WorldWideScience

Sample records for net electrical energy

  1. Net energy analysis: Powerful tool for selecting electric power options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S.

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  2. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  3. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  4. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  5. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  6. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  7. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  8. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    energy which is then used to drive a heat engine to generate electrical power. Geothermal Power – These systems use thermal energy generated and...stored in the earth as a generating source for electricity. Several pilot installations are investigating this technology by conducting geothermal ...concentrate solar thermal energy which is then used to drive a heat engine to generate electrical power. • Geothermal Power - These systems use thermal energy

  9. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  10. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  11. Fermentative biohydrogen production: Evaluation of net energy gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J.; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany [Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88011 (United States); Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana [Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Most dark fermentation (DF) studies had resorted to above-ambient temperatures to maximize hydrogen yield, without due consideration of the net energy gain. In this study, literature data on fermentative hydrogen production from glucose, sucrose, and organic wastes were compiled to evaluate the benefit of higher fermentation temperatures in terms of net energy gain. This evaluation showed that the improvement in hydrogen yield at higher temperatures is not justified as the net energy gain not only declined with increase of temperature, but also was mostly negative when the fermentation temperature exceeded 25 C. To maximize the net energy gain of DF, the following two options for recovering additional energy from the end products and to determine the optimal fermentation temperature were evaluated: methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD); and direct electricity production via microbial fuel cells (MFC). Based on net energy gain, it is concluded that DF has to be operated at near-ambient temperatures for the net energy gain to be positive; and DF + MFC can result in higher net energy gain at any temperature than DF or DF + AD. (author)

  12. Defining net zero energy buildings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide increasing attention to energy consumption and associated environmental impacts thereof has resulted in a critical attitude towards energy usage of building. Increasing costs of energy and dependence on energy service providers add...

  13. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  14. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  15. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  16. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopko, Joanna [Warsaw University of Technology, The Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Institute of Computer Science, Nowowiejska Street 15/19, Warsaw 00-665 (Poland)

    2015-12-31

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  17. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. W.

    2010-10-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  18. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  19. Net-Zero Energy Technical Shelter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    Technical shelters are the basic structures for storing electronic and technical equipment, and commonly used for telecommunication base station, windmill, gas station, etc. Due to their high internal heat load density and special operation schedule, they consume more energy than normal residential...... or commercial buildings. On the other hand, it is a big challenge to power the technical shelter in remote area where the grids are either not available or the expansion of grid is expensive. In order to minimize the energy consumption and obtain a reliable and cost-efficient power solution for technical...... shelter, this study will apply the net-zero energy concept into the technical shelter design. The energy conservation can be achieved by proper design of building envelop and optimization of the cooling strategies. Both experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the indoor...

  20. Net-Zero-Energy Model for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Qin, Rong-Cong; Guo, Jin-Song; Yu, Qiang; Li, Zhe; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang

    2017-01-17

    A large external energy input prevents wastewater treatment from being environmentally sustainable. A net-zero-energy (NZE) wastewater treatment concept based on biomass energy recycling was proposed to avoid wasting resources and to promote energy recycling in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Simultaneously, a theoretical model and boundary condition based on energy balance were established to evaluate the feasibility of achieving NZE in WWTPs; the model and condition were employed to analyze data from 20 conventional WWTPs in China. A total of six WWTPs can currently export excess energy, eight WWTPs can achieve 100% energy self-sufficiency by adjusting the metabolic material allocation, and six municipal WWTPs cannot achieve net-zero energy consumption based on the evaluation of the theoretical model. The NZE model offset 79.5% of the electricity and sludge disposal cost compared with conventional wastewater treatment. The NZE model provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of material regulation for the effective utilization of organic energy from wastewater and promotes engineering applications of the NZE concept in WWTPs.

  1. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification and catalytic methanation is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and GHG emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects of producing electricity, heat, methanol and methane. The Gas Technology......-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance...... Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw...

  2. Energy balance framework for Net Zero Energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approaching a Net Zero Energy (NZE) building goal based on current definitions is flawed for two principal reasons - they only deal with energy quantities required for operations, and they do not establish a threshold, which ensures that buildings are optimized for reduced consum...

  3. Energy analysis of geothermal-electric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herendeen, R.A.; Plant, R.

    1979-12-01

    Standard energy analysis was applied to 4 types of geothermal-electric technologies: liquid dominated, hot dry rock, geopressure, and vapor dominated. It was found that all are net energy producers. Expected uncertainties are not large enough to threaten this conclusion. Vapor dominated, the only technology in current commercial use to produce electricity in the US, has the highest energy ratio (13 +- 4). These results for energy ratio are equal to or less than some from other workers. In the case of liquid dominated, environmental control technology has a considerable energy requirement.

  4. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that

  5. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, Charles; Gupta, Smita; Torcellini, Paul; Mchugh, Jon; Liu, Bing; Higgins, Cathy; Iplikci, Jessica; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2017-06-30

    The submitted Roundtable discussion covers zero net energy (ZNE) buildings and their expansion into the market as a more widely adopted approach for various building types and sizes. However, the market is still small, and this discussion brings together distinguished researchers, designers, policy makers, and program administrations to represent the key factors making ZNE building more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This roundtable was conducted by the ASHRAE Journal with Bing Liu, P.E., Member ASHRAE, Charles Eley, FAIA, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Smita Gupta, Itron; Cathy Higgins, New Buildings Institute; Jessica Iplikci, Energy Trust of Oregon; Jon McHugh, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Michael Rosenberg, Member ASHRAE; and Paul Torcellini, Ph.D., P.E., NREL.

  6. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  7. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  8. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  9. Energy performance of net-zero and near net-zero energy homes in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Walter D.

    Net-Zero Energy Homes (NZEHs) are homes that consume no more energy than they produce on site during the course of a year. They are well insulated and sealed, use energy efficient appliances, lighting, and mechanical equipment, are designed to maximize the benefits from day lighting, and most often use a combination of solar hot water, passive solar and photovoltaic (PV) panels to produce their on-site energy. To date, NZEHs make up a miniscule percentage of homes in the United States, and of those, few have had their actual performance measured and analyzed once built and occupied. This research focused on 19 NZEHs and near net-zero energy homes (NNZEHs) built in New England. This set of homes had varying designs, numbers of occupants, and installed technologies for energy production, space heating and cooling, and domestic hot water systems. The author worked with participating homeowners to collect construction and systems specifications, occupancy information, and twelve months of energy consumption, production and cost measurements, in order to determine whether the homes reached their respective energy performance design goals. The author found that six out of ten NZEHs achieved net-zero energy or better, while all nine of the NNZEHs achieved an energy density (kWh/ft 2/person) at least half as low as the control house, also built in New England. The median construction cost for the 19 homes was 155/ft 2 vs. 110/ft2 for the US average, their average monthly energy cost was 84% below the average for homes in New England, and their estimated CO2 emissions averaged 90% below estimated CO2 emissions from the control house. Measured energy consumption averaged 14% below predictions for the NZEHs and 38% above predictions for the NNZEHs, while generated energy was within +/- 10% of predicted for 17 out of 18 on-site PV systems. Based on these results, the author concludes that these types of homes can meet or exceed their designed energy performance (depending on

  10. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  11. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  12. A Cellular Approach to Net-Zero Energy Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Amado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic technology and a rapid reduction in its cost confirms the potential of solar power on a large scale. In this context, planning for the deployment of smart grids is among the most important challenges to support the increased penetration of solar energy in urban areas and to ensure the resilience of the electricity system. As part this effort, the present paper describes a cellular approach to a Net-Zero energy concept, based on the balance between the potential solar energy supply and the existing consumption patterns at the urban unit scale. To do that, the Geographical Urban Units Delimitation model (GUUD has been developed and tested on a case study. By applying the GUUD model, which combines Geographic Information Systems (GIS, parametric modelling, and solar dynamic analysis, the whole area of the city was divided into urban cells, categorized as solar producers and energy consumers. The discussion around three theoretical scenarios permits us to explore how smart grids can be approached and promoted from an urban planning perspective. The paper provides insights into how urban planning can be a driver to optimize and manage energy balance across the city if the deployment of smart grids is correctly integrated in its operative process.

  13. Net energy evaluation of feeds and determination of net energy requirements for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Noblet

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Feeds for pigs can be attributed different energy values according to, first, the step considered in energy utilization (DE: digestible energy, ME: metabolizable energy and NE: net energy and, second, the method used for estimation at each step. Reference methods for evaluating DE content are based on in vivo digestibility measurements; indirect estimates of DE values are obtained from in vitro methods or prediction equations based on chemical characteristics. Methods have also been proposed for estimating urinary energy (and gas energy to a smaller extent in order to calculate ME content from DE value. The NE values originate from energy balance studies (slaughter methods or, more commonly, indirect calorimetry measurements in respiration chambers and their compilation allows the calculation of NE prediction equations based on digestible nutrient contents or DE or ME contents. Such equations are applicable to both ingredients and compound feeds. They may differ between origins according to the fractionation method of organic matter or assumptions such as the NE requirement for maintenance (or fasting heat production. These measurements represent the bases for establishment of energy values in feeding tables. Results indicate that energy digestibility of feeds is negatively affected by dietary fibre content but this negative effect is attenuated with body weight increase, which suggests that feeds should be attributed DE values according to pig BW; in practice, at least two different DE values, one for growing-finishing pigs and one for mature pigs (reproductive sows, are recommended. The energy digestibility of pig feeds can also be affected by feed processing (pelletting, extrusion, etc.. Efficiency of ME utilization for NE averages 74-75% for conventional pig diets but it is directly dependent on diet chemical composition with efficiencies higher for ME from fat (90% or starch (82% than from protein or dietary fibre (60%. The hierarchy

  14. Load Matching and Grid Interaction of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Karsten; Sartori, Igor; Napolitano, Assunta

    2010-01-01

    of seasonal energy storage on-site. Even though the wording “Net Zero Energy Building” focuses on the annual energy balance, large differences may occur between solution sets in the amount of grid interaction needed to reach the goal. The paper reports on the analysis of example buildings concerning the load...... matching and grid interaction. Indices to describe both issues are proposed and foreseen as part of a harmonized definition framework. The work is part of subtask A of the IEA SHCP Task40/ECBCS Annex 52: “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”.......“Net Zero Energy Building” has become a prominent wording to describe the synergy of energy efficient building and renewable energy utilization to reach a balanced energy budget over a yearly cycle. Taking into account the energy exchange with a grid infrastructure overcomes the limitations...

  15. Criteria for Definition of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartori, Igor; Napolitano, Assunta; Marszal, Anna Joanna

    2010-01-01

    without a clear understanding and countries are enacting policies and national targets based on the concept without a clear definition in place. This paper presents a harmonised framework for describing the relevant characteristics of Net ZEBs in a series of criteria. Evaluation of the criteria......The idea of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) is understood conceptually, as it is understood that the way a Net ZEB is defined affects significantly the way it is designed in order to achieve the goal. However, little agreement exists on a common definition; the term is used commercially...... and selection of the related options becomes a methodology for elaborating sound Net ZEB definitions in a formal, systematic and comprehensive way, creating the basis for legislations and action plans to effectively achieve the political targets. The common denominator for the different possible Net ZEB...

  16. Calculation Tool for Determining the Net Energy Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    for windows are presented. Based on these methods a program has been developed that determines the heat loss coefficient, U, and the total solar energy transmittance, g, for windows compounded of specific window components selected from a database. The program calculates the net energy gain for specific....... A proper and direct way to describe the energy performance of windows is by the net energy gain, E, which expresses the energy balance for the window. It is defined as the solar heat gain transmitted in minus the heat loss transmitted out through the window during the heating season. The net energy gain...... is dependent on both the U-values and the g-values. Beyond this it is dependent on the orientation of the windows and the climate and the actual period. This makes it difficult to choose the glazings and windows that are optimal with regard to energy performance in a given case. These facts have aroused a need...

  17. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  18. Energy Use Consequences of Ventilating a Net-Zero Energy House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C.; Payne, W. Vance

    2016-01-01

    A Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to demonstrate that a home similar in size, aesthetics, and amenities to those in the surrounding communities can achieve net-zero energy use over the course of a year while meeting the average electricity and water use needs of a family of four in the United States. The facility incorporates renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including an air-to-air heat pump system, a solar photovoltaic system, a solar thermal domestic hot water system, and a heat recovery ventilation system sized to meet American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2-2010 ventilation requirements. The largest energy end use within the home was space conditioning, which included heat loss through the building envelope, ventilation air supplied by the heat recovery ventilator (HRV), and internal loads. While HRVs are often described as being able to save energy when compared to ventilating without heat recovery, there have been no studies using a full year of measured data that determine the thermal load and energy impacts of HRV-based ventilation on the central heating and cooling system. Over the course of a year, continuous operation of the HRV at the NZERTF resulted in an annual savings of 7 % in heat pump energy use compared with the hypothetical case of ventilating without heat recovery. The heat pump electrical use varied from an increase of 5 % in the cooling months to 36 % savings in the heating months compared with ventilation without heat recovery. The increase in the cooling months occurred when the outdoor temperature was lower than the indoor temperature, during which the availability of an economizer mode would have been beneficial. Nevertheless, the fan energy required to operate the selected HRV at the NZERTF paid for itself in the heat pump energy saved

  19. Energy Use Consequences of Ventilating a Net-Zero Energy House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Payne, W Vance

    2016-03-05

    A Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to demonstrate that a home similar in size, aesthetics, and amenities to those in the surrounding communities can achieve net-zero energy use over the course of a year while meeting the average electricity and water use needs of a family of four in the United States. The facility incorporates renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including an air-to-air heat pump system, a solar photovoltaic system, a solar thermal domestic hot water system, and a heat recovery ventilation system sized to meet American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2-2010 ventilation requirements. The largest energy end use within the home was space conditioning, which included heat loss through the building envelope, ventilation air supplied by the heat recovery ventilator (HRV), and internal loads. While HRVs are often described as being able to save energy when compared to ventilating without heat recovery, there have been no studies using a full year of measured data that determine the thermal load and energy impacts of HRV-based ventilation on the central heating and cooling system. Over the course of a year, continuous operation of the HRV at the NZERTF resulted in an annual savings of 7 % in heat pump energy use compared with the hypothetical case of ventilating without heat recovery. The heat pump electrical use varied from an increase of 5 % in the cooling months to 36 % savings in the heating months compared with ventilation without heat recovery. The increase in the cooling months occurred when the outdoor temperature was lower than the indoor temperature, during which the availability of an economizer mode would have been beneficial. Nevertheless, the fan energy required to operate the selected HRV at the NZERTF paid for itself in the heat pump energy saved

  20. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  1. Import of grey electricity from Germany. The impact of taking over the German E.ON-grid on wind energy in the Netherlands; Import Duitse grijze stroom niet opeens gemakkelijker. Overname Duits net vooralsnog neutraal voor windenergie in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, P.

    2010-03-15

    At the end of 2009 the Dutch Transmission System Operator TenneT took over the German E.ON grid. The question that arises: will the take-over result in lower prices for electricity in the Netherlands? According to experts, the main determining factor is still the market and the effect of the take-over on grey and green electricity is neutral. However, the transport cost will increase due to investments in improvement of the grid. [Dutch] Eind 2009 nam de Nederlandse Transmission System Operator TenneT het Duitse E.ON-net over. De vraag is of de overname leidt tot lagere prijzen voor elektriciteit in Nederland. Volgens deskundigen is vooralsnog de markt bepalend en is de overname neutraal voor groene en grijze stroom. Wel zullen de transportkosten stijgen vanwege investeringen voor verbeteringen van het netwerk.

  2. Quality studies of the energy in the electric net of the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils of the nuclear power plant Laguna Verde; Estudios de calidad de la energia en la red electrica del almacen de acopio de partes reusables y aceites contaminados (CCAC) de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In the industry exist the high costs by faults of electronic and electric equipment s, due to during the design process, installation, tests and operation of these equipment s, is not had appropriate detection equipment to carry out quality studies of the energy. These studies give an important support to know that occurs in an electric net, the cause of the anomalous behavior of the equipment s and this way to avoid the expensive faults carrying out necessary engineering adaptations in an electric net. The elements of the electricity that are determined are the tension, current and frequency that are inside acceptable operational parameters that facilitate the operation and constant operation of the equipment s, free of interruptions and failures. The application of the quality studies of the energy is growing little by little in Mexico for the problems solution in the equipment s. This field is also developing new techniques and technologies integrated in the equipment s for its monitoring detection and protection. The present work offers the results of the first Quality Study of the Energy in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to solve the problem in the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils, in which the failure of the two radiation monitors of the gassy effluent of ventilation HVAC of the warehouse took place. (Author)

  3. Electricity production from renewables energies

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit; François, Bruno; Henneton, Antoine; Sprooten, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues have caused a marked increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources since the beginning of the 21st Century. The concept of sustainable development and concern for future generations challenge us every day to produce new technologies for energy production, and new patterns of use for these energies. Their rapid emergence can make the understanding and therefore the perception of these new technologies difficult. This book aims to contribute to a better understanding of the new electricity generation technologies by addressing a diverse audie

  4. Net Balanced Floorplanning Based on Elastic Energy Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    with balanced net delays to increase the safety margins of the design. In this paper, we investigate the properties of floorplanning based on the elastic energy model. The B*-tree, which is based on an ordered binary tree, is used for circuit representation and the elastic energy is used as the cost function...

  5. Denmark's net'zero energy home'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    ; a trampoline sits on the neatly trimmed lawn. But this house is different. Using ecologically benign materials, a rooftop of solar panels, and energy-scrimping designs, the house generates more than enough power to run itself. Inside, a family of five is testing out the ultimate model home. Windows in all four...

  6. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus was chosen as a target of this study to be investigated and analyzed in order to know how energy efficiency strategies could be applied to the building to reduce annual energy consumption. Since this research objective is to develop a strategy to achieve net-zero energy in existing buildings, case study and problem solving methodologies were applied in this research in order to evaluate the building design in a qualitative manner through observations, in addition to a quantitative method through an energy modeling simulation to achieve desirable results which address the problems. After optimizing the building energy performance, an alternative energy simulation was made of the building in order to make an energy comparison analysis, which leads to reliable conclusions. These methodologies and the strategies used in this research can be applied to similar buildings in order to achieve net-zero energy goals.

  7. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Bardi, Ugo; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy fl...

  8. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Han, Gi Ppeum; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-09-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary net energy (NE) concentrations on growth performance and NE intake of growing gilts. Five diets were formulated to contain 9.6, 10.1, 10.6, 11.1, and 11.6 MJ NE/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial with 10 growing pigs (average body weight [BW] = 15.9±0.24 kg) was conducted to determine NE concentrations of 5 diets based on French and Dutch NE systems in a 5×5 replicated Latin square design. A growth trial also was performed with five dietary treatments and 12 replicates per treatment using 60 growing gilts (average BW = 15.9±0.55 kg) for 28 days. A regression analysis was performed to predict daily NE intake from the BW of growing gilts. Increasing NE concentrations of diets did not influence average daily gain and average daily feed intake of growing gilts. There was a quadratic relationship (p = 0.01) between dietary NE concentrations and feed efficiency (G:F), although the difference in G:F among treatment means was relatively small. Regression analysis revealed that daily NE intake was linearly associated with the BW of growing gilts. The prediction equations for NE intake with the BW of growing gilts were: NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.442+(0.562×BW, kg), R 2 = 0.796 when French NE system was used, whereas NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.533+(0.614×BW, kg), R 2 = 0.810 when Dutch NE system was used. Increasing NE concentrations of diets from 9.6 to 11.6 MJ NE/kg have little impacts on growth performance of growing gilts. Daily NE intake can be predicted from the BW between 15 and 40 kg in growing gilts.

  9. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton, Net-Kaon, and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program is to study the QCD phase structure, which includes the search for the QCD critical point, over a wide range of chemical potential. Theoretical calculations predict that fluctuations of conserved quantities, such as baryon number (B), charge (Q), and strangeness (S), are sensitive to the correlation length of the dynamical system. Experimentally, higher moments of multiplicity distributions have been utilized to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report recent efficiency-corrected cumulants and cumulants ratios of the net- proton, net-kaon, and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in the years 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants up to the fourth order, as well as their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-c...

  10. A Net-Zero Energy Home Grows Up: Lessons and Puzzles from 10 Years of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Craig; Norton, Paul

    2016-08-26

    In 2005, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, with support from NREL and other partners, built one of the first homes in the US to achieve net-zero energy based on monitored data. A family of three moved into the house when it was completed and lives there still. The home has been monitored continuously for the past ten years. Although PV production has remained steady, net energy performance has varied each year. The home was a net producer of energy annually in each of the first three years and in the ninth year, but not in years four through eight. Over the years, the PV system provided between 124% and 64% of the home source energy use. Electricity use in the home increased steadily during the first eight years, even though no significant new appliance was introduced into the house, such as a window air conditioner. Miscellaneous electric loads and space heating, both strongly dependent on occupant behavior, appear to be primarily responsible for the observed increase in energy use. An interesting aspect of this case study is how, even within a single family, natural changes in occupant lifestyles over time (e.g., kids growing up, schedules changing) can substantially impact the overall energy intensity of a home. Data from the last ten years will be explored for lessons learned that can improve the way we design low-load homes without sacrificing comfort or convenience for the occupants, and how we can make realistic predictions of long-term energy performance.

  11. Net-Zero Energy Home Grows Up: Lessons and Puzzles from 10 Years of Data; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Craig; Norton, Paul

    2016-05-17

    In 2005, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, with support from NREL and other partners, built one of the first homes in the US to achieve net-zero energy based on monitored data. A family of three moved into the house when it was completed and lives there still. The home has been monitored continuously for the past ten years. Although PV production has remained steady, net energy performance has varied each year. The home was a net producer of energy annually in each of the first three years and in the ninth year, but not in years four through eight. Over the years, the PV system provided between 124% and 64% of the home source energy use. Electricity use in the home increased steadily during the first eight years, even though no significant new appliance was introduced into the house, such as a window air conditioner. Miscellaneous electric loads and space heating, both strongly dependent on occupant behavior, appear to be primarily responsible for the observed increase in energy use. An interesting aspect of this case study is how, even within a single family, natural changes in occupant lifestyles over time (e.g., kids growing up, schedules changing) can substantially impact the overall energy intensity of a home. Data from the last ten years will be explored for lessons learned that can improve the way we design low-load homes without sacrificing comfort or convenience for the occupants, and how we can make realistic predictions of long-term energy performance.

  12. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugassa Sisay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. Results An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.40-0.53, p Conclusion A square of four e-nets with yellow sticky boards as a collection device can be used for quantifying the numbers of mosquitoes approaching a small oviposition site. Shiny sticky surfaces attract gravid females possibly because they are visually mistaken as aquatic habitats. These materials might be developed further as gravid traps

  13. A novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor as a potential net energy producer for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shi, Bing-Jing; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One possible way to address both water and energy shortage issues, the two of major global challenges, is to recover energy and water resource from wastewater. Herein, a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed to recover energy from wastewater and meantime harvest clean water for reuse. With the help of the microorganisms in the biocatalysis and biodegradation process, net electricity could be recovered from a low-strength synthetic wastewater after estimating total energy consumption of this system. In addition, high-quality clean water was obtained for reuse. The results clearly demonstrate that, under the optimized operating conditions, it is possible to recover net energy from wastewater, while at the same time to harvest high-quality effluent for reuse with this novel wastewater treatment system.

  14. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugassa, Sisay; Lindh, Jenny M; Torr, Steve J; Oyieke, Florence; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2012-11-14

    Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.53, p electric nets and the transparent and shiny black surfaces were found highly attractive (OR 41.6, 95% CI 19.8 - 87.3, p < 0.001 and OR 28.8, 95% CI 14.5 - 56.8, p < 0.001, respectively) for gravid mosquitoes to land on compared to a yellow sticky film board and therefore unsuitable as collection device under the e-nets. With a square of four e-nets around a pond combined with yellow sticky boards on

  15. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  16. Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from Sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from Sunlight (PHV) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all aspects of photovoltaic amorphous technology, polycrystalline thin films, gallium arsenide, crystalline silicon, concentrator technology, and systems research. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  17. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  18. Heat Mismatch of future Net Zero Energy Buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    . NZEBs are characterized by having a greatly reduced energy demand that on an annual basis can be balanced out by an equivalent generation of energy from RES. Most buildings in Denmark are connected electricity grids and around half to district heating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy...... instead of wasting the energy. The objective in this paper is find how large an area of NZEBs is to be built within DH areas and how the heat mismatch of NZEBs influence different types of Danish DH systems. In the analyses nine different scenarios are analyzed. The examination is from a technical......The long-term goal for Denmark is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources (RES) in 2050. To reach this goal energy savings in buildings are essential. Therefore, a focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) have increased...

  19. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  20. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  1. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

    2011-09-01

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  2. vNet Zero Energy for Radio Base Stations- Balearic Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabater, Pere; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Pol, Andreu Moia

    2016-01-01

    The Balearic Islands have one of the best telecommunications infrastructures in Spain, with more than 1500 Radio Base Stations (RBS) covering a total surface of 4.991,66 km². This archipelago has high energy consumption, with high CO2 emissions, due to an electrical energy production system mainly...... based on coal and fossil fuels which is not an environmentally sustainable scenario. The aim of this study is to identify the processes that would reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, designing a target scenario featuring "zero CO2 emissions" and "100% renewable energies" in RBS....... The energy costs, CO2 emissions and data traffic data used for the study are generated by a sample of RBS from the Balearic Islands. The results are shown in terms of energy performance for a normal and net zero emissions scenarios....

  3. Short Communication: Electrical energy saving through lamps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern Buildings of all types relies heavily on the use of electrical energy. This energy has to be properly utilized in order to avoid many problems both to the electric utilities supply companies and also to the consumer. This paper presents energy saving through replacement process of conventional electric lamps known ...

  4. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  5. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  6. Zero Net Energy Myths and Modes of Thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Diamond, Rick; Burke, Bill

    2010-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), and a number of professional organizations have established a target of zero net energy (ZNE) in buildings by 2030. One definition of ZNE is a building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. The push to ZNE is a response to research indicating that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the eighteenth century, resulting in a gradual warming of the Earth?s climate. A review of ZNE policies reveals that the organizations involved frame the ZNE issue in diverse ways, resulting in a wide variety of myths and a divergent set of epistemologies. With federal and state money poised to promote ZNE, it is timely to investigate how epistemologies, meaning a belief system by which we take facts and convert them into knowledge upon which to take action, and the propagation of myths might affect the outcome of a ZNE program. This paper outlines myths commonly discussed in the energy efficiency and renewable energy communities related to ZNE and describes how each myth is a different way of expressing"the truth." The paper continues by reviewing a number of epistemologies common to energy planning, and concludes that the organizations involved in ZNE should work together to create a"collaborative rationality" for ZNE. Through this collaborative framework it is argued that we may be able to achieve the ZNE and greenhouse gas mitigation targets.

