the material behaviour. The passive stress-strain relation of myocardial tissue has been characterized by a number of models, but material parameters (MPs) remain difficult to estimate. The aim of this study is to implement a zero-pressure algorithm to reconstruct numerically the stress distribution in the LV without precise knowledge of MPs. We investigate the sensitivity of the stress distribution to variations in the different sets of constitutive parameters. We show that the sensitivity of the LV stresses to MPs can be marginal for an isotropic constitutive model. However, when using a transversely isotropic exponential strain energy function, the LV stresses become sensitive to MPs, especially to the linear elastic coefficient before the exponential function. This indicates that in-vivo identification efforts should focus mostly on this MP for the development of patient-specific finite-element analysis.

  20. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  1. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  2. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 9 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study on the innovative and leading technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of giving useful suggestions/proposals to the course of WE-NET and contributing to the R and D, conducted were survey/collection/evaluation of new technologies. The paper described the fiscal 1997 results. The number of the proposals of new technology accumulated during fiscal 1993 to 1997 is 28. The proposals of new technology made in fiscal 1997 are hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen storage using fullerene, and the methanol power generation turbine system. Four technologies proposed in fiscal 1996 and 1997 were evaluated. The evaluation method requires two steps of the marking using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the adjustment by the committee. The highly evaluated proposals out of those having been made were analysis/evaluation of hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling engine, hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration method for hydrogen liquefaction, hydrogen production technology using photocatalyst, etc. The paper also stated the result of studying concepts of innovative/leading technologies in fiscal 1996. 4 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Compact energy consulting. The most important guidelines, measures and check lists; Energieberatung kompakt. Die wichtigsten Richtwerte, Massnahmen und Checklisten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Heinz P. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Sonnenenergie e.V. (DGS), Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The numerous tables, illustrations and check lists in the compact paperback under consideration support the inventory, recommendation of suitable measures of reorganization, estimation of the energy saving and cost saving as well as the answer of the most important customer questions in counselling interviews locally. The paperback contains the following aspects: (a) construction units and heating systems in existing buildings; (b) stocktaking; (c) requirements on the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) 2009; (d) measures of reorganization; (e) estimation of energy conservation and cost savings; (f) financing programs; (g) energy passports.

  4. Batteries: an important piece in the puzzle of renewable energies for a better world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth in the world population, the concerns regarding the production and consumption of energy originating from fossil fuels have been increasing in recent years. Therefore, there is higher demand to develop “clean” renewable energies to reduce the use of fossil fuel....

  5. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  6. Blood lactate is an important energy source for the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., van Hall; Stromstad, M.; Rasmussen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Lactate is a potential energy source for the brain. The aim of this study was to establish whether systemic lactate is a brain energy source. We measured in vivo cerebral lactate kinetics and oxidation rates in 6 healthy individuals at rest with and without 90 mins of intravenous lactate infusion...... was released as (13)CO(2) with 100%+/-24%, 86%+/-15%, and 87%+/-30% at rest with and without lactate infusion and during exercise, respectively. The contribution of systemic lactate to cerebral energy expenditure was 8%+/-2%, 19%+/-4%, and 27%+/-4% for the respective conditions. In conclusion, systemic lactate...

  7. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection maps the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through...

  8. Communication: Importance of rotationally inelastic processes in low-energy Penning ionization of CHF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunas, Justin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michał; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Low energy reaction dynamics can strongly depend on the internal structure of the reactants. The role of rotationally inelastic processes in cold collisions involving polyatomic molecules has not been explored so far. Here we address this problem by performing a merged-beam study of the He(3S1)+CHF3 Penning ionization reaction in a range of collision energies E/kB = 0.5-120 K. The experimental cross sections are compared with total reaction cross sections calculated within the framework of quantum defect theory. We find that the broad range of collision energies combined with the relatively small rotational constants of CHF3 makes rotationally inelastic collisions a crucial player in the total reaction dynamics. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is only obtained if the energy-dependent probability for rotational excitation is included in the calculations, in stark contrast to previous experiments where classical scaling laws were able to describe the results.

  9. Importance of rotationally inelastic processes in low-energy Penning ionization of CHF$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Jankunas, Justin; Hapka, Michał; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Low energy reaction dynamics can strongly depend on the internal structure of the reactants. The role of rotationally inelastic processes in cold collisions involving polyatomic molecules has not been explored so far. Here we address this problem performing a merged-beam study of the He*+CHF$_3$ Penning ionization reaction in a range of collision energies $E/k_B$=0.5--120 K. The experimental cross sections are compared with total reaction cross sections calculated within the framework of the quantum defect theory. We find that the broad range of collision energies combined with the relatively small rotational constants of \\chfs makes rotationally inelastic collisions a crucial player in the total reaction dynamics. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is only obtained if the energy-dependent probability for rotational excitation is included in the calculations, in stark contrast to previous experiments where classical scaling laws were able to describe the results.

  10. The importance of additionality in evaluating the economic viability of motor-related energy efficiency measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zuberi, Muhammad Jibran Shahzad; Patel, Martin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The additionality of an energy efficiency (EE) measure is defined as the supplementary impact of a measure beyond standard practices and autonomous changes. The consideration of additionality and the manner of accounting for it may strongly influence the cost-effectiveness of the EE measures and consequently the decision by policy makers. Many studies on energy efficiency improvement potentials fail to provide transparency regarding the methodology and underlying data (discount rate, lifetime...

  11. The importance of interpretive social science to promoting renewable energy and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Connelly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago I was privileged to hear one of the UK’s leading scientists speak on ‘tackling climate change’ at my university (Krebs 2010. Lord Krebs is a zoologist, and as Chair of the Adaptation Sub- Committee of the UK Government’s Committee on Climate Change he has a significant role in advising government on this major challenge of our times.  What struck me was that the major challenges he presented demand social science to answer them: Will we switch from talking to doing? Are we prepared to elect a Government that is more coercive? Are we prepared to stop getting richer and consuming more? Will we invest in technologies for a green prosperous future? Clearly these are a crucial b about politics and society and c without obvious answers. To be sure, in the field of sustainable development and renewable energy there are many technical issues unresolved: around efficiency and implementation, about what works best in particular settings and so on. This is why the research reported in this journal, amongst others, is so important. But as I understand it the fundamental science in this field is largely known, with a few outstanding exceptions such as light-weight storage of electricity. The Big Questions are social.One of the papers which has most influenced me was not an academic article, but a project report about failure to achieve an ‘obviously’ desirable goal: its title was ‘Why don’t people plant trees?’ (Skutsch 1983. This seems to me the fundamental research question. We know sustainable development is important, we know renewables are crucial, but why isn’t this knowledge acted on? And who is ‘we’ in those sentences? And why doesn’t the rest of the world listen to ‘us’? Scientists and engineers have a tendency to view the answers to this in terms of a combination of ignorance and irrational politics, and so see solutions in terms of transferring knowledge. ‘If only they (the public, the

  12. Energy benchmarking in wastewater treatment plants: the importance of site operation and layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, C; Stanford, C; Soares, A

    2015-01-01

    Energy benchmarking is a powerful tool in the optimization of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in helping to reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Traditionally, energy benchmarking methods focused solely on reporting electricity consumption, however, recent developments in this area have led to the inclusion of other types of energy, including electrical, manual, chemical and mechanical consumptions that can be expressed in kWh/m3. In this study, two full-scale WWTPs were benchmarked, both incorporated preliminary, secondary (oxidation ditch) and tertiary treatment processes, Site 1 also had an additional primary treatment step. The results indicated that Site 1 required 2.32 kWh/m3 against 0.98 kWh/m3 for Site 2. Aeration presented the highest energy consumption for both sites with 2.08 kWh/m3 required for Site 1 and 0.91 kWh/m3 in Site 2. The mechanical energy represented the second biggest consumption for Site 1 (9%, 0.212 kWh/m3) and chemical input was significant in Site 2 (4.1%, 0.026 kWh/m3). The analysis of the results indicated that Site 2 could be optimized by constructing a primary settling tank that would reduce the biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and NH4 loads to the oxidation ditch by 55%, 75% and 12%, respectively, and at the same time reduce the aeration requirements by 49%. This study demonstrated that the effectiveness of the energy benchmarking exercise in identifying the highest energy-consuming assets, nevertheless it points out the need to develop a holistic overview of the WWTP and the need to include parameters such as effluent quality, site operation and plant layout to allow adequate benchmarking.

  13. Imports of waste fuels for energy recovery in Sweden - Sub-Project 1; Import av avfall till energiutvinning i Sverige - Delprojekt 1 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlin, Jenny; Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    Swedish imports of waste fuels may increase to 1.5 million tonnes by 2015, when new waste-fuelled combined heat and power plants are in operation; and to 2.5 million tonnes by 2020, if all planned capacity is built. This is the case if national targets for increased material recycling and biological treatment are reached; which means that smaller amounts of mixed waste remains for incineration. When the import of the waste fuel into Sweden has increased, also need of knowledge has increased, as well as the concerns and fears. The aim of the project 'Imports of waste to energy recovery in Sweden', therefore, is to create an improved basis for decisions and communications concerning the import of waste fuel, as well as to study its conditions, opportunities and obstacles. The target group is interested operators, representatives of public authorities and decision-makers. Data includes analysis of future imported quantities, possible import markets, policy instruments and its effects, concerns and fears, economic aspects and effects on climate change while importing the waste fuel. The project is one of five sub-projects in 'Perspectives on the future waste treatment'. The project has been carried out through data collection, computer modelling, interviews as well as discussion and analysis in the working and reference groups. The goal is estimated to having been reached, the results are already used. From media, there is an interest of the results, and the project has already been referred to and presented at conferences. The results are thus already well-spread.

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ECONOMY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - AN ECONOMIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of modern economy and environmental protection there are no significant changes: the old problems are not solved, and the existing ones are deepening. Humanity is still struggling with three existential problems: lack of food, lack of drinking water and insufficiently energized energy. They are also associated with the dangers of further degradation of the environment, the general fear and fear of terrorism and wars, the emergence of diseases for which modern medicine simply has no solution and which threatens to overcome the challenge of pandemic. Energy is still a mood of economic development, with at the same time a disastrous effect on the environment, when traditional sources of fossil resources are used as sources of energy. The paper explores the phenomenon of the impact of energy on the sustainable development of the economy, with a key focus on environmental protection, as well as the possibilities for adaptation to mitigate the consequences of this global phenomenon. In this regard, special attention has been devoted to researching the role and significance of energy from renewable sources as a possible response to current or expected climate stimuli or their consequences in natural and humanism systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the principle of adaptation, which includes mitigation of damages or the exploitation of effective opportunities; understanding how climate can change, what can be impacts, and capacity building and action on these impacts

  15. Net ZEB case study buildings, measures and solution sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aelenei, Laura; Waldren, David; Aelenei, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The chapter summarises techniques - combined in solution sets - used in the case studied buildings to achieve buildings with net zero energy or energy neutral standard.......The chapter summarises techniques - combined in solution sets - used in the case studied buildings to achieve buildings with net zero energy or energy neutral standard....

  16. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  17. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  18. The importance of comprehensiveness in renewable electricity and energy-efficiency policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-04-15

    Based on extensive research interviews and supplemented with a review of the academic literature, this article assesses the best way to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. It begins by briefly laying out why government intervention is needed, and then details the four most favored policy mechanisms identified by participants: eliminating subsidies for conventional and mature electricity technologies, pricing electricity accurately, passing a national feed-in tariff, and implementing a nationwide systems benefit fund to raise public awareness, protect lower income households, and administer demand side management programs. Drawing mostly from case studies in the United States, the article also discusses why these policy mechanisms must be implemented comprehensively, not individually, if the barriers to renewables and energy efficiency are to be overcome. (author)

  19. Change Blindness Is Influenced by Both Contrast Energy and Subjective Importance within Local Regions of the Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderbaan, Wietske; van Leeuwen, Jonathan; Dumoulin, Serge O

    2017-01-01

    Our visual system receives an enormous amount of information, but not all information is retained. This is exemplified by the fact that subjects fail to detect large changes in a visual scene, i.e., change-blindness. Current theories propose that our ability to detect these changes is influenced by the gist or interpretation of an image. On the other hand, stimulus-driven image features such as contrast energy dominate the representation in early visual cortex (De Valois and De Valois, 1988; Boynton et al., 1999; Olman et al., 2004; Mante and Carandini, 2005; Dumoulin et al., 2008). Here we investigated whether contrast energy contributes to our ability to detect changes within a visual scene. We compared the ability to detect changes in contrast energy together with changes to a measure of the interpretation of an image. We used subjective important aspects of the image as a measure of the interpretation of an image. We measured reaction times while manipulating the contrast energy and subjective important properties using the change blindness paradigm. Our results suggest that our ability to detect changes in a visual scene is not only influenced by the subjective importance, but also by contrast energy. Also, we find that contrast energy and subjective importance interact. We speculate that contrast energy and subjective important properties are not independently represented in the visual system. Thus, our results suggest that the information that is retained of a visual scene is both influenced by stimulus-driven information as well as the interpretation of a scene.