  7. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Net-Zero Energy Building Operator Training Program (NZEBOT) was to develop certificate level training programs for commercial building owners, managers and operators, principally in the areas of energy / sustainability management. The expected outcome of the project was a multi-faceted mechanism for developing the skill-based competency of building operators, owners, architects/engineers, construction professionals, tenants, brokers and other interested groups in energy efficient building technologies and best practices. The training program draws heavily on DOE supported and developed materials available in the existing literature, as well as existing, modified, and newly developed curricula from the Department of Engineering Technology & Construction Management (ETCM) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC-Charlotte). The project goal is to develop a certificate level training curriculum for commercial energy and sustainability managers and building operators that: 1) Increases the skill-based competency of building professionals in energy efficient building technologies and best practices, and 2) Increases the workforce pool of expertise in energy management and conservation techniques. The curriculum developed in this project can subsequently be used to establish a sustainable energy training program that can contribute to the creation of new “green” job opportunities in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast region, and workforce training that leads to overall reductions in commercial building energy consumption. Three energy training / education programs were developed to achieve the stated goal, namely: 1. Building Energy/Sustainability Management (BESM) Certificate Program for Building Managers and Operators (40 hours); 2. Energy Efficient Building Technologies (EEBT) Certificate Program (16 hours); and 3. Energy Efficent Buildings (EEB) Seminar (4 hours). Training Program 1 incorporates the following

  8. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...

  9. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy flow to sustain the world's economy and population. We show that a feasible transition pathway requires that the rate of investment in renewable energy should accelerate approximately by an order of magnitude if we are to stay within the range of IPCC recommendations.

  10. The Sower's way. Quantifying the Narrowing Net-Energy Pathways to a Global Energy Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes

    2016-01-01

    Planning the appropriate renewable energy installation rate should balance two partially contradictory objectives: substituting fossil fuels fast enough to stave-off the worst consequences of climate change while maintaining a sufficient net energy flow to support the world's economy. The upfront energy invested in constructing a renewable energy infrastructure subtracts from the net energy available for societal energy needs, a fact typically neglected in energy projections. Modeling feasible energy transition pathways to provide different net energy levels we find that they are critically dependent on the fossil fuel emissions cap and phase-out profile and on the characteristic energy return on energy invested of the renewable energy technologies. The easiest pathway requires installation of renewable energy plants to accelerate from 0.12TWp/year in 2013 to peak between 6.6 and 10.4 TWp/year, for an early or a late fossil-fuel phase-out respectively in order for emissions to stay within the recommended CO2 ...

  11. Preliminary Design of a Solar Photovoltaic Array for Net-Zero Energy Buildings at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate photovoltaic (solar electric systems) systems for a single building at NASA Langley as a representative case for alternative sustainable power generation. Building 1250 in the Science Directorate is comprised of office and laboratory space, and currently uses approximately 250,000 kW/month of electrical power with a projected use of 200,000 kW/month with additional conservation measures. The installation would be applied towards a goal for having Building 1250 classified as a net-zero energy building as it would produce as much energy as it uses over the course of a year. Based on the facility s electrical demand, a photovoltaic system and associated hardware were characterized to determine the optimal system, and understand the possible impacts from its deployment. The findings of this investigation reveal that the 1.9 MW photovoltaic electrical system provides favorable and robust results. The solar electric system should supply the needed sustainable power solution especially if operation and maintenance of the system will be considered a significant component of the system deployment.

  12. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  13. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  15. Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC is a multi-institutional research center, one of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers established by the...

  16. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  17. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  18. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system......The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...

  19. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  20. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivkov, Venelin; Draganov, Vutko; Stoyanova, Yana

    2015-03-01

    The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC) and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES), as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery) and secondary (KES) sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  1. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  2. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects for a new concept of biomass based quad-generation plant producing power, heat......, methanol and methane. Circulating fluidized bed gasifier and the gas technology institute (GTI) gasifier technologies are used for this quad-generation process. Two different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.......3 and 7.2. The lowest limit corresponds to the wood chips-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim...

  3. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  4. Predicting Energy Performance of a Net-Zero Energy Building: A Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua; Webb, David

    2016-01-01

    Performance-based building requirements have become more prevalent because it gives freedom in building design while still maintaining or exceeding the energy performance required by prescriptive-based requirements. In order to determine if building designs reach target energy efficiency improvements, it is necessary to estimate the energy performance of a building using predictive models and different weather conditions. Physics-based whole building energy simulation modeling is the most common approach. However, these physics-based models include underlying assumptions and require significant amounts of information in order to specify the input parameter values. An alternative approach to test the performance of a building is to develop a statistically derived predictive regression model using post-occupancy data that can accurately predict energy consumption and production based on a few common weather-based factors, thus requiring less information than simulation models. A regression model based on measured data should be able to predict energy performance of a building for a given day as long as the weather conditions are similar to those during the data collection time frame. This article uses data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) to develop and validate a regression model to predict the energy performance of the NZERTF using two weather variables aggregated to the daily level, applies the model to estimate the energy performance of hypothetical NZERTFs located in different cities in the Mixed-Humid climate zone, and compares these estimates to the results from already existing EnergyPlus whole building energy simulations. This regression model exhibits agreement with EnergyPlus predictive trends in energy production and net consumption, but differs greatly in energy consumption. The model can be used as a framework for alternative and more complex models based on the

  5. Net energy output from harvesting small-diameter trees using a mechanized system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    What amount of extra energy can be generated after subtracting the total energy consumed to produce the biomass energy? Knowing the ratio between energy output and input is a valid question when highly mechanized systems that consume fossil fuels are used to harvest and transport forest biomass for energy. We estimated the net energy generated from mechanical fuel...

  6. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  7. Economic assessment of electric energy storage for load shifting in positive energy building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Georges, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the building...... period. It is shown that the battery size leading to the minimum payback period within the input range is comprised between 2.6 and 4.5 kWh. The lowest payback periods, (~7 years), are reached with a well-insulated building envelope, a high lightning and appliance consumption, a low feed-in tariff...

  8. Improving the Quality of Electric Energy to Electric Arc Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Ioan Toma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of power quality problems created by an electric arc furnace (EAF with eccentric bottom tap (EBT at power system. The analysis have been done to EAF of 100 t capacity used for steel melting. Experimental results show this EAF is substantial source of electric disturbances, such as voltage fluctuations, flicker, harmonics, and unbalance between phases. Improvement of the quality of electric energy at EAF imposes a careful technical and economical analysis. Of all possible solutions for improvement of the power quality for an EAF (passive filter, STATCOM or SVC, SVC is the ideal solution.

  9. Nearly Net-Zero Exergy Districts as Models for Smart Energy Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2017-01-01

    ... Östra Sala backe, which will have a new energy concept. The latter is analysed based on proposals for two phases that aim to reach a net-zero district target based on the quality of energy (exergy...

  10. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  11. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  12. Energy efficiency and sustainability: evaluation of electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tricomponent Model of Attitude), this work presents the results of a systematic survey and analysis of electricity consumer's attitudes, behaviours and practices towards energy use and sustainability. Using the random sampling method, the ...

  13. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  14. Energy Intensity of the Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dziubiński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous energy intensity is a dependency between continuous energy intensity and energy intensity of movement. In the paper it is proposed analyze energy intensity of the movement, as the size specifying the power demand to the wheel drive and presented the balance of power of an electric car moving in the urban cycle. The object of the test was the hybrid vehicle with an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The measurements were carried out for 4 speeds and 2 driving profiles.

  15. Storing wind energy into electrical accumulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordescu, M.; Petrescu, D. I.; Erdodi, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Shall be determined, in this work, the energy stored in the accumulators electrical, AE, at a wind system operating at wind speeds time-varying. mechanical energy caught in the turbine from the wind, (TV), is transformed into electrical energy by the generator synchronous with the permanent magnets, GSMP. The Generator synchronous with the permanent magnets saws, via a rectifier, energy in a battery AE, finished in a choice of two: variant 1-unregulated rectifier and variant of the 2-controlled rectifier and task adapted. Through simulation determine the differences between the two versions

  16. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Westby, R.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes the strategic importance of energy to its mission, and is working to reduce energy consumption and enhance energy self-sufficiency by drawing on local clean energy sources. A joint initiative formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to address military energy use led to a task force to examine the potential for net zero energy military installations, which would produce as much energy on site as they consume in buildings, facilities, and fleet vehicles. This report presents an assessment and planning process to examine military installations for net zero energy potential. Net Zero Energy Installation Assessment (NZEIA) presents a systematic framework to analyze energy projects at installations while balancing other site priorities such as mission, cost, and security.

  17. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

  18. Electric vehicles powered by space solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nansen, R. [Solar Space Industries, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    California recently adopted a zero emissions vehicle legislation, requiring that a certain percentage of each major automaker`s sales in California be zero emissions vehicles. Electric vehicles are the only technological alternative for automakers to meet the zero tailpipe emissions standard. The required percentage is set at two per cent for 1998, rising to 10 per cent by 2003. If the batteries of these vehicles were to be charged by power generated in plants that produce atmospheric emissions, the pollution equation would not change in any significant way. Clearly, a new way of generating electricity must be designed. This paper describes how solar power satellites (SPS) could be used to provide nonpolluting electricity in the future to power zero emissions electric vehicles and to satisfy the growing world demand for energy. The concept of the SPS energy system is to place giant satellites covered with vast arrays of solar cells in geosynchronous orbit, where they would be in sunlight more than 99 per cent of the time. The solar cells would convert sunlight to electricity. The electricity would then be changed to radio-frequency energy by a transmitting antenna on the satellite. This would be beamed to a receiver site on Earth where it would be reconverted to electricity. The power would then be routed into the normal electric distribution networks for use on Earth. 2 figs.

  19. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities...

  20. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an NREL assessment of Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to appraise the potential of achieving net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Pacific Command partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency at Hawaii military installations. DOE selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. This paper summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. The analysis shows that MCBH Kaneohe Bay has the potential to make significant progress toward becoming a net zero installation. Wind, solar photovoltaics, solar hot water, and hydrogen production were assessed, as well as energy efficiency technologies. Deploying wind turbines is the most cost-effective energy production measure. If the identified energy projects and savings measures are implemented, the base will achieve a 96% site Btu reduction and a 99% source Btu reduction. Using excess wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen for a fleet and fuel cells could significantly reduce energy use and potentially bring MCBH Kaneohe Bay to net zero. Further analysis with an environmental impact and interconnection study will need to be completed. By achieving net zero status, the base will set an example for other military installations, provide environmental benefits, reduce costs, increase energy security, and exceed its energy goals and mandates.

  1. Strategic Sustainable Electric Power Energy for Ethiopia:- Electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mengesha

    MSc program covering high-voltage engineering, transmission and distribution systems, renewable energy technologies and power electronics and derives. The first batches of electrical power engineering masters students, from EEPCo are working on their. MSc thesis proposal at present. The followings are the main areas ...

  2. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  3. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  4. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  5. Net energy payback and CO2 emissions from three midwestern wind farms: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO2 analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO2 analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data. A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data. The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO2 emissions, in tonnes of CO2 per GW eh, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  6. Federal Campuses Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined a zero energy campus as "an energy-efficient campus where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This handbook is focused on applying the EERE definition of zero energy campuses to federal sector campuses. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  7. Energy and momentum analysis of the deployment dynamics of nets in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Eleonora M.; Sharf, Inna; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the deployment dynamics of nets in space is investigated through a combination of analysis and numerical simulations. The considered net is deployed by ejecting several corner masses and thanks to momentum and energy transfer from those to the innermost threads of the net. In this study, the net is modeled with a lumped-parameter approach, and assumed to be symmetrical, subject to symmetrical initial conditions, and initially slack. The work-energy and momentum conservation principles are employed to carry out centroidal analysis of the net, by conceptually partitioning the net into a system of corner masses and the net proper and applying the aforementioned principles to the corresponding centers of mass. The analysis provides bounds on the values that the velocity of the center of mass of the corner masses and the velocity of the center of mass of the net proper can individually attain, as well as relationships between these and different energy contributions. The analytical results allow to identify key parameters characterizing the deployment dynamics of nets in space, which include the ratio between the mass of the corner masses and the total mass, the initial linear momentum, and the direction of the initial velocity vectors. Numerical tools are employed to validate and interpret further the analytical observations. Comparison of deployment results with and without initial velocity of the net proper suggests that more complete and lasting deployment can be achieved if the corner masses alone are ejected. A sensitivity study is performed for the key parameters identified from the energy/momentum analysis, and the outcome establishes that more lasting deployment and safer capture (i.e., characterized by higher traveled distance) can be achieved by employing reasonably lightweight corner masses, moderate shooting angles, and low shooting velocities. A comparison with current literature on tether-nets for space debris capture confirms overall

  8. Alternative energy futures: the case for electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, U

    1982-08-20

    The energy trends of the past and their likely evolution in the next 50 years have been analyzed in the light of technological progress. It is concluded that society will tend to become less centralized than in the past and that it is possible to have future per capita values of energy consumption at the world level similar to those at present, with a substantial redistribution to allow for economic growth of the less developed countries. A condition for this is increasing penetration of electricity. The rationale for the suggested scenario is described, and prospects for electricity for both the industrialized and developing countries are discussed.

  9. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  10. Beam Energy and System Size Dependence of Dynamical Net Charge Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2008-07-21

    We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu + Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4, 200 GeV, and p + p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub {+-},dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are non-zero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling, but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

  11. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the

  12. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap.

  13. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  14. The effects of substitution of incandescent light bulbs over the energy net; Os efeitos da substituicao de lampadas incandescentes sobre a rede eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Juergen [A-Eberle GmbH (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Fluorescent compact lamps and LED light require reactors to work. Analyzing the consumed power by these lamps, complex effects with no positive consequences over the electric energy net is observed. In the context of the harmonics, should be considered mainly the reactive power of distortion. The article clarifies the related concepts and presents practical examples.

  15. 76 FR 69713 - Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... term. The electric energy that BP Energy proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased... Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e...

  16. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  17. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... electric energy that Rainbow proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from electric... on the Rainbow application to export electric energy to Mexico should be clearly marked with Docket... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity...

  18. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  19. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Hawaiian Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-23

    NREL and the Hawaiian Electric Companies are collaborating with the solar and inverter industries to implement advanced inverters, allowing greater solar photovoltaic (PV) penetrations that will support the State of Hawaii's goal to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2045. Advanced inverters will help maintain stable grid operations by riding through grid disturbances when the PV output is needed, operating autonomously to smooth voltage fluctuations, and coordinating the start-up and reconnection of PV systems and other distributed energy resources.

  20. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  1. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

  2. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Multi-Storey Residential Net Zero Energy Building in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    renewable energy technologies? This analysis adopts the LCC methodology and uses a multi-family Net ZEB to find the answer to this question. Moreover, it looks at the issue from the building owner’s perspective, hence it should be seen as a private economy analysis. The study includes three levels of energy......It is well recognized that in the long run, the implementation of energy efficiency measures is a more cost-optimal solution in contrast to taking no action. However, the Net ZEB concept raises a new issue: how far should we go with energy efficiency measures and when should we start to apply...

  3. 77 FR 50486 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... the electric energy that TexMex proposes to export to Mexico will be surplus energy purchased from... date listed above. Comments on the TexMex application to export electric energy to Mexico should be... Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy...

  4. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... applicant have a franchised service area. The electric energy that Shell Energy proposes to export to Mexico... Shell Energy application to export electric energy to ] Mexico should be clearly marked with OE Docket... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity...

  5. 76 FR 20968 - Application To Export Electric Energy; DC Energy Texas, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... energy that DCE Texas proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from electric... listed above. Comments on the DCE Texas application to export electric energy to Mexico should be clearly... Application To Export Electric Energy; DC Energy Texas, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy...

  6. Army Net Zero: Energy Roadmap and Program Summary, Fiscal Year 2013 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Army (Army) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through improved energy efficiency and optimized renewable energy strategies at nine installations across the Army's portfolio. Referred to as Net Zero Energy Installations (NZEIs), these projects demonstrate and validate energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies with approaches that can be replicated across DOD and other Federal agencies, setting the stage for broad market adoption. This report summarizes the results of the energy project roadmaps developed by NREL, shows the progress each installation could make in achieving Net Zero Energy by 2020, and presents lessons learned and unique challenges from each installation.

  7. Working Towards Net Zero Energy at Fort Irwin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    be used as fertilizer). Biogas can be used by a combustion engine to produce electricity and usable heat. The available green refuse (300 t/yr) is...racks Bldg 264 were multiplied five times to represent the five barracks buildings. Those amounts were then added to the results for the dining fa...due to the small amount of the waste stream that is fermentable. Waste pyrolysis and combustion of solid waste, however, did appear to be feasible. A

  8. EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-02-01

    CARB is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community scale project consists of 40 housing units --15 apartments and 25 single family residences. The community is pursuing certifications for DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold, and ENERGY STAR for the entire project. Additionally, seven of the 25 homes, along with the four-story apartment building and community center, are being constructed to the Passive House (PH) design standard.

  9. [Net energy analysis for annual 200 000 ton cassava ethanol production at Guangxi COFCO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Guojun; Sun, Zhenjiang; Shen, Naidong

    2015-02-01

    Guangxi COFCO innovates its annual 200 000 ton cassava ethanol production in recent years. To evaluate the energy input/output of the production process, we used the domestic life cycle model. The calculation results show that the net energy value was 9.56 MJ/L ethanol. Energy input for ethanol production was 51.3% of the total. 61.5% of energy input for ethanol production was used for steam input in ethanol distillation. Energy produced from by-product was 5.03 MJ/L ethanol. Hence, efficient use of raw materials is an important measure to improve the energy efficiency in Guangxi COFCO and energy compensation from byproducts has key impact on the net energy saving.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  11. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3 / Wednesday, January 5, 2011... Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  12. Comparing Apples to Apples: Why the Net Energy Analysis Community Needs to Adopt the Life-Cycle Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we know which energy technologies or resources are worth pursuing and which aren’t? One way to answer that question is to compare the energy return of a certain technology—i.e., how much energy is remaining after accounting for the amount of energy expended in the production and delivery process. Such energy return ratios (the most famous of which is energy return on investment (EROI fall within the field of net energy analysis (NEA, and provide an easy way to determine which technology is “better”; i.e., higher Energy Return Ratios (ERRs are, certeris paribus, better than lower ERRs. Although useful as a broad measure of energy profitability, comparisons can also be misleading, particularly if the units being compared are different. For example, the energy content of electricity produced from a photovoltaic cell is different than the energy content of coal at the mine-mouth, yet these are often compared directly within the literature. These types of inconsistencies are common within the NEA literature. In this paper, we offer life cycle assessment (LCA and the LCA methodology as a possible solution to the persistent methodological issues within the NEA community, and urge all NEA practitioners to adopt this methodology in the future.

  13. Analyzing sectoral niche formation: The case of net-zero energy buildings in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Mansi; Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Large scale development of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) is seen as a potential solution to deal with future energy challenges in the building sector. This article aims to assess the current status of NZEB development in India by using an integrated framework named Sectoral System Innovation

  14. Evaluation of Model Results and Measured Performance of Net-Zero Energy Homes in Hawaii: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, P.; Kiatreungwattana, K.; Kelly, K. J.

    2013-03-01

    The Kaupuni community consists of 19 affordable net-zero energy homes that were built within the Waianae Valley of Oahu, Hawaii in 2011. The project was developed for the native Hawaiian community led by the Department of Hawaiian Homelands. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled and measured energy performance of the homes. Over the first year of occupancy, the community as a whole performed within 1% of the net-zero energy goals. The data show a range of performance from house to house with the majority of the homes consistently near or exceeding net-zero, while a few fall short of the predicted net-zero energy performance. The impact of building floor plan, weather, and cooling set point on this comparison is discussed. The project demonstrates the value of using building energy simulations as a tool to assist the project to achieve energy performance goals. Lessons learned from the energy performance monitoring has had immediate benefits in providing feedback to the homeowners, and will be used to influence future energy efficient designs in Hawaii and other tropical climates.

  15. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  16. Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Rick Allen [Tijeras, NM; Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-03-03

    Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.

  17. 76 FR 30325 - Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... electric energy that E-T Global proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from...] Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202...

  18. 76 FR 3882 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Intercom Energy, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    .... EA-289 for a five-year term. The electric energy that Intercom proposes to export to Mexico would be... to export electric energy to Mexico should be clearly marked with Docket No. 289-B. Additional copies... Application To Export Electric Energy; Intercom Energy, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy...

  19. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  20. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  1. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bojnec Štefan; Papler Drago

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty an...

  2. How to Define Nearly Net Zero Energy Buildings nZEB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurnitski, Jarek; Allard, Francis; Braham, Derrick

    2011-01-01

    Member States. The directive defines nearly zero energy buildings as a building that has a very high energy performance and requires the calculation of primary energy indicator. The nearly zero of very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable...... sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site nearby. Based on the directive’s definition, nearly zero energy buildings is technically defined through the net zero energy building, which is a building using 0 kWh/(m2a) primary energy. Following the cost-optimality principle......This REHVA Task Force proposes a technical definition for nearly zero energy buildings required in the implementation of the Energy performance of buildings directive recast. Energy calculation framework and system boundaries associated with the definition are provided to specify which energy flows...

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: One Sky Homes — Cottle Zero Net Energy Home, San Jose, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder took home the Grand Winner prize in the Custom Builder category in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards for its high performance building science approach. The builder used insulated concrete form blocks to create the insulated crawlspace foundation for its first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, the first net zero energy new home certified in the state of California.

  4. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP... power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  5. Conservation of electrical energy in a petrochemical industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petrochemical industry can achieve system reliability, higher productivity, reduce energy cost, and reduce down time and maintenance costs through proper conservation of electrical power. Key words: Petrochemical industry, Control technologies, Power technologies, Electric motors, Energy efficiency, Power Factor.

  6. Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production; Peltobioenergian tuotanto Suomessa. Potentiaali, energiasuhteet ja nettoenergia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, H.

    2012-11-01

    Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production were studied in this thesis. Special attention was paid to indirect energy inputs and how to treat them in energy analysis. Manufacturing of machines and agrochemicals and production of seeds are examples of indirect energy inputs.The bioenergy potential of the Finnish field crop production could be as large as 12 - 22 TWh, or 3 - 5% of the total energy consumption in Finland in 2008. The major part of this energy would originate from straw and biomass like reed canary grass cultivated for energy use. However, only 0.5 TWh of the potential is utilized. The output/input energy ratios of the studied field crops varied from 3 to 18, being highest (18) for reed canary grass and second highest (7) for sugar beet and grass cultivated for silage. The energy ratio of cereals and oil seed crops varied from 3 to 5 if only the yield of seeds was considered. If the yield of straw and stems was also taken into account the energy ratios would have been almost twofold. The energy ratios for Finnish wheat and barley were as high as those gained in Italian and Spanish conditions, respectively. However, the energy ratios of maize, elephant grass and giant reed were even over 50 in Central and Southern Europe. Plants that use the C4 photosynthesis pathway and produce high biomass yields thrive best in warm and sunny climate conditions. They use nitrogen and water more sparingly than C3 plants typically thriving in the cooler part of the temperate zone. When evaluating energy ratios for field crops it should be kept in mind that the maximal energy potential of the energy crop is the heating value of the dry matter at the field gate. Transportation of the crop and production of liquid fuels and electricity from biomass lowers the energy ratio. A comparison of field energy crops to a reforested field suggested that fast growing trees, as hybrid aspen and silver birch, would yield almost as

  7. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  8. Demonstration of the Energy Component of the Installation Master Plan Using the Net Zero Energy Planner Tool: Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    fossil fuel based energy to achieve a net zero fossil fuel energy status. Energy goals are achieved through synergy among energy use reduction in... fossil fuel based energy to achieve a net zero fossil fuel energy status. Energy goals will be achieved through synergy among energy use reduction in... fossil fuel use in new and renovated facilities by 2030 and to reduce overall facility energy usage by 30% by 2015 (EISA 2007).

  9. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  10. Net energy production associated with pathogen inactivation during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Christopher; Peccia, Jordan

    2011-10-15

    The potential for anaerobic digester energy production must be balanced with the sustainability of reusing the resultant biosolids for land application. Mesophilic, thermophilic, temperature-phased, and high temperature (60 or 70 °C) batch pre-treatment digester configurations have been systematically evaluated for net energy production and pathogen inactivation potential. Energy input requirements and net energy production were modeled for each digester scheme. First-order inactivation rate coefficients for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and bacteriophage MS-2 were measured at each digester temperature and full-scale pathogen inactivation performance was estimated for each indicator organism and each digester configuration. Inactivation rates were found to increase dramatically at temperatures above 55 °C. Modeling full-scale performance using retention times based on U.S. EPA time and temperature constraints predicts a 1-2 log inactivation in mesophilic treatment, and a 2-5 log inactivation in 50-55 °C thermophilic and temperature-phased treatments. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C batch pre-treatment phase resulted in dramatically higher potency, achieving MS-2 inactivation of 14 and 16 logs respectively, and complete inactivation (over 100 log reduction) of E. coli and E. faecalis. For temperatures less than 70 °C, viability staining of thermally-treated E. coli showed significantly reduced inactivation relative to standard culture enumeration. Due to shorter residence times in thermophilic reactors, the net energy production for all digesters was similar (less than 20% difference) with the 60 or 70 °C batch treatment configurations producing the most net energy and the mesophilic treatment producing the least. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C pre-treatment phase can dramatically increase pathogen inactivation performance without decreasing net energy capture from anaerobic digestion. Energy consumption is not a significant barrier against

  11. Electrical Energy Harvesting from Thermal Energy with Converged Infrared Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S. Y.; Kok, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) cell is a common energy harvester that had been used to harvest solar energy and convert it into electrical energy. However, the vast energy from the spectrum of sunlight is not fully harvested. Therefore, thermoelectric (TE) module that harvest electrical energy from heat is being proposed in this paper. Generally, the part of the sunlight spectrum that induce heat is in the spectrum band of infrared (IR). For the experimental set-up in this paper, infrared (IR) light bulb was being used to simulate the IR spectrum band of the sunlight. In order to maximize the heat energy collection, a convex lens was being used to converge the IR light and therefore focused the heat on an aluminium sheet and heat sink which was placed on top of the hot side of the TE module. The distance between convex lens and IR light bulb is varying in between 10cm and 55cm and the reading was taken at an interval of 5cm. Firstly, the temperature of the IR light and converged IR light were recorded and plotted in graph. The graph showed that the temperature of the converged IR light bulb is higher than the IR light bulb. Lastly, the voltage and power output of the TE module with different heat source was compared. The output voltage and power of the TE module increased inverse proportional to the distance between IR light bulb and TE module.

  12. Evaluation of the influence of electric nets on the behaviour of oviposition site seeking Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugassa, Sisay; Lindh, Jenny M; Torr, Steve J; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2014-06-19

    Electric nets (e-nets) are used to analyse the flight behaviour of insects and have been used extensively to study the host-oriented flight of tsetse flies. Recently we adapted this tool to analyse the oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., orienting towards aquatic habitats and traps by surrounding an artificial pond with e-nets and collecting electrocuted mosquitoes on sticky boards on the ground next to the nets. Here we study whether e-nets themselves affect the responses of gravid An. gambiae s.s.. Dual-choice experiments were carried out in 80 m2 screened semi-field systems where 200 gravid An. gambiae s.s. were released each night for 12 nights per experiment. The numbers of mosquito landing on or approaching an oviposition site were studied by adding detergent to the water in an artificial pond or surrounding the pond with a square of e-nets. We also assessed whether the supporting framework of the nets or the sticky boards used to retain electrocuted mosquitoes influenced the catch. Two similar detergent treated ponds presented in choice tests caught an equal proportion of the mosquitoes released, whereas a pond surrounded by e-nets caught a higher proportion than an open pond (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 - 2.7; pelectric nets and the yellow boards on the approach of gravid females towards a pond suggests that the tower-like construction of the square of electric nets did not restrict the approach of females but the yellow sticky boards on the ground attract gravid females to a source of water (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.7 - 4.3; pelectric nets is increased when large yellow sticky boards are placed on the ground next to the e-nets to collect electrocuted mosquitoes, possibly because of increased visual contrast to the aquatic habitat. It is therefore important when comparing two treatments that the same trapping device is used in both. The importance of contrast around artificial habitats might be exploited

  13. 76 FR 50476 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... franchised service area. The electric energy that Glacial proposes to export to Mexico would be ] surplus... Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (Glacial) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant...

  14. 77 FR 1474 - Application To Export Electric Energy; AEP Energy Partners, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... electric energy that AEPEP proposes to export to Mexico will be purchased on the wholesale market in... Application To Export Electric Energy; AEP Energy Partners, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to...

  15. Assessment of cleaner electricity generation technologies for net CO{sub 2} mitigation in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmeechokchai, B.; Suksuntornsiri, P. [Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2007-02-15

    The choice of electricity generation technologies not only directly affects the amount of CO{sub 2} emission from the power sector, but also indirectly affects the economy-wide CO{sub 2} emission. It is because electricity is the basic requirement of economic sectors and final consumption within the economy. In Thailand, although the power development plan (PDP) has been planned for the committed capacity to meet the future electricity demand, there are some undecided electricity generation technologies that will be studied for technological options. The economy-wide CO{sub 2} mitigations between selecting cleaner power generation options instead of pulverized coal-thermal technology of the undecided capacity are assessed by energy input-output analysis (IOA). The decomposition of IOA presents the fuel-mix effect, input structural effect, and final demand effect by the change in technology of the undecided capacity. The cleaner technologies include biomass power generation, hydroelectricity and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Results of the analyses show that if the conventional pulverized coal technology is selected in the undecided capacity, the economy-wide CO{sub 2} emission would be increased from 223 million ton in 2006 to 406 million ton in 2016. Renewable technology presents better mitigation option for replacement of conventional pulverized coal technology than the cleaner coal technology. The major contributor of CO{sub 2} mitigation in cleaner coal technology is the fuel mix effect due to higher conversion efficiency.

  16. The sower’s way: quantifying the narrowing net-energy pathways to a global energy transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes; Bardi, Ugo

    2016-09-01

    Planning the appropriate renewable energy (RE) installation rate should balance two partially contradictory objectives: substituting fossil fuels fast enough to stave-off the worst consequences of climate change while maintaining a sufficient net energy flow to support the world’s economy. The upfront energy invested in constructing a RE infrastructure subtracts from the net energy available for societal energy needs, a fact typically neglected in energy projections. Modeling feasible energy transition pathways to provide different net energy levels we find that they are critically dependent on the fossil fuel emissions cap and phase-out profile and on the characteristic energy return on energy invested of the RE technologies. The easiest pathway requires installation of RE plants to accelerate from 0.12 TWp yr-1 in 2013 to peak between 7.3 and 11.6 TWp yr-1 in the late 2030s, for an early or a late fossil-fuel phase-out respectively in order for emissions to stay within the recommended CO2 budget.

  17. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  18. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in the July 2009 final rule, but opted to... for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 87... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office...

  19. Energy flow for electric power system deregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hung

    Over the past few years, the electric power utility industry in North America and other countries has experienced a strong drive towards deregulation. People have considered the necessity of deregulation of electric utilities for higher energy efficiency and energy saving. The vertically integrated monopolistic industry is being transferred into a horizontally integrated competitive structure in some countries. Wheeling charges are a current high priority problem throughout the power industry, for independent power producers, as well as regulators. Nevertheless the present transmission pricing mechanism fails to be adjusted by a customer loading condition. Customer loading is dynamic, but the present wheeling charge method is fixed, not real-time. A real-time wheeling charge method is developed in this dissertation. This dissertation introduces a concept of a power flow network which can be used for the calculation of power contribution factors in a network. The contribution factor is defined as the ratio of the power contributed by a particular source to a line flow or bus load to the total output of the source. Generation, transmission, and distribution companies can employ contribution factors for the calculation of energy cost, wheeling charges, and loss compensation. Based on the concept of contribution factors, a proposed loss allocation method is developed in this dissertation. Besides, counterflow condition will be given a credit in the proposed loss allocation method. A simple 22-bus example was used for evaluating the contribution factors, proposed wheeling charge method, and loss allocation method.

  20. Electric energy consumption in the cotton textile processing stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palamutcu, S. [Textile Engineering Department, Pamukkale University, Engineering Faculty, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Electric energy is one of the primary energy sources consumpted in cotton textile processing. Current energy cost rate is reported about 8-10% in the total production cost of an ordinary textile product manufactured in Turkey. Significantly important share of this energy cost is electric energy. The aim of this paper was to investigate unit electric energy consumption of cotton textile processing stages using real-time measurements method. Actual and estimated Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) values for electric energy was calculated in the cotton textile processing stages of spinning, warping-sizing, weaving, wet processing and clothing manufacturing. Actual electric energy consumption data are gathered from monthly records of the involved plant managements. Estimated electric energy consumption data is gathered through on-site measurement. Actual and estimated electric energy consumption data and monthly production quantities of the corresponding months are used to facilitate specific electric energy consumption of the plants. It is found that actual electric energy consumption amount per unit textile product is higher than the estimated electric energy consumption amount per unit textile product of each involved textile processing stages. (author)

  1. Net-energy analysis of integrated food and bioenergy systems exemplified by a model of a self-sufficinet system of dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from...... the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system...

  2. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on August... Municipal Energy Agency (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Sunflower Electric Power Corporation...

  3. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...

  4. An Integrated Model to Compare Net Electricity Generation for Carbon Dioxide- and Water-Based Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vikas

    Utilization of supercritical CO2 as a geothermal fluid instead of water has been proposed by Brown in 2000 and its advantages have been discussed by him and other researchers such as Karsten Pruess and Fouillac. This work assesses the net electricity that could be generated by using supercritical CO2 as a geothermal working fluid and compares it with water under the same temperature and pressure reservoir conditions. This procedure provides a method of direct comparison of water and CO2 as geothermal working fluids, in terms of net electricity generation over time given a constant geothermal fluid flow rate. An integrated three-part model has been developed to determine net electricity generation for CO2- and water-based geothermal reservoirs. This model consists of a wellbore model, reservoir simulation, and surface plant simulation. To determine the bottomhole pressure and temperature of the geothermal fluid (either water or CO2) in the injection well, a wellbore model was developed using fluid-phase, thermodynamic equations of state, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer models. A computer program was developed that solves for the temperature and pressure of the working fluid (either water or CO 2) down the wellbore by simultaneously solving for the fluid thermophysical properties, heat transfer, and frictional losses. For the reservoir simulation, TOUGH2, a general purpose numerical simulator has been used to model the temperature and pressure characteristics of the working fluid in the reservoir. The EOS1 module of TOUGH2 has been used for the water system and the EOS2 module of the TOUGH2 code has been employed for the CO2 case. The surface plant is simulated using CHEMCAD, a chemical process simulator, to determine the net electricity generated. A binary organic (iso-pentane) Rankine cycle is simulated. The calculated net electricity generated for the optimized water and CO2 systems are compared over the working time of the reservoir. Based on the theoretical

  5. Analysis of energy and water management in terms of fuel-cell electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, R.; Höhlein, B.

    Hydrogen-powered low-temperature fuel cells (PEFCs) are the energy conversion units in vehicles with methanol as the energy carrier and a power train consisting of the following main units: methanol reformer (H2 production) including catalytic converter, gas treatment, PEFC with peripheral units, electric motor with electric controllers and gearbox. The process engineering analysis is based on a simulation model and describes the energy and water management as a function of different assumptions as well as operating and ambient conditions for net electricity generation in a PEFC-powered power train. In particular, it presents an approach for balancing both water recovery (PEFC) and the use of water for the methanol reforming process as well as for the humidification of the PEFC. The overall balances present an optimised energy management including peripheral air compression for the PEFC.

  6. Preliminary survey on electric energy efficiency in Ethiopia:- Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the significance of electric energy efficiency improvement and major areas of loss in Ethiopia's electric power system are highlighted for further rigorous study. Major electric energy loss areas in the utility transmission and distribution systems and consumer premises are indicated. In the consumer area the loss ...

  7. Energy Consumption Performance Analysis of Electrical Mitad at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ABSTRACT. The Injera baking electrical mitad is the most energy-consuming device in every household in. Ethiopia. This research presents a detail engineering study on the energy-consumption performance of existing electrical mitad in Mekelle city. The research work considered thirty-one electrical mitad from different ...

  8. Energy consumption performance analysis of electrical mitad at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Injera baking electrical mitad is the most energy-consuming device in every household in Ethiopia. This research presents a detail engineering study on the energy-consumption performance of existing electrical mitad in Mekelle city. The research work considered thirty-one electrical mitad from different workshops in ...

  9. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-08-01

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application.

  10. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis-based global net surface energy flux and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    The net surface energy flux is central to the climate system yet observational limitations lead to substantial uncertainty (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2013; Roberts et al., 2016). A combination of satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) adjusted using the latest estimation of the net heat uptake of the Earth system, and the atmospheric energy tendencies and transports from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to estimate surface energy flux globally (Liu et al., 2015). Land surface fluxes are adjusted through a simple energy balance approach using relations at each grid point with the consideration of snowmelt to improve regional realism. The energy adjustment is redistributed over the oceans using a weighting function to avoid meridional discontinuities. Uncertainties in surface fluxes are investigated using a variety of approaches including comparison with a range of atmospheric reanalysis input data and products. Zonal multiannual mean surface flux uncertainty is estimated to be less than 5 Wm-2 but much larger uncertainty is likely for regional monthly values. The meridional energy transport is calculated using the net surface heat fluxes estimated in this study and the result shows better agreement with observations in Atlantic than before. The derived turbulent fluxes (difference between the net heat flux and the CERES EBAF radiative flux at surface) also have good agreement with those from OAFLUX dataset and buoy observations. Decadal changes in the global energy budget and the hemisphere energy imbalances are quantified and present day cross-equator heat transports is re-evaluated as 0.22±0.15 PW southward by the atmosphere and 0.32±0.16 PW northward by the ocean considering the observed ocean heat sinks (Roemmich et al., 2006) . Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res., Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  12. Integration of net zero energy building with smart grid to improve regional electrification ratio towards sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Supriadi, Leni; Bintang Koesalamwardi, Ario; Petroceany, Jade; Herzanita, Ayu

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is currently encouraging its physical, social and economy development. Physical development for economic development have to be supported by energy availability. For Indonesia, 90% of electrification ratio is still become an important task that has to be completed by the Government. However, the effort to increase electrification can become an environmental problem if it’s done with BAU scenario. The by-product of electric generation is the GHG, which increasing every year since 2006 from various sectors i.e. industry, housing, commercial, transportation, and energy. Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) is an energy efficient building which can produce energy independently from clean and renewable sources. The energy that is generated by NZEB can be used for the building itself, and can be exported to the central grid. The integration of NZEB and Smart Grid can solve today’s issue on electrification ratio. Literature study will find benchmarks which can be applied in Indonesia along with possible obstacles in applying this technology.

  13. Examples of Nearly Net Zero Energy Buildings Through One-Step and Stepwise Retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2012-01-01

    -step or stepwise retrofit process. The review work is part of a more global Ph.D. project and is used as one of the basement of the future research work. The considered approaches have been sorted in two categories. The first approach has a very high use of energy conservation measures and low use of renewable...... energy production measures. The second approach has a lower use of energy conservation measures (but still high compared to a traditional renovation) and a higher use of renewable energy production measures. A third approach to nearly net zero energy building renovation exists but has not been considered......: a very low use of energy conservation measures and very high use of renewable energy production measures. While the projects from the first category have still a possibility to improve considerably their carbon footprint during an ulterior upgrade, the projects part of the second category seem to have...

  14. Genetic parameters of estimated net energy efficiencies for milk production, maintenance, and body weight change in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttazzoni, L; Mao, I L

    1989-03-01

    Net efficiencies of converting intake energy into energy for maintenance, milk production, and body weight change in a lactation were estimated for each of 79 Holstein cows by a two-stage multiple regression model. Cows were from 16 paternal half-sib families, which each had members in at least two of the six herds. Each cow was recorded for milk yield, net energy intake, and three efficiency traits. These were analyzed in a multitrait model containing the same 14 fixed subclasses of herd by season by parity and a random factor of sires for each of the five traits. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of sire and residual (co)variance components were obtained by an expectation maximization algorithm with canonical transformations. Between milk yield and net energy intake, net energy efficiencies for milk yield, maintenance, and body weight change, the estimated phenotypic correlations were .36, -.02, .08, and -.06, while the genetic correlations were .92, .56, .02, and -.32, respectively. Both genetic and phenotypic correlations were zero between net energy efficiency of maintenance and that of milk yield and .17 between net energy efficiency of body weight change and that of milk yield. The estimated genetic correlation between net efficiency for lactation and milk yield is approximately 60% of that between gross efficiency and milk yield. With a heritability of .32 equivalent.49, net energy efficiency for milk yield may be worth consideration for genetic selection in certain dairy cattle populations.

  15. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojnec Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty and value-added tax. To calculate the real value of electricity prices, producer price index of industrial commodities for electricity prices in industry is used as deflator and implicit deflator of gross domestic product for the size of the economy. In the empirical econometric part is used regression analysis for the amount electricity consumption in the industry depending on the real gross domestic product, direct and cross-price elasticity for natural gas prices in the industry. The results confirmed volatility in real electricity price developments with their increasing tendency and the increasing share of different taxes and state charges in the electricity prices for industry. Demand for electrical energy in industry is positively associated with gross domestic product and price of natural gas as substitute for electrical energy in industry use, and negatively associated with prices of electrical energy for industry.

  16. Transmission of Electric Energy Along Long Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of electric energy along long lines is examined and characteristics of the change of capacities at the beginning and at the end of a line are submitted: factor of capacity, efficiency of a transmission line, currents depending on length, parameters of a line and parameters of loading. Influence of losses upon the dynamics of instant values of voltages and currents in the opened and short-circuited long lines is investigated and effects of nonlinearity in such chains are revealed at a power supply from a sinusoidal source of voltage. It is shown, that the method of complex amplitudes is not always applicable for the calculation of modes in long lines.

  17. Nearly Net-Zero Exergy Districts as Models for Smart Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2017-01-01

    The planning of urban settlements requires a targeted approach towards more sustainable energy, water, and environment systems. This research work analyses the city of Uppsala and a district that is an urban renewal project at the site of former high voltage power lines, namely Östra Sala backe, which will have a new energy concept. The latter is analysed based on proposals for two phases that aim to reach a net-zero district target based on the quality of energy (exergy). An indicator s...

  18. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  19. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  20. Modifications to incorporate competitive electricity prices in the annual energy outlook 1998 - electricity market module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe modifications to the Electricity Market Module (EMM) for the Annual Energy Outlook 1998. It describes revisions necessary to derive competitive electricity prices and the corresponding reserve margins.

  1. Transformations, Inc.. Partnering To Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ("Devens"), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ("Easthampton") and Phase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ("Townsend"). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductless air source heat pump systems ("mini-splits"); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  2. ELECTRICAL ENERGY USE IN DIFFERENT HEATING SYSTEMS FOR WEANED PIGLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Sarubbi, J.; Rossi, LA; Moura, DJ; de Oliveira, RA; E. David

    2010-01-01

    Heating piglets in nursery and farrowing may be improved to save energy, without affecting the animals' welfare. The objective of this research was to compare the electrical energy use and thermal environment promoted by three heating technologies for piglets in nursery. The heating technologies studied were: TR - suspended electrical resistors, TP - heated floor and TA convection heating. Electrical energy consumption (kWh), maximum power demand requirements (kW), specific consumption (kWh/k...

  3. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rodrigues; Denise Machado; Tomaz Dentinho

    2017-01-01

    The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective e...

  4. Gravitational and electric energies in collapse of spherically thin capacitor

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo

    2013-01-01

    In our previous article (PHYSICAL REVIEW D 86, 084004 (2012)), we present a study of strong oscillating electric fields and electron-positron pair-production in gravitational collapse of a neutral stellar core at or over nuclear densities. In order to understand the back-reaction of such electric energy building and radiating on collapse, we adopt a simplified model describing the collapse of a spherically thin capacitor to give an analytical description how gravitational energy is converted to both kinetic and electric energies in collapse. It is shown that (i) averaged kinetic and electric energies are the same order, about an half of gravitational energy of spherically thin capacitor in collapse; (ii) caused by radiating and rebuilding electric energy, gravitational collapse undergoes a sequence of "on and off" hopping steps in the microscopic Compton scale. Although such a collapse process is still continuous in terms of macroscopic scales, it is slowed down as kinetic energy is reduced and collapsing tim...

  5. Improvement potential for net energy balance of biodiesel derived from palm oil: A case study from Indonesian practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamahara, Hirotsugu [Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hasanudin, Udin [Department of Agroindustrial Technology, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Widiyanto, Anugerah [International Cooperation Center for Engineering Education Development, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tachibana, Ryuichi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Atsuta, Yoichi; Goto, Naohiro; Daimon, Hiroyuki [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujie, Koichi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Biodiesel derived from palm oil has been recognized as a high-productivity oil crop among the first generation of biofuels. This study evaluated and discussed the net energy balance for biodiesel in Indonesia by calculating the net energy ratio (NER) and net energy production (NEP) form the total energy input and output. The results of the calculation of energy input for the default scenario demonstrated that the primary energy inputs in the biodiesel production lifecycle were the methanol feedstock, energy input during the biodiesel production process, and urea production. These three items amounted to 85% of the total energy input. Next, we considered and evaluated ways to potentially improve the energy balance by utilizing by-products and biogas from wastewater treatment in the palm oil mill. This result emphasized the importance of utilizing the biomass residue and by-products. Finally, we discussed the need to be aware of energy balance issues between countries when biofuels are transported internationally. (author)

  6. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 2: Total Economy Expenditure Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We translate between energetic and economic metrics that characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, we estimate monetary expenditures for the primary energy and net external power ratio (NEPR direct ; NEPR, net external power ratio, a power return ratio of annual energy production divided by annual direct energy inputs within the energy industry. We estimate these on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010. Expressed as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP, f e , GDP , the forty-four country aggregate (composing >90% world GDP worldwide expenditures on energy decreased from a maximum of 10.3% in 1979 to a minimum of 3.0% in 1998 before increasing to a second peak of 8.1% in 2008. While the global f e , GDP fluctuates significantly, global NEPR direct declined from a value of 34 in 1980 to 17 in 1986 before staying in a range between 14 and 16 from 1991 to 2010. In comparing both of these metrics as ratios of power output over power input, one economic ( f e , GDP - 1 and one biophysical (NEPR direct , we see that when the former divided by the latter is below unity, the world was in a low-growth or recessionary state.

  7. Modeling and Optimizing Energy Utilization of Steel Production Process: A Hybrid Petri Net Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is responsible for nearly 9% of anthropogenic energy utilization in the world. It is urgent to reduce the total energy utilization of steel industry under the huge pressures on reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Meanwhile, the steel manufacturing is a typical continuous-discrete process with multiprocedures, multiobjects, multiconstraints, and multimachines coupled, which makes energy management rather difficult. In order to study the energy flow within the real steel production process, this paper presents a new modeling and optimization method for the process based on Hybrid Petri Nets (HPN in consideration of the situation above. Firstly, we introduce the detailed description of HPN. Then the real steel production process from one typical integrated steel plant is transformed into Hybrid Petri Net model as a case. Furthermore, we obtain a series of constraints of our optimization model from this model. In consideration of the real process situation, we pick the steel production, energy efficiency and self-made gas surplus as the main optimized goals in this paper. Afterwards, a fuzzy linear programming method is conducted to obtain the multiobjective optimization results. Finally, some measures are suggested to improve this low efficiency and high whole cost process structure.

  8. Final Technical Report for the Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildings Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeli, Sandy [National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The Commercial Buildings Consortium (CBC) was established in 2009, under the chairmanship of the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), as a supporting organization to the Commercial Buildings Initiative (CBI). The CBI was created by Congress through the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and launched by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 with the goal to “develop and disseminate technologies, practices, and policies for establishment of zero net energy commercial buildings.”. The impact of the CBC since 2009 has been multifold, resulting in increased collaboration, increased innovation, and increased demonstration and deployment. During the project performance period of 2009-2014, the CBC provided an organizational framework for sustained public-private collaboration among more than 600 commercial building professionals, researchers and educators, utilities, and government agencies at federal, state, and local level. The CBC’s research has identified emerging technologies, market strategies, and innovative public and corporate policies to help advance CBI’s zero-net-energy. Finally, the CBC worked in close partnership with DOE’s commercial building teams and the Better Buildings Alliances to identify opportunities for proving out and deploying energy-saving technologies and practices.

  9. Electric Charge as a Form of Imaginary Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric charge is considered as a form of imaginary energy. With this consideration, the energy of an electrically charged particle is a complex number. The real part is proportional to the mass, while the imaginary part is proportional to the electric charge. The energy of an antiparticle is given by conjugating the energy of its corresponding particle. Newton's law of gravity and Coulomb's law of electric force are classically unified into a single expression of the interaction between the complex energies of two electrically charged particles. Interaction between real energies (or masses is the gravitational force. Interaction between imaginary energies (or electric charges is the electromagnetic force. Since radiation is also a form of real energy, there are another two types of interactions between real energies: the mass-radiation interaction and the radiation-radiation interaction. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon, we can derive the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done by the radiation-radiation interaction on a photon, we can obtain a radiation redshift. This study suggests the electric charge as a form of imaginary energy, so that classically unifies the gravitational and electric forces and derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift.

  10. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  11. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in a 2009 final rule at 74 FR 32059 (July 7... Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy...

  12. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric... Marketing and Trade Corp., 333 Ludlow Street, Suite 1230, Stamford, CT 06902. A final decision will be made...

  13. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite Blvd...

  14. Teach with Energy! FUNdamental Energy, Electricity, and Science Lessons for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This book is an energy, electricity, and science resource guide for teachers of grades K-3. The types of energy covered are: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, electricity and food. Thirty-one interdisciplinary energy lessons are the heart of the book. Each lesson is teacher tested and can be incorporated into the…

  15. Teach with Energy! FUNdamental Energy, Electricity, and Science Lessons for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This book is an energy, electricity, and science resource guide for teachers of grades K-3. The types of energy covered are: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, electricity and food. Thirty-one interdisciplinary energy lessons are the heart of the book. Each lesson is teacher tested and can be incorporated into the…

  16. Electrical design for ocean wave and tidal energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Alcorn, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Provides an electrical engineering perspective on offshore power stations and their integration to the grid. With contributions from a panel of leading international experts, this book is essential reading for those working in ocean energy development and renewable energy.

  17. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  18. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...... distance transmission of electric energy. In many applications the total size of filter components (capacitors and inductors) can be reduced compared to voltage driven topologies. One application is an audio amplifier arranged to drive a loudspeaker....

  19. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... CONTACT: James Raba, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... and Renewable Energy published a final rule titled ``Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric...

  20. Excess heat production of future net zero energy buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    buildings in Denmark are connected to electricity grids and around half are connected to districtheating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy systems enables them to send and receive energy from these systems. This paper’s objective is to examine how excess heat production from NZEBs...... excess heat production from solar thermal collectors. The main findings are that the excess heat from NZEBs can benefit DH systems by decreasing the production from production units utilizing combustible fuels. In DH areas where the heat demand in summer months is already covered by renewable energy......Denmark’s long-term energy goal is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources by 2050. To reach this goal, energy savings in buildings is essential. Therefore, the focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and netzeroenergybuildings (NZEBs) has increased. Most...

  1. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    or multiparous. Feed ration energy values were recalculated by use of NorFor to obtain consistent energy expression in all trials as opposed to the varying feed evaluation systems used in original analysis of trials. Regression analysis with linear and quadratic effects were performed on live weight......The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  2. Net Zero Fort Carson: Integrating Energy, Water, and Waste Strategies to Lower the Environmental Impact of a Military Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Military bases resemble small cities and face similar sustainability challenges. As pilot studies in the U.S. Army Net Zero program, 17 locations are moving to 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases target net z...

  3. Electrically powered automotive vehicle with an energy recovering apppartus

    OpenAIRE

    Chevroulet, Tristan; Damminger, Ludwig

    1994-01-01

    Electrically driven motor vehicle, comprising mechanical means for braking the driving wheel and at least one electric motor. System for transfering brake energy into air-conditioning device. Enhances electro brake capabilities, provides controlled dissipation means, enables energy recovery & management. Improves accumulator lifetime (limits power surges due to braking). SMH - MCC Smart car concepts (electic & hybrid)

  4. Magneto-Electric Conversion of Optical Energy to Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    Science for Solar Energy ?”, Dept. of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India , January 22 (2014). 10 5. S.C. Rand, “Optical...Magnetism: Sustained Science for Sustainable Energy ”, College Colloquium, Amity University, Haryana, India , January 23 (2014). 6. S.C. Rand, “Sustainable...Magnetism for Solar Energy ?”, Quantum Condensed Matter Research Group, Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Tokyo, Japan, April 28, 2014. 8

  5. Energy efficiency based joint cell selection and power allocation scheme for HetNets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Kobia Mensah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous networks (HetNets composed of overlapped cells with different sizes are expected to improve the transmission performance of data service significantly. User equipments (UEs in the overlapped area of multiple cells might be able to access various base stations (BSs of the cells, resulting in various transmission performances due to cell heterogeneity. Hence, designing optimal cell selection scheme is of particular importance for it may affect user quality of service (QoS and network performance significantly. In this paper, we jointly consider cell selection and transmit power allocation problem in a HetNet consisting of multiple cells. For a single UE case, we formulate the energy efficiency of the UE, and propose an energy efficient optimization scheme which selects the optimal cell corresponding to the maximum energy efficiency of the UE. The problem is then extended to multiple UEs case. To achieve joint performance optimization of all the UEs, we formulate an optimization problem with the objective of maximizing the sum energy efficiency of UEs subject to QoS and power constraints. The formulated nonlinear fractional optimization problem is equivalently transformed into two subproblems, i.e., power allocation subproblem of each UE-cell pair, and cell selection subproblem of UEs. The two subproblems are solved respectively through applying Lagrange dual method and Kuhn–Munkres (K-M algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  6. assessment of wind energy potential for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy sources such as wind, if thoroughly investigated, could be used to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels for electricity generation. Although wind energy is one of the most efficient renewable energy sources, it is very variable compared to other sources of energy. It is also more sensitive to variations with ...

  7. Prediction of net energy consumption based on economic indicators (GNP and GDP) in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan [Technical Education Faculty, Mechanical Education Department, Energy Section, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kirikkale University, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    The most important theme in this study is to obtain equations based on economic indicators (gross national product - GNP and gross domestic product - GDP) and population increase to predict the net energy consumption of Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to determine future level of the energy consumption and make correct investments in Turkey. In this study, three different models were used in order to train the ANN. In one of them (Model 1), energy indicators such as installed capacity, generation, energy import and energy export, in second (Model 2), GNP was used and in the third (Model 3), GDP was used as the input layer of the network. The net energy consumption (NEC) is in the output layer for all models. In order to train the neural network, economic and energy data for last 37 years (1968-2005) are used in network for all models. The aim of used different models is to demonstrate the effect of economic indicators on the estimation of NEC. The maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 2.322732, 1.110525 and 1.122048 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. R{sup 2} values were obtained as 0.999444, 0.999903 and 0.999903 for training data of Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The ANN approach shows greater accuracy for evaluating NEC based on economic indicators. Based on the outputs of the study, the ANN model can be used to estimate the NEC from the country's population and economic indicators with high confidence for planing future projections. (author)

  8. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to optimize the design of the harvester. The split-cylindrical design of the developed EDEH permitted the harvester to be wrapped around the output power cable of the electrical transformer without shutting-off the power or disconnecting the power cable. From the electrical transformer ...