  20. Change Blindness Is Influenced by Both Contrast Energy and Subjective Importance within Local Regions of the Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietske Zuiderbaan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our visual system receives an enormous amount of information, but not all information is retained. This is exemplified by the fact that subjects fail to detect large changes in a visual scene, i.e., change-blindness. Current theories propose that our ability to detect these changes is influenced by the gist or interpretation of an image. On the other hand, stimulus-driven image features such as contrast energy dominate the representation in early visual cortex (De Valois and De Valois, 1988; Boynton et al., 1999; Olman et al., 2004; Mante and Carandini, 2005; Dumoulin et al., 2008. Here we investigated whether contrast energy contributes to our ability to detect changes within a visual scene. We compared the ability to detect changes in contrast energy together with changes to a measure of the interpretation of an image. We used subjective important aspects of the image as a measure of the interpretation of an image. We measured reaction times while manipulating the contrast energy and subjective important properties using the change blindness paradigm. Our results suggest that our ability to detect changes in a visual scene is not only influenced by the subjective importance, but also by contrast energy. Also, we find that contrast energy and subjective importance interact. We speculate that contrast energy and subjective important properties are not independently represented in the visual system. Thus, our results suggest that the information that is retained of a visual scene is both influenced by stimulus-driven information as well as the interpretation of a scene.

  1. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  2. Two important systems in energy homeostasis: melanocortins and melanin-concentrating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritos, N A; Maratos-Flier, E

    1999-10-01

    Our understanding of the regulation of appetite and energy balance has advanced significantly over the past decade as several peptides, centrally or peripherally expressed, have been characterized and shown to profoundly influence food intake and energy expenditure. (1)The growing number of putative appetite-regulating neuropeptides includes peptides that are orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) signals and anorectic peptides. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), orexins A and B, galanin, and agouti -related peptide (AgRP) all act to stimulate feeding while alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alphaMSH), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), cholecystokinin (CCK), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neurotensin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP 1), and bombesin have anorectic actions.(1) Leptin, expressed in the periphery in white adipose tissue, acts in the CNS to modulate the expression of several of these hypothalamic peptides.(1) This creates a functional link between the adipose tissue and the brain that translates the information on body fat provided by leptin to input into energy balance regulating processes. In the current review we examine the significant role of the melanocortin system (alphaMSH, agouti and AgRP peptides, and their receptors and mahogany protein) and melanin concentrating hormone in the regulation of energy balance. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  3. US Astronomical Photographic Data Archives: Hidden Treasures and Importance for High-Energy Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here on an ongoing investigation of US astronomical plate archives and tests of the suitability of transportable scanning devices for in situ digitization of archival astronomical plates, with emphasis on application in high-energy astrophysics.

  4. Energy recovery from waste incineration: assessing the importance of district heating networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, T; Christensen, T H; Astrup, T

    2010-07-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO(2) accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO(2) saving of 48 kg CO(2)/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO(2)/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: California Energy Standards Recognize the Importance of Filter Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America research on HVAC air filter sizing that prompted a change in the California “Title 24” Energy Code requiring filter manufacturers, HVAC designers, and HERS raters to make changes that will encourage the use of higher MERV filters without degrading HVAC performance.

  6. Quality studies of the energy in the electric net of the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils of the nuclear power plant Laguna Verde; Estudios de calidad de la energia en la red electrica del almacen de acopio de partes reusables y aceites contaminados (CCAC) de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In the industry exist the high costs by faults of electronic and electric equipment s, due to during the design process, installation, tests and operation of these equipment s, is not had appropriate detection equipment to carry out quality studies of the energy. These studies give an important support to know that occurs in an electric net, the cause of the anomalous behavior of the equipment s and this way to avoid the expensive faults carrying out necessary engineering adaptations in an electric net. The elements of the electricity that are determined are the tension, current and frequency that are inside acceptable operational parameters that facilitate the operation and constant operation of the equipment s, free of interruptions and failures. The application of the quality studies of the energy is growing little by little in Mexico for the problems solution in the equipment s. This field is also developing new techniques and technologies integrated in the equipment s for its monitoring detection and protection. The present work offers the results of the first Quality Study of the Energy in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to solve the problem in the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils, in which the failure of the two radiation monitors of the gassy effluent of ventilation HVAC of the warehouse took place. (Author)

  7. Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musel, Annabella [Institute of Social Ecology, Alpen-Adria University Klagenfurt - Graz - Wien, Schottenfeldgasse 29, 1070 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

  8. Priority of domestic biomass resources for energy: Importance of national environmental targets in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Vadenbo, Carl; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    The optimal use of biomass from a global warming mitigation perspective depends upon numerous factors, including competition for land and other constraints. The goal of this study is identifying optimal uses of domestic biomass resources for the case of Denmark, with the objectives of minimizing...... global warming contribution and fossil energy resource consumption. For this purpose, consequential life cycle assessment of the different options for biomass was performed. Optimal solutions were identified, given specific national environmental targets, using linear programming. Results highlighted...... that utilizing the energy potential of manure and straw represents the primary opportunity for further global warming mitigation. For this purpose, co-digestion (for manure) and combustion with heat-and-power production (for straw) appear as the most promising technologies. The utilization of biomass (or biogas...

  9. Clean energy stakes too important for nuclear to be blown off course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, St George' s Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    New figures indicating that offshore wind farms could be built for a record low price in the UK - and produce cheaper electricity than nuclear - sent an initial chill through the nuclear energy industry. Wind lobbyists were quick to trumpet the figures from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (UK), which were unveiled following a 'contracts for difference' auction for subsidies. The spokesperson's comments were more astonishing than the data that emerged from the report. As the chief executive of the Nuclear Industry Association (NIA), Tom Greatrex, pointed out: ''Reports that the cost of future offshore wind projects may fall (if they are constructed) is good news, but as the UK renewable trade body, informed commentators and industry experts have made clear, one technology alone can't solve the UK's power challenge''.

  10. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-15

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.

  11. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 3. Prediction evaluation on a national scale; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 3. Ikkoku kibo deno yosoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japanese long-term energy demand and various energy use styles were simulated from the viewpoint of a profitability and environmental preservation, and hydrogen consumption was studied. In the research in fiscal 1998, the data on available primary energy was modified based on the upper limit of CO{sub 2} emission by COP3, and the long-term energy supply and demand outlook of Advisory Committee for Energy in June, 1998. The result of scenario analysis is as follows: (1) The reference scenario showed that reduction of a hydrogen price is indispensable to use imported hydrogen, (2) The carbon externality scenario showed that market penetration of hydrogen can be large if the carbon externality amounts to $300/t-C, (3) The high fossil fuel price scenario showed that a fossil fuel price (in particular, price of hydrocarbon) highly affects market penetration of hydrogen, and (4) The low nuclear capacity scenario suggested that a competitiveness of hydrogen is considerably improved as an energy supply-demand-balance is tight. (NEDO)

  12. Understanding the Social Dynamics of Energy Regions—The Importance of Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Späth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional initiatives pursuing self-sufficiency through the use of renewable energy sources (RESS-initiatives aim at contributing to broader transitions towards more sustainable energy systems. As such, they have raised high expectations among local activists and are increasingly supported by diverse funding schemes such as national programs. How can the social dynamics entangled in these initiatives be understood and assessed? A discourse analytical perspective, such as the Argumentative Discourse Analysis developed by Hajer, can bring valuable insights in this regard. This approach highlights the formation of discourse coalitions and processes of discourse structuration and institutionalization. In order to illustrate my conceptual and methodological considerations, I present an analysis of discursive dynamics observed in the alpine district of Murau, Austria, where the vision of reaching ‘energy autarky’ by the year 2015 has influenced regional development plans since 2003. The chosen discourse analytical approach has been very helpful in guiding the analysis of this case. Specific local conditions can explain why certain visions gained discursive hegemony.

  13. The Importance of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Controlling Food Intake and Regulating Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mariana P; Batterham, Rachel L

    2017-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, the key interface between ingested nutrients and the body, plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. Gut-derived signals convey information regarding incoming nutrients to the brain, initiating changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, to maintain energy balance. Here we review hormonal, neural, and nutrient signals emanating from the gastrointestinal tract and evidence for their role in controlling feeding behavior. Mechanistic studies that have utilized pharmacologic and/or transgenic approaches targeting an individual hormone/mediator have yielded somewhat disappointing body weight changes, often leading to the hormone/mediator in question being dismissed as a potential obesity therapy. However, the recent finding of sustained weight reduction in response to systemic administration of a long-acting analog of the gut-hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 highlights the therapeutic potential of gut-derived signals acting via nonphysiologic mechanisms. Thus, we also review therapeutics strategies being utilized or developed to leverage gastrointestinal signals in order to treat obesity. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaption of the power distribution system to a sustainable energy system - Smart meters and intelligent nets; Anpassning av elnaeten, till ett uthaalligt energisystem - Smarta maetare och intelligenta naet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Math

    2010-11-15

    The conversion of the energy system towards sustainability is a major challenge for society. The conversion includes a large-scale introduction of renewable electricity and the electrification of transport. Adaptations of the grid are needed in order to cope with this development: - Facilitate an increased introduction of renewable electricity; - Enabling power reduction at peak load; - Improve incentives for energy efficiency; - Creating conditions for more active purchasers of electricity. Security of supply must be high, although the new production affects the electricity grid in a different way than today. Therefore, new technical solutions, a so-called smart grid, is necessary in order to, inter alia, prevent congestion and over voltages, but also to enhance the operational safety in general. There is new technology that can help adjust the grid in an efficient and flexible way. Intelligent networks, or smart grids, is the collection of new technology, function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, etc. that cost-effectively facilitate introduction and utilization of renewable electricity generation, leading to reduced energy consumption, contributes to power reduction in peak load and creates conditions for active electricity customers. Sweden is one of the countries that score high in terms of active electricity customers and feedback of consumption for electricity customers. There is a direct consequence of introduction of the metering reform and installation of the AMR, in which Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe. As for modern technology to increase transmission capacity of transmission networks such as HVDC and FACTS technology, Sweden is a world leader. This technology will play an important role in enabling large-scale use of renewable electricity generation on European level. The investigation has resulted in the following proposals: - A knowledge platform created to be collect and disseminate relevant knowledge of research

  15. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  16. Energy and nutrient intake of Tongan adults estimated by 24-hour recall: the importance of local food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Shoko; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    Tongan adults show one of the highest prevalences of obesity in the world. The present study aims to estimate Tongans' energy and nutrient intakes and food sources using a 24-hour recall survey for 14 days targeting 15 men and 19 women. The mean (SD) daily energy intake was 12.2 (2.3) MJ for men and 10.6 (2.2) MJ for women. Imported foods accounted for about half of their energy and macronutrient intakes, but for much less of their micronutrients. Some local food items, specifically pork, kava, and sea hare, contributed significantly to their vitamin, Fe, and Ca intakes, respectively. These findings suggest that heavy reliance on imported foods can lead not only to a high prevalence of obesity, but also to micronutrient deficiencies.