  9. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  10. Energy loss of ions by electric-field fluctuations in a magnetized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B; Deutsch, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the energy loss of charged particles in a magnetized classical plasma due to the electric-field fluctuations are reported. The energy loss for a test particle is calculated through the linear-response theory. At vanishing magnetic field, the electric-field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the charged particle for all velocities. It has been shown that in the presence of strong magnetic field, this effect occurs only at low velocities. In the case of high velocities, the test particle systematically loses its energy due to the interaction with a stochastic electric field. The net effect of the fluctuations is the systematic reduction of the total energy loss (i.e., the sum of the polarization and stochastic energy losses) at vanishing magnetic field and reduction or enhancement at strong field, depending on the velocity of the particle. It is found that the energy loss of the slow heavy ion contains an anomalous term that depends logarithmically on the projectile mass. The physical origin of this anomalous term is the coupling between the cyclotron motion of the plasma electrons and the long-wavelength, low-frequency fluctuations produced by the projectile ion. This effect may strongly enhance the stochastic energy gain of the particle.

  11. Enabling solar electricity with electric vehicles in future energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Pedro Rudolfo Martins

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Sistemas Sustentáveis de Energia, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Climate change is on the agenda of many world leaders and policy makers, and its containment is of exceptional importance. Within this frame, ambitious environmental targets have been established by the European Union, including the reduction in greenhouse gases emissions by 80-95% until 2050. To do so, energy systems will require a large share of renewable energies, particularly sol...

  12. Sex effects on net protein and energy requirements for growth of Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A P; St-Pierre, N R; Fernandes, M H R M; Almeida, A K; Vargas, J A C; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-06-01

    Requirements for growth in the different sexes remain poorly quantified in goats. The objective of this study was to develop equations for estimating net protein (NP G ) and net energy (NE G ) for growth in Saanen goats of different sexes from 5 to 45 kg of body weight (BW). A data set from 7 comparative slaughter studies (238 individual records) of Saanen goats was used. Allometric equations were developed to determine body protein and energy contents in the empty BW (EBW) as dependent variables and EBW as the allometric predictor. Parameter estimates were obtained using a linearized (log-transformation) expression of the allometric equations using the MIXED procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The model included the random effect of the study and the fixed effects of sex (intact male, castrated male, and female; n = 94, 73, and 71, respectively), EBW, and their interactions. Net requirements for growth were estimated as the first partial derivative of the allometric equations with respect to EBW. Additionally, net requirements for growth were evaluated based on the degree of maturity. Monte Carlo techniques were used to estimate the uncertainty of the calculated net requirement values. Sex affected allometric relationships for protein and energy in Saanen goats. The allometric equation for protein content in the EBW of intact and castrated males was log 10 protein (g) = 2.221 (±0.0224) + 1.015 (±0.0165) × log 10 EBW (kg). For females, the relationship was log 10 protein (g) = 2.277 (±0.0288) + 0.958 (±0.0218) × log 10 EBW (kg). Therefore, NP G for males was greater than for females. The allometric equation for the energy content in the EBW of intact males was log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.988 (±0.0323) + 1.240 (±0.0238) × log 10 EBW (kg); of castrated males, log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.873 (±0.0377) + 1.359 (±0.0283) × log 10 EBW (kg); and of females, log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.820 (±0.0377) + 1.442 (±0.0281) × log 10 EBW (kg). The NE G

  13. Hybrid energy sources for electric and fuel cell vehicle propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, N; Yap, H T; Bingham, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimi...

  14. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Suntharalingam, P.

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  15. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  16. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  17. Sustainable Skyscrapers: Designing the Net Zero Energy Building of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, S.; Bartsch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities of the future will need to increase population density in order to keep up with the rising populations in the limited available land area. In order to provide sufficient power as the population grows, cities must become more energy efficient. Fossil fuels and grid energy will continue to become more expensive as nonrenewable resources deplete. The obvious solution to increase population density while decreasing the reliance on fossil fuels is to build taller skyscrapers that are energy neutral, i.e. self-sustaining. However, current skyscrapers are not energy efficient, and therefore cannot provide a sustainable solution to the problem of increasing population density in the face of depleting energy resources. The design of a net zero energy building that includes both residential and commercial space is presented. Alternative energy systems such as wind turbines, photovoltaic cells, and a waste-to-fuel conversion plant have been incorporated into the design of a 50 story skyscraper that is not reliant on fossil fuels and has a payback time of about six years. Although the current building was designed to be located in San Francisco, simple modifications to the design would allow this building to fit the needs of any city around the world.

  18. Use of Solar Energy in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Mehmet Sait; Mamiş, Mehmet Salih

    2015-01-01

    In today’s World, energy has a crucial importance for all countries. The countries search for both new energy resources and how they can use them.  Energy resource is an important problem in our country, too. It is the sign of how it is important that we are mostly foreign dependent on energy. The most important energy problem is energy efficiency. When changing and developing automotive industry is handled, an important part of energy consumption consists of automobiles. So, it is clear that...

  19. Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a set of indicators that are used to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions. The analysis is based on IEA statistics and includes public electricity plants and public CHP plants. Electricity production by autoproducers is not included and represents less than 6% of global electricity production. However, the share of autoproducers is significant in certain countries, particularly in Europe. Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain all have a share of electricity production from autoproducers that is more than twice the global average.

  20. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......Organic farming (OF) principles include the idea of reducing dependence of fossil fuels, but little has been achieved on this objective so far in Danish OF. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an average 39 ha cash crop farm were calculated and alternative crop rotations for bio......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  1. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  2. Electricity transmission in the energy community of South East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vailati, Riccardo [CESI RICERCA, Power System Development Department, via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    The paper presents the status of electricity transmission grids in the Energy Community of South East Europe (ECSEE): Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, UNM in Kosovo. It overviews political and legal aspects of transmission, explaining the impact of the Energy Community Treaty and of the acquis communautaire on energy on the transmission sector. It summarizes the status and the capacity of the interconnections among countries and the current level of cross-border electricity trades. It discusses the need and criteria for electricity transmission investments in the ECSEE. (author)

  3. Scoping study for compact high-field superconducting net energy tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, R. T.; Greenwald, M.; Freidberg, J. P.; Wolfe, S. M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Brunner, D.; Sorbom, B. N.; Whyte, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    The continued development and commercialization of high temperature superconductors (HTS) may enable the construction of compact, net-energy tokamaks. HTS, in contrast to present generation low temperature superconductors, offers improved performance in high magnetic fields, higher current density, stronger materials, higher temperature operation, and simplified assembly. Using HTS along with community-consensus confinement physics (H98 =1) may make it possible to achieve net-energy (Q>1) or burning plasma conditions (Q>5) in DIII-D or ASDEX-U sized, conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. It is shown that, by operating at high plasma current and density enabled by the high magnetic field (B>10T), the required triple products may be achieved at plasma volumes under 20m3, major radii under 2m, with external heating powers under 40MW. This is at the scale of existing devices operated by laboratories, universities and companies. The trade-offs in the core heating, divertor heat exhaust, sustainment, stability, and proximity to known plasma physics limits are discussed in the context of the present tokamak experience base and the requirements for future devices. The resulting HTS-based design space is compared and contrasted to previous studies on high-field copper experiments with similar missions. The physics exploration conducted with such HTS devices could decrease the real and perceived risks of ITER exploitation, and aid in quickly developing commercially-applicable tokamak pilot plants and reactors.

  4. Transformations, Inc.: Partnering to Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ('Devens'), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ('Easthampton') andPhase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ('Townsend'). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductlessair source heat pump systems ('mini-splits'); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  5. EXTENDING NUCLEAR ENERGY TO NON-ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Boardman; M. McKellar; D. Ingersoll; Z. Houghton; , R. Bromm; C. Desportes

    2014-09-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these non-traditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers.

  6. assessment of wind energy potential for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wind energy is proposed as an alternative source of electricity to fossil fuel generators ... it is very variable compared to other sources of energy. It is also more sensitive to variations with topography and weather patterns compared to solar energy. ... A study on wind speed pattern and the available wind power in Tanzania.

  7. Direct Conversion of Radioisotope Energy to Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks Prelas; Alexey Spitsyn; Alejandro Suarez; Eric Stienfelds; Dickerson Moreno; Bia-Ling Hsu; Tushar Ghosh; Robert Tompson; Sudarshan Loyalka; Dabir Viswanath

    2003-09-09

    A new chemical reactor has been tested for Field Enhanced Diffusion by Optical Activation doping and purification of SiC, GaN and AlN films. Different conditions have been used on SiC, GaN and AlN samples including temperature variation, electrical field variation, variations in electrical current and optical activation. A 5mW (630-680) nm laser was used for optical activation. It was observed that optical activation has a major effect on ion drift rates. It was also observed that the magnitude of the electrical current also enhanced ion drift rates by a postulated current drag mechanism. I-V characteristic curves were measured to verify changes in the electrical properties of the samples SIMS was used to analyze the concentrations of impurities in the film samples before and after treatment. It has been demonstrated that the field-enhanced diffusion by optical activation method can dope and purify the films. As a result, the electrical properties of the wafers have been significantly improved during treatment especially in cases where a laser is used.

  8. Electricity price forecasting accounting for renewable energies: optimal combined forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    García-Martos, Carolina; Caro Huertas, Eduardo; Sánchez Naranjo, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Electricity price forecasting is an interesting problem for all the agents involved in electricity market operation. For instance, every profit maximisation strategy is based on the computation of accurate one-day-ahead forecasts, which is why electricity price forecasting has been a growing field of research in recent years. In addition, the increasing concern about environmental issues has led to a high penetration of renewable energies, particularly wind. In some European countries such as...

  9. Electricity from wave and tide an introduction to marine energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    This is a concise yet technically authoritative overview of modern marine energy devices with the goal of sustainable electricity generation. With 165 full-colour illustrations and photographs of devices at an advanced stage, the book provides inspiring case studies of today's most promising marine energy devices and developments, including full-scale grid-connected prototypes tested in sea conditions. It also covers the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney, Scotland, where many of the devices are assessed. Topics discussed: global resources - drawing energy from the World's waves and tides history of wave and tidal stream systems theoretical background to modern developments conversion of marine energy into grid electricity modern wave energy converters and tidal stream energy converters. This book is aimed at a wide readership including professionals, policy makers and employees in the energy sector needing an introduction to marine energy. Its descriptive style and technical level will also appea...

  10. MRI device – alternative for electrical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molokáč, Š.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically difficult process. Such a process is marked by the energy losses, as the conversion of electrical energy into another form, is most frequently for example mechanical, and then back to the primary electrical form. Though, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the application of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, there is possibility of using such devices for energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological.

  11. Applicability of energy saving obligations to Indian electricity efficiency efforts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Robert; Moth, Luke; Kumar, Atul

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates end-use electricity efficiency policies and DSM related aspects within the Indian electricity sector. This work also identifies lessons for India from White Certificate schemes and Energy Saving Obligations in the UK, France and Italy. These two analyses aim to identify

  12. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  13. Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorek Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimum energy control problem for the fractional positive electrical circuits is formulated and solved. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solution to the problem are established. A procedure for solving of the problem is proposed and illustrated by an example of fractional positive electrical circuit.

  14. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jia-Shiun

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  15. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  16. Antenna Solar Energy to Electricity Converter (ASETEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    electricity was produced. G. Conclusion: This technology needs further investigation to determine the most cost effective materials and the optimum...Electron Micrograph of Antenna Sensilla from Corn Earworm Moth............. 14 Greater Magnification Showing Fine Structure of Insect Antenna...Array................ 48 Measured Polar Diagram Tapered Rod and Different Wavelengths................... 49 Effect of Tube Wall Thickness on the

  17. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A.F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide ``primary energy`` ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W{center_dot}h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  18. Thermal energy storage for electricity-driven space heating in a day-ahead electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a space heating (SH) application was investigated. The study aimed to determine the economic benefits of introducing TES into an electricity-driven SH system under a day-ahead electricity market. The performance of the TES was assessed by comparing the cost...... of electricity in a system with a TES unit to the case where no storage is in use and the entire heat requirement is fulfilled by purchasing electricity according to the actual load. The study had two goals: 1. Determining how the size – in terms of electricity input (Pmax) and energy capacity (Emax......) – of the TES unit influences the savings. For this purpose, a reference price signal was used. Results show that it is possible to save up to approximately 14% of the electricity costs. In general, savings increase with Pmax and Emax. However, the benefit of increasing these two values ceases when certain...

  19. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we explore energy storage and the role it is playing and could potentially play in increasing grid flexibility and renewable energy integration. We explore energy storage as one building block for a more flexible power system, policy and R and D as drivers of energy storage deployment, methods for valuing energy storage in grid applications, ways that energy storage supports renewable integration, and emerging opportunities for energy storage in the electric grid.

  20. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  1. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  2. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  3. Nearly Net-Zero Exergy Districts as Models for Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The planning of urban settlements requires a targeted approach towards more sustainable energy, water, and environment systems. This research work analyses the city of Uppsala and a district that is an urban renewal project at the site of former high voltage power lines, namely Östra Sala backe, which will have a new energy concept. The latter is analysed based on proposals for two phases that aim to reach a net-zero district target based on the quality of energy (exergy. An indicator set with five main categories is introduced based on per capita values to enable a comparable basis between the scales of the city and the district, including exergy per capita as a new indicator. The present status of Uppsala is further analysed based on Sankey diagrams to provide insight into the present urban metabolism of the city. The results indicate that the best practice values of Östra Sala backe based on phase two can achieve significant savings in per capita values, which include 5.5 MWh of energy usage, 6.1 MWh of exergy consumption, 33 m3 of water consumption, 22 kg of waste generation, and 4.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. Additional scenarios for Uppsala indicate that the district can be about 10 years ahead of the city’s existing performance.

  4. Chapter 21: Estimating Net Savings - Common Practices. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.

  5. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  6. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  7. Higher moments of net kaon multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies for the search of QCD Critical Point at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Amal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the measurements of the various moments mean (M, standard deviation (σ skewness (S and kurtosis (κ of the net-Kaon multiplicity distribution at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC in an effort to locate the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as also to the correlation length of the system. A non-monotonic behavior of these variable indicate the presence of the critical point. In this work we also present the moments products Sσ, κσ2 of net-Kaon multiplicity distribution as a function of collision centrality and energies. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments of net-Kaons and their products have been compared with it0s Poisson expectation and with simulations from AMPT which does not include the critical point. From the measurement at all seven available beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for √sNN below 200 GeV.

  8. ASAS centennial paper: net energy systems for beef cattle--concepts, application, and future models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Oltjen, J W

    2008-10-01

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the 1400s. Lavoisier established relationships among O(2) use, CO(2) production and heat production in the late 1700s, and the laws of thermodynamics and law of Hess were discovered during the 1840s. Those discoveries established the fundamental bases for nutritional energetics and enabled the fundamental entity ME = retained energy + heat energy to be established. Objectives became: 1) to establish relationships between gas exchange and heat energy, 2) to devise bases for evaluation of foods that could be related to energy expenditures, and 3) to establish causes of energy expenditures. From these endeavors, the basic concepts of energy partitioning by animals were developed, ultimately resulting in the development of feeding systems based on NE concepts. The California Net Energy System, developed for finishing beef cattle, was the first to be based on retained energy as determined by comparative slaughter and the first to use 2 NE values (NE(m) and NE(g)) to describe feed and animal requirements. The system has been broadened conceptually to encompass life cycle energy requirements of beef cattle and modified by the inclusion of numerous adjustments to address factors known to affect energy requirements and value of feed to meet those needs. The current NE system remains useful but is empirical and static in nature and thus fails to capture the dynamics of energy utilization by diverse animals as they respond to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, efforts were initiated to develop dynamic simulation models that captured the underlying biology and thus were sensitive to variable genetic and environmental conditions. Development of a series of models has been described to show examples of the conceptual evolution of dynamic, mechanistic models and their applications. Generally with each new system, advances in prediction accuracy came about by adding new terms to conceptually validated models

  9. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  10. Net-zero Building Cluster Simulations and On-line Energy Forecasting for Adaptive and Real-Time Control and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiwang

    Buildings consume about 41.1% of primary energy and 74% of the electricity in the U.S. Moreover, it is estimated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory that more than 1/4 of the 713 GW of U.S. electricity demand in 2010 could be dispatchable if only buildings could respond to that dispatch through advanced building energy control and operation strategies and smart grid infrastructure. In this study, it is envisioned that neighboring buildings will have the tendency to form a cluster, an open cyber-physical system to exploit the economic opportunities provided by a smart grid, distributed power generation, and storage devices. Through optimized demand management, these building clusters will then reduce overall primary energy consumption and peak time electricity consumption, and be more resilient to power disruptions. Therefore, this project seeks to develop a Net-zero building cluster simulation testbed and high fidelity energy forecasting models for adaptive and real-time control and decision making strategy development that can be used in a Net-zero building cluster. The following research activities are summarized in this thesis: 1) Development of a building cluster emulator for building cluster control and operation strategy assessment. 2) Development of a novel building energy forecasting methodology using active system identification and data fusion techniques. In this methodology, a systematic approach for building energy system characteristic evaluation, system excitation and model adaptation is included. The developed methodology is compared with other literature-reported building energy forecasting methods; 3) Development of the high fidelity on-line building cluster energy forecasting models, which includes energy forecasting models for buildings, PV panels, batteries and ice tank thermal storage systems 4) Small scale real building validation study to verify the performance of the developed building energy forecasting methodology. The outcomes of

  11. Turbulence induces metabolically costly behaviors and inhibits food capture in oyster larvae, causing net energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Specht, Jaclyn A; Adams, Diane K; Christman, Adam J

    2017-10-01

    Planktotrophic invertebrate larvae require energy to develop, disperse and settle successfully, and it is unknown how their energetics are impacted by turbulence. Ciliated larvae gain metabolic energy from their phytoplankton food to offset the energetic costs of growth, development and ciliary activity for swimming and feeding. Turbulence may affect the energetic balance by inducing behaviors that alter the metabolic costs and efficiency of swimming, by raising the encounter rate with food particles and by inhibiting food capture. We used experiments and an empirical model to quantify the net rate of energy gain, swimming efficiency and food capture efficiency for eyed oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) in turbulence. At dissipation rates representative of coastal waters, larvae lost energy even when food concentrations were very high. Both feeding activity and turbulence-induced behaviors incurred high metabolic costs. Swimming efficiency was concave up versus dissipation rate, suggesting that ciliary activity for food handling became more costly while swimming became more efficient with turbulence intensity. Though counter-intuitive, swimming may have become more efficient in turbulence because vorticity-induced rotation caused larvae to swim more horizontally, which requires less effort than swimming vertically against the pull of gravity. Overall, however, larvae failed to offset high activity costs with food energy gains because turbulence reduced food capture efficiency more than it enhanced food encounter rates. Younger, smaller larvae may have some energetic advantages, but competent larvae would lose energy at turbulence intensities they experience frequently, suggesting that turbulence-induced starvation may account for much of oysters' high larval mortality. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Design of advanced solar homes aimed at net-zero annual energy consumption in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athienitis, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    This paper overviews the design of three sustainable low or net-zero energy solar homes in Canada. The major features of the houses are: 1. direct gain passive solar design that emphasizes utilization of distributed thermal mass in the equatorial-facing part of the ground floor; 2. a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal system (BIPV/T); 3. a two-stage ground-source heat pump used to heat/cool air in the house or an air source heat pump using BIPV/T air as the source to heat a storage tank; 4. a floor heating system integrated in the floor mass of the direct gain zone; 5. a multizone programmable thermostat.

  13. Net-energy analysis of integrated food and bioenergy systems exemplified by a model of a self-sufficient system of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Ville Markussen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evaluated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy farming context in four different scenarios: 1 vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, 2 biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, 3 bioethanol from rye grain and whey, and 4 a combination of 1 and 2. When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: How to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services, and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and co-products from the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat and food were calculated separately. Further, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize co-products within the system. This approach resulted in a transparent assessment of the net-contribution to society, which is easy to interpret. We conclude that if 20% of land is used for energy crops, farm-gate energy self-sufficiency can be achieved at the cost of 17% reduction in amount of food produced. These results demonstrate the strong limitations for (organic agriculture in providing both food and surplus energy.

  14. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  15. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate. Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [BA-PIRC/ Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, J. [BA-PIRC/ Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  16. Harvesting electrical energy from carbon nanotube yarn twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Kim, Keon Jung; Mun, Tae Jin; Choi, Changsoon; Di, Jiangtao; Oh, Young Jun; Oviedo, Juan Pablo; Bykova, Julia; Fang, Shaoli; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Zunfeng; Wang, Run; Kumar, Prashant; Qiao, Rui; Priya, Shashank; Cho, Kyeongjae; Kim, Moon; Lucas, Matthew Steven; Drummy, Lawrence F; Maruyama, Benji; Lee, Dong Youn; Lepró, Xavier; Gao, Enlai; Albarq, Dawood; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2017-08-25

    Mechanical energy harvesters are needed for diverse applications, including self-powered wireless sensors, structural and human health monitoring systems, and the extraction of energy from ocean waves. We report carbon nanotube yarn harvesters that electrochemically convert tensile or torsional mechanical energy into electrical energy without requiring an external bias voltage. Stretching coiled yarns generated 250 watts per kilogram of peak electrical power when cycled up to 30 hertz, as well as up to 41.2 joules per kilogram of electrical energy per mechanical cycle, when normalized to harvester yarn weight. These energy harvesters were used in the ocean to harvest wave energy, combined with thermally driven artificial muscles to convert temperature fluctuations to electrical energy, sewn into textiles for use as self-powered respiration sensors, and used to power a light-emitting diode and to charge a storage capacitor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  18. Electrical Power and Illumination Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in electrical power and illumination systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  19. Assessment of Energy Conservation in Egypt's Electric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar El Saeed Awad Abou Ghoniem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of energy saving policy as a key factor in Egypt's electric system in terms of benefits, invested cost, power quality and environmental impact, solutions have been made by system planners and decision makers aiming to face the challenges that being encountered by the electric system such as scarce and precious of prime energies are compared in terms of invested cost, implementation time and advantages for both of power providers and end users w.r.to energy savings. A case study that implemented in a pilot program for energy savings was given. It is a group of facilities include industrial, commercial, administrative companies and worship houses, they are connected to Alexandria electrical distribution network, they are classified as big customers, i.e. contracted power for each is higher than 0.5 mega watt, the goals of the program were evaluating potentials of energy saving opportunities in the system and estimating the outcomes. Options were evaluated with regard to savings in electricity, fuels and water. Cost of investments and pay back periods were calculated. Environmental impact as a result of saving in emitted green house gas co2 is determined. Potentials of energy savings are analyzed and benefits to both electric utilities and end users were assessed.

  20. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  1. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit - In a humid, temperate climate: Lessons from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.1 Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft2). The retrofit design, which uses local prevailing winds to aid ventilation and cooling and incorporates envelope and lighting elements that reduce the need for cooling, was initially on track to use about 50% less energy than the current building, exceeding the CBP’s 30% savings goal. With the addition of building-mounted solar electric panels, the retrofitted building is projected to achieve net-zero annual energy use. Achieving net-zero energy addressed an emerging challenge to the university – how to lower energy usage and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuel in the face of already-high energy prices that are forecast to double by 2040. Not only will the retrofit dramatically reduce Kuykendall Hall’s annual energy costs, but the project lays the groundwork for new campus policies and processes and low-energy design approaches and is building a campus knowledge base on low-energy practices. This project is a model of integrated design and building delivery that will be replicated in future projects on the campus.

  2. Energy pumping in electrical circuits under avalanche noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kiyoshi; Sagawa, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    We theoretically study energy pumping processes in an electrical circuit with avalanche diodes, where non-Gaussian athermal noise plays a crucial role. We show that a positive amount of energy (work) can be extracted by an external manipulation of the circuit in a cyclic way, even when the system is spatially symmetric. We discuss the properties of the energy pumping process for both quasistatic and finite-time cases, and analytically obtain formulas for the amounts of the work and the power. Our results demonstrate the significance of the non-Gaussianity in energetics of electrical circuits.

  3. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    CERN Document Server

    Dedinec, Aleksandar; Gajduk, Andrej; Markovska, Natasa; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  4. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  5. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 6th international workshop on micro and nanotechnology, Berkeley, California, USA, pp. 165–168. Moghe R, Divan D and Lambert F 2011 Powering low-cost utility sensors using energy harvesting. Proceedings of 14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, pp. 1–10. Moghe R, Yang Y, Lambert ...

  6. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson (eds.)

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  7. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  8. Research on Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions of hybrid electric vehicles, energy management strategy has received high attention. In this paper, by analyzing the deficiency of existing energy management strategy for hybrid cars, it not only puts forward the minimal equivalent fuel consumption adaptive strategy, but also is the first time to consider the driving dynamics target simultaneously, and to explain the future development direction of China’s hybrid energy management strategy.

  9. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  10. Towards a Net Zero Building Cluster Energy Systems Analysis for a Brigade Combat Team Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    building enve- lope, ventilation, advanced “low exergy ” heating and cooling systems, central energy plants with co- This material is declared a work of the...from the mains increases from centralized to decentralized by 21% or 4.3 GWh/yr. The fact that heat is a local commodity with a lower exergy factor...and electricity is a non-local commod- ity with an exergy factor of 1 that cannot be stored easily like heat, indicates that this is a good path to

  11. 75 FR 45111 - Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...] Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation; Notice... Order, the Commission directed Strategic Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation... compliance with the June 25 Order has elapsed. The two companies identified in the June 25 Order (Strategic...

  12. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  13. Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Iman Ahari

    A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown

  14. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  15. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for biohydrogen production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the energy and environmental aspects of producing biohydrogen for bitumen upgrading from a life cycle perspective. Three technologies are studied for biohydrogen production; these include the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier, and fast pyrolysis. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered including forest residue (FR), whole forest (WF), and agricultural residue (AR). The fast pyrolysis pathway includes two cases: truck transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of bio-oil. The net energy ratios (NERs) for nine biohydrogen pathways lie in the range of 1.3-9.3. The maximum NER (9.3) is for the FR-based pathway using GTI technology. The GHG emissions lie in the range of 1.20-8.1 kg CO₂ eq/kg H₂. The lowest limit corresponds to the FR-based biohydrogen production pathway using GTI technology. This study also analyzes the intensities for acid rain precursor and ground level ozone precursor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy dependence of moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-24

    We report the beam energy (sqrt[sNN]=7.7-200  GeV) and collision centrality dependence of the mean (M), standard deviation (σ), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) of the net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions. The measurements are carried out by the STAR experiment at midrapidity (|y|<0.5) and within the transverse momentum range 0.4Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamic phase diagram. The products of the moments, Sσ and κσ2, are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions and are related to the ratios of baryon number susceptibilities of corresponding orders. The products of moments are found to have values significantly below the Skellam expectation and close to expectations based on independent proton and antiproton production. The measurements are compared to a transport model calculation to understand the effect of acceptance and baryon number conservation and also to a hadron resonance gas model.

  17. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  18. Bilateral electric energy contracts: return and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Laura K.; Silva, Elisa B.; Correia, Paulo B. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). College of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil electricity is traded through three segments: the spot market that balances offer and demand, with prices calculated by a cost-based computational model; the regulated market , where prices are settled in public auctions, and the free market for bilateral contracts. As spot and regulated market prices are public information, a seller is able to calculate his opportunity price to trade a bilateral contract in the free market by using the non-arbitrage principle. Thus, the seller searches the price of a bilateral contract in the free market that balances his/her revenues with the value expected in case it were negotiated in the regulated and the spot market. Besides the expected revenue, the seller may also consider the CVaR to measure the risk of her/his bilateral contract in the free market. So this paper develops a binomial lattice approach to price bilateral contracts in the free market, considering the seller's opportunity of negotiations in both regulated and spot markets, and measuring the contract risk directly. (author)

  19. Lafayette, Colorado: Using Energy Data for Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Lafayette, Colorado: Using Energy Data for Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning" explains how the City of Lafayette used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  20. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  1. Remote Electric Power Transfer Between Spacecrafts by Infrared Beamed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E.; Evdokimov, Roman A.; Legostaev, Victor P.; Lopota, Vitaliy A.; Sokolov, Boris A.; Tugaenko, Vjacheslav Yu.

    2011-11-01

    High efficient wireless electric energy transmission (WET) technology between spacecrafts by laser channel is proposed. WET systems could be used for remote power supplying of different consumers in space. First of all, there are autonomous technology modules for microgravity experiments, micro and nano satellites, different equipment for explorations of planetary surfaces, space transport vehicles with electric rocket propulsion systems. The main components of the WET technology consist of radiation sources on the base of semiconductor IR laser diodes; systems for narrow laser beam creation; special photovoltaic receivers for conversion of monochromatic IR radiation with high energy density to electric power. The multistage space experiment for WET technology testing is described. During this experiment energy will be transmitted from International Space Station to another spacecrafts like cargo transport vehicles (Progress or/and ATV) and micro satellites.

  2. Unified Dispatch of Energy and Reserves in Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gutiérrez–Alcaraz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ancillary services costs were included within the energy price in the first electricity market models. In a decentralized electricity market, it is conceive to have a separate market for energy and each one of the Ancillary Services. However, when the problem is solved jointly it seems to be a better alternative to optimize resources. This paper presents a unified formulation for solving the economic dispatch and reserve scheduling problems in electricity markets, in order to investigate the global efficiency of energy and reserve markets. The formulation allows generation and distribution companies to offer in the market reserve services. Concluding remarks are offered about the results obtained, which proves in a detailed way that these operated–simultaneously–markets provides more economical benefits for generation or distribution companies.

  3. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Study on the global network; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Global network kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the introduction condition of hydrogen as substituting energy and CO2 reduction effect were analyzed using a global energy model. The WE-NET project aims at global-wide introduction of clean energy by converting abundant renewable clean energy into hydrogen transportable to distant consumers all over the world. The study result in fiscal 1996 is as follows. Undeveloped hydroelectric resources in the world are estimated to be 12 trillion kWh/y equivalent to the existing developed one in the world. Since the cost of the hydroelectric power generation projects over 1000MW in the planning stage is estimated to be 0.02-0.05$/kWh lower than that of other renewable energies, such projects are expected as energy source in the initial stage of the practical WE-NET project. The GREEN model was modified by adding a hydrogen analysis function, and extending an analysis period. The modified model allowed evaluation of the long-term important role of hydrogen energy, in particular, the capability of CO2 gas reduction all over the world. 28 refs., 92 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... in the day-ahead market and to correct for potential energy imbalances in the intraday market and ultimately in the balancing market. However, the design and rules of electricity markets do not support the transition from conventional generation to renewable energy sources as recently sought by many...... governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary...

  6. Distributed Electrical Energy Systems: Needs, Concepts, Approaches and Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Jun [University of Denver; Gao, Wenzhong [University of Denver; Zheng, Xinhu [University of Minnesota; Yang, Liuqing [Colorado State University; Hao, Jun [University of Denver; Dai, Xiaoxiao [University of Denver

    2017-09-01

    Intelligent distributed electrical energy systems (IDEES) are featured by vast system components, diversifled component types, and difficulties in operation and management, which results in that the traditional centralized power system management approach no longer flts the operation. Thus, it is believed that the blockchain technology is one of the important feasible technical paths for building future large-scale distributed electrical energy systems. An IDEES is inherently with both social and technical characteristics, as a result, a distributed electrical energy system needs to be divided into multiple layers, and at each layer, a blockchain is utilized to model and manage its logic and physical functionalities. The blockchains at difierent layers coordinate with each other and achieve successful operation of the IDEES. Speciflcally, the multi-layer blockchains, named 'blockchain group', consist of distributed data access and service blockchain, intelligent property management blockchain, power system analysis blockchain, intelligent contract operation blockchain, and intelligent electricity trading blockchain. It is expected that the blockchain group can be self-organized into a complex, autonomous and distributed IDEES. In this complex system, frequent and in-depth interactions and computing will derive intelligence, and it is expected that such intelligence can bring stable, reliable and efficient electrical energy production, transmission and consumption.

  7. The Science Camp Model based on maker movement and tinkering activity for developing concept of electricity in middle school students to meet standard evaluation of ordinary national educational test (O-NET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamrat, Suthida

    2018-01-01

    The standard evaluation of Thai education relies excessively on the Ordinary National Educational Test, widely known as O-NET. However, a focus on O-Net results can lead to unsatisfactory teaching practices, especially in science subjects. Among the negative consequences, is that schools frequently engage in "cramming" practices in order to elevate their O-NET scores. Higher education, which is committed to generating and applying knowledge by socially engaged scholars, needs to take account of this situation. This research article portrays the collaboration between the faculty of education at Chiang Mai University and an educational service area to develop the model of science camp. The activities designed for the Science Camp Model were based on the Tinkering and Maker Movement. Specifically, the Science Camp Model was designed to enhance the conceptualization of electricity for Middle School Students in order to meet the standard evaluation of the Ordinary National Educational Test. The hands-on activities consisted of 5 modules which were simple electrical circuits, paper circuits, electrical measurement roleplay motor art robots and Force from Motor. The data were collected by 11 items of Electricity Socratic-based Test adapted from cumulative published O-NET tests focused on the concept of electricity concept. The qualitative data were also collected virtually via Flinga.com. The results indicated that students after participating in 5modules of science camp based on the Maker Movement and tinkering activity developed average percentage of test scores from 33.64 to 65.45. Gain score analysis using dependent t-test compared pretest and posttest mean scores. The p value was found to be statistically significant (less than 0.001). The posttest had a considerably higher mean score compared with the pretest. Qualitative data also indicated that students could explain the main concepts of electrical circuits, and the transformation of electrical energy to

  8. 76 FR 53888 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Morgan Stanley Capital Group Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ...-year term. The electric energy that MSCG proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased... date listed above. Comments on the MSCG application to export electric energy to Mexico should be... Application to Export Electric Energy; Morgan Stanley Capital Group Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity...

  9. Wireless (Power Transfer Transmission of Electrical Energy (Electricity Intended for Consumer Purposes up to 50 W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project deals with Power Semiconductor Systems PSS for wireless transmission of electricity to the power of 50~W with regard to the distance and transmission efficiency. We decided to use electromagnetic resonance for electrical energy transmission. For experimental verification, we have wound two coils of identical dimensions. At a given power transmission solutions, we obtain the highest efficiency η = 70% at a distance of 5 cm, where the transmitted power was 48 W.

  10. Wireless (Power Transfer) Transmission of Electrical Energy (Electricity) Intended for Consumer Purposes up to 50 W

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Piri; Pavol Spanik; Michal Frivaldsky; Anna Kondelova

    2016-01-01

    This project deals with Power Semiconductor Systems PSS for wireless transmission of electricity to the power of 50~W with regard to the distance and transmission efficiency. We decided to use electromagnetic resonance for electrical energy transmission. For experimental verification, we have wound two coils of identical dimensions. At a given power transmission solutions, we obtain the highest efficiency η = 70% at a distance of 5 cm, where the transmitted power was 48 W.

  11. Impact of warmer weather on electricity sector emissions due to building energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Paul; Holloway, Tracey; Patz, Jonathan; Harkey, Monica; Ahl, Doug; Abel, David; Schuetter, Scott; Hackel, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Most US energy consumption occurs in buildings, with cooling demands anticipated to increase net building electricity use under warmer conditions. The electricity generation units that respond to this demand are major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), both of which have direct impacts on public health, and contribute to the formation of secondary pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter. This study quantifies temperature-driven changes in power plant emissions due to increased use of building air conditioning. We compare an ambient temperature baseline for the Eastern US to a model-calculated mid-century scenario with summer-average temperature increases ranging from 1 C to 5 C across the domain. We find a 7% increase in summer electricity demand and a 32% increase in non-coincident peak demand. Power sector modeling, assuming only limited changes to current generation resources, calculated a 16% increase in emissions of NOx and an 18% increase in emissions of SO2. There is a high level of regional variance in the response of building energy use to climate, and the response of emissions to associated demand. The East North Central census region exhibited the greatest sensitivity of energy demand and associated emissions to climate.

  12. Energy consumption of electricity end uses in Malaysian historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul N.; Edwards, Rodger E.; Zawawi, Emma M.A.

    2007-07-15

    Malaysia has inherited hundreds of heritage buildings from the past including those from the Indian, Chinese and Colonial eras apart from the indigenous traditional buildings. These buildings have the most unique ecstatic value from the viewpoint of architecture, culture, art, etc. Malaysian economy boom in 1980s spurred the need for more buildings especially in large cities. As a result, most of the historic buildings have been converted and transformed into commercial use. As reported by METP, Malaysian buildings energy uses are reflected by the energy consumption in the industrial and commercial sectors. Most of the buildings' energy consumption is electricity, used for running and operating the plants, lighting, lifts and escalators and other equipment in the buildings. These are amongst the factors that have resulted in the high demand for electricity in Malaysia. As outlined in the eighth Malaysia Plan, Malaysia is taking steps in conserving energy and reducing energy consumption on electricity consumption in building. This paper aims to present the breakdown of the major electricity end uses characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. The analysis was performed on annual data, allowing comparison with published benchmarks to give an indication of efficiency. Based on data collected a 'normalisation' calculated electricity consumption was established with the intention of improving the comparison between buildings in different climatic regions or with different occupancy patterns. This is useful for identifying where the design needed further attention and helped pinpoint problem areas within a building. It is anticipated that this study would give a good indication on the electricity consumption characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. (Author)

  13. A Governance Perspective on Net Zero Energy Building Niche Development in India: The Case of New Delhi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Mansi; Hoppe, T.; Bressers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The net zero-energy building (NZEB) concept has recently gained prominence worldwide. Large scale adoption and implementation of NZEBs would potentially contribute greatly to greening of the building sector. However, it is still at a nascent stage of niche formation. This paper aims to assess the

  14. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    -runner in the development of future sustainable energy systems in general. A strict distinction is made between, on the one hand, marginal capacities, i.e. the long-term change in power plant capacities, and on the other, marginal supply, i.e. the changes in production given the combination of power plants...... to operate as an integrated part of the total energy system. Consequently, it does not necessarily represent the marginal change in electricity supply, which is likely to involve a mixture of different production technologies. Especially when planning future sustainable energy systems involving combined heat...... and their individual marginal production costs. Detailed energy system analysis (ESA) simulation is used to identify the affected technologies, considering the fact that the marginal technology will change from one hour to another, depending on the size of electricity demand compared to, among others, wind power...

  15. Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles

    2017-06-30

    Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range

  16. Economical analysis of the use of biogas in swine production for generation of electric energy; Analise economica da utilizacao do biogas na suinocultura para geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Franco Muller; Oliveira, Paulo Armando Victoria de [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], Emails: franco@cnpsa.embrapa.br, paolive@cnpsa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    The demand for alternative sources of energy has been growing in the last years in function of the variation on the prices of petroleum and the recent energy crisis. The anaerobic bio digestion can convert swine manure in biogas. In the present work it was studied the economic viability of the use of the biogas as alternative source for the generation of electric energy in different demand levels. The methodology utilized was the Net Present Value. The study showed that the utilization of biogas as electric energy source is economically feasible. The increase of the demand of electric energy, in the property, associated to the increase of the price of the electric energy, increases the economical profits and accelerates the time of return of the investments. (author)

  17. Cost Control Best Practices for Net Zero Energy Building Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-02-01

    For net zero energy (NZE) buildings to become the norm in commercial construction, it will be necessary to design and construct these buildings cost effectively. While industry leaders have developed workflows (for procurement, design, and construction) to achieve cost-effective NZE buildings for certain cases, the expertise embodied in those workflows has limited penetration within the commercial building sector. Documenting cost control best practices of industry leaders in NZE and packaging those strategies for adoption by the commercial building sector will help make the business case for NZE. Furthermore, it will promote market uptake of the innovative technologies and design approaches needed to achieve NZE. This paper summarizes successful cost control strategies for NZE procurement, design, and construction that key industry users (such as building owners, architects, and designers) can incorporate into their everyday workflows. It will also evaluate the current state of NZE economics and propose a path forward for greater market penetration of NZE buildings. By demonstrating how to combine NZE technologies and design approaches into an overall efficiency package that can be implemented at minimal (zero, in certain cases) incremental capital cost, the domain of NZE design and construction can be expanded from a niche market to the commercial construction mainstream.

  18. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... application to export electric energy to Mexico should be clearly marked with OE Docket No. 386. An additional... No: 2012-16464] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-386] Application To Export Electric Energy.... (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant...

  19. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  20. Energy efficiency improvement of medical electric tools and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkov Aleksandr S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing volume of applications of various kinds of electric drives in all spheres of human activity, the issues in improving the efficiency of the electromechanical converters of electric energy, one of the most important components of the electric drive (ED, are becoming increasingly important. Such issues include reducing their weight and size, improving the functional characteristics of these devices to increase their operational life and reducing the cost of manufacture. Taking full advantage of these opportunities relates to the AC and DC single-phase commutator motor (SCM, which is widely used in regulated and high-speed motor drives in medical electric hand tools. The SCM is used in machinery where the load torque has a hyperbolic dependence on the rotational speed and the need to work with a large motor overload due to the “soft” mechanical characteristics of such motors.

  1. Distributed Frequency Control of Prosumer-Based Electric Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, MH; Costello, Z; Feizollahi, MJ; Grijalva, S; Egerstedt, M

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed frequency regulation framework for prosumer-based electric energy systems, where a prosumer (producer-consumer) is defined as an intelligent agentwhich can produce, consume, and/or store electricity. Despite the frequency regulators being distributed, stability can be ensured while avoiding inter-area oscillations using a limited control effort. To achieve this, a fully distributed one-step model-predictive control protocol is proposed and analyzed, whereby each prosumer communicates solely with its neighbors in the network. The efficacy of the proposed frequency regulation framework is shown through simulations on two real-world electric energy systems of different scale and complexity. We show that prosumers can indeed bring frequency and power deviations to their desired values after small perturbations.

  2. On the energy of electric field in hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that hydrogen atom is a unique object in physics having negative energy of electric field, which is present in the atom. This refers also to some hydrogen-type atoms: hydrogen anti-atom, atom composed of proton and antiproton, and positronium.

  3. Preparation and electrical characterization of ceramic material for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandrini, F.; Alvani, C.; Casadio, S.; De Logu, P.; Dikonimos Makris, T.; Masci, A.; Nannetti, C.A.; Petrucci, L. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia e Innovazione

    1993-11-01

    Ceramic oxides such as lithium aluminate, lithium zirconate, Y-doped zirconia and Sr-doped lanthanum manganite were prepared and characterized in terms of electric conductivity, a property related to their use in critical functional components of advanced energy converters, e.g., solid oxide fuel cell.

  4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  5. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles : Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  6. Wind energy for the electricity supply; Energie eolienne pour la fourniture d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, J.M

    2009-01-15

    This document deals with the today implementing of the wind energy for the supply of electricity in the electric power distribution network. It is based on the technologies developed to prepare the wind turbines installation, build the turbines of these power plants and plan the non continuous and weakly forecasting supply of the wind electricity with the current operating of the networks. (A.L.B.)

  7. The potential of net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) concept at design stage for healthcare buildings towards sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazli Abdellah, Roy; Asrul Nasid Masrom, Md; Chen, Goh Kai; Mohamed, Sulzakimin; Omar, Roshartini

    2017-11-01

    The focus on net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) has been widely analysed and discussed particularly when European Union Parliament are progressively moving towards regulation that promotes the improvement of energy efficiency (EE). Additionally, it also to reduce energy consumption through the recast of the EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) in which all new buildings to be “nearly Zero-Energy” Buildings by 2020. Broadly, there is a growing trend to explore the feasibility of net zero energy in healthcare sector as the level energy consumption for healthcare sector is found significantly high. Besides that, healthcare buildings energy consumption also exceeds of many other nondomestic building types, and this shortcoming is still undetermined yet especially for developing countries. This paper aims to review the potential of NZEBs in healthcare buildings by considering its concept in design features. Data are gathered through a comprehensive energy management literature review from previous studies. The review is vital to encourage construction players to increase their awareness, practices, and implementation of NZEBs in healthcare buildings. It suggests that NZEBs concept has a potential to be adapted in healthcare buildings through emphasizing of passive approach as well as the utilization of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy systems in buildings. This paper will provide a basis knowledge for construction key players mainly architects to promote NZEBs concept at design stage for healthcare buildings development.

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  9. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  10. On the 'Net Impact' of Europeanization. The EU's telecoms and electricity regimes between the global and the national

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levi-Faur

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Does Europeanization matter, and, if so, to what extent and in what respects? While research on the European Union is thriving, only limited efforts have been directed towards a discussion of this crucial question. This paper examines the outcome of the EU policy process from various comparative perspectives in an effort to distinguish the 'net effects' of EU membership and EU-level policy outcomes from more general – perhaps global – processes of change. The effects of EU membership are discussed in relation to the process of liberalization and the major question raised is whether Europeanization matters for the advance of liberalization. In responding to this question, the paper advances the following major argument: While the Europeanization of the telecoms and electricity industries has led to some liberalization, it is at best a mediating variable, not an independent one. The major features of liberalization would have been diffused to practically all member states even in the absence of the European Commission and other agents of supranationalism. This is not to suggest that Europeanization does not matter, but that it matters in less obvious and perhaps less critical ways than is frequently assumed. These arguments are supported by comparative empirical analysis of the spatial and temporal diffusion of liberalization across nations and sectors, and by a comparison of the diffusion of liberalization today with the diffusion of nationalization in the past.

  11. On the 'Net Impact' of Europeanization. The EU's telecoms and electricity regimes between the global and the national

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levi-Faur

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Does Europeanization matter, and, if so, to what extent and in what respects? While research on the European Union is thriving, only limited efforts have been directed towards a discussion of this crucial question. This paper examines the outcome of the EU policy process from various comparative perspectives in an effort to distinguish the 'net effects' of EU membership and EU-level policy outcomes from more general perhaps global processes of change. The effects of EU membership are discussed in relation to the process of liberalization and the major question raised is whether Europeanization matters for the advance of liberalization. In responding to this question, the paper advances the following major argument: While the Europeanization of the telecoms and electricity industries has led to some liberalization, it is at best a mediating variable, not an independent one. The major features of liberalization would have been diffused to practically all member states even in the absence of the European Commission and other agents of supranationalism. This is not to suggest that Europeanization does not matter, but that it matters in less obvious and perhaps less critical ways than is frequently assumed. These arguments are supported by comparative empirical analysis of the spatial and temporal diffusion of liberalization across nations and sectors, and by a comparison of the diffusion of liberalization today with the diffusion of nationalization in the past.

  12. Electrical and Wind Energy Coordination System for Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev

    2010-11-01

    Nowadays, policies are being developed in many countries in order to decrease their greenhouse gases emissions. While in this area some technologies are widely installed (hydro and solar energy), other ones, like the Wind energy could get an important role in the medium and long term. Coal, gas, diesel, atomic etc. are the basic Natural source of energy. The uses of these sources are also harmful to the nature because they produce the different types of pollution. On the other hand hydro and wind energy are Clean, Green, renewable energy and pollution free sources. Now a day's most of the Company manufactures the hybrid vehicles with the coordination. But they are suffering lot of limitation like the speed of the vehicle and travel distance by the vehicle. So here we have proposed the Electrical and wind energy coordination (EWEC) system. This system is highly useful to improve the overall performance of hybrid vehicle. This system is also 100% pollution free.

  13. Research on potential user identification model for electric energy substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huaijian; Chen, Meiling; Lin, Haiying; Yang, Shuo; Miao, Bo; Zhu, Xinzhi

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of energy substitution plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. Energy service management platform of alternative energy users based on the data in the enterprise production value, product output, coal and other energy consumption as a potential evaluation index, using principal component analysis model to simplify the formation of characteristic index, comprehensive index contains the original variables, and using fuzzy clustering model for the same industry user’s flexible classification. The comprehensive index number and user clustering classification based on constructed particle optimization neural network classification model based on the user, user can replace electric potential prediction. The results of an example show that the model can effectively predict the potential of users’ energy potential.

  14. The TELEC - A plasma type of direct energy converter. [Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter for electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) is a high-power density plasma device designed to convert a 10.6-micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. Electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in plasma electrons, creating a high-electron temperature. Energetic electrons diffuse from the plasma and strike two electrodes having different areas. The larger electrode collects more electrons and there is a net transport of current. An electromagnetic field is generated in the external circuit. A computer program has been designed to analyze TELEC performance allowing parametric variation for optimization. Values are presented for TELEC performance as a function of cesium pressure and for current density and efficiency as a function of output voltage. Efficiency is shown to increase with pressure, reaching a maximum over 45%.

  15. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on promotion of international cooperation in the WE-NET project in fiscal 1996. The WE-NET project aims at development of the total system for hydrogen production, transport, storage and utilization, and construction of the earth-friendly innovative global clean energy network integrating elemental technologies. Since the standpoint is different between latent resource supplying countries and technology supplying countries, the WE-NET project should be constantly promoted under international understanding and cooperation. The committee distributed the annual summary report prepared by NEDO to overseas organizations, and made positive PR activities in the 11th World Conference and others. The committee made the evaluation on the improvement effect of air pollution by introducing a hydrogen vehicle in combination with Stanford University, and preparation of PR video tapes for hydrogen energy. Preliminary arrangement of Internet home pages, establishment of a long-term vision for international cooperation, and proposal toward the practical WE-NET are also made. 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Dossier Autarky. Own energy first. Without the net. Bureaucracy hinders self supply; Het Dossier Autarkie. Eigen energie eerst. Los van het net. Bureaucratie belemmert zelfvoorziening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilmaker, R.

    2010-08-20

    Autarky in the field of energy is technically feasible and economically increasingly more attractive. The government makes it difficult for citizens to generate decentralized renewable energy with its bureaucracy and legislation. [Dutch] Autarkie op energiegebied is technisch mogelijk en ook economisch steeds aantrekkelijker bij stijgende rekeningen voor nutsvoorzieningen. De overheid maakt het burgers met bureaucratie en wetgeving echter lastig om decentraal duurzame energie op te wekken.

  17. Matching of renewable source of energy generation graphs and electrical load in local energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro; Komar, Vyacheslav; Sobchuk, Dmytro; Kravchuk, Sergiy; Kacejko, Piotr; Zavidsky, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    The paper contains the method of matching generation graph of photovoltaic electric stations and consumers. Characteristic feature of this method is the application of morphometric analysis for assessment of non-uniformity of the integrated graph of energy supply, optimal coefficients of current distribution, that enables by mean of refining the powers, transferring in accordance with the graph , to provide the decrease of electric energy losses in the grid and transport task, as the optimization tool.

  18. Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce; Kamath, Haresh; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-18

    The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

  19. Saving energy and protecting environment of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    With the concept of low carbon economy, saving energy, and protecting environment spread, the development of the electric promotes the research pace of wireless charging electronic vehicles, which will become the best choice of energy supply in the future. To generalize and exploit the corresponding alternative fuels and the research and development, and promotion of electric vehicles, becomes the effective means to directly reduce the consumption of fuel, effectively relieves the problem of nervous energy and environmental pollution, and really conforms to the requirements of the national strategy of sustainable development in China. This paper introduces the status of electronic cars and wireless charging, expounds the principle of wireless charging, and concludes the full text.

  20. Apparent metabolizable and net energy values of corn and soybean meal for broiler breeding cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Liu, G H; Liao, R B; Chang, Y L; Huang, X Y; Wu, Y B; Yang, H M; Yan, H J; Cai, H Y

    2017-01-01

    The AME and net energy (NE) values of 4 corn varieties, including 2 normal corn varieties (Zheng Dan 958 and Xian Yu 335), and one each of waxy corn and sweet corn, and 2 soybean meal samples including regular (RSBM) and dehulled soybean meal (DSBM), were determined in 2 experiments for broiler breeding cocks using the indirect calorimetry method. The 4 test diets in Experiment 1 consisted of each test corn, which replaced 40% of the corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the test diets in Experiment 2 contained 25% RSBM or DSBM, which was used to replace the corn basal diet. Thirty (Experiment 1) or 18 (Experiment 2) 50-week-old Arbor Acre (AA) broiler breeding cocks were used in a completely randomized design. After a 7 d dietary adaptation period, 6 birds as replicates from each treatment were assigned to individual respiration chambers for energy measurement via gaseous exchange and total excreta collection for 10 d. In Experiment 1, the AME, ME intake (MEI), retained energy (RE), NE, and NE:AME ratio values were higher (P < 0.001) in the test diets as compared with the corn-soybean meal basal diet. The AME and NE values in the sweet corn diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those values in the other 3 test diets. The heat production (HP), fasting heat production (FHP), and respiration quotient (RQ) were not influenced by the various experimental diets. The respective AME and NE values were 3,785, 3,775, 3,738, and 3,997 kcal/kg (DM basis), and 2,982, 3,006, 2,959, and 3,146 kcal/kg (DM basis) for Zheng Dan 958, Xian Yu 335, waxy corn, and sweet corn. Birds fed a corn basal diet in Experiment 2 had higher AME, MEI, RE, NE, and NE:AME ratio values (P < 0.001). Soybean meal substitution had no effect on HP, FHP, or RQ. The average AME and NE content was 2,492 and 1,581 kcal/kg (DM basis) for RSBM, and 2,580 and 1,654 kcal/kg (DM basis) for DSBM, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. 77 FR 11515 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Pilot Power Group, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Power proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal... date listed above. Comments on the Pilot Power application to export electric energy to Mexico should... Application To Export Electric Energy; Pilot Power Group, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and...

  2. 78 FR 11633 - Application To Export Electric Energy; ConocoPhillips Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... electric energy that CoP proposes to export to Mexico will be surplus to the needs of the selling entities... Application To Export Electric Energy; ConocoPhillips Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to...

  3. 76 FR 37797 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... United States. The electric energy that Freepoint Commodities proposes to export to Mexico would be... application to export electric energy to Mexico should be clearly marked with OE Docket No.EA-379. An... Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and...

  4. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power... export electric energy to Mexico should be clearly marked with Docket No. EA-373. Additional copies are... Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery...