  17. Effects of forest management and climate change on energy biomass and timber production with implications for carbon stocks and net CO{sub 2} exchange in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of forest management and climate change on energy biomass (wood) and timber production with implications for carbon stocks and net CO{sub 2} exchange in boreal forest ecosystems in Finland. First, the impacts of thinning on growth, timber production and carbon stocks under the current and changing climate were analysed by employing an ecosystem model for the whole of Finland over a 90-year period (Article 1). Concurrently, the potential of energy biomass production with implications for timber production and carbon stocks under varying thinning and climate scenarios was studied (Article 2). Thereafter, a life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for estimating net CO{sub 2} exchange of forest production was developed (Article 3), and it was applied in interaction with ecosystem model based simulations to study the impacts of different management regimes (initial stand density and thinning regimes) on energy biomass production and related CO{sub 2} emissions at a stand level with a rotation length of 80 years (Articles 3 and 4). The results showed that the climate change increased the production potential of energy biomass and timber, and carbon sequestration and stocks over the whole of Finland, but, in a relative sense more in northern than southern Finland (Articles 1 and 2). Decreasing basal area based thinning thresholds compared to the currently recommended ones, increased the harvesting of the annual average amount of timber compared to the annual average growth of stem wood, and reduced carbon stocks in the forest ecosystems (Article 1). On the other hand, the use of increased basal area thinning thresholds concurrently increased energy biomass and timber production, and carbon stocks in the forest ecosystem regardless of climate applied (Article 2). The development of the LCA tool made it also possible to estimate the net carbon exchange of the forest production (Article 3). Based on the use of the LCA tool with

  18. An accurate full-dimensional potential energy surface for H-Au(111): Importance of nonadiabatic electronic excitation in energy transfer and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Svenja M; Auerbach, Daniel J; Wodtke, Alec M; Kandratsenka, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    We have constructed a potential energy surface (PES) for H-atoms interacting with fcc Au(111) based on fitting the analytic form of the energy from Effective Medium Theory (EMT) to ab initio energy values calculated with density functional theory. The fit used input from configurations of the H-Au system with Au atoms at their lattice positions as well as configurations with the Au atoms displaced from their lattice positions. It reproduces the energy, in full dimension, not only for the configurations used as input but also for a large number of additional configurations derived from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories at finite temperature. Adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations on this PES reproduce the energy loss behavior of AIMD. EMT also provides expressions for the embedding electron density, which enabled us to develop a self-consistent approach to simulate nonadiabatic electron-hole pair excitation and their effect on the motion of the incident H-atoms. For H atoms with an energy of 2.7 eV colliding with Au, electron-hole pair excitation is by far the most important energy loss pathway, giving an average energy loss ≈3 times that of the adiabatic case. This increased energy loss enhances the probability of the H-atom remaining on or in the Au slab by a factor of 2. The most likely outcome for H-atoms that are not scattered also depends prodigiously on the energy transfer mechanism; for the nonadiabatic case, more than 50% of the H-atoms which do not scatter are adsorbed on the surface, while for the adiabatic case more than 50% pass entirely through the 4 layer simulation slab.

  19. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  20. Missing transverse energy measurement in ATLAS detector: first LHC data results and importance for physics study

    CERN Document Server

    Pizio, Caterina

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN started its operation at the end of November 2009, first at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV, then, since March 2010, at 7 TeV. During this period the ATLAS experiment has collected a large number of proton-proton collision events, resulting up to now in an integrated luminosity of about 45 pb-1. A very good measurement of the missing transverse energy, ETmiss, is essential for many physics studies in ATLAS both for Standard Model channels, as W, Z bosons decaying to tau leptons or top quark decays, and for discovering channels. Events with large ETmiss are expected to be the key signature for new physics such as supersymmetry and extra dimensions. A good ETmiss measurement in terms of linearity and resolution is crucial for the efficient and accurate reconstruction of the Higgs boson mass when the Higgs boson decays to a pair of tau leptons. This thesis describes the first measurement of ETmiss in ATLAS with real data. The performance of the algorithm for ETmiss reco...

  1. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  3. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  4. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  5. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  6. The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwata, E.

    2012-04-01

    In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

  7. Replacing Burning of Fossil Fuels with Solar Cell and Wind Energy: How Important and How Soon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, L., II; Hansen, R. T.; Hansen, S. F.; Bennett, D.; Newlands, A.

    2016-12-01

    The IPCC indicated that atmospheric CO2 rise should stop to control global climate change. CO2 is the longest lived, most problematic anthropogenic greenhouse emission from burning fossil fuel. For 2000 years atmospheric CO2 concentration remained 280 ppm until 1870, when it rose sharply and nonlinearly to 400 ppm, correlated with a 1oC global mean temperature rise. Antarctic ice core data for the past 400,000 years indicate, 80 ppm shifts in atmospheric CO2 concentrations with 10,000-30,000 year interglacial periods at 280 ppm, were between ice-age glacial periods of 75,000-100,000 years at 200 ppm. The last 12,000-year interglacial "Goldilocks" period so far spans 4 civilizations: 6000 years of Western, 4000-5000 years of Inca and Aztec and 7000-8000 years of Chinese civilizations. The UN-led 2015 Paris Agreement set a goal limiting temperature rise to 2oC to prevent devastating climate change. Unfortunately IPCC modeling found a substantial probability of a rise by 4oC or more should all current fossil fuels be burned by 2100. This would result in weather extremes, rising oceans, storm surges and temperatures where low-lying coastal regions, Pacific Islands and large equatorial regions of the world could become uninhabitable. By Swanson's Law, an empirical learning curve observation, solar cell production costs drop 50% for every 10X increase in their cumulative production. After 40 years and over 5 orders-of-magnitude cumulative production increase, solar cells currently provide over 1% of the world's electricity generating capacity at a cost competitive with electricity generated from burning fossil fuels. If their cumulative generating capacity keeps doubling every 2 years (similar to Moore's Law), energy equivalent to all the world's electricity generating capacity could be provided by solar cells by 2028. The variability of solar cell energy can be mitigated by combining it with wind power, storage, super grids, space mirrors, and demand response.

  8. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  9. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  10. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  11. Probing the Magnetic Causes of CMEs: Free Magnetic Energy More Important Than Either Size Or Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    To probe the magnetic causes of CMEs, we have examined three types of magnetic measures: size, twist and total nonpotentiality (or total free magnetic energy) of an active region. Total nonpotentiality is roughly the product of size times twist. For predominately bipolar active regions, we have found that total nonpotentiality measures have the strongest correlation with future CME productivity (approx. 75% prediction success rate), while size and twist measures each have a weaker correlation with future CME productivity (approx. 65% prediction success rate) (Falconer, Moore, & Gary, ApJ, 644, 2006). For multipolar active regions, we find that the CME-prediction success rates for total nonpotentiality and size are about the same as for bipolar active regions. We also find that the size measure correlation with CME productivity is nearly all due to the contribution of size to total nonpotentiality. We have a total nonpotentiality measure that can be obtained from a line-of-sight magnetogram of the active region and that is as strongly correlated with CME productivity as are any of our total-nonpotentiality measures from deprojected vector magnetograms. We plan to further expand our sample by using MDI magnetograms of each active region in our sample to determine its total nonpotentiality and size on each day that the active region was within 30 deg. of disk center. The resulting increase in sample size will improve our statistics and allow us to investigate whether the nonpotentiality threshold for CME production is nearly the same or significantly different for multipolar regions than for bipolar regions. In addition, we will investigate the time rates of change of size and total nonpotentiality as additional causes of CME productivity.

  12. Food for thought: the importance of glucose and other energy substrates for sustaining brain function under varying levels of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L

    2010-10-01

    The brain requires a constant and substantial energy supply to maintain its main functions. For decades, it was assumed that glucose was the major if not the only significant source of energy for neurons. This view was supported by the expression of specific facilitative glucose transporters on cerebral blood vessels, as well as neurons. Despite the fact that glucose remains a key energetic substrate for the brain, growing evidence suggests a different scenario. Thus astrocytes, a major type of glial cells that express their own glucose transporter, play a critical role in coupling synaptic activity with glucose utilization. It was shown that glutamatergic activity triggers an enhancement of aerobic glycolysis in this cell type. As a result, lactate is provided to neurons as an additional energy substrate. Indeed, lactate has proven to be a preferential energy substrate for neurons under various conditions. A family of proton-linked carriers known as monocarboxylate transporters has been described and specific members have been found to be expressed by endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. Moreover, these transporters are subject to fine regulation of their expression levels and localization, notably in neurons, which suggests that lactate supply could be adjusted as a function of their level of activity. Considering the importance of energetics in the aetiology of several neurodegenerative diseases, a better understanding of its cellular and molecular underpinnings might have important implications for the future development of neuroprotective strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Letter of intent for KM3NeT 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondi, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz García, A.F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fassi, F.; Favali, P.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Filippidis, C.; Frascadore, G.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.M.F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C.A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G.E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are (i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and (ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: (1) the

  14. Letter of intent for KM3NeT 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; Berg, A. van den; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Beveren, V. van; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.J.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; El Moursli, R.C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz García, A.F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; Eijk, D. van; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fassi, F.; Favali, P.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Filippidis, C.; Frascadore, G.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; Haren, H. van; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.M.F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; Jong, M. de; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M.L.; Liolios, A.; Alvarez, C.D.L.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; MacCioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C.A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G.E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; García, A.S.; Losa, A.S.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Elewyck, V. van; Vermeulen, J.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; De Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are (i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and (ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: (1) the

  15. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Phase II field results and design recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design ...

  16. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  17. The building as a power plant. Net plus energy building with e-mobility; Das Gebaeude als Kraftwerk. Netto-Plusenergiegebaeude mit E-Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, M. Norbert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik

    2011-07-01

    Energy designers do not consider the building technology isolated from the architecture. Instead, sustainable, functional and innovative solutions are developed in an integrated process with all persons involved. The user comfort, the overall energy efficiency, the selection of ecologically compatible materials as well as the relation between building and sustainable mobility belong to the context of holistic planning.

  18. The importance of wave break events for synoptic-scale buildups of Northern Hemisphere zonal available potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, Kevin; Atallah, Eyad; Gyakum, John

    2017-04-01

    Zonal available potential energy (ZAPE) is an estimate of the amount of potential energy in the atmosphere available for conversion to kinetic energy, providing a good proxy for the overall strength of the general circulation. Previous studies have estimated total hemispheric ZAPE, ZAPE generation, and conversion to kinetic energy, and proposed physical mechanisms to describe the annual ZAPE cycle as well as short term (sub-seasonal to synoptic) APE depletion events. Large, short term modulations of ZAPE have been shown to be associated with impactful weather events in the mid- and high-latitudes, including severe cyclones and high-amplitude ridging and blocking events In this study, we examine the association of significant synoptic time-scale increases in ZAPE with dynamic tropopause wave break events. ZAPE buildup events are determined using a 1979-2011 daily Northern Hemisphere (20˚ -85˚ N) ZAPE climatology calculated from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Department of Energy (DOE) Reanalysis 2 global reanalysis dataset in an isobaric framework. To diagnose the importance of wave breaks in the troposphere, we objectively identify wave breaks using potential temperature on the dynamic tropopause, identifying and tracking both anti-cyclonic (LC1) and cyclonic (LC2) wave breaks during the 1979-2011 period. Our results indicate that LC1 wave break events in the equatorward jet exit regions appear to play an important role in ZAPE buildup events. The formation of these anti-cyclonic wave break events result in the development of statistically significant warm-core high pressure anomalies in these regions, acting to reduce baroclinic conversions. We will further demonstrate that changes in LC2 wave break activity in the climatological storm track during ZAPE buildup events are indicative of notable changes to the regions of significant cyclone activity, which are occurring in response to shifts and elongations of the jet stream.

  19. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  20. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  1. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaojun Lou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L were enriched in the pathway of genetic information processing and metabolism, while the 1,052 DEGs between the deep roots and shallow roots from each of the plants (D vs. S were significantly enriched in metabolic pathways especially energy metabolism. Ten quantitative trait transcripts (QTTs were identified and some were involved in energy metabolism. Forty-nine candidate DEGs were confirmed by qRT-PCR and microarray. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA, we found 18 hub genes. Surprisingly, all these hub genes expressed higher in deep roots than in shallow roots, furthermore half of them functioned in energy metabolism. We also estimated that the ATP production in the deep roots was faster than shallow roots. Our results provided a lot of reliable candidate genes to improve deep rooting, and firstly highlight the importance of energy metabolism to the development of deep roots.

  2. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  3. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  4. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  5. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  6. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  7. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  8. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  9. Blinking fluorescence of single donor-acceptor pairs: important role of "dark'' states in resonance energy transfer via singlet levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osad'ko, I S; Shchukina, A L

    2012-06-01

    transfer rate F and for all four types of D-A pair. Comparison of the calculated D and A fluorescence trajectories with those measured by Weiss and co-workers proves the important role of triplet levels in energy transfer via singlet levels.

  10. Association mapping utilizing diverse barley lines reveals net form net blotch seedling resistance/susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrenophora teres f. teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of the economically important foliar disease net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley. The deployment of effective and durable resistance against P. teres f. teres has been hindered by the complexity of quantitative resist...

  11. Net Zero Ft. Carson: making a greener Army base

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Army Net Zero program seeks to reduce the energy, water, and waste footprint of bases. Seventeen pilot bases aim to achieve 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases are pursuing Net Zero in a single secto...