  5. Net electron energy gain induced by superluminal phase velocity and subluminal group velocity of a laser in a plasma channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Yao, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2017-08-01

    We examine electron dynamics induced by laser-plasma interaction in a two-dimensional plasma channel, taking into action the laser phase velocity as well as the group velocity. The coupled effects of phase velocity, group velocity, and plasma channel on electron dynamics are discussed in detail. The superluminal phase velocity and the corresponding subluminal group velocity of the laser result in rich and complex electron dynamics, which are depicted in the plane of the phase velocity and plasma charge density. For weak superluminosity of the phase velocity, the effects of the phase velocity and the group velocity can be neglected. For moderate superluminosity of the phase velocity, a cross-over region can exist, where the highly energetic electron could be found and the net energy gain is several times greater than the energy gain in vacuum. For strong superluminosity of the phase velocity, the dephasing rate increases and thus limits the electron energy gain from the laser. However, the asymmetric laser pulse, attributed by the superluminal phase velocity and the subluminal group velocity, results in the electron getting adjustable net energy gain from the laser. The electron oscillations are no longer limited by the charge density threshold and the electron can always get net energy from the laser. These electron dynamics can also be modified by adjusting the polarization of the laser.

  6. Energy Behavior Change and Army Net Zero Energy; Gaps in the Army’s Approach to Changing Energy Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    messenger approach provides only self-reinforcing information. Related is the eighth problem, which is human nature that supports complacency by only...Sustainability, and energy conservation programs. For example, the Army National Guard maintains a sustainability Facebook page as does the Assistant 67

  7. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  8. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  9. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  10. Fort Lewis electric energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Currie, J.W.; DeSteese, J.G.; Dirks, J.A.; Marseille, T.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1991-10-01

    In support of the US DOE Federal Energy Management Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations. Fort Lewis, a US Army installation near Tacoma, Washington, was selected as the pilot site for developing this approach. This site was chosen in conjunction with the interests of the Bonneville Power Administration to develop programs for its federal sector customers and the Army Forces Command to develop an in-house program to upgrade the energy efficiency of its installations. This report documents the electricity assessment portion of the approach, providing an estimate of the electricity use baseline and efficiency improvement potential for major sectors and end uses at the Fort. Although the assessment did not identify all possible efficiency improvement opportunities, it is estimated that electricity use can be reduced by at least 20% cost-effectively at the $0.045/kWh marginal cost of electricity in the Pacific Northwest. 12 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Comparing solar photovoltaic energy versus stretch of the lines on transmission: real case of lacking rural community without electric energy; Comparativo entre energia solar fotovoltaica versus extensao de rede, aplicado em caso concreto de uma comunidade carente e remota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Gastaldi, Andre Fava [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the work observed a lacking rural community and without electric energy. They were analyzed and compared two approaches of lead energy to this population: Photovoltaic energy and stretch of the lines of transmission from the concessionaire. It carried out himself a study about the photovoltaic system as well as electric kinds of batteries, controllers, panels photovoltaic and invertors. Had also a hoist about the costs of acquisition, installation and maintenance of the photovoltaic system and of the conventional system (stretch from the net from the concessionaire of energy). Finally compared the two systems regarding the costs. (author)

  12. Forecasting of Hourly Photovoltaic Energy in Canarian Electrical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, D.; Castaño, C.; Nebot, R.; Piernavieja, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    2010-09-01

    The Canarian Archipelago face similar problems as most insular region lacking of endogenous conventional energy resources and not connected to continental electrical grids. A consequence of the "insular fact" is the existence of isolated electrical systems that are very difficult to interconnect due to the considerable sea depths between the islands. Currently, the Canary Islands have six isolated electrical systems, only one utility generating most of the electricity (burning fuel), a recently arrived TSO (REE) and still a low implementation of Renewable Energy Resources (RES). The low level of RES deployment is a consequence of two main facts: the weakness of the stand-alone grids (from 12 MW in El Hierro up to only 1 GW in Gran Canaria) and the lack of space to install RES systems (more than 50% of the land protected due to environmental reasons). To increase the penetration of renewable energy generation, like solar or wind energy, is necessary to develop tools to manage them. The penetration of non manageable sources into weak grids like the Canarian ones causes a big problem to the grid operator. There are currently 104 MW of PV connected to the islands grids (Dec. 2009) and additional 150 MW under licensing. This power presents a serious challenge for the operation and stability of the electrical system. ITC, together with the local TSO (Red Eléctrica de España, REE) started in 2008 and R&D project to develop a PV energy prediction tool for the six Canarian Insular electrical systems. The objective is to supply reliable information for hourly forecast of the generation dispatch programme and to predict daily solar radiation patterns, in order to help program spinning reserves. ITC has approached the task of weather forecasting using different numerical model (MM5 and WRF) in combination with MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) images. From the online data recorded at several monitored PV plants and meteorological stations, PV nominal power and energy produced

  13. Wind energy for electricity generation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Different aspects of the island Sri Lanka are discussed in relation to the use of wind energy to generate electric power. The electricity demand and supply are dealt with as well as geo-climatic features. Wind resources in different parts of Sri Lanka are determined. Further study is needed to achieve more data on wind potential and wind speeds. Finally a case study is discussed, carried out to assess the feasibility of integration of wind and hydro resources in combination to meet a predetermined load to be used in an optimal configuration. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for the hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 1. Investigations and researched on system assessment; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 1. System hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-1. Technologies drawing attentions relate to fuel cell driven automobiles and hybrid automobiles in the field of utilizing hydrogen derived from reproducible energies and fossil energies, and fuel cell co-generation and micro gas turbine co-generation in the field of electric power generation. Hydrogen reformed from gasoline on board the automobile as the fuel for fuel cell driven automobiles, hydrogen as a by-product of coke furnace off-gas (COG), and reproducible energy hydrogen have the same fuel consumption performance as in the hybrid automobiles. Particularly the COG is low in cost, and has large supply potential. Liquefied hydrogen is as promising as compressed hydrogen in view of the cost for automotive hydrogen supply stations. What has high economic performance as the self-sustaining systems for islands are photovoltaic and wind power generation, and the system using hydrogen as the secondary energy. Since much of the reproducible energies is used for electric power demand in Japan, the by-product hydrogen and the reformed hydrogen in an amount of 9.3 billion Nm{sup 3}/year would take care of majority of the demand in view of the short time period. For a longer time span, hydrogen originated from the reproduced energies in the Pan-Pacific Region should be introduced. (NEDO)

  15. Energy efficiency and CO2: is electricity the key factor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Europe must face soon to the depletion of fossil energy resources. Efficiency in end energy uses is a key to prepare this challenge. First, the report shows that significant energy efficiency capacities remain in the main economy sectors in France and Europe: buildings, industry, transportation. The key technologies, mainly electricity-driven, are briefly presented, together with the related main tracks for R and D: heat pumps, thermal insulation, induction and mechanical vapour compression for industry, plugged hybrid vehicle, LED sources for lighting. Their ability to decrease CO2 emissions is shown. Control equipment and users behaviour are pointed out, mainly with the key role of price energy with recent French experience : load shifting, peak shaving. Finally, the report shows that a firm policy, based on high performance equipments, could lead to a significant decrease of energy needs in France around 2030.

  16. A Nearly Net-Zero Exergy District as a Model for Smarter Energy Systems in the Context of Urban Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kılkış, Şiir

    2017-01-01

    The planning of urban settlements requires a targeted approach towards more sustainable energy, water, and environment systems. This research work analyses the city of Uppsala and a district that is an urban renewal project at the site of former high voltage power lines, namely Östra Sala backe, which will have a new energy concept. The latter is analysed based on proposals for two phases that aim to reach a net-zero district target based on the quality of energy (exergy). An indicator set...

  17. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    The project “Solar/electric heating systems in the future energy system” was carried out in the period 2008‐2013. The project partners were DTU Byg, DTU Informatics (now DTU Compute), DMI, ENFOR A/S and COWI A/S. The companies Ajva ApS, Ohmatex ApS and Innogie ApS worked together with the project...... partners in two connected projects in order to develop solar/electric heating systems for laboratory tests. The project was financed by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation under the Danish Council for Strategic Research in the program Sustainable Energy and Environment. The DSF number...... of the project is 2104‐07‐0021/09‐063201/DSF. This report is the final report of the project. The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating...

  18. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  19. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  20. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  1. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  2. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  3. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  4. Integrated Combined Heat and Power System Dispatch Considering Electrical and Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiang Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has achieved great development in Northern China, but abundant wind power is dissipated, rather than utilized, due to inflexible electricity production of combined heat and power (CHP units. In this paper, an integrated CHP system consisting of CHP units, wind power plants, and condensing power plants is investigated to decouple the power and heat production on both the power supply side and heat supply side, by incorporating electrical energy storage (EES and thermal energy storage (TES. Then the integrated CHP system dispatch (ICHPSD model is formulated to reach the target of reducing wind power curtailment and primary energy consumption. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed ICHPSD model are verified by the six-bus system, and the simulation results show that EES has a better effect on wind power integration than TES. The annual net benefits by incorporating EES and TES increase with increasing wind penetration, but they gradually approach saturation. Introducing both EES and TES can largely increase the amount of wind power integration and improve the operation efficiency of the system.

  5. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance

    2016-01-01

    A 2715 ft2 (252 m2), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft-2, 51.7 kWh m-2), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft-2, 24.7 kWh m-2) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W-1h-1 (2.95 W W-1), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W-1h-1 (4.63 W W-1). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W-1h-1 (2.09 W W-1), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W-1h-1 (2.65 W W-1). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively.

  6. EMR modelling of a hydrogen-based electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbli, K. S.; Hissel, D.; Péra, M.-C.; Doumbia, I.

    2011-05-01

    This paper deals with multi-physics modelling of the stationary system. This modelling is the first step to reach the fuel cell system dimensioning aim pursued. Besides this modelling approach based on the stationary energetic system, the novelty in this paper is both the new approach of the photovoltaic EMR modelling and the EMR of the hydrogen storage process. The granular modelling approach is used to model each component of the system. Considering a stand alone PEM fuel cell system, hydrogen is expected to be produced and stored on the spot from renewable energy (photovoltaic) in order to satisfy the fuel availability. In fact, to develop a generic and modular model, energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is used as graphical modelling tool. Allowing to be easily grasped by the experts even not necessarily gotten used to the modelling formalism, EMR is helpful to model the multi-domains energetic chain. The solar energy through solar module is converted in electrical energy; part of this energy is transformed in chemical energy (hydrogen) thanks to an electrolyser. Then the hydrogen is compressed into a tank across a storage system. The latter part of the solar module energy is stored as electrical energy within supercapacitor or lead-acid battery. Using the modularity feature of the EMR, the whole system is modelled entity by entity; afterwards by putting them together the overall system has been reconstructed. According to the scale effect of the system entities, some simulation and/or experimental results are given. Given to the different aims which are pursued in the sustainable energy framework like prediction, control and optimisation, EMR modelling approach is a reliable option for the energy management in real time of energetic system in macroscopic point of view.

  7. Efficiency of a gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical wave energy to electrical energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin; Darula, Radoslav; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical ocean wave energy to electrical energy. Two models of the device derived from standard engineering mechanics from the literature are analysed, and a model is derived from analytical mechanics considerations. From...

  8. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...-Standard Horsepower and Kilowatt Ratings i. Summary 2. Product Classes B. Screening Analysis C. Engineering... Period Analysis 1. Installation Cost 2. Energy Prices 3. Energy Price Trend 4. Maintenance and Repair... program for ``Certain Industrial Equipment,'' which includes small electric motors, the subject of this...

  9. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  10. Electrical energy in the future. A vision of 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Królikowski; Błażej Walczak; Adrian Wójcik; Andrzej Aftański

    2012-01-01

    The article contains scenarios for the power sector’s development until 2050, as proposed by students of Electrical High School No. 4 in Wloclawek. Many current trends in the development of technology have led the authors to attribute the verisimilitude to their selected visions of the future. The growing demand for energy, while fossil fuel resources and traditional methods of processing them are shrinking, will cause dissemination of the use of so-called environment-friendly sources of ener...

  11. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  12. Integrated design by optimization of electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roboam, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular integrated optimal design with modeling and optimization methods and tools. It is made up of six chapters dedicated to integrated optimal design. First, the signal processing of mission profiles and system environment variables are discussed. Then, optimization-oriented analytical models, methods and tools (design frameworks) are proposed. A "multi-level optimization" smartly coupling several optimization processes is the subject of one chapter. Finally, a technico-economic optimizatio

  13. Federal R&D Agenda for Net Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    indicate a gap between design intent and construction that results in reduced energy performance (Torcellini et al. 2006). Building energy efficiency is...occupant, building, or community needs and preferences. New technologies that maximize building energy efficiency and minimize operational energy use...including low-income home energy assistance program, weatherization assistance, state energy programs, state building energy efficiency codes incentives and

  14. Net charge changes in the calculation of relative ligand-binding free energies via classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Maria M; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-01-30

    The calculation of binding free energies of charged species to a target molecule is a frequently encountered problem in molecular dynamics studies of (bio-)chemical thermodynamics. Many important endogenous receptor-binding molecules, enzyme substrates, or drug molecules have a nonzero net charge. Absolute binding free energies, as well as binding free energies relative to another molecule with a different net charge will be affected by artifacts due to the used effective electrostatic interaction function and associated parameters (e.g., size of the computational box). In the present study, charging contributions to binding free energies of small oligoatomic ions to a series of model host cavities functionalized with different chemical groups are calculated with classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. Electrostatic interactions are treated using a lattice-summation scheme or a cutoff-truncation scheme with Barker-Watts reaction-field correction, and the simulations are conducted in boxes of different edge lengths. It is illustrated that the charging free energies of the guest molecules in water and in the host strongly depend on the applied methodology and that neglect of correction terms for the artifacts introduced by the finite size of the simulated system and the use of an effective electrostatic interaction function considerably impairs the thermodynamic interpretation of guest-host interactions. Application of correction terms for the various artifacts yields consistent results for the charging contribution to binding free energies and is thus a prerequisite for the valid interpretation or prediction of experimental data via molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis and correction of electrostatic artifacts according to the scheme proposed in the present study should therefore be considered an integral part of careful free-energy calculation studies if changes in the net charge are involved. © The Authors Journal of Computational Chemistry

  15. High-Energy Neutrino Searches in the Mediterranean Sea: probing the Universe with antares and km3net-arca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchner, Antoine; "> antares, net- and in particular its high-energy component arca.

  16. Competitiveness of grid-connected solar electricity in Sweden - as seen from the perspective of the utilities and the net owners; Konkurrenskraft foer naetansluten solel i Sverige - sett ur kraftfoeretagens och naetaegarnas perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstedt, Nils-Eric [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Bjoern; Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Olof [Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Neij, Lena [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this report was to analyse the competitiveness of grid-connected solar power in Sweden - and specifically the competitiveness for energy companies and net owners. In theory, solar power could to a large extent fulfil the electricity demand in Sweden, especially in the summer. However, the high cost of solar cells is a major barrier to implementation. Future technology development and increased efficiency could, however, lead to important cost reductions. The question is if such expected cost reductions would make grid-connected solar power a preferable investment option for energy companies and an interesting alternative for the net owners. The results of the study show that solar power will not be a competitive alternative for the energy companies in Sweden, not in 2020 and probably not in 2050. Other alternatives such as new investments in wind turbines and bio-mass based technology options will be producing electricity at a lower cost. Moreover, solar power will have an unfavourable production profile, generating power in the summertime when less needed. However, by using the reservoirs of the hydro power systems in Sweden as storage capacity, approximately 5 TWh solar power could be allowed in the Swedish electricity system. The results of the study indicate that solar power could have a positive effect on the electricity distribution system since distributed generation will result in lower losses in the system. Moreover, solar power will be produced during daytime when the electricity demand will peak. One of the main challenges for the net owners would be to design the net in such a way that the net and the solar cells could work together in the best possible way. Another challenge would be the high cost for connecting the solar cells to the grid; this cost needs to be reduced. Looking instead at the house-owners as possible investors, solar cells appear as a much more attractive alternative for the future, the value of the solar power is

  17. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  18. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  19. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  20. Fluctuations and Correlations of net baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness: A comparison of lattice QCD results with the hadron resonance gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; DeTar, C E; Ding, H -T; Gottlieb, Steven; Gupta, Rajan; Hegde, P; Heller, Urs; Karsch, F; Laermann, E; Levkova, L; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, Christian; Soltz, R A; Soeldner, W; Sugar, R; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the quadratic fluctuations of net baryon number, electric charge and strangeness as well as correlations among these conserved charges in (2+1)-flavor lattice QCD at zero chemical potential. Results in the continuum limit are obtained using calculations with tree level improved gauge and the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) actions with almost physical light and strange quark masses at three different values of the lattice cut-off. We compare our results with the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model calculations and find agreement with HRG model results only for temperatures T < 150 MeV. We observe significant deviations in the temperature range 160 MeV < T < 170 MeV and qualitative differences in the behavior of the three conserved charge sectors. At $T \\simeq 160 MeV$ quadratic net baryon number fluctuations in QCD agree with HRG model calculations while, the net electric charge fluctuations in QCD are about 10% smaller and net strangeness fluctuations are about 20% larger. These fin...

  1. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  2. Electric field and energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperbolaidal electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Koo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    The electric potential and intensity field, as well as the energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperboloidal electrodes is evaluated as a superposition of prolate spheroidal harmonics using the Green-function technique. This study is motivated by the need to model the electric field between the tip and the sample in a scanning tunnelling microscope, and it can also be applied to a conductor-insulator-conductor junction. [Spanish] Los campos de potencial y de intensidad electrica, asi como la energia de una carga electrica puntual entre electrodos hiperboloidales confocales se evaluan como superposiciones de armonicos esferoidales prolatos usando la tecnica de la funcion de Green. Este estudio ha sido motivado por la necesidad de modelar el campo electrico entre la punta y la muestra de un microscopio de tunelamiento y barrido, y se puede aplicar tambien a una union de conductor-aislante-conductor.

  3. Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cesare Callarotti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We model the low frequency electrical heating of submarine methane hydrate deposits located at depths between 1000 and 1500 m, and determine the energy return on energy invested (EROI for this process. By means of the enthalpy method, we calculate the time-dependent heating of these deposits under applied electrical power supplied to a cylindrical heater located at the center of the reservoir and at variable depths. The conversion of the produced water to steam is avoided by limiting the heater temperature. We calculate the volume of methane hydrate that will melt and the energy equivalent of the gas thus generated. The partial energy efficiency of this heating process is obtained as the ratio of the gas equivalent energy to the applied electrical energy. We obtain EROI values in the range of 4 to 5, depending on the location of the heater. If the methane gas is used to generate the electrical energy required in the heating (in processes with a 33% efficiency, the effective EROI of the process falls in the range of 4/3 to 5/3.

  4. Economic analysis of the generation of electric energy from biogas in pig production; Analise economica da geracao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas na suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Franco M.; Oliveira, Paulo A.V. de [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], Emails: franco@cnpsa.embrapa.br, paolive@cnpsa.embrapa.br

    2011-06-15

    The demand for alternative sources of energy has grown in recent years in line with the variation of petroleum prices coupled with the recent energy crisis. Through anaerobic digestion swine manure can be converted into biogas. In the present study it was evaluated the economic viability of using biogas as an alternative source for the production of electricity, for different periods of generation. The method used for the economic evaluation was the net present value (NPV). The time of return on invested capital was also calculated taking into account the discount interest rate on cash flows. The study proved to be economically viable use of biogas from swine manure as a source for generating electricity. The increased demand for electricity in the property increases the net present value and decreases the time required for return of the investment. (author)

  5. Water and energy link in the cities of the future - achieving net zero carbon and pollution emissions footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, V

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the link between water conservation, reclamation, reuse and energy use as related to the goal of achieving the net zero carbon emission footprint in future sustainable cities. It defines sustainable ecocities and outlines quantitatively steps towards the reduction of energy use due to water and used water flows, management and limits in linear and closed loop water/stormwater/wastewater management systems. The three phase water energy nexus diagram may have a minimum inflection point beyond which reduction of water demand may not result in a reduction of energy and carbon emissions. Hence, water conservation is the best alternative solution to water shortages and minimizing the carbon footprint. A marginal water/energy chart is developed and proposed to assist planners in developing future ecocities and retrofitting older communities to achieve sustainability.

  6. A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks using fuzzy Petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Fu, Xiao; Cai, Yuanli; Vuran, Mehmet C

    2011-01-01

    A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm considers the residual energy, number of the neighbors and centrality of each node for cluster formation, which is critical for well-balanced energy dissipation of the network. In the algorithm, a knowledge-based inference approach using fuzzy Petri nets is employed to select cluster heads, and then the fuzzy reasoning mechanism is used to compute the degree of reliability in the route sprouting tree from cluster heads to the base station. Finally, the most reliable route among the cluster heads can be constructed. The algorithm not only balances the energy load of each node but also provides global reliability for the whole network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively prolongs the network lifetime and reduces the energy consumption.

  7. Investigation of the impact of using thermal mass with the net zero energy town house in Toronto using TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, O.; Fung, A.; Tse, H.; Zhang, D. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Since buildings in Canada account for 30 per cent of the country's total energy consumption, it has become necessary to find ways to reduce the overall energy use in buildings. Heating and cooling loads in buildings can be effectively reduced by using the thermal mass incorporated into the building envelope, particularly in climates where a large daily temperature fluctuations exist. Thermal mass is defined as any building material that has a high heat storage capacity that can be integrated into the structural fabric of the building to use the passive solar energy for heating or cooling purposes. Concrete slabs, bricks and ceramic blocks are some of the commonly used materials. This study analyzed the impact of using thermal mass with a highly insulated building envelope such as that used in Low Energy or Net Zero housing. In particular, TRNSYS was used to simulate a Net Zero Energy Town House located in Toronto, in which a ground source heat pump was integrated with an infloor radiant heating system. The simulation revealed that for colder climates such as in Canada, thermal mass can replace some of the insulation while still providing excellent results in terms of the reductions in daily indoor temperature fluctuations. The impact of thermal mass during the winter was more significant when compared with summer, possibly because of the unique construction and orientation of the Net Zero Energy House. The optimum thickness of the concrete slab was determined to be 6 inches for the winter season and 4 inches for summer. The optimum location for the thermal mass was found to be right next to the gypsum wallboard that forms the interior part of the wall. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  8. 75 FR 41166 - Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability; Notice of Reestablishment of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability; Notice of Reestablishment of the Electricity Advisory... the Electricity Advisory Committee has been reestablished for a two-year period. The Committee will provide advice to the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE), on its programs to...

  9. “Charge while driving” for electric vehicles: road traffic modeling and energy assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DEFLORIO, Francesco Paolo; CASTELLO, Luca; PINNA, Ivano; GUGLIELMI, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    ...) electric vehicles, from both traffic and energy points of view. To accurately quantify the electric power required from an energy supplier for the proper management of the charging system, a traffic simulation model is implemented...

  10. Value assessment of hydrogen-based electrical energy storage in view of electricity spot market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Zong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier represents one of the most promising carbon-free energy solutions. The ongoing development of power-to-gas (PtG) technologies that supports large-scale utilization of hydrogen is therefore expected to support hydrogen economy with a final breakthrough. In this paper...... electricity spot market that has high price volatility due to its high share of wind power. An economic dispatch model is developed as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem to support the estimation of variable cost of such a system taking into account a good granularity of the technical details. Based...

  11. European energy markets integration and its effects on prices and efficiency of electricity producing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Armada Ramírez, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    [eng] In this work we investigate the effect of energy (electricity) market integration in Europe and its effects on electricity prices and efficiency improvements in electricity producing firms. We first describe at detail the electricity sector, the role of electricity markets, the main characteristics of electricity as a commodity as well as the main features of this particular and strategic sector, we speak about the evolution of consumption of electricity in developed countries and parti...

  12. Robust Control of Aeronautical Electrical Generators for Energy Management Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Canciello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy for the control of aeronautical electrical generators via sliding manifold selection is proposed, with an associated innovative intelligent energy management strategy used for efficient power transfer between two sources providing energy to aeronautical loads, having different functionalities and priorities. Electric generators used for aeronautical application involve several machines, including a main generator and an exciter. Standard regulators (PI or PID-like are normally used for the rectification of the generator voltage to be used to supply a high-voltage DC bus. The regulation is obtained by acting on a DC/DC converter that imposes the field voltage of the exciter. In this paper, the field voltage is fed to the generator windings by using a second-order sliding mode controller, resulting into a stable, robust (against disturbances action and a fast convergence to the desired reference. By using this strategy, an energy management strategy is proposed that dynamically changes the voltage set point, in order to intelligently transfer power between two voltage busses. Detailed simulation results are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy in different scenarios.

  13. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  14. Status of photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen and electrical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Walker, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency for conversion of electromagnetic energy to chemical and electrical energy utilizing semiconductor single crystals as photoanodes in electrochemical cells was investigated. Efficiencies as high as 20 percent were achieved for the conversion of 330 nm radiation to chemical energy in the form of hydrogen by the photoelectrolysis of water in a SrTiO3 based cell. The SrTiO3 photoanodes were shown to be stable in 9.5 M NaOH solutions for periods up to 48 hours. Efficiencies of 9 percent were measured for the conversion of broadband visible radiation to hydrogen using n-type GaAs crystals as photoanodes. Crystals of GaAs coated with 500 nm of gold, silver, or tin for surface passivation show no significant change in efficiency. By suppressing the production of hydrogen in a CdSe-based photogalvanic cell, an efficiency of 9 percent was obtained in conversion of 633 nm light to electrical energy. A CdS-based photogalvanic cell produced a conversion efficiency of 5 percent for 500 nm radiation.

  15. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  16. Electrical energy in the future. A vision of 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Królikowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains scenarios for the power sector’s development until 2050, as proposed by students of Electrical High School No. 4 in Wloclawek. Many current trends in the development of technology have led the authors to attribute the verisimilitude to their selected visions of the future. The growing demand for energy, while fossil fuel resources and traditional methods of processing them are shrinking, will cause dissemination of the use of so-called environment-friendly sources of energy, such as wind or biomass. Energy will be commonly converted in domestic power stations equipped with energy storage capabilities and integrated with the grid by smart controllers for two-way energy transfer. The power grid role will change, and the existing energy consumers will become its prosumers. In the opinion of the authors the only alternative for this power sector development vision may be thermonuclear generation, which requires, however, incredibly high capital expenditures and level of technological development. However, launching thermonuclear power plants would free humanity from the fear of a future predominated by energy crisis.