  12. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit – in a humid, temperate climate – lessons from the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Harding, Ari [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The University of Hawai’i at Mānoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hawai`i Clean Energy Initiative to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program1. Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft²).

  13. Radiological accidents potentially important to human health risk in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Nabelssi, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Jackson, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Human health risks as a consequence of potential radiological releases resulting from plausible accident scenarios constitute an important consideration in the US Department of Energy (DOE) national program to manage the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes. As part of this program, the Office of Environmental Management (EM) is currently preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that evaluates the risks that could result from managing five different waste types. This paper (1) briefly reviews the overall approach used to assess process and facility accidents for the EM PEIS; (2) summarizes the key inventory, storage, and treatment characteristics of the various DOE waste types important to the selection of accidents; (3) discusses in detail the key assumptions in modeling risk-dominant accidents; and (4) relates comparative source term results and sensitivities.

  14. Monthly energy review, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-29

    Energy production during May 1994 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 2.4-percent increase from the level of production during May 1993. Coal production increased 13.3 percent, natural gas production rose 1.7 percent, and petroleum production decreased 2.5 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 8.3 percent from the level of production during May 1993. Energy consumption during May 1994 totaled 6.6 quadrillion Btu, 3.6 percent above the level of consumption during May 1993. Natural gas consumption increased 8.7 percent, coal consumption rose 4.6 percent, and petroleum consumption was up 3.6 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during May 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.3 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 8.4 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 23.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 16.8 percent from the level in May 1993.

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    Energy production during April 1994 totaled 5.5 quadrillion Btu, a 2.2-percent increase from the level of production during April 1993. Coal production increased 11.8 percent, petroleum production fell 4.0 percent, and natural gas production decreased 0.3 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 2.9 percent from the level of production during April 1993. Energy consumption during April 1994 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 1.4 percent above the level of consumption during April 1993. Petroleum consumption increased 3.9 percent, coal consumption rose 1.1 percent, and natural gas consumption decreased 1.5 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.4 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during April 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 8.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 4.5 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 18.5 percent. Net exports of coal fell 9.2 percent from the level in April 1993.

  16. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} reductions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Gyldenkaerne, S. [Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hermansen, J.E. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: > GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. > Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. > Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. > A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. > Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO{sub 2} reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  17. Discovery of Stationary Operation of Quiescent H-mode Plasmas with Net-Zero NBI Torque and High Energy Confinement on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Experiments this summer in DIII-D have used edge turbulence control to achieve stationary, high confinement operation without Edge Localized Mode (ELM) instabilities and with no external torque input. Eliminating the ELM-induced heat bursts and controlling plasma stability at low rotation represent two of the great challenges for fusion energy. By exploiting edge turbulence in a novel manner, we achieved outstanding tokamak performance, well above the H98 international tokamak energy confinement scaling (H98 =1.25), thus meeting an additional confinement challenge that is usually difficult at low torque. The new regime is triggered in double null plasmas by ramping the injected torque to zero and then maintaining it there. This lowers ExB rotation shear in the plasma edge, allowing low-k, broadband, electromagnetic turbulence to increase. In the H-mode edge, a narrow transport barrier usually grows until MHD instability (a peeling ballooning mode) leads to the ELM heat burst. However, the increased turbulence reduces the pressure gradient, allowing the development of a broader and thus higher transport barrier. A 60% increase in pedestal pressure and 40% increase in energy confinement result. Strong double-null plasma shaping raises the threshold for the ELM instability, allowing the plasma to reach a transport-limited state near but below the explosive ELM stability boundary. The resulting plasmas have burning-plasma-relevant betan =1.6-1.8 and run without the need for extra torque from 3D magnetic fields. To date, stationary conditions have been produced for 2 s or 12 energy confinement times, limited only by external hardware constraints. Stationary operation with improved pedestal conditions is highly significant for future burning plasma devices, since operation without ELMs at low rotation and good confinement is key for fusion energy production. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  18. Greening the NetFPGA Reference Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an important criterion in the design of next generation networks for both economic and environmental concerns. This paper presents an energy-efficient router that is able to dynamically adapt its routing capability in response to real-time traffic load, achieving energy proportional routing. The NetFPGA reference router, which operates at one of two frequencies (125 MHz or 62.5 MHz, requires a board reset to switch frequencies. We have modified the reference router to allow dynamic switching among five operating frequencies. Experiments with real traces indicate that, compared to the reference router, a 10% power reduction can be achieved through dynamic frequency scaling. When the router is further modified to support green traffic engineering and Ethernet port shut-down, power consumption can be reduced by 46% while maintaining the required quality of service. This allows the router to meet the instantaneous performance requirements while minimizing power dissipation. Similar results can be expected when these general power-saving principles are applied in future commercial routers.

  19. Avoiding the Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Built Environment: The Importance of the Building’s Energy Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Coch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following years of research and design in architecture under bio-climatic, sustainable and passive-energy concepts, today’s buildings are often well designed and constructed, responding to determined climate conditions and the user’s requirements for comfort and, in some cases, they are integrated into the urban environment. However, the lifetime of a building can be over 100 years and the climate is changing rapidly. This work investigates the impact of climate change future (2040 and 2070 on the energy consumption of residential buildings recently constructed, under three possible scenarios. The scenarios are created considering a low, medium or strong effect of global warming. Two types of buildings, with comparable consumption results of today, are investigated in three different cities around the world with a multi-zone type 56 of Trnsys simulation tool. At the end of the work, the concepts of energy robustness and global thermal effusivity of buildings are discussed as important strategies to reduce the possible impact of climate change on the built environment. The use of simulation tools to estimate the sensitivity of buildings is also analyzed, taking into consideration the recent goals of applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to building performance simulation science.

  20. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of Jatropha Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from Jatropha curcas has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of Jatropha biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing Jatropha. Our results show that: (1 Jatropha biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during Jatropha tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of Jatropha biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during Jatropha plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of Jatropha and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase Jatropha production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for Jatropha plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for Jatropha biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  1. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  2. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  3. The importance of the State Energy Balance for the sector planing: the Tocantins case; A importancia do Balanco Energetico Estadual para o planejamento setorial: o caso do Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Yolanda Vieira de [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Economia]. E-mail: yolanda@uft.edu.br; Silva, Adriano Jeronimo da [Ministerio das Minas e Energia (MME), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: adriano.silva@mme.gov.br; Kamimura, Arlindo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: kamimura@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to show the importance of making a State Energy Balance (Balanco Energetico Estadual - BEE) as an instrument to support the energy economic planning. This is important to both public administrations and private companies. The latter are currently within the present energy model, along the whole energy chain: production, transformation, transport and final consumption. The BEE makes a general diagnosis of the external and internal composition of the State, of all sources of primary and secondary energy, connecting them to the effective consumption of the several sectors of society. (author)

  4. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  5. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  6. Earthquake scaling characteristics and the scale-(in)dependence of seismic energy-to-moment ratio: Insights from KiK-net data in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oth, Adrien; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano; Di Giacomo, Domenico

    2010-10-01

    We investigate earthquake source characteristics and scaling properties using the results of a spectral inversion of more than 29,000 accelerometric borehole recordings from 1,826 earthquakes (MJMA 2.7-8) throughout Japan. We find that the calculated source spectra can be well characterized by the omega-square model and show on average self-similar scaling over the entire magnitude range, with median stress drops of 1.1 and 9.2 MPa for crustal and subcrustal events, respectively. The seismic energy-to-moment ratio, as theoretically expected if the omega-square model is valid, shows a strong dependency on stress drop only, which, in conjunction with data selection practice in some studies to cope with limited recording bandwidth, can explain the often observed apparent scale-dependence. Our observations suggest that there is no significant deviation from similarity of the energy radiation in the investigated magnitude range and that the observed scatter is mainly related to the scatter in stress drop.

  7. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  8. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  10. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  11. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  13. Níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina para leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico Net energy and ractopamine levels for finishing gilts under thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza de Moura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina em dietas para leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico. Foram utilizadas 40 leitoas com peso inicial de 67,4 ± 3,4 kg, distribuídas em delineamento de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 × 4, composto de dois níveis de ractopamina, 0 e 20 ppm, em combinação aos níveis de energia líquida de 2.300; 2.424; 2.548 e 2.668 kcal/kg de ração, com cinco repetições, considerando cada animal uma unidade experimental. O período experimental teve duração de 28 dias. A temperatura do ar, a umidade relativa, a temperatura de globo negro e o índice de temperatura de globo e umidade foram de 21,5 ± 2,8ºC, 91,7 ± 6,8%, 21,7 ± 2,9ºC e 70,1 ± 3,7, respectivamente. Houve interação entre níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina, uma vez que a inclusão de 20 ppm de ractopamina em dietas contendo 2.668 kcal de energia líquida/kg de ração ocasionou redução da espessura de toucinho e aumento da porcentagem de carne magra e do índice de bonificação de carcaças. A inclusão de 20 ppm de ractopamina proporcionou aumento do ganho diário de peso e melhora na conversão alimentar, proporcionando maior peso de carcaça quente e aumentando a quantidade de carne magra nas carcaças. Dietas suplementadas com 20 ppm de ractopamina melhoram o desempenho e aumentam a produção de carne em leitoas em terminação. A ractopamina é ineficiente em reduzir a deposição de gordura e aumentar o percentual de carne magra na carcaça de leitoas alimentadas com dietas contendo baixa concentração de energia. O nível de 2.300 kcal de energia líquida/kg de ração atende à exigência nutricional de leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico.This research was conducted to evaluate the net energy and ractopamine levels in the diet of finishing gilts kept under thermal comfort conditions. Forty gilts were used, with initial weight of 67.4 ± 3.4 kg, distributed in a

  14. An Improved Approach for Estimating Daily Net Radiation over the Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation plays an essential role in determining the thermal conditions of the Earth’s surface and is an important parameter for the study of land-surface processes and global climate change. In this paper, an improved satellite-based approach to estimate the daily net radiation is presented, in which sunshine duration were derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite (FY-2D cloud classification product, the monthly empirical as and bs Angstrom coefficients for net shortwave radiation were calibrated by spatial fitting of the ground data from 1997 to 2006, and the daily net longwave radiation was calibrated with ground data from 2007 to 2010 over the Heihe River Basin in China. The estimated daily net radiation values were validated against ground data for 12 months in 2008 at four stations with different underlying surface types. The average coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.8489, and the averaged Nash-Sutcliffe equation (NSE was 0.8356. The close agreement between the estimated daily net radiation and observations indicates that the proposed method is promising, especially given the comparison between the spatial distribution and the interpolation of sunshine duration. Potential applications include climate research, energy balance studies and the estimation of global evapotranspiration.

  15. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    High-level Petri nets have been introduced as a powerful net type by which it is possible to handle rather complex systems in a succinct and manageable way. The success of high-level Petri nets is undebatable when we speak about description, but there is still much work to be done to establish...... the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  16. Excitation functions of parameters extracted from three-source (net-)proton rapidity distributions in Au-Au and Pb-Pb collisions over an energy range from AGS to RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Sun, Yan; Sun, Zhu [Shanxi Datong University, Department of Physics, Datong, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Experimental results of the rapidity spectra of protons and net-protons (protons minus antiprotons) emitted in gold-gold (Au-Au) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, measured by a few collaborations at the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS), super proton synchrotron (SPS), and relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), are described by a three-source distribution. The values of the distribution width σ{sub C} and fraction k{sub C} of the central rapidity region, and the distribution width σ{sub F} and rapidity shift Δy of the forward/backward rapidity regions, are then obtained. The excitation function of σ{sub C} increases generally with increase of the center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair √(s{sub NN}). The excitation function of σ{sub F} shows a saturation at √(s{sub NN}) = 8.8 GeV. The excitation function of k{sub C} shows a minimum at √(s{sub NN}) = 8.8 GeV and a saturation at √(s{sub NN}) ∼ 17 GeV. The excitation function of Δy increases linearly with ln(√(s{sub NN})) in the considered energy range. (orig.)

  17. Double-muscled and conventional cattle have the same net energy requirements if these are related to mature and current body protein mass, and to gain composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2012-11-01

    The hypothesis tested in this paper is that double-muscled (DBM) and conventional cattle, considerably differing in body composition, have similar NE requirements when: a) NE(m) is scaled as a function of current (P(i)) and adult (P(m)) protein mass; and b) ME for gain (ME(g)) is estimated from protein (Pr) and lipid (Lr) retention and their partial ME use efficiencies, the k(p) and k(l) values, respectively. First, 2 databases were examined: 1 was developed combining well known literature information from comparative slaughter trials conducted on British beef steers; the other was based on a trial conducted using extremely lean DBM Piemontese bulls. From the first database, NE(m) was calculated to be 1.625 × P(i) ÷ P(m) × P(m)(0.73) (MJ/kg(0.73)). From the second database, the daily ME(g) was determined as 22.8 MJ × Pr ÷ k(p) + 38.74 MJ × Lr ÷ k(l), assuming (from prior reports) that k(p) = 0.20 and k(l) = 0.75. Thereafter, ME(m) was defined as ME intake minus ME(g), and, hence, NE(m) was predicted as 1.625 × P(i) ÷ P(m) × P(m)(0.73) (where 1.625 was the value obtained from the first dataset). The resulting k(m) (NE(m)/ME(m)) averaged 0.67. This k(m) value did not differ from that (0.65; P = 0.12) predicted by Garrett's equation, which uses dietary ME content as the only predictive variable. Second, the procedure was tested for the ability to detect effects on k(m) caused by increasing BW and dietary factors not estimable from the dietary ME content only. Data were gathered from a trial involving 48 DBM Piemontese bulls divided into 4 groups fed 1 of 4 diets differing in CP content (145 or 108 g/kg DM), with or without addition of 80 g/d of rumen-protected CLA (rpCLA). Bulls were examined at 3 consecutive periods of growth, corresponding to 365, 512 and 631 kg of average BW. All energy balance items were influenced by increasing BW, except k(m) (P = 0.61), in agreement with the expectation that NE(m) requirement depends on the degree of maturity (P

  18. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  19. Traditional Nets Interfere with the Uptake of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in the Peruvian Amazon: The Relevance of Net Preference for Achieving High Coverage and Use

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Peeters Grietens; Joan Muela Ribera; Veronica Soto; Alex Tenorio; Sarah Hoibak; Angel Rosas Aguirre; Elizabeth Toomer; Hugo Rodriguez; Alejandro Llanos Cuentas; Umberto D'Alessandro; Dionicia Gamboa; Annette Erhart

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset(R) LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. METHODS: The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil a...

  20. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  1. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  2. Use of genotype × environment interaction model to accommodate genetic heterogeneity for residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; de Los Campos, G; VandeHaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Coffey, M; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Wang, Z; Hanigan, M D; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency in dairy cattle has gained much attention recently. Due to the cost-prohibitive measurement of individual feed intakes, combining data from multiple countries is often necessary to ensure an adequate reference population. It may then be essential to model genetic heterogeneity when making inferences about feed efficiency or selecting efficient cattle using genomic information. In this study, we constructed a marker × environment interaction model that decomposed marker effects into main effects and interaction components that were specific to each environment. We compared environment-specific variance component estimates and prediction accuracies from the interaction model analyses, an across-environment analyses ignoring population stratification, and a within-environment analyses using an international feed efficiency data set. Phenotypes included residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight from 3,656 cows measured in 3 broadly defined environments: North America (NAM), the Netherlands (NLD), and Scotland (SAC). Genotypic data included 57,574 single nucleotide polymorphisms per animal. The interaction model gave the highest prediction accuracy for metabolic body weight, which had the largest estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.37 to 0.55. The within-environment model performed the best when predicting residual feed intake, which had the lowest estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.13 to 0.41. For traits (dry matter intake and net energy in milk) with intermediate estimated heritabilities (0.21 to 0.50 and 0.17 to 0.53, respectively), performance of the 3 models was comparable. Genomic correlations between environments also were computed using variance component estimates from the interaction model. Averaged across all traits, genomic correlations were highest between NAM and NLD, and lowest between NAM and SAC. In conclusion, the interaction model provided a novel way to evaluate traits measured in

  3. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  4. QuarkNet: Benefits for Teachers, Their Students and Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Marjorie

    2017-01-01

    The QuarkNet Collaboration has forged nontraditional relationships among particle physicists, high school teachers and their students. QuarkNet centers are located at 50 + universities and labs across the U.S. and Puerto Rico. We provide professional development for teachers and create opportunities for teachers and students to engage in particle physics data investigations and join research teams. Students develop scientific knowledge and habits of mind by working alongside scientists to make sense of the world using authentic experimental data. Our program is based a classroom vision where teaching strategies emulate closely the way scientists build knowledge through inquiry. We look at how student engagement in research and masterclasses develops an understanding about the process of scientific discovery and science using current scientific data. We also look at ways and to what extent teachers provide scientific discovery and science practices for students and how QuarkNet contributes to the professionalism of participating teachers. Also, we describe success factors that enhance local center programs and describe important benefits of the program that flow to university faculty. Funded by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy.

  5. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean system technology) (WE-NET) (total system conceptual design/safety measures/evaluation technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 3 zentai system gainen sekkei - anzen taisaku hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the study of safety measures in WE-NET, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. For drawing up a policy for safety design, technology of preserving hydrogen at high temperature/pressure, continuing collecting information on existing plants (liquid hydrogen, LNG). Investigating manuals of NASA and NASDA and also referring to people`s opinions at chemical plants, etc., the study entered into the setting-up of the safety policy and design standards. Examples of anomalies/accidents were extracted, and classification/arrangement were commenced of the measures for anomalies of detection/prevention/protection. Toward the diffusion of hydrogen and the enhancement and unification of explosion/fire simulation models, the extraction of problems has been almost finished. The second mini work shop on safety was held in the U.S., and exchanges of information were made among researchers of each country. All agreed on the importance of collecting data as the base of safety standards. As to safety measures in various tests using combustor evaluation experimental facilities, experimental equipment for materials under liquid hydrogen and experimental equipment of thermal insulation under liquid hydrogen, problems were extracted between researchers and people concerned with safety measures, and the measures to solve them were studied. 18 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Why has the energy intensity fallen in China's industrial sector in the 1990s? : the relative importance of structural change and intensity change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Abstract There have been a variety of studies investigating the relative importance of structural change and real intensity change to the change in China’s energy consumption in the 1980s. However, no detailed analysis to date has been done to examine whether or not the increased energy efficiency

  7. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  8. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  9. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  10. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (development of various common equipment); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (kakushu kyotsu kikirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes large pumps for liquid hydrogen, large-size vacuum-insulated tubes, valves for liquid hydrogen, and instrumentation equipment. In the WE-NET Project, large pumps for liquid hydrogen are to be used for feeding pressurized liquid hydrogen to the combustors in power generative facilities as well as transferring large amounts of liquid hydrogen in liquefying facilities, and to or from tankers, etc. As a result of the examination, axial flow pump and mixed flow pump are to be applied to the large pumps, and centrifugal pump is to be applied to the pressurized pump. A vertical shaft wet motor pump which is directly connected to wound-rotor induction motor has been adopted as a basic specification. For the large-size vacuum-insulated tubes, examination has been conducted with the emphasis on method of relaxing the thermal stress from the viewpoint of transferring the liquid hydrogen at large flow-rate and cryogenic temperature in a stable and safe manner over long distances. It has been shown that the development of marine loading arm is indispensable. For the valves for liquid hydrogen, a ball valve and a butterfly valve, which are operated pneumatically, have been investigated. For the instrumentation equipment, level sensor for tanks, flow meter, and method of leakage detection have been examined. 315 refs., 50 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 6 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of technology of low temperature materials); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 6 teion zairyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the results of the development of technology of low temperature materials in the fiscal 1997 WE-NET. Using experimental equipment for materials under the atmosphere of liquid hydrogen, an experiment on mechanical characteristics under the liquid hydrogen atmosphere (20K) was conducted of the base materials of candidate steels (SUS304L, SUS316L and A5083). In material evaluation experiments (tension/fracture toughness/fracture tests), characteristic behaviors of the materials were shown which are different from those shown in the environment of liquid He (4k), etc. Even if the amount of {delta} ferrite in the metal welded of the stainless steel is small, approximately 1%, the degradation of low temperature toughness occurred. Welded joints of stainless steel by submerged arc welding and MAG welding were in now way inferior in tension characteristic to those by TIG welding, but were inferior in toughness ranging from room temperature to extremely low temperature. As to aluminum alloys, materials excellent in extremely-low temperature toughness were able to be found. Under the low temperature hydrogen gas atmosphere, the lower the strain rate is, the higher the hydrogen brittleness susceptibility is around 220K (extremely large hydrogen brittleness temperature) (SUS304L). In the hydrogen gas of 100 atm, hydrogen invades the material at 100degC, but does not at 77k. 38 refs., 173 figs., 48 tabs.

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 10. Development of low-temperature materials; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 10. Teion zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of candidate low-temperature materials for liquid hydrogen transportation and storage (including mother materials and welds) for WE-NET. Evaluation tests were performed on material properties (mechanical properties, low-temperature embrittlement, and hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity) under room temperature and low temperature regions including liquid hydrogen atmosphere. Low temperature toughness of welds was assessed particularly to identify characteristics of different welding methods developed newly for improvements. The stainless steels and the mother materials of aluminum alloy selected as the candidates have sufficient characteristics even under the liquid hydrogen atmosphere, but the welds have lower low-temperature toughness, requiring improvement. For the stainless steels, since the amount of {delta} ferrite in welds affects greatly the low-temperature toughness, adoption of complete austenite type welding metal is effective. The reduced pressure electron beam welding method can enhance drastically the low-temperature toughness of stainless steel. For the aluminum alloy, it can be one of the alternatives to use an alloy system with composition of high low-temperature toughness. The friction stir welding method for the aluminum alloy was found to provide extremely high low-temperature toughness, which can be evaluated as a new welding method. (NEDO)

  13. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (research and development of technologies for hydrogen transport and storage by hydrogen absorbing alloys); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a guiding principle of new hydrogen absorbing alloy design, case studies on the stationary hydrogen storage systems for multiple dwelling houses using hydrogen absorbing alloys and on the hydrogen fuel tank systems for a motor vehicle, and survey on development status in the world. As a result of the investigation of alloys, it was concluded that realization of hydrogen absorbing alloys with new target properties of the WE-NET Project is not easy through the current technology. It was found that two kinds of Mg-based and V-based high capacity materials must be selected as target alloys among current alloys, and that three techniques, i.e., ultra-fine microstructure, composite, and amorphousness, are effective for improving the hydrogen discharge property which has been a problem of these alloys. It was desired that the latest techniques are established by integrating these materials and techniques. It is necessary to promote the development of brake-through new materials by new concepts and technologies through the cooperation of national institutes, universities, and companies. 124 refs., 56 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's Historic Preservation and Net-Zero Renovation Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, R.; Hayter, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; Pless, S.; Sielcken, J.; Smith-Larney, C.

    2014-10-01

    The federal government is mandated with improving efficiency of buildings, incorporating renewable energy, and achieving net-zero energy operations where possible. These challenges led GSA to consider aligning historic preservation renovations with net-zero energy goals. The Wayne N. Aspinall Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse (Aspinall Courthouse), in Grand Junction, Colorado, is an example of a renovation project that aimed to accomplish both historic preservation and net-zero energy goals.

  15. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  16. Energy use and CO2 emissions of consumer goods transport. Trends of Dutch imports in the period 1969-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, Jelco

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The energy use and CO2 emissions related to world-wide transportation of consumer goods have increased sharply during the last years. It is expected that this trend will continue in the future. Because the energy use and CO2 emissions related to

  17. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  18. FEATURES OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX IMPORTANT PART OF THE COUNTY'S LABOR MARKET RESOURCES GORJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păunescu Alberto Nicolae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the company Oltenia Energy Complex is in a comprehensive reorganization but not completed. This project implies also the restructuring the workforce including labor force county level. Due to increased production from renewable resources (due to legislation that lead to low price sale by manufacturers and high income by selling green certificates allocated requires a shift in market strategy and the unit with powerful implications on human resources both in the manufacturing sector, energy, heat mining sector, as well as TESA(economic, technical, service, administrative. This implies at least retraining and reducing staff in compliance with the new realities of Energy.

  19. Re-evaluation of the importance of coal in world energy supplies up to the year 2000. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakisch, R.R.; Hempel, C.

    1982-07-29

    The second part of the series gives trends in world energy supply in the eighties and nineties with a special view to coal. Trends in population and economic growth are presented as influencing factors of future world energy demand on the basis of a prognosis made by the authors. There are structural changes in primary energy supply which will result in a bigger contribution of coal. The coal production is estimated at some 3,000 million tonnes coal equivalent for 1985, 3,500 million tonnes coal equivalent for 1990, and at 3,500 million tonnes coal equivalent for 2000.