  17. Energy droughts in a 100% renewable electricity mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Damien; Hingray, Benoît; François, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    During the 21st conference of parties, 175 countries agreed on limiting the temperature increase due to global warming to 2°C above preindustrial levels. Such an ambitious goal necessitates a deep transformation of our society in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Europe has started its energy transition years ago by, for instance, increasing the share of renewables in the European electricity generation and should continue in this direction. Variable renewable energies (VRE) and especially those driven by weather conditions (namely wind, solar and hydro power from river flow), are expected to play a key role in achieving the GHG reduction target. However, these renewables are often criticized for their intermittency and for the resulting difficult integration in the power supply system, especially for large shares of VRE in the energy mix. Assessing the feasibility of electricity generation using large contributions of VRE requires a deep understanding and characterization of the VRE spatiotemporal variations. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the short-term intermittency of VRE generation, but the persistency and the characteristics of periods of low/high electricity generation have been rarely studied. Yet, these particular situations require some demanding adaptations of the power supply system in term of back-up sources or production curtailment respectively. This study focuses on what we call "energy droughts" which, by analogy with hydrological or meteorological droughts, are defined as periods of very low energy production. We consider in turn "energy droughts" associated to wind, solar and hydro power (run-of-the-river). Their characteristics are estimated for 12 European regions being subjected to different climatic regimes. For each region and energy source, "droughts" are evaluated from a 30-yr time series of power generation (1983-2012). These series are simulated by using a suite of weather-to-energy conversion models with

  18. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  19. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  20. Supercapacitors for the energy management of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioli, Eugenio; Rena, Piergeorgio; Danel, Veronique; Andrieu, X.; Mallant, Ronald; Kahlen, Hans

    The integration of the on-board energy source of an electrically propelled vehicle with a supercapacitor bank (SB) as a peak power unit, can lead to substantial benefits in terms of electric vehicle performances, battery life and energy economy. Different architectures may be envisaged, to be chosen according to technical-economical trade-off. A research activity, supported by the European Community in the frame of the Joule III program and titled `Development of Supercapacitors for Electric Vehicles' (contract JOE3-CT95-0001), has been in progress since the beginning of 1996. The partners involved are SAFT (project leader), Alcatel Alsthom Research (France), Centro Ricerche Fiat (Italy), University of Kaiserslautern (Germany), Danionics (DK) and ECN (Netherlands). Its objective is to develop a SB and its electronic control and to integrate them in two different full-scale traction systems, supplied, respectively, by sealed lead traction batteries and by a fuel cell system. Through the bench tests, it will be possible to evaluate the impact of the SB on both traction systems. In this paper, a project overview will be given; the power management strategy principles, the supercapacitor's control electronic devices, the system's architecture and the supercapacitor's requirements on the base of the simulation results, will be examined.

  1. Hierarchical energy management mechanisms for an electricity market with microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Tzer Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a micro-grid electricity market (MGEM with day-ahead (DA and real-time market mechanisms integrated. The bidding mechanisms for the market are described in this study, considering the generation cost of different distributed energy resources (DERs, like distributed generator, energy storage system and demand response. Including load and renewable generation forecasting systems and a fuzzy decision supporting system, a hierarchical micro-grid energy management system (MG-EMS is then proposed to ensure the benefits of involved micro-grid central controller, DER owners and customers. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, the whole-year historical pricing and load data for New England independent system operator are employed. The numerical results show that the proposed MG-EMS is promising and effective for the operations of MGEM.

  2. Research on an Integrated Hydrostatic-Driven Electric Generator with Controllable Load for Renewable Energy Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tao Wang; He Wang

    2017-01-01

    A hydrostatic transmission is a promising technology in renewable energy harvesting, such as wind energy and wave energy, where the hydrostatic-driven electric generator is a key energy conversion component...

  3. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies within...

  4. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia... application from Energia Renovable for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico...

  5. Energy saving for OpenFlow switch on the NetFPGA platform based on queue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tran Hoang; Luc, Vu Cong; Quan, Nguyen Trung; Thanh, Nguyen Huu; Nam, Pham Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Data centers play an important role in our daily activities. The increasing demand on data centers in both scale and size has led to huge energy consumption that rises the cost of data centers. Besides, environmental impacts also increase considerably due to a large amount of carbon emissions. In this paper, we present a design aimed at green networking by reducing the power consumption for routers and switches. Firstly, we design the Balance Switch on the NetFPGA platform to save consumed energy based on Queue Engineering. Secondly, we design the test-bed system to precisely measure the consumed energy of our switches. Experimental results show that energy saving of our switches is about 30% - 35% of power consumption according to variation of input traffic compared with normal Openflow Switch. Finally, we describe performance evaluations.

  6. Research on data collection key technology of smart electric energy meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Mouhailiu; Renheng, Xu

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, smart electric energy meters are demand at 70 million to 90 million with the strong smart grid construction every year in China. However, there are some issues in smart electric energy meters data collection such as the interference of environment, low collection efficiency and inability to work when the power is off. In order to solve these issues above, it uses the RFID communication technology to collect the numbers and electric energy information of smart electric energy meters on the basis of the existing smart electric energy meters, and the related data collection communication experiments were made. The experimental result shows that the electric information and other data batch collection of RFID smart electric energy meters are realized in power and power off. It improves the efficiency and the overall success rate is 99.2% within 2 meters. It provides a new method for smart electric energy meters data collection.

  7. Real-Time Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real-time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and mechanical (flywheel. The real-time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst-case scenario, only the engine is used and the hybrid system is completely disabled. A rule-based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and could be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work machine and its position via GPS and maps both of them to the gains.

  8. Chapter 7: Renewable Energy Options and Considerations for Net Zero Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Samuel

    2017-03-15

    This chapter focuses on renewable energy options for military installations. It discusses typical renewable technologies, project development, and gives examples. Renewable energy can be combined with conventional energy sources to provide part or all of the energy demand at an installation. The appropriate technology mix for an installation will depend on site-specific factors such as renewable resources, energy costs, local energy policies and incentives, available land, mission compatibility, and other factors. The objective of this chapter is to provide basic background information and resources on renewable energy options for NATO leaders and energy personnel.

  9. Federal Existing Buildings Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined zero energy buildings as "an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This handbook is focused on applying the EERE definition of zero energy buildings to existing buildings in the federal sector. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  10. Federal New Buildings Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined zero energy buildings as "an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This document is focused on applying EERE’s definition of zero energy buildings to federal sector new buildings. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  11. Redesign of a Rural Building in a Heritage Site in Italy: Towards the Net Zero Energy Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cellura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the ambitious objective of decarbonising the economy, it is mandatory, especially in Europe and in Italy, to include the retrofitting of existing buildings. In a country where a large share of existing buildings have heritage value, it is important to design effective retrofit solutions also in historical buildings. In this context, the paper describes the experience of re-design of an existing rural building located in Sicily, inside the ancient Greeks' “Valley of the Temples”. An energy audit was performed on the building, and its energy uses were thoroughly investigated. A building model was developed in the TRNSYS environment and its performances validated. The validated model was used for redesign studies aimed towards the achievement of the Net Zero Energy Building target. The best performing solutions to be applied to a case study like the Sanfilippo House were those regarding the management of the building, as in the case of the natural ventilation and the energy systems setpoints, that would allow a large impact (up to 10% reductions in energy uses on the energy performances of the building with no invasiveness, and those with very limited invasiveness and high impact on the energy efficiency of the building, as in the lighting scenario (up to 30% energy uses reduction. The most invasive actions can only be justified in the case of high energy savings, as in the case of the insulation of the roof, otherwise they should be disregarded.

  12. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)

    1996-10-01

    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  13. Demonstrate Energy Component of the Installation Master Plan Using Net Zero Installation Virtual Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    selections from the MILP optimization 26 2-25 The cluster optimization analysis page. Here, the District Hot Water alternative is expanded to show...VAV Variable Air Volume VFD Variable Frequency Drive XML Extensible Markup Language XPS Extruded Polystyrene xvi 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION...Installations Directive, which expanded the Net Zero Initiative beyond the pilot installations to all permanent Army installations. The U.S. Navy is

  14. Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajlan, S.A. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: salajlan@kacst.edu.sa; Al-Ibrahim, A.M. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Abdulkhaleq, M. [Ministry of Water and Electricity (Saudi Arabia); Alghamdi, F. [Ministry of Water and Electricity (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-09-15

    Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this

  15. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002; Statistiques de l'energie electrique en France - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  16. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to discuss the economical and the environmental analysis of a net zero energy (NZE tourist village in Alexandria, Egypt, by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. The hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for the proposed tourist village under the study. The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels (58.09% solar energy penetration, 1000 kW of wind turbines (41.34% wind energy penetration, 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator (only 0.57% diesel generator penetration in addition to 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each. The levelized cost of energy (COE from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh and the total net present cost (NPC of this system is $15,383,360. Additionally, the maximum renewable energy fraction is 99.1% and the amount of GHG emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparison with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system. In addition to this, the achieved percentage of the capacity shortage and the unmet load in the optimal HRES is only 0% for both.

  17. Vocational-Technical Physics Project. The Alternator: I. Current Electricity, II. Magnets from Electricity, III. Electricity from Magnets, IV. Energy Conversion. Field Test Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth Technical Inst., Winston-Salem, NC.

    This vocational physics individualized instructional student module on the alternator consists of the four units: Current electricity, magnets from electricity, electricity from magnets, and energy conversion. Designed with a laboratory orientation, the units present explanations of the concepts and experiments. Laboratory data sheets,…

  18. Toward Net Energy Buildings: Design, Construction, and Performance of the Grand Canyon House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcomb, J. D.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.

    1999-06-23

    The Grand Canyon house is a joint project of the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the U.S. National Park Service and is part of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 13 (Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings). Energy consumption of the house, designed using a whole-building low-energy approach, was reduced by 75% compared to an equivalent house built in accordance with American Building Officials Model Energy Code and the Home Energy Rating System criteria.

  19. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  20. Transformation of Thernal Energy in Electric Energy in an Inhomogeneous Superconducting Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulov, A. V.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that a heat energy can be transformed in an electric energy of direct current by the use of an inhomogeneous superconducting ring. This trasformation is possible both at an iterative change of temperature and at an unaltered temperature. In the first case the ring is a classical heat engine with a maximum efficiency in the Carno cycle. The second case contradicts to the second thermodynamic law formulated in the middle of last century. Nevertheless this result is correct because t...

  1. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  2. Applicability of energy-positive net-zero water management in Alaska: technology status and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D; Guo, Tianjiao; Gassie, Lucien; Dotson, Aaron

    2017-11-22

    Challenges of water and wastewater management in Alaska include the potential need for above-grade and freeze-protected piping, high unit energy costs and, in many rural areas, low population density and median annual income. However, recently developed net-zero water (NZW), i.e., nearly closed-loop, direct potable water reuse systems, can retain the thermal energy in municipal wastewater, producing warm treated potable water without the need for substantial water re-heating, heat pumping or transfer, or additional energy conversion. Consequently, these systems are projected to be capable of saving more energy than they use in water treatment and conveyance, in the temperate USA. In this paper, NZW technology is reviewed in terms of potential applicability in Alaska by performing a hypothetical case study for the city of Fairbanks, Alaska. Results of this paper study indicate that in municipalities of Alaska with local engineering and road access, the use of NZW systems may provide an energy-efficient water service option. In particular, case study modeling suggests hot water energy savings are equivalent to five times the energy used for treatment, much greater savings than in mid-latitudes, due largely to the substantially higher energy needed for heating water from a conventional treatment system and lack of need for freeze-protected piping. Further study of the applicability of NZW technology in cold regions, with expanded evaluation in terms of system-wide lifecycle cost, is recommended.

  3. Modelling and Assessing Energy Performance of an Urban Transport System with Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Felea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation is one of the key priorities of sustainable development strategy. Transport systems are responsible for about one third of energy consumption. As result, the identification of solutions to reduce energy consumption in these systems is essential for the implementation of the sustainable development strategies. The present work is dedicated to identifying the possibilities for a reduction in the consumption of electric energy in electric urban public transport systems, using the audit of their electricity system. After justifying the importance of these concerns, a mathematical model of the electrical energy balance of the electric urban public transport system and its components is presented. The analysis is applied to determine the losses in the system components and useful energy, based on the evaluation and energy consumption measurements. The measurements to reduce energy losses are identified and characterized under technical and economic aspect, optimal electrical energy balances being done on this basis.

  4. Department of Energy`s Wire Development Workshop - Superconductivity program for electric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The 1996 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on January 31--February 1 at the Crown Plaza Tampa Westshore in Tampa, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Tampa Electric Company and sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. Tampa Electric`s Greg Ramon began the meeting by giving a perspective on the changes now occurring in the utility sector. Major program wire development accomplishments during the past year were then highlighted, particularly the world record achievements at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The meeting then focussed on three priority technical issues: thallium conductors; AC losses in HTS conductors; and coated conductors on textured substrates. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss and critique the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  5. Low-energy electric dipole response in 120Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Krumbholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric dipole strength distribution in 120Sn has been extracted from proton inelastic scattering experiments at Ep=295 MeV and at forward angles including 0°. It differs from the results of a Sn120(γ,γ′ experiment and peaks at an excitation energy of 8.3 MeV. The total strength corresponds to 2.3(2% of the energy-weighted sum rule and is more than three times larger than what is observed with the (γ,γ′ reaction. This implies a strong fragmentation of the E1 strength and/or small ground state branching ratios of the excited 1− states.

  6. A local energy market for electricity and hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Yunpeng; Wang, Xifan; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    ), loads, hydrogen vehicles (HVs), and a hydrogen storage system (HSS) operated by a HSS agent (HSSA). An iterative LEM clearing method is proposed based on the merit order principle. Players submit offers/bids with consideration of their own preferences and profiles according to the utility functions......The proliferation of distributed energy resources entails efficient market mechanisms in distribution-level networks. This paper establishes a local energy market (LEM) framework in which electricity and hydrogen are traded. Players in the LEM consist of renewable distributed generators (DGs....... Sensitivity analysis is then implemented to discuss the influences on the LEM clearing results of capacities of DGs, Loads, and the HSS, as well as price of hydrogen from the hydrogen station (HS)....

  7. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  8. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  9. Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutz, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

  11. Beam energy dependence of moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-29

    We report the first measurements of the moments--mean (M), variance (σ(2)), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ)--of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from sqrt[sNN]=7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, σ(2)/M, Sσ, and κσ(2), with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBDs). The Sσ values deviate from the Poisson baseline and are close to the NBD baseline, while the κσ(2) values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models.

  12. Externalities of energy use, analyzed for shipping and electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Heather

    Energy use is central to the modern lifestyle, but producing this energy often comes at an environmental cost. The three studies in this paper look at the tradeoffs involved in energy production. The first looks at transitioning marine vessels to natural gas from current distillate fuels. While natural gas will reduce local air pollutants, such as sulfur oxides and particulate matter, the implications for greenhouse gases depend on how the natural gas is extracted, processed, distributed, and used. Applying a "technology warming potential" (TWP) approach, natural gas as a marine fuel achieves climate parity within 30 years for diesel ignited engines, though it could take up to 190 years to reach climate parity with conventional fuels in a spark ignited engine. Movement towards natural gas as a marine fuel continues to progress, and conditions exist in some regions to make a near-term transition to natural gas feasible. The second study looks at externalities associated with electricity generation. The impact on the surrounding community is one concern when siting new electricity generating facilities. A survey was conducted of residents living near an industrial scale wind turbine and a coal-fired power plant to determine their visual and auditory effects on the residents. Results concluded that respondents living near the wind turbine were in favor of the facility. They were willing to pay an average of 2.56 a month to keep the turbine in its current location. Respondents living near the coal plant were opposed to the facility. They were willing to spend 1.82 a month to have the facility removed. The third study presents a cost effectiveness analysis of three of the main fuels used for electricity generation, namely coal, natural gas, and wind. This analysis adds social costs to the private costs traditionally utilized by investors making decisions. It utilizes previous research on visual and auditory amenity and disamenity values as well as recent published

  13. Improving the Energy Management of a Solar Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUNESER, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A solar electric vehicle (SEV is an electric vehicle (EV with onboard photovoltaic cells charging a set of batteries for extended driving range. This study aimed to improve the energy management system of a SEV, called YILDIZ, using a fuzzy logic control system (FLC. A MATLAB based simulation model of three basic components of a solar car: solar cell modules, batteries and motor drive system was performed. An original FLC was developed. For proving its applicability, the performances of the SEV were tested by simulation, in accordance with the standard test drive cycle ECE-15. The characteristics obtained with the original Proportional Integral Fuzzy Logic Control (PI-FLC were compared with those obtained with a classical Proportional Integral (PI controller. Using the designed model, we calculated the range of YILDIZ with and without PV feeding which gave us an opportunity to study and compare both SEV and EV models on real race-track situation. Then the optimum speed, at any time, which enabled the vehicle to reach a chosen destination as quickly as possible, while fully using the available energy, was calculated. Proposed solutions tested on YILDIZ. Results of simulations were compared with YILDIZ run on the Formula-G race track in Izmit, Turkey.

  14. Federal R&D Agenda for Net Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). If current trends continue, buildings worldwide will become the top energy consumers by 2025, and are likely to use as much energy as industry and transportation combined by 2050...

  15. Federal Research and Development Agenda for Net-Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). If current trends continue, buildings worldwide will become the top energy consumers by 2025, and are likely to use as much energy as industry and transportation combined by 2050...

  16. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  17. Successfully Implementing Net-Zero Energy Policy through the Air Force Military Construction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    performance and building energy efficiency requirements of prior EOs. The stated objectives of the policy are to “create a clean energy economy that...White House, 2009, p. 1). The EO creates specific goals for all federal agencies regarding building energy efficiency , greenhouse gas emissions...reduction, water conservation and protection, and solid waste reduction (The White House, 2009). The 14 building energy efficiency goals require the

  18. Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

  19. Analysing urban planning implications from an electric vehicles scenario for urban structure-, transport- and energy-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rid, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadtplanung und Entwerfen; Fachhochschule Erfurt (Germany). Fachgebiet Stadt- und Regionaloekonomie; Pesch, Franz; Wewer, Max; Sperle, Tilman [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadtplanung und Entwerfen

    2013-06-01

    Depending on scenarios of actual electric vehicles on the road, ''electric mobility'' will heavily affect urban planning and infrastructure. We analyze these effects by developing an ''urban typology for electro-mobility''. By doing so, we seek to demonstrate that both requirements from electric vehicle scenarios (infrastructure, on-site provision of renewable energy etc.) and potential benefits (noise-reduction, NOx-reduction, modal-split etc.) are dependent on the urban context. The typology was developed according to preliminary studies' results recommending to use the GFZ (Gross Floor Area) and residential density to describe different types of urban structure, but additionally makes use of the proportion of public space and number of resident families (per ha net residential area) to extract five different ''urban types for electro-mobility''. Electro-mobility will have a significant climate effect only if 'green' electric power production is able to provide the additional amount of renewable energy needed. On-site power plants must be further developed to reduce externalities from large scale power plants providing C02-free energy (e.g. externalities from offshore wind energy plants). The potential to produce renewable energy from on-site power plants is dependent on the type of the urban context: Advanced ''plus-energy-concepts'' for example, today, are restricted to building scales of low-density residential zones, whereas in inner city zones, buildings have to provide energy for far more people per floorspace or for cooling purposes, as well. On-site renewable energy plants should be placed in urban settings, where they can work most efficiently and where they can be best integrated into the urban context given, hence, electro-mobility needs to be viewed from an urban perspective. Many other projects, so far, have investigated technical solutions to improve

  20. Development of a “Current Energy Mix Scenario” and a “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario” for electricity demand up to 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário J. S. Brito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we develop a model to forecast world electricity production up to 2100. We analyze historical data for electricity production, population and GDP per Capita for the period 1900–2008. We show that electricity production follows general trends. First, there is an electricity intensity target of 0.20-0.25 kWh per unit of GDP (US$2012 as economies mature, except in countries traditionally relying heavily on renewable electricity (hydroelectricity, for whom this target ranges between 0.50 to 0.80 kWh per unit GDP. Also, countries that belong to the same region tend to follow the evolution of electricity production and GDP/Capita of a regional “modelcountry”. Equations that describe the behavior of these model countries are used to forecast electricity production per capita up to 2100 under a low and a high scenario for the evolution of GDP per Capita. For electricity production two main scenarios were set: “Current Energy MixScenario” and “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario”, with two additional sub scenarios considering slightly different electric intensities. Forecasts up to 2100 yield a demand forelectricity production 3.5 to 5 times higher than the current production for the “Current EnergyMix Scenario” and about 9 to 14 times for the “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario”. Forecasts for the “Current Energy Mix Scenario” matched well with forecasts from IEA/EIA (International Energy Agency/ Energy Information Administration while the forecasts for the“Electricity as the Main Energy Source Scenario” are much higher than current predictions.

  1. Modelling electric trains energy consumption using Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fernandez, P.; Garcia Roman, C.; Insa Franco, R.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays there is an evident concern regarding the efficiency and sustainability of the transport sector due to both the threat of climate change and the current financial crisis. This concern explains the growth of railways over the last years as they present an inherent efficiency compared to other transport means. However, in order to further expand their role, it is necessary to optimise their energy consumption so as to increase their competitiveness. Improving railways energy efficiency requires both reliable data and modelling tools that will allow the study of different variables and alternatives. With this need in mind, this paper presents the development of consumption models based on neural networks that calculate the energy consumption of electric trains. These networks have been trained based on an extensive set of consumption data measured in line 1 of the Valencia Metro Network. Once trained, the neural networks provide a reliable estimation of the vehicles consumption along a specific route when fed with input data such as train speed, acceleration or track longitudinal slope. These networks represent a useful modelling tool that may allow a deeper study of railway lines in terms of energy expenditure with the objective of reducing the costs and environmental impact associated to railways. (Author)

  2. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  3. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  4. Energy Management Strategies for Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondin Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on hybrid energy management for a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV with a parallel architecture. The proposed strategy focuses on the reduction of Nitric Oxides (NOx emissions that represents a key issue to meet diesel emissions standards. The strategy is split in two separated functions aiming at limiting the NOx in steady-state and transient operating conditions. The first functions, control the torque split between the engine and the electric motor. This energy management is based on the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS where an additional degree of freedom is introduced to tune the optimization tradeoffs from the pure fuel economy case to the pure NOx limitation case. The second function adapts the torque split ratio between the motor and the engine, initially computed from the optimal control strategy during transient operations where NOx are produced. The engine torque correction relies on mean value models for the EGR system dynamics and for the NOx formation. This paper applies a methodology based on Software in the Loop (SiL and Hardware in the Loop (HiL simulations in order to understand the system performance according to the powertrain configurations and also to tune the proposed energy management strategy. The simulation results are confirmed by experiments performed on Hybrid-Hardware in the Loop (Hy-HiL test bench. This work shows the potential of using the hybrid architecture to limit NOx emissions by choosing the best operating point and by limiting the engine dynamics. The NOx reduction has limited impact on fuel consumption.

  5. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    .... DOE finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in a 2009 final rule at 74 FR... for Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 123 / Wednesday, June 26... Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  6. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... electric motors. 73 FR 78220. After considering comments from interested parties, DOE finalized key... for Electric Motors; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 240 / Friday, December 13, 2013... Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  7. 78 FR 28002 - In the Matter of South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc... Approving Conforming Amendment I South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc...-holders of Facility Operating License No. NPF-29. South Mississippi Electric Power Association and SERI...

  8. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The...

  9. Harvesting vibrational energy due to intermodal systems via nano coated piezo electric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Vibrational energy resulting from intermodal transport systems can be recovered through the use of energy harvesting system consisting of PZT piezo electric material as the primary energy harvesting component. The ability of traditional PZT piezo ele...

  10. Net ecosystem exchange and energy fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique in a western Siberian bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alekseychik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies of ecosystem–atmosphere exchange involving eddy covariance data have been conducted in Siberia, with none in the western Siberian middle taiga. This work provides the first estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2 and energy budgets in a typical bog of the western Siberian middle taiga based on May–August measurements in 2015. The footprint of measured fluxes consisted of a homogeneous mixture of tree-covered ridges and hollows with the vegetation represented by typical sedges and shrubs. Generally, the surface exchange rates resembled those of pine-covered bogs elsewhere. The surface energy balance closure approached 100 %. Net CO2 uptake was comparatively high, summing up to 202 gC m−2 for the four measurement months, while the Bowen ratio was seasonally stable at 28 %. The ecosystem turned into a net CO2 source during several front passage events in June and July. The periods of heavy rain helped keep the water table at a sustainably high level, preventing a usual drawdown in summer. However, because of the cloudy and rainy weather, the observed fluxes might rather represent the special weather conditions of 2015 than their typical magnitudes.

  11. On Productions of Net-Baryons in Central Au-Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of net-baryons (baryons minus antibaryons produced in central gold-gold (Au-Au collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV are analyzed in the framework of a multisource thermal model. Each source in the model is described by the Tsallis statistics to extract the effective temperature and entropy index from the transverse momentum distribution. The two parameters are used as input to describe the rapidity distribution and to extract the rapidity shift and contribution ratio. Then, the four types of parameters are used to structure some scatter plots of the considered particles in some three-dimensional (3D spaces at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, which are expected to show different characteristics for different particles and processes. The related methodology can be used in the analyses of particle production and event holography, which are useful for us to better understand the interacting mechanisms.

  12. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport......The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...

  13. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates...... versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment...... weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids...

  14. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit: Lessons from the University of Hawaii at Manoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  15. Conceptual net energy output for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass through biorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; X.S. Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive information in the retrievable literature on pilot scale process and energy data using promising process technologies and commercially scalable and available capital equipment for lignocellulosic biomass biorefining. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the energy efficiency of selected sugar platform biorefinery process...

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Simple Thermal Storage Control Strategies in Low-Energy Solar Houses to Reduce Electricity Consumption during Grid On-Peak Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in zero-energy and low-energy buildings, which have a net energy consumption (on an annual basis of almost zero. Because they can generate both electricity and thermal energy through the use of solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal collectors, and with the help of reduced building thermal demand, low-energy buildings can not only make a significant contribution to energy conservation on an annual basis, but also reduce energy consumption and peak demand. This study focused on electricity consumption during the on-peak period in a low-energy residential solar building and considers the use of a building’s thermal mass and thermal storage to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter by modulation of temperature setpoints for heat pump and indoor thermostats in summer and additional use of a solar heating loop in winter. Experiments were performed at a low-energy solar demonstration house that has solar collectors, hot water storage, a ground-coupled heat pump, and a thermal storage tank. It was assumed that the on-peak periods were from 2 pm to 5 pm on hot summer days and from 5 pm to 8 pm on cold winter days. To evaluate the potential for utilizing the building’s thermal storage capacity in space cooling and heating, the use of simple control strategies on three test days in summer and two test days in the early spring were compared in terms of net electricity consumption and peak demand, which also considered the electricity generation from solar PV modules on the roof of the house.

  17. Clean Energy Generation and Dispatch in Reformed Wholesale Electricity Markets: Experience in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Ma [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Fan, Zhang [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Menghua, Fan [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Jing, Li [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Haoyuan, Qu [State Grid Energy Research Institute

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the US electricity market has undergone several stages of reform, and gradually formed the market where the wholesale electricity price is determined by the supply and demand. The US electricity market also changes along with the rapid development of clean energy, forming a number of the market mechanisms that is specifically developed for clean energy power generation characteristics. On the basis of discussing the pricing mechanism of US electricity market, this paper analyzes the experience and practice of encouraging renewable energy development policy and clean energy dispatch from the angle of market mechanism and dispatching decision, and puts forward the reference for clean energy dispatching in China.

  18. An optimal method for the computation of the parameter R s of the net emission coefficient approximation approach for determining the electrical and thermal characteristics of plasma arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Youssef; Rohani, Vandad; Fulcheri, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale industrial plasma torches and processes use primarily high-current electric arcs. Therefore, their basic design must inevitably account for radiative transfer which becomes the prevailing heat loss mechanism at high currents. This heavily increases the complexity of the governing equations. Many approximate approaches have been proposed. The present work relies on the method of approximate average net emission coefficient (NEC) using the isothermal sphere approximation with a radius R s to solve semi-analytically the Ellenbaas-Heller equation and compares it with exact calculations obtained using an iterative method. To our knowledge no study has provided yet a method to determine the most accurate value of R s . In this paper, we present an optimal method for determining the best value of R s that leads to the best agreement between the approximate and the exact methods. As a result, the complete electric characteristic has been obtained for hydrogen at 1 bar in a detailed case study.