  20. Achieving net-zero emissions through the reframing of UK national targets in the post-Paris Agreement era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Steve; Li, Francis G. N.; Price, James; Fais, Birgit

    2017-03-01

    The Paris Agreement provides an international framework aimed at limiting average global temperature rise to well below 2 ∘C, implemented through actions determined at the national level. As the Agreement necessitates a 'net-zero' emissions energy system by 2100, decarbonization analyses in support of national climate policy should consider the post-2050 period. Focusing solely on mitigation objectives for 2030 or 2050 could lead to blindsiding of the challenge, inadequate ambition in the near term, and poor investment choices in energy infrastructure. Here we show, using the UK as an example, that even an ambitious climate policy is likely to fall short of the challenge of net-zero, and that analysis of the post-2050 period is therefore critical. We find that the analysis of detailed, longer-term national pathways that achieve net-zero is important for future reassessment of ambition under nationally determined contributions (NDCs).

  1. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  2. Energy level alignment of cyclohexane on Rh(111) surfaces: the importance of interfacial dipole and final-state screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitaya, Takanori; Mukai, Kozo; Yoshimoto, Shinya; Yoshinobu, Jun

    2013-01-28

    Adsorption states and electronic structure of cyclohexane on clean and hydrogen-saturated Rh(111) surfaces were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. Monolayer cyclohexane molecules form an ordered superstructure on the clean Rh(111) surface. The energy level alignment of adsorbed cyclohexane depends on each adsorption site; molecular orbitals of adsorbed cyclohexane on the atop site have lower binding energies than those on the other sites. In contrast, it becomes insensitive to adsorption sites on the hydrogen-saturated Rh(111) surface. By preadsorption of hydrogen, all cyclohexane molecular orbitals are uniformly shifted to lower binding energy compared to those on the clean Rh(111) surface. The observed energy level alignment of cyclohexane on the Rh(111) surfaces is determined by the vacuum level shift and the final-state screening effects.

  3. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further......Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...

  4. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  5. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  6. Status of KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccobene G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  7. Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurovic Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a broader portfolio of similar projects and their implementation demands allocation of substantial financial resources, communities are often be interested in achieving maximal economic and non-economic benefits. This paper aims to demonstrate that Cost-Benefit analysis can represent an excellent contribution when attempting to select the projects for implementation within a broader portfolio of energy efficiency projects in public buildings. This hypothesis was demonstrated by putting a greater emphasis on non-economic benefits and the costs arising from implementation of the aforementioned types of projects. In addition, a practical test of this hypothesis was performed through the implementation of an energy efficiency portfolio in public buildings, worth several tens of millions of dollars - the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project. The paper concludes that the use of Cost-Benefit analysis can help us to effectively evaluate and manage projects of this type aimed at achieving maximum benefits for the community in question.

  8. Importance of energy and angular resolutions in top-hat electrostatic analysers for solar wind proton measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Lavraud, B.; Louarn, P.; Salatti, M.

    2016-08-01

    We use a numerical code which reproduces the angular/energy response of a typical top-hat electrostatic analyser starting from solar wind proton velocity distribution functions (VDFs) generated by numerical simulations. The simulations are based on the Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical algorithm which integrates the Vlasov equation for the ion distribution function, while the electrons are treated as a fluid. A virtual satellite launched through the simulation box measures the particle VDFs. Such VDFs are moved from the simulation Cartesian grid to energy-angular coordinates to mimic the response of a real sensor in the solar wind. Different energy-angular resolutions of the analyser are investigated in order to understand the influence of the phase-space resolution in existing and upcoming space missions, with regards to determining the key parameters of plasma dynamics.

  9. Re-evaluation of the importance of coal in world energy supplies up to the year 2000. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakisch, R.R.; Hempel, C.

    1982-06-24

    The first part of a paper from the symposium on 'Oil and Money in the Eighties', which took place in London in October 1981, gives a comparative review of the development of the world energy situation since the early Fifties. The data for 1980 are based on estimates.

  10. Effects of dietary soybean oil on pig growth performance, retention of protein, lipids, and energy, and the net energy of corn in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, D Y; Ji, F; Stewart, L L; Hinson, R B; Beaulieu, A D; Allee, G L; Patience, J F; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this experiment were 1) to determine if dietary soybean oil (SBO) affects the NE of corn when fed to growing or finishing pigs, 2) to determine if possible effects of dietary SBO on the NE of corn differ between growing and finishing pigs, and 3) to determine effects of SBO on pig growth performance and retention of energy, protein, and lipids. Forty-eight growing (initial BW: 27.3 ± 2.5 kg) and 48 finishing (initial BW: 86.0 ± 3.0 kg) barrows were used, and within each stage of growth, pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 groups. Two groups at each stage of growth served as an initial slaughter group. The remaining 4 groups were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments and pigs in these groups were harvested at the conclusion of the experiment. A low-lipid basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and no added SBO and a high-lipid basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 8% SBO were formulated at each stage of growth. Two additional diets at each stage of growth were formulated by mixing 25% corn and 75% of the low-lipid basal diet or 25% corn and 75% of the high-lipid basal diet. Results indicated that addition of SBO had no effects on growth performance, carcass composition, or retention of energy, protein, and lipids but increased (P growth performance and retention of energy, protein, and lipids than growing pigs. A greater (P < 0.05) DE and NE of diets was observed for finishing pigs than for growing pigs and the DE and NE of corn was also greater (P < 0.05) for finishing pigs than for growing pigs. In conclusion, addition of SBO increases the DE and NE of diets but has no impact on the DE and NE of corn. Diets fed to finishing pigs have greater DE and NE values than diets fed to growing pigs and the DE and NE of corn are greater for finishing pigs than for growing pigs.

  11. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher Aryc W

    2011-04-01

    modifiable factors affecting use of nets that were consistent across both surveys. While net replacement remains important, the findings suggest that: more education about use and care of nets; making nets more resistant to damage; and encouraging net mending are likely to maximize the huge investment in scale up of net ownership by ensuring they are used. Without this step, the widespread benefits of LLIN cannot be realized.

  12. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Unlock the mysteries of energy! Energy is more than ""the ability to do work""; we present these concepts in a way that makes them more accessible to students and easier to understand. The best way to understand energy is to first look at all the different kinds of energy including: What Is Energy, Mechanical Energy, Thermal, Sound Energy and Waves, as well as Light Energy.

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation; survey/study on the standardization for hydrogen energy technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In relation to the basic study of the standardization for hydrogen energy technology and ISO/TC197, the results of the fiscal 1997 survey were summarized. From fiscal 1994 through 1996, in the wide-range field related to hydrogen energy technology, the survey of the present situation of the related standards/laws was made and the needs/subjects of standardization to be studied in the future were extracted. At the present stage, however, it is still early to enter into the stage of discussing the standardization. Therefore, in this fiscal year, only in the field of the storage/transportation/handling of liquid hydrogen, standards/laws abroad and in Japan were comparatively investigated for the basic study toward the standardization. Further, concerning ISO/TC197, studies were proceeded with of the liquid hydrogen land vehicle fueling system interface/fuel tanks/transportation containers/hydrogen fuel product specifications/airport hydrogen fueling facilities. Some are at the stage of drafting the international standard. Three drafts for the new standard were added such as gaseous hydrogen/hydrogen blend vehicular fuel systems, gaseous hydrogen fuel tanks, and basic requirements for safety of hydrogen systems. The standardization is indispensable to introducing the developed technology to the commercialization. 9 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  15. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  16. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  17. Empirical prediction of net splanchnic release of ketogenic nutrients, acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate in ruminants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, C; Nozière, P; Bahloul, L; Vernet, J; Lapierre, H; Sauvant, D; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2015-03-01

    For energy feeding systems for ruminants to evolve towards a nutrient-based system, dietary energy supply has to be determined in terms of amount and nature of nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations of the net hepatic flux and net splanchnic release of acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate to changes in diet and animal profiles. A meta-analysis was applied on published data compiled from the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which pools the results from international publications on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes measured in multi-catheterized ruminants. Prediction variables were identified from current knowledge on digestion, hepatic and other tissue metabolism. Subsequently, physiological and other, more integrative, predictors were obtained. Models were established for intakes up to 41 g dry matter per kg BW per day and diets containing up to 70 g concentrate per 100 g dry matter. Models predicted the net hepatic fluxes or net splanchnic release of each nutrient from its net portal appearance and the animal profile. Corrections were applied to account for incomplete hepatic recovery of the blood flow marker, para-aminohippuric acid. Changes in net splanchnic release (mmol/kg BW per hour) could then be predicted by combining the previously published net portal appearance models and the present net hepatic fluxes models. The net splanchnic release of acetate and butyrate were thus predicted from the intake of ruminally fermented organic matter (RfOM) and the nature of RfOM (acetate: residual mean square error (RMSE)=0.18; butyrate: RMSE=0.01). The net splanchnic release of β-hydroxybutyrate was predicted from RfOM intake and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.035), or from the net portal appearance of butyrate and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.050). Models obtained were independent of ruminant species, and presented low interfering factors on the residuals, least

  18. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  19. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    H. J. MIKKOLA; Ahokas, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 5473% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part ...

  20. Total electron scattering cross sections of some important biomolecules at 0.2-6.0 keV energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Meera Devi; Ariyasinghe, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    The total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of five nucleic bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine and uracil), phosphoric acid, three amino acids (glycine, lysine, and L-histidine), D-glucose, alpha-D-glucose, tetrahydropyran (THP), 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran and furan have been determined in the energy range 0.2-6.0 keV using a simple model based on the effective atomic total electron scattering cross sections (EATCS). The reliability of the model is confirmed by comparing the determined TCS with the predictions of those by existing theoretical models.

  1. Determining the most important factors for sustainable energy technology selection in Africa: application of the Delphi technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barry, M-L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available , there should be no grammatical or spelling errors in the questions or cover letter, the task instructions should be unambiguous and thoroughly tested, the one page cover letter should thank the individual for participating, explain why the person’s inputs... did not need to be manually entered into a database thus eliminating data capture errors. The Delphi study will be followed by case studies of several sustainable energy projects in Africa in order to validate that the factors identified are indeed...

  2. Conceptual study: Klaipeda import export oil terminal development for Lithuanian Republic Energy Ministry, Klaipeda State Oil Terminal. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The Lithuanian Republic Energy Ministry and Klaipeda State Oil Terminal (KSOT) are evaluating the technical and commercial feasibility of developing an oil and products transshipment terminal and storage facility on a designated site north of Klaipeda, Lithuania. In support of the evaluation, a Conceptual Study was performed with two principal objectives: First, to examine technical feasibility of the project and suitability of the site for such a facility; second, to develop conceptual configurations for the facility, performing sufficient conceptual engineering to support a preliminary estimate of initial capital costs to construct the terminal and ancillary facilities. The report summarizes the major conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study.

  3. Re-evaluation of the importance of coal in world energy supplies to the year 2000. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakisch, R.R.; Hempel, C.

    1982-08-12

    Part three of the series discusses the regional significance of solid fuels and the developments in world coal trade. The development of world coal production from 1935 to 2000 is presented by countries and by regions. All in all, there is an increasing tendency. The trends in the foreign trade of coal and coal products are characterized by a strongly expanding market. Of the consumer regions, the COMECON countries are those in which the contribution of coal to energy supply is highest. Finally, forecasts for the future world coal trade are compared.

  4. Free fatty acid kinetics in the late phase of postexercise recovery: importance of resting fatty acid metabolism and exercise-induced energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkos, Faidon; Mohammed, B Selma; Patterson, Bruce W; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2009-09-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA) availability increases several-fold during exercise and remains significantly elevated for at least 3 to 6 hours after exercise cessation. Little, however, is known regarding the duration of the postexercise rise in FFA flux. In the present study, we used stable isotope-labeled palmitate infusion to examine fatty acid metabolism in 27 healthy untrained men and women (age, 29 +/- 7 years; body mass index, 25 +/- 4 kg/m2) between 13 to 16 hours and 21 to 24 hours after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (1-2 hours at 60% of peak oxygen consumption), performed in the evening, and after a time-matched resting trial. Postabsorptive FFA rate of appearance (Ra) and FFA concentration in plasma were significantly greater after exercise than rest throughout the recovery period (P exercise-induced increases declined from approximately 40% at 13 to 16 hours to approximately 10% at 21 to 24 hours postexercise (P = .001). The magnitude of the exercise-induced increase in plasma FFA concentration was proportional to the increase in FFA Ra. Correlation analysis demonstrated that exercise-induced changes in plasma FFA Ra at 13 to 16 hours are (1) negatively associated with resting plasma FFA Ra and (2) positively associated with the net energy expenditure of exercise and the exercise-induced changes in whole-body fat oxidation rate (all P values exercise (P exercise-induced change in plasma FFA Ra at 13 to 16 hours. We conclude that the exercise-induced increase in FFA mobilization is (1) long-lived, persisting for 12 to 24 hours after exercise, with a progressive decline with time; (2) greater in subjects with low than high resting plasma FFA availability; and (3) greater after exercise with high than low energy demand.

  5. Energy prices will play an important role in determining global land use in the twenty first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2013-03-01

    Global land use research to date has focused on quantifying uncertainty effects of three major drivers affecting competition for land: the uncertainty in energy and climate policies affecting competition between food and biofuels, the uncertainty of climate impacts on agriculture and forestry, and the uncertainty in the underlying technological progress driving efficiency of food, bioenergy and timber production. The market uncertainty in fossil fuel prices has received relatively less attention in the global land use literature. Petroleum and natural gas prices affect both the competitiveness of biofuels and the cost of nitrogen fertilizers. High prices put significant pressure on global land supply and greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial systems, while low prices can moderate demands for cropland. The goal of this letter is to assess and compare the effects of these core uncertainties on the optimal profile for global land use and land-based GHG emissions over the coming century. The model that we develop integrates distinct strands of agronomic, biophysical and economic literature into a single, intertemporally consistent, analytical framework, at global scale. Our analysis accounts for the value of land-based services in the production of food, first- and second-generation biofuels, timber, forest carbon and biodiversity. We find that long-term uncertainty in energy prices dominates the climate impacts and climate policy uncertainties emphasized in prior research on global land use.

  6. A whole-path importance-sampling scheme for Feynman path integral calculations of absolute partition functions and free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven L; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-01-21

    Using Feynman path integrals, a molecular partition function can be written as a double integral with the inner integral involving all closed paths centered at a given molecular configuration, and the outer integral involving all possible molecular configurations. In previous work employing Monte Carlo methods to evaluate such partition functions, we presented schemes for importance sampling and stratification in the molecular configurations that constitute the path centroids, but we relied on free-particle paths for sampling the path integrals. At low temperatures, the path sampling is expensive because the paths can travel far from the centroid configuration. We now present a scheme for importance sampling of whole Feynman paths based on harmonic information from an instantaneous normal mode calculation at the centroid configuration, which we refer to as harmonically guided whole-path importance sampling (WPIS). We obtain paths conforming to our chosen importance function by rejection sampling from a distribution of free-particle paths. Sample calculations on CH4 demonstrate that at a temperature of 200 K, about 99.9% of the free-particle paths can be rejected without integration, and at 300 K, about 98% can be rejected. We also show that it is typically possible to reduce the overhead associated with the WPIS scheme by sampling the paths using a significantly lower-order path discretization than that which is needed to converge the partition function.

  7. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  8. A Petri Nets Model for Blockchain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Andrea; Tonelli, Roberto; Orrú, Matteo; Marchesi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A Blockchain is a global shared infrastructure where cryptocurrency transactions among addresses are recorded, validated and made publicly available in a peer- to-peer network. To date the best known and important cryptocurrency is the bitcoin. In this paper we focus on this cryptocurrency and in particular on the modeling of the Bitcoin Blockchain by using the Petri Nets formalism. The proposed model allows us to quickly collect information about identities owning Bitcoin addresses and to re...

  9. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  10. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  11. C# 4, ASP.NET 4, and WPF, with Visual Studio 2010 jump start

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Christian; Stephens, Rod; Hanselman, Scott; Glynn, Jay; Rader, Devin; Watson, Karli; Skinner, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    This Wrox Blox is a value-packed resource to help experienced .NETdevelopers learn the new .NET release. It is excerpted from theWrox books: Professional C# 4 and .NET 4, Professional ASP.NET4, and WPF Programmer's Reference by Christian Nagel,Bill Evjen, Scott Hanselman, and Rod Stephens, and includes morethan 100 print book pages drawn from these three key titles. It isan excellent resource to help .NET developers get up to speed faston .NET 4, C# 4.0, ASP.NET 4, and WPF, providing all theinformation needed to program with the important new features,including: C# Dynamic Types and Par

  12. Federal environmental standards of potential importance to operations and activities at US Department of Energy sites. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.M.; Bilyard, G.R.; Davidson, S.A.; Jonas, R.J.; Joseph, J.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now engaged in a program of environmental restoration nationwide across its 45 sites. It is also bringing its facilities into compliance with environmental regulations, decontaminating and decommissioning unwanted facilities, and constructing new waste management facilities. One of the most difficult questions that DOE must face in successfully remediating its inactive waste sites, decontaminating and decommissioning its inactive facilities, and operating its waste management facilities is: ``What criteria and standards should be met?`` Acceptable standards or procedures for determining standards will assist DOE in its conduct of ongoing waste management and pending cleanup activities by helping to ensure that those activities are conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and are accepted by the regulatory community and the public. This document reports on the second of three baseline activities that are being conducted as prerequisites to either the development of quantitative standards that could be used by DOE, or consistent procedures for developing such standards. The first and third baseline activities are also briefly discussed in conjunction with the second of the three activities.

  13. Petri net methodology for solving healthcare management issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushk Abdul Rauf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches of Petri nets can be achieved as system security and information flow in the healthcare recording system inside any medical or health-related business. Petri net system formal modeling is essential as well as important to track down the records and secure information inside a preformed health organization. In this paper, we mainly focused on the formal model Petri net which security mechanism is controlled by public key encryption where PN based modeling is preferred. This Petri net is a mathematical modeling to solve graphical notation for step by step processes that include choice, repetition, and circumstantial execution. Petri nets offer widely mathematical applications of discrete and continuous event execution semiotics, with an efficient mathematical analysis processing theory. We sure that our formal model will lay a solid foundation to minimize the risks and overcome the security risks in the healthcare industry.

  14. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  15. The importance of spectral separation: an assessment of dual-energy spectral separation for quantitative ability and dose efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Bernhard; Grant, Katharine L; Schmidt, Bernhard T; Flohr, Thomas G

    2015-02-01

    One method to acquire dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) data is to perform CT scans at 2 different x-ray tube voltages, typically 80 and 140 kV, either as 2 separate scans, by means of rapid kV switching, or with the use of 2 x-ray sources as in dual-source CT (DSCT) systems. In DSCT, it is possible to improve spectral separation with tin prefiltration (Sn) of the high-kV beam. Recently, x-ray tube voltages beyond the established range of 80 to 140 kV were commercially introduced, which enable additional voltage combinations for DE acquisitions, such as 80/150 Sn or 90/150 Sn kV. Here, we investigate the DE performance of several x-ray tube voltages and prefilter combinations on 2 DSCT scanners and the impact of the spectra on quantitative analysis and dose efficiency. Circular phantoms of different sizes (10-40 cm in diameter) equipped with cylindrical inserts containing water and diluted iodine contrast agent (14.5 mg/cm) were scanned using 2 different DSCT systems (SOMATOM Definition Flash and SOMATOM Force; Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany). Five x-ray tube voltage combinations (80/140 Sn, 100/140 Sn, 80/150 Sn, 90/150 Sn, and 100/150 Sn kV) were investigated, and the results were compared with the previous standard acquisition technique (80/140 kV). As an example, 80/140 Sn kV means that 1 x-ray tube of the DSCT system was operated at 80 kV, whereas the other was operated at 140 kV with additional tin prefiltration (Sn). Dose values in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) were kept constant between the different voltage combinations but adjusted with regard to object size according to automatic exposure control recommendations. Reconstructed images were processed using linear blending of the low- and high-kV CT images to combined images, as well as 3-material decomposition techniques to generate virtual noncontrast (VNC) images and iodine images. Contrast and pixel noise were evaluated, as well as DE ratios, which are defined as the CT value

  16. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  17. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  18. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  19. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  20. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  1. Supervisory Control of Loads and Energy Storage in Next-Generation Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Feitau [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernal Heredia, Willy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A zero energy building (ZEB)—also known as a net zero energy or zero net energy building—is a building that exports as much renewable energy as the total energy it imports from other sources on an annual basis (DOE 2015). Large-scale and commercially viable ZEBs are now in the marketplace, and they are expected to become a larger share of the commercial building footprint as government and private sector policies continue to promote the development of buildings that produce more on-site energy than they use. However, the load profiles of ZEBs are currently perceived by electric utilities to be unfavorable and unpredictable. As shown in Figure ES-1, ZEB load profiles can have abrupt changes in magnitude, at times switching rapidly between exporting and importing electricity. This is a challenge for utilities, which are responsible for constantly balancing electricity supply and demand across the grid. Addressing these concerns will require new strategies and tools.

  2. "It is about how the net looks": a qualitative study of perceptions and practices related to mosquito net care and repair in two districts in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Leah; Acosta, Angela; Koenker, Hannah; Kibuuka, Daniel Musoke; Harvey, Steven

    2014-12-17

    Prolonging net durability has important implications for reducing both malaria transmission and the frequency of net replacement. Protective behaviour, such as net care and repair, offers promise for improving net integrity and durability. Given the potential cost-savings and public health benefit associated with extending the useful life of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), prevention and mitigation of damage will become ever more critical to ensuring adequate net coverage at the population level. A qualitative assessment was conducted in two districts in central eastern Uganda in September 2013. Data on household net care and repair behaviour, attitudes and practices were collected from 30 respondents through in-depth interviews (IDIs), observations, photos, and video to gather an in-depth understanding of these behaviours. Net damage was common and the most cited causes were children and rodents. Responses revealed strong social norms about net cleanliness and aesthetics, and strong expectations that others should care for and repair their own nets. Respondents were receptive and able to repair nets, though longer-term repair methods, such as sewing and patching, were not as commonly reported or observed. Self-reported behaviour was not always consistent with observed or demonstrated behaviour, revealing potential misconceptions and the need for clear and consistent net care and repair messaging. Respondents considered both aesthetics and malaria protection important when deciding whether, when, and how to care for and repair nets. BCC should continue to emphasize the importance of maintaining net integrity for malaria prevention purposes as well as for maintaining aesthetic appeal. Additional research is needed, particularly surrounding washing, drying, daily storage routines, and gender roles in care and repair, in order to understand the complexity of these behaviours, and refine existing or develop new behaviour change communication (BCC) messages for

  3. Without a Safety Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Gørlich, Anne; Grytnes, Regine

    2017-01-01

    ‘Precarisation’ is one of the concepts that has become important in efforts to explain how neoliberal politics and changed economic conditions produce new forms of marginalization and increased insecurity. The aim of this article is to examine how subjectivity is produced among young Danish emplo...

  4. Importance of close surveillance for Charcot arthropathy in diabetic patients presenting to the emergency department with low-energy foot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolensky, Lucy; Trimble, Karl

    2010-06-01

    Close monitoring, regular review and early referral of diabetic patients with midfoot injuries is of paramount importance to identify and limit progression and complications of Charcot foot. The case history is presented of a 46-year-old diabetic patient who presented to the emergency department following a low-energy midfoot sprain which was treated conservatively and the patient was discharged from follow-up. She rapidly developed midfoot disruption and associated Charcot-type arthropathy requiring surgical reconstruction. This case highlights the importance of awareness of development of Charcot foot in low-energy injuries in diabetic patients despite normal index x-rays, and the necessity for close follow-up with early referral to a foot and ankle service.