  19. Willingness to pay for electricity from renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Houston, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    National polls reveal widespread public preference and willingness to pay more for renewables. ``Green pricing`` programs attempt to capitalize on these preferences and on an expressed willingness to pay more for environmental protection. This report explores the utility option of green pricing as a method of aggregating public preferences for renewables. It summarizes national data on public preferences for renewables and willingness to pay (WTP) for electricity from renewable energy sources; examines utility market studies on WTP for renewables and green-pricing program features; critiques utility market research on green pricing; and discusses experiences with selected green-pricing programs. The report draws inferences for program design and future research. Given the limited experiences with the programs so far, the evidence suggests that programs in which customers pay a monthly premium for a specific renewable electricity product elicit a higher monthly financial commitment per customer than programs asking for contributions to unspecified future actions involving renewables. The experience with green-pricing programs is summarized and factors likely to affect customer participation are identified.

  20. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has

  1. Electrical energy conversion and transport an interactive computer-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karady, George G

    2013-01-01

    Provides relevant material for engineering students and practicing engineers who want to learn the basics of electrical power transmission, generation, and usage This Second Edition of Electrical Energy Conversion and Transport is thoroughly updated to address the recent environmental effects of electric power generation and transmission, which have become more important in conjunction with the deregulation of the industry. The maintenance and development of the electrical energy generation and transport industry requires well-trained engineers who are able to use mode

  2. Optimal strategies for electric energy contract decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haili

    2000-10-01

    The power industry restructuring in various countries in recent years has created an environment where trading of electric energy is conducted in a market environment. In such an environment, electric power companies compete for the market share through spot and bilateral markets. Being profit driven, electric power companies need to make decisions on spot market bidding, contract evaluation, and risk management. New methods and software tools are required to meet these upcoming needs. In this research, bidding strategy and contract pricing are studied from a market participant's viewpoint; new methods are developed to guide a market participant in spot and bilateral market operation. A supplier's spot market bidding decision is studied. Stochastic optimization is formulated to calculate a supplier's optimal bids in a single time period. This decision making problem is also formulated as a Markov Decision Process. All the competitors are represented by their bidding parameters with corresponding probabilities. A systematic method is developed to calculate transition probabilities and rewards. The optimal strategy is calculated to maximize the expected reward over a planning horizon. Besides the spot market, a power producer can also trade in the bilateral markets. Bidding strategies in a bilateral market are studied with game theory techniques. Necessary and sufficient conditions of Nash Equilibrium (NE) bidding strategy are derived based on the generators' cost and the loads' willingness to pay. The study shows that in any NE, market efficiency is achieved. Furthermore, all Nash equilibria are revenue equivalent for the generators. The pricing of "Flexible" contracts, which allow delivery flexibility over a period of time with a fixed total amount of electricity to be delivered, is analyzed based on the no-arbitrage pricing principle. The proposed algorithm calculates the price based on the optimality condition of the stochastic optimization formulation

  3. Energy Consumption Evaluation for Wireless Sensor Network Nodes Based on Queuing Petri Net

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Zhou, H. Y.; D. C. Zuo; Hou, K. M.; Xie, H. P.; Zhou, P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large scale of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and the huge density of WSN nodes, classical performance evaluation techniques face new challenges in view of the complexity and diversity in WSN applications. This paper presents a “state-event-transition” formal description for WSN nodes and proposes an event-driven QPN-based modeling technique to simulate the energy behaviors of nodes. Besides, the framework architecture of a dedicated energy evaluation platform has been introduced, ...

  4. Analysis on Potential of Electric Energy Market based on Large Industrial Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyi; Zhu, Xinzhi; Yang, Shuo; Xia, Huaijian; Yang, Di; Li, Hao; Lin, Haiying

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of electric energy substitution by enterprises plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. In order to explore alternative energy potential of industrial enterprises, to simulate and analyze the process of industrial enterprises, identify high energy consumption process and equipment, give priority to alternative energy technologies, and determine the enterprise electric energy substitution potential predictive value, this paper constructs the evaluation model of the influence factors of the electric energy substitution potential of industrial enterprises, and uses the combined weight method to determine the weight value of the evaluation factors to calculate the target value of the electric energy substitution potential. Taking the iron and steel industry as an example, this method is used to excavate the potential. The results show that the method can effectively tap the potential of the electric power industry

  5. European Electricity Market and EU Members'Energy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to find out what factors have the biggest influence on the price of electricity for household consumers in the European Union in the context of creating the internal electricity market in the EU. By means of the cluster analysis six EU Member States have been selected according to the following criteria: electricity consumption, electricity production, and the price of electricity. As a result of that Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Malta and Sw...

  6. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  7. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term...

  8. The Electrostatic Wind Energy Converter : Electrical performance of a high voltage prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djairam, D.

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is converted to electrical energy by letting the wind move charged particles against the direction of an electric field. The advantage of this type of conversion is that no rotational movement, which occurs in conventional wind turbines, is required. An electrostatic wind energy

  9. Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication is the first global analysis of energy consumption and energy efficiency potential of EMDS (electric motor- driven system). The electric motors and systems they drive are the largest single electricity end use, accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. Huge energy efficiency potential was found untapped in EMDS - around 25% of EMDS electricity use could be saved cost-effectively, reducing total global electricity demand by about 10%. However, the energy efficiency of EMDS has been relatively neglected in comparison with other sustainable energy opportunities. It is crucial to scale up the operations and resources committed to realizing the vast savings potential of optimized EMDS. This paper proposes a comprehensive package of policy recommendations to help governments realize the potential for energy savings in EMDS.

  10. Regression analysis to predict growth performance from dietary net energy in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitikanchana, S; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; White, B J

    2015-06-01

    Data from 41 trials with multiple energy levels (285 observations) were used in a meta-analysis to predict growth performance based on dietary NE concentration. Nutrient and energy concentrations in all diets were estimated using the NRC ingredient library. Predictor variables examined for best fit models using Akaike information criteria included linear and quadratic terms of NE, BW, CP, standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, fat, ash, and their interactions. The initial best fit models included interactions between NE and CP or SID Lys. After removal of the observations that fed SID Lys below the suggested requirement, these terms were no longer significant. Including dietary fat in the model with NE and BW significantly improved the G:F prediction model, indicating that NE may underestimate the influence of fat on G:F. The meta-analysis indicated that, as long as diets are adequate for other nutrients (i.e., Lys), dietary NE is adequate to predict changes in ADG across different dietary ingredients and conditions. The analysis indicates that ADG increases with increasing dietary NE and BW but decreases when BW is above 87 kg. The G:F ratio improves with increasing dietary NE and fat but decreases with increasing BW. The regression equations were then evaluated by comparing the actual and predicted performance of 543 finishing pigs in 2 trials fed 5 dietary treatments, included 3 different levels of NE by adding wheat middlings, soybean hulls, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 8 to 9% oil), or choice white grease (CWG) to a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Diets were 1) 30% DDGS, 20% wheat middlings, and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 2) 20% wheat middlings and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 3) a corn-soybean meal diet (medium energy); 4) diet 2 supplemented with 3.7% CWG to equalize the NE level to diet 3 (medium energy); and 5) a corn-soybean meal diet with 3.7% CWG (high energy). Only small differences were observed

  11. HAWC Analysis of the Crab Nebula Using Neural-Net Energy Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Samuel; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The HAWC (High-Altitude Water-Cherenkov) experiment is a TeV γ-ray observatory located 4100 m above sea level on the Sierra Negra mountain in Puebla, Mexico. The detector consists of 300 water-filled tanks, each instrumented with 4 photomuliplier tubes that utilize the water-Cherenkov technique to detect atmospheric air showers produced by cosmic γ rays. Construction of HAWC was completed in March, 2015. The experiment's wide field of view (2 sr) and high duty cycle (> 95 %) make it a powerful survey instrument sensitive to pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and other γ-ray sources. The mechanisms of particle acceleration at these sources can be studied by analyzing their energy spectra. To this end, we have developed an event-by-event energy-reconstruction algorithm employing an artificial neural network to estimate energies of primary γ rays. The Crab Nebula, the brightest source of TeV photons, makes an excellent calibration source for this technique. We will present preliminary results from an analysis of the Crab energy spectrum using this new energy-reconstruction method. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  12. Establishing strategic energy assessment indicators for Zimbabwe: A key to improving electrical energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Felix

    In Zimbabwe, there is still very little realization of the potential of demand side management (DSM) to increase industrial energy efficiency. Without clear guidelines that indicate the most economic energy efficiency strategies to implement, it is difficult for industry to easily evaluate the benefits of energy assessments. This research focused on establishing and evaluating indicators that guide correct implementation of energy assessments into Zimbabwean industry. This quantitative and qualitative study used a theoretic approach to develop indicators that identified industrial subsectors that should be targeted for DSM interventions. This may bring about reduction in energy demand in high power consuming Zimbabwean industrial companies, which were compared with energy utility performances of similar industrial companies in countries located in other parts of the world. This research used pattern-matching, categorical aggregation, and stochastic frontier regression analysis for data analysis. In maximizing electrical efficiency, the implications of this study may be used by individual companies in Zimbabwe to perform energy efficiency self-diagnoses, operational efficiency evaluations, and capital resource justifications. From a societal perspective, this study may benefit Zimbabwe because it provides opportunities for the alleviation of both shortages in power supply and the capital constraints of building new generating capacity. This study will also benefit ordinary Zimbabweans by lowering energy costs and providing reliable power. This promotes sustainable economic growth and lowers the need for foreign currency to import power.

  13. A novel multimode hybrid energy storage system and its energy management strategy for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Zhou, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel topology of multimode hybrid energy storage system (HESS) and its energy management strategy for electric vehicles (EVs). Compared to the conventional HESS, the proposed multimode HESS has more operating modes and thus it could in further enhance the efficiency of the system. The rule-based control strategy and the power-balancing strategy are developed for the energy management strategy to realize mode selection and power distribution. Generally, the DC-DC converter will operate at peak efficiency to convey the energy from the batteries to the UCs. Otherwise, the pure battery mode or the pure ultracapacitors (UCs) mode will be utilized without the DC-DC converter. To extend the battery life, the UCs have the highest priority to recycle the energy and the batteries are isolated from being recharged directly during regenerative braking. Simulations and experiments are established to validate the proposed multimode HESS and its energy management strategy. The results reveal that the energy losses in the DC-DC converter, the total energy consumption and the overall system efficiency of the proposed multimode HESS are improved compared to the conventional HESS.

  14. Prototyping Energy Efficient Thermo-Magnetic & Induction Hardening for Heat Treat & Net Shape Forming Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquil Ahmad

    2012-08-03

    Within this project, Eaton undertook the task of bringing about significant impact with respect to sustainability. One of the major goals for the Department of Energy is to achieve energy savings with a corresponding reduction in carbon foot print. The use of a coupled induction heat treatment with high magnetic field heat treatment makes possible not only improved performance alloys, but with faster processing times and lower processing energy, as well. With this technology, substitution of lower cost alloys for more exotic alloys became a possibility; microstructure could be tailored for improved magnetic properties or wear resistance or mechanical performance, as needed. A prototype commercial unit has been developed to conduct processing of materials. Testing of this equipment has been conducted and results demonstrate the feasibility for industrial commercialization.

  15. Backup of renewable energy for an electrical island: case study of Israeli electricity system--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, A; Kuperman, A

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources.

  16. Backup of Renewable Energy for an Electrical Island: Case Study of Israeli Electricity System—Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, A.; Kuperman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources. PMID:24624044

  17. Can seismic (destructive) energy be stored after conversion into useful electrical or acoustic energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Umesh P.; Sinha, Madhurendra N.

    2014-06-01

    Since the dawn of precursory revolution in the seismology and electromagnetic radiation platform., F.T. Freund (2010) et.al, have used piezoelectric effect on the crustal geo-materials and emanation of seismic pre signals frequently. Their effect in form of ULF and VHF are commonly detected (by Greece and American seismologists)in the upper ionosphere from surface of globe. TEC, OLR. MMC are the consequent instrumentation in acquiring data to these pre-earthquake signals. Our attempt is to detect the signals prior to earthquake due to impending stress in the area and store the spreading destructive energy to electrical voltage applying the mathematics of piezoelectric equations and algebra. Energy released during seismic eruption is in the range of 10 13 to 1018 Joule for each event of 6 to 8 Mw. Spread and propagation of energy follows the Maxwell theory of wave equation and fundamental law of electricity and electromagnetism. Stress accumulated within the crustal block is triggered into bringing about geophysical and geochemical changes within the reservoir rocks interacting stress. Study made by pioneers in the seismic precursory development states generation of charge and coronal discharge prior seismicity within the rocks under stress. This is consequence to admixing of positive charge developed at unstressed volume and negative at stressed sub volume of rocks1 [F.T.Freidemann2010]. Ionosphere proturbance in form of ULF, ELF, ELS and EQL, EQS are the projected consequence of electromagnetic wave propagation 2 [10,11,15 ] Harnessing of electrical components from the energy propagated due to stress inducing EM waves is the aim of paper. Electrical discharge prior to seismicity within geo-materials is established phenomena which can be calibrated with the piezoelectric sensors application implanted for detection and harnessing the signals. These prior signals induced in form of electromagnetic response are felicitated into being converted into electrical energy

  18. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  19. Information Support of Optimal Control of Modes of Electric Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Gryniewicz-Jaworska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide necessary quality of electric energy and reliable supply and reduce environmental contamination as a result of energy units operation, renewable sources of energy (RSE, in particular solar electric stations (SES, wind electric stations (WES and small hydropower stations (SHES are intensively developed. The paper considers the conditions of optimality of renewable sources of energy (RSE functioning in electric systems, controllability of which is limited by the impact of non-stable weather conditions. The influence of control system information support on the efficiency of RSE usage is shown.

  20. Does increasing energy or electricity consumption improve quality of life in industrial nations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Allan, E-mail: amazur@syr.ed [Center for Environmental Policy and Administration, 435 Crouse-Hinds Hall, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Among the world's nations, per capita energy and electricity consumption is highly correlated with diverse indicators of quality of life. This is often interpreted to mean that additional energy and electricity consumption causes improvements in life quality. Prior analyses of cross-sectional data question this interpretation for industrial nations that already have high per capita energy consumption. The present analysis with longitudinal data shows that among industrial nations, increases in per capita energy and electricity consumption over the past three decades are not associated with corresponding improvements in quality of life. - Research highlights: {yields} Increased energy and electricity use is essential for poor nations to improve wellbeing. {yields} This analysis is limited to industrial nations, already high in energy consumption. {yields} Changes in per capita energy/electricity use are not associated with improved wellbeing.

  1. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  2. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  3. Towards a Net Zero Building Cluster Energy Systems Analysis for US Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    available technologies [2] related to the building envelope, ventilation, advanced “low exergy ” heating and cooling systems, central energy plants...built or retrofitted to “passive house” requirements and using advanced “low exergy ” systems to satisfy remaining heating and cooling needs. The

  4. A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Dierckxsens, Carlos; Mendes, Goncalo; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo Ferreira

    2011-03-18

    A large project is underway at Alameda County's twenty-year old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources including a seven-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a four-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion will add approximately 2 MW of NaS batteries, and undetermined wind capacity and a concentrating solar thermal system. This ongoing effort by a progressive local government with considerable Federal and State support provides some excellent lessons for the struggle to lower building carbon footprint. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) finds true optimal combinations of equipment and operating schedules for microgrids that minimize energy bills and/or carbon emissions without 2 of 12 significant searching or rules-of-thumb prioritization, such as"efficiency first then on-site generation." The results often recommend complex systems, and sensitivities show how policy changes will affect choices. This paper reports an analysis of the historic performance of the PV system and fuel cell, describes the complex optimization applied to the battery scheduling, and shows how results will affect the jail's operational costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. DER-CAM is used to assess the existing and proposed DER equipment in its ability to reduce tariff charges.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Costa Araujo

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    En la pasada década, el modelo de desarrollo brasileño fue caracterizado por el crecimiento económico a través de una fuerte industrialización. Una de las principales estrategias del gobierno en ese período, consistió en proveer la necesaria infraestructura a la actividad industrial, principalmente en los sectores del transporte, telecomunicaciones y energía. Los sistemas de transmisión tuvieron una parte fundamental en ese proceso, como elementos distribuidores de electricidad para la atención de necesidades de la industria y la urbanización. Atenuar los eventuales efectos medioambientales y sociales negativos de empresas del sector eléctrico, constituye ahora algo concerniente al gobierno, como lo indica la demanda legal de la evaluación del impacto medioambiental (EIM para el cumplimiento de este tipo de actividad.

    Abstract

    In the last decades, the model of brazilian development was characterized by the economic growth through a fast industrialization. One of the main government strategies, in that period, consisted on the supply of necessary infrastructure to the industrial activity, mainly in the transport sections, telecommunication and energy. The transmission systems had a fundamental part in that process, as elements distributors of electricity for the attending to the needs of the industry and the urbanization. The attenuation of the eventual environmental effects and social negatives of enterprises of the electric section are constituted, now, in a government concern, as it indicates the legal demand of the environmental impact assessment (EIA for the accomplishment of this type activity

  6. Generation of Electric Energy and Desalinating Water from Solar Energy and the Oceans Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfikky, Niazi

    Brief.All warnings and fears about the environment in our Earth planet due to the serious effects of the industrial revolution were certainly predicted early. But the eager contest and the powerful desire for more profits beside the human interest for welfare and development closed all minds about the expected severe destuctive impacts on our earth planet. Also, we have to remember that the majority of the African, Asian and Latin American countries are still in the first stage of their development and if they will be left to generate all their demand of energy by the conventional machine e.g (Fossil Fuel, Biofuel and Nuclear Fuel), then our Earth planet will confront an endless and ceasless severe destructive impacts due to the encroach of the released hot Carbon Doxide and hot vapours of Acids which will never forgive any fruitful aspect in our Earth Planet from destruction. 1. Importance of the New Project. Building the Extra cheap, clean Power plants with safe and smooth Operation in addition to the long life time in service for generating enough and plentiful electric energy the sustainable renwable resources will invigorate the foresaking of all Nuclear, Fossil and Biofuel power plants to avoide the nuclear hazards and stop releasing the hot carbon doxide, hot acids for the recovery of our ill environment. Also, the main sustainable, renewable, and cheap resources for generating the bulky capacity of the electric energy in our project are the Sun and the Oceans in addition to all Seas Surrounding all Continents in our Earth planet. Therefore, our recourses are so much enormous plentiful, clean, and renewable. 2. .Generation of Electricity from Solar Energy by Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs) or Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). Characteristics of Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs). It is working only by Sun's Light (Light photons) and its efficiency will decrease as the Solar Thermal Radiation will increase, i.e. as the temerature of the Solar Voltiac will increase, its output

  7. Feasibility study of renewable energy resources and optimization of electrical hybrid energy systems: Case study for Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelpour Farivar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies are increasingly seen as the best solution to a growing global population demanding affordable access to electricity while reducing the need for fossil fuels. Country of Iran has vast untapped solar, wind, geothermal and hydroelectric sources that hold the potential to meet domestic needs. Renewable energy is also essential to Iran as it will curb massive air pollution. In this paper economical and feasibility study of various hybrid systems are performed by using HOMER software model for supplying electricity to the Engineering Department of Islamic Azad University. For this study, annual electricity demand of the university is 1,174,935 kWh with a peak demand of about 331 kW, average wind speeds, based on hourly data during the period of eleven years (2000-2010, are between 3 to 5 m/s in all months of the year. For solar radiation, six models are evaluated to select the best model for estimation of the daily global solar radiation (GSR on a horizontal surface in the study location. Among these six models, H/HO=a+b (S/S0+ c(S/S02 is chosen as the most optimum model for estimating solar irradiation. The results indicate that among the three hybrid systems for fulfilling electrical energy needs, the Wind/Diesel/Battery hybrid system with 9 wind turbines (20 kW, one diesel generator (300 kW, 50 batteries, and 50 kW power converters with net present cost of $4,281,800 and cost of energy of 0.285 $/kWh is the most economically efficient hybrid system. (based on 2015 US dollar.

  8. Net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities on slopes computed by the energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo; Qian, Ping

    1990-01-01

    Energy balance components obtained over five grass-covered sloping surfaces near Manhattan, KS, using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique with the instruments mounted horizontally were compared with calculated values when the instruments were mounted parallel to the surfaces. Hourly values of the components changed when the instruments were parallel to the surfaces. The changes were larger at low solar angles (spring and fall) and on steeper slopes. An area average of daylight totals, assuming that all aspects were equally represented, changed only 0.1 percent on June 6 and 2.3 percent on October 11. The calculations, extended to steeper slopes, indicated small changes in the daylight totals for slopes of less than 10 deg.

  9. Staged Z-pinch for the production of high-flux neutrons and net energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; Rostoker, Norman; Ney, Paul

    2017-12-05

    A fusible target is embedded in a high Z liner, ohmically heated and then shock wave heated by implosion of an enveloping high Z liner. The target is adiabatically heated by compression, fusibly ignited and charged-particle heated as it is being ignited. A shock front forms as the liner implodes which shock front detaches from the more slowly moving liner, collides with the outer surface of the target, accelerates inward, rapidly heating the target, adiabatically compressing the target and liner and amplifying the current to converge the liner mass toward a central axis thereby compressing the target to a fusion condition when it begins to ignite and produce charged particles. The charged particles are trapped in a large magnetic field surrounding the target. The energy of the charged particles is deposited into the target to further heat the target to produce an energy gain.

  10. Fiscal Year 2013 Net Zero Energy-Water-Waste Portfolio for Fort Leonard Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater Management Implement and achieve objectives from USEPA Army Policy Army Sustainable Design and Development Policy, December 2013...facilities with follow-up projects, ERDC/CERL SR-14-11 54 and established stormwater management requirements. EO 13514 extend- ed water reduction...EnEff Stadt (a comprehen- sive approach to urban areas with local and district heating networks), the World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance

  11. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  12. Analysis of electrical energy consumers operation in the heating plant with proposal of energy savings measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of power quality measurements, obtained during an energy audit in the heating plant Vreoci in the Electric Power System of Serbia, are presented in the paper. Two steam boilers, rated at 120MW each, are installed in this heating plant, using coal as a fuel. The energy audit encompassed the measurements of the complete set of parameters needed to determine the thermal efficacy of boilers and the entire heating plant. Based on the measurement results, several technical measures for improving energy efficiency of the plant are proposed. The measures evaluated in the paper should contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions, thereby resulting in a significant impact in both financial and ecological areas.

  13. Feasibility of a 90° electric sector energy analyzer for low energy ion beam characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinay, C. L. S., E-mail: cmahinay@nip.upd.edu.ph; Ramos, H. J. [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Metro Manila (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° ion deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the ion beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic energy analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved ion energy distribution functions of an ion beam with the energy as low as 600 eV.

  14. On the necessity of improving the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances in net-zero energy buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Endrit; Jusselme, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    There is now clear evidence regarding the extensive use of furniture and appliances in daily human life, but there is less evidence of their impact on the environment. Responding to this gap in knowledge, this study focuses on an assessment of the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances as used in highly energy efficient buildings. Their primary energy, non-renewable energy and global warming potential indicators have been assessed by extending the boundaries of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study beyond the building itself. In conclusion, we found that furniture and appliances were responsible for around 30% of greenhouse gas emissions and non-renewable energy consumption and 15% of primary energy consumption comparing to the overall impacts of the building. Since embodied impacts represent the largest values, the process for labelling the appliances' energy efficiency should encompass a life-cycle point of view, not just a usage point of view as the case currently. Among office appliances, computer equipment was ranked as the highest impacting element, especially laptops and monitors. As for domestic appliances, refrigerators and electric ovens had the biggest impacts. Concerning furniture, the greatest impacts were from office and kitchen cabinets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical energy: what is in game; Energia electrica: lo que esta en juego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Robredo, R.

    2004-07-01

    In the occasion of the inauguration of the Academic Course in the Spanish Club of the Energy, the Endesa president made these reflections on the main factors that actually affect the development of the electrical energy.

  16. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  17. A Game Theoretic Framework for Green HetNets Using D2D Traffic Offload and Renewable Energy Powered Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias

    2015-08-26

    This chapter investigates the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green communications in LTE heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Two game theoretic concepts are studied and analyzed in order to perform dynamic HetNet base station (BS) on/off switching. The first approach is a coalition-based method whereas the second is based on the Nash bargaining solution. Afterwards, a method for coupling the BS on/off switching approach with D2D collaborative communications is presented and shown to lead to increased energy efficiency. The savings are additionally increased when a portion of the small cell BSs in a HetNet are powered by renewable energy sources. Different utility functions, modeling the game theoretic framework governing the energy consumption balance between the cellular network and the mobile terminals (MTs), are proposed and compared, and their impact on MT quality of service (QoS) is analyzed.

  18. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  19. Solar Sustainable Heating, Cooling and Ventilation of a Net Zero Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Skrupskelis, Martynas; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    Present work addresses the heating, cooling and ventilation concerns of the Technical University of Denmark’s house, Fold, for Solar Decathlon Europe 2012. Various innovative approaches are investigated, namely, utilization of ground, photo-voltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels and phase change materials...... by the embedded pipes which are coupled with the ground. Ventilation is mainly used to control the humidity and to remove sensory and chemical pollution. PV/T panels enable the house to be a “plus” energy house. PV/T also yields to a solar fraction of 63% and 31% for Madrid and Copenhagen, respectively...

  20. A new focus on the implementation of programs for reducing the waste of electric power from the electric power concessionaires: use of the local network promoter of energy efficiency; Um novo enfoque na implementacao de programas de combate ao desperdicio de energia eletrica das concessionarias de energia eletrica: uso das redes locais promotoras de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehler, Wagner; Simoes, Roberto Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: befreire@terra.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a proposal for using of reinforcement local socio-economical networks approach to implement programs for energy waste reduction by applying 1 per cent of the Net Revenue from Electric Power Concessionaires, for reduction of the existent barriers and to guarantee the participation of greater number of economical agents in those programs allowing a market transformation.

  1. Future of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Carajlescov, Pedro, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: pedro.carajlescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    We discuss in this paper the medium- and long- terms evolution of nuclear power in Brazil considering official governmental studies and reports prepared by research groups. The documents reviewed include the national energy balance (BEN, 2014), the short-term planning (PDEE, 2023) and long-term planning (PNE-2030) documents emitted by EPE, and studies conducted by independent institutions and researchers. The studies consider different scenarios regarding gross national product growth and institutional development for the country and conclude that nuclear power should increase its role in Brazil. The generation matrix should diversity by 2030 and 2040 with hydropower decreasing its share from today's 70 % to values between 47 and 57 %. Nuclear power is considered a viable alternative for base load electricity generation in Brazil; to reduce generation risks during dry seasons, and to facilitate the operation of the whole power generation system. The share of nuclear power may reach values between 8 % and 15 % by 2040 according to different scenarios. To meet such growth and facilitate new investments, it is necessary to change the legal framework of the sector, and allow private ownership of enterprises to build and operate nuclear power plants in the country. (author)

  2. Electrical energy supply in future powertrains - challenges and solutions; Die Energieversorgung im Antriebsstrang der Zukunft - Herausforderungen und Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugert, G.; Knorr, R.; Grassl, G.; Lohrenz, F.; Stocker, H. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Regensburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The average electrical energy consumption of vehicles has grown continuously during the last years. A further increase is assumed for the next years (2010 to 2020), despite an electrical energy management already visible. This is mainly caused by additional loads due to increasing