  5. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  6. Astrocytic energy metabolism and glutamate formation--relevance for 13C-NMR spectroscopy and importance of cytosolic/mitochondrial trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Leif

    2011-12-01

    Glutamate plays a double role in (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic determination of glucose metabolism in the brain. Bidirectional exchange between initially unlabeled glutamate and labeled α-ketoglutarate, formed from pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), indicates the rate of energy metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid (V(TCA)) cycle in neurons (V(PDH, n)) and, with additional computation, also in astrocytes (V(PDH, g)), as confirmed using the astrocyte-specific substrate [(13)C]acetate. Formation of new molecules of glutamate during increased glutamatergic activity occurs only in astrocytes by combined pyruvate carboxylase (V(PC)) and astrocytic PDH activity. V(PDH, g) accounts for ~15% of total pyruvate metabolism in the brain cortex, and V(PC) accounts for another ~10%. Since both PDH-generated and PC-generated pyruvates are needed for glutamate synthesis, ~20/25 (80%) of astrocytic pyruvate metabolism proceed via glutamate formation. Net transmitter glutamate [γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] formation requires transfer of newly synthesized α-ketoglutarate to the astrocytic cytosol, α-ketoglutarate transamination to glutamate, amidation to glutamine, glutamine transfer to neurons, its hydrolysis to glutamate and glutamate release (or GABA formation). Glutamate-glutamine cycling, measured as glutamine synthesis rate (V(cycle)), also transfers previously released glutamate/GABA to neurons after an initial astrocytic accumulation and measures predominantly glutamate signaling. An empirically established ~1/1 ratio between glucose metabolism and V(cycle) may reflect glucose utilization associated with oxidation/reduction processes during glutamate production, which together with associated transamination processes are balanced by subsequent glutamate oxidation after cessation of increased signaling activity. Astrocytic glutamate formation and subsequent oxidative metabolism provide large amounts of adenosine triphosphate used for

  7. Photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency: setting a baseline for gauging future improvements in important food and biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Rebecca A; Ort, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    The conversion efficiency (ε(c)) of absorbed radiation into biomass (MJ of dry matter per MJ of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) is a component of yield potential that has been estimated at less than half the theoretical maximum. Various strategies have been proposed to improve ε(c), but a statistical analysis to establish baseline ε(c) levels across different crop functional types is lacking. Data from 164 published ε(c) studies conducted in relatively unstressed growth conditions were used to determine the means, greatest contributors to variation, and genetic trends in ε(c )across important food and biofuel crop species. ε(c) was greatest in biofuel crops (0.049-0.066), followed by C4 food crops (0.046-0.049), C3 nonlegumes (0.036-0.041), and finally C3 legumes (0.028-0.035). Despite confining our analysis to relatively unstressed growth conditions, total incident solar radiation and average growing season temperature most often accounted for the largest portion of ε(c) variability. Genetic improvements in ε(c), when present, were less than 0.7% per year, revealing the unrealized potential of improving ε(c) as a promising contributing strategy to meet projected future agricultural demand. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Modelling the energy balance of an anaerobic digester fed with cattle manure and renewable energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, Manfred; Wichern, Marc; Schlattmann, Markus; Gronauer, Andreas; Horn, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge of the net energy production of anaerobic fermenters is important for reliable modelling of the efficiency of anaerobic digestion processes. By using the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) the simulation of biogas production and composition is possible. This paper shows the application and modification of ADM1 to simulate energy production of the digestion of cattle manure and renewable energy crops. The paper additionally presents an energy balance model, which enables the dynamic calculation of the net energy production. The model was applied to a pilot-scale biogas reactor. It was found in a simulation study that a continuous feeding and splitting of the reactor feed into smaller heaps do not generally have a positive effect on the net energy yield. The simulation study showed that the ratio of co-substrate to liquid manure in the inflow determines the net energy production when the inflow load is split into smaller heaps. Mathematical equations are presented to calculate the increase of biogas and methane yield for the digestion of liquid manure and lipids for different feeding intervals. Calculations of different kinds of energy losses for the pilot-scale digester showed high dynamic variations, demonstrating the significance of using a dynamic energy balance model.

  9. Calculation of total free energy yield as an alternative approach for predicting the importance of potential chemolithotrophic reactions in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; McDonald, Austin I; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    To inform hypotheses regarding the relative importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in geothermal environments, we calculated free energy yields of 26 chemical reactions potentially supporting chemolithotrophy in two US Great Basin hot springs, taking into account the effects of changing reactant and product activities on the Gibbs free energy as each reaction progressed. Results ranged from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 3.6 J kg(-1) spring water, or 3.7 × 10(-5) to 11.5 J s(-1) based on measured flow rates, with aerobic oxidation of CH(4) or NH4 + giving the highest average yields. Energy yields calculated without constraining pH were similar to those at constant pH except for reactions where H(+) was consumed, which often had significantly lower yields when pH was unconstrained. In contrast to the commonly used normalization of reaction chemical affinities per mole of electrons transferred, reaction energy yields for a given oxidant varied by several orders of magnitude and were more sensitive to differences in the activities of products and reactants. The high energy yield of aerobic ammonia oxidation is consistent with previous observations of significant ammonia oxidation rates and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea in sediments of these springs. This approach offers an additional lens through which to view the thermodynamic landscape of geothermal springs. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Casting a larger net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    Managerial networking is an important part of public management. Research has forcefully demonstrated how this aspect of management directly and indirectly is related to organizational outcomes. Much less is known, however, about the determinants of managerial networking. This is especially true......-tier managers in Danish municipalities. Results suggest that managers engage in two different types of external networking, and that the amount of networking behavior is determined in a complex interplay of the three sets of explanatory factors. Contributions to existing research are discussed....... with regards to individual-level explanations. This paper addresses this important gap and proposes a composite model of managerial networking as formed by three sets of factors: personal, job-related, and organizational. On this background a set of hypotheses are developed and tested in a study of top...

  11. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  12. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  13. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  14. Instant Autodesk AutoCAD 2014 customization with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. An instruction-based guide with examples written in the C# programming language. VB.NET programmers can also take advantage of these examples by using one of the free conversion websites to convert the examples to VB.NET.Clear, step-by-step instructions and complete code examples illustrate the processes, making it easy to develop your own custom AutoCAD tools.This book is perfect if you are interested in customizing AutoCAD 2014 using the .NET API. You should have a basic familiari

  15. Robots arm motion representation in Petri NETS using sequent calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzair Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many sort of motion in robots structure. Such as the robot locomotion robot jumps robots picking and so on but all are presented through Petri NETS. The one motion which is also the important one and most worthy motion of the robots is the robots arm motion. Which till yet not represented through Petri NETS. In this paper we are going to represent the motion of the robot arm in different angles and different aspect, such as up, down, circular, back and front moment of the robot arm, through Petri net we can present the complex form of motions into simplex paths.

  16. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  17. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  18. Comparative Assessment of Satellite-Retrieved Surface Net Radiation: An Examination on CERES and SRB Datasets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface net radiation plays an important role in land–atmosphere interactions. The net radiation can be retrieved from satellite radiative products, yet its accuracy needs comprehensive assessment. This study evaluates monthly surface net radiation generated from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007. Our results show that surface net radiation is generally overestimated for CERES (SRB, with a bias of 26.52 W/m2 (18.57 W/m2 and a root mean square error of 34.58 W/m2 (29.49 W/m2. Spatially, the satellite-retrieved monthly mean of surface net radiation has relatively small errors for both CERES and SRB at inland sites in south China. Substantial errors are found at northeastern sites for two datasets, in addition to coastal sites for CERES. Temporally, multi-year averaged monthly mean errors are large at sites in western China in spring and summer, and in northeastern China in spring and winter. The annual mean error fluctuates for SRB, but decreases for CERES between 2000 and 2007. For CERES, 56% of net radiation errors come from net shortwave (NSW radiation and 44% from net longwave (NLW radiation. The errors are attributable to environmental parameters including surface albedo, surface water vapor pressure, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI of land surface proxy, and visibility for CERES. For SRB, 65% of the errors come from NSW and 35% from NLW radiation. The major influencing factors in a descending order are surface water vapor pressure, surface albedo, land surface temperature, NDVI, and visibility. Our findings offer an insight into error patterns in satellite-retrieved surface net radiation and should be valuable to improving retrieval accuracy of surface net radiation. Moreover, our

  19. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  20. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  1. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  2. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  3. Investigations of a Cost-Optimal Zero Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Nørgaard, Jesper; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) concept is worldwide recognised as a promising solution for decreasing buildings’ energy use. Nevertheless, a consistent definition of the Net ZEB concept is constantly under discussion. One of the points on the Net ZEB agenda is the zero energy balance...

  4. Is breakfast the most important meal of the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, James A; Chowdhury, Enhad A; Gonzalez, Javier T; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan

    2016-11-01

    The Bath Breakfast Project is a series of randomised controlled trials exploring the effects of extended morning fasting on energy balance and health. These trials were categorically not designed to answer whether or not breakfast is the most important meal of the day. However, this review will philosophise about the meaning of that question and about what questions we should be asking to better understand the effects of breakfast, before summarising how individual components of energy balance and health respond to breakfast v. fasting in lean and obese adults. Current evidence does not support a clear effect of regularly consuming or skipping breakfast on body mass/composition, metabolic rate or diet-induced thermogenesis. Findings regarding energy intake are variable, although the balance of evidence indicates some degree of compensatory feeding later in the day such that overall energy intake is either unaffected or slightly lower when breakfast is omitted from the diet. However, even if net energy intake is reduced, extended morning fasting may not result in expected weight loss due to compensatory adjustments in physical activity thermogenesis. Specifically, we report that both lean and obese adults expended less energy during the morning when remaining in the fasted state than when consuming a prescribed breakfast. Further research is required to examine whether particular health markers may be responsive to breakfast-induced responses of individual components of energy balance irrespective of their net effect on energy balance and therefore body mass.

  5. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  6. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  7. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  8. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  9. The Net Physiological Cost of Dribbling a Soccer Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Ball, David

    1984-01-01

    To establish the net energy cost of dribbling a soccer ball, eight males ran on a treadmill while dribbling a ball against a rebound box. Oxygen uptake, perceived exertion, and blood lactate levels were measured and compared with results from subjects running without dribbling. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  10. Energy in France. Reference data; L'energie en France. Reperes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This small guidebook summarizes the main statistical data on energy for France. Data are presented in tables and graphs for the last decades up to the year 2000: energy in economy (contribution of energy industries to the national gross product, employment and investments in the energy sector), overall energies (average monthly price of crude oil, public opinion about nuclear energy, supplies and consumptions, primary energy production, consumption per energy and per sector, energy bill, import crude oil prices), petroleum (primary production, sectoral end-consumption of refined petroleum products, consumption per type of product, automotive fuels demand, imports and exports of petroleum products, petroleum bill), natural gas (total production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of production, imports bill), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of production), electricity (gross production, classical thermal production per type of fuel, simplified status, sectoral final consumption, nuclear sites, electricity trades with foreign countries), renewable energies (total production, district heating networks, wood consumption, installed wind power, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, compared evolutions of the national gross product with the energy consumption, cumulated energy savings), prices (energies in the industry and in the domestic sectors, automotive fuels, energy consumptions in households), environment (sectoral and net CO{sub 2} emissions). An energy units conversion table is added at the end of the booklet. (J.S.)

  11. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  12. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  13. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  14. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugassa Sisay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. Results An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.40-0.53, p Conclusion A square of four e-nets with yellow sticky boards as a collection device can be used for quantifying the numbers of mosquitoes approaching a small oviposition site. Shiny sticky surfaces attract gravid females possibly because they are visually mistaken as aquatic habitats. These materials might be developed further as gravid traps

  15. Energy scenarios - South Korea dated May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Aaron Cottrell; Louis Wibberley [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    Asian countries show continued high rate of change across energy systems. This report updates a prior assessment made in 2003. South Korea has very limited fossil energy resources, and relies heavily on imports of oil, natural gas, coal and uranium. In world rankings, it is the ninth largest oil consumer and fourth largest net oil importer, the second largest importer of LNG (around 25% of all LNG produced), the second largest importer of coal (after Japan), and is sixth in nuclear power generation. It is a major customer of coal, natural gas and uranium resources from Australia. 65 refs., 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  17. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  18. Role of net baryon density on rapidity width of identified particles from the lowest energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron to those at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nur; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb

    2017-08-01

    Widths of the rapidity distributions of various identified hadrons generated with the UrQMD-3.4 event generator at all the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies have been presented and compared with the existing experimental results. An increase in the width of the rapidity distribution of Λ could be seen with both Monte Carlo (MC) and experimental data for the studied energies. Using MC data, the study has been extended to Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. A similar jump, as observed in the plot of rapidity width versus rest mass at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and all SPS energies, persists even at RHIC and LHC energies, confirming its universal nature from AGS to the highest LHC energies. Such observation indicates that pair production may not be the only mechanism of particle production at the highest LHC energies. However, with MC data, the separate mass scaling for mesons and baryons is found to exist even at the top LHC energy.

  19. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  20. Jamaica National Net-Billing Pilot Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stout, Sherry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Kimberly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    This technical report discusses the effectiveness of the Jamaica Public Service Company Limited Net-Billing Pilot Program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed data from a wide range of stakeholders, conducted in-country research, and compared program elements to common interconnection practices to form programmatic recommendations for the Jamaica context. NREL finds that the net-billing pilot program has successfully contributed to the support of the emerging solar market in Jamaica with the interconnection of 80 systems under the program for a total of 1.38 megawatts (MW) at the time of original analysis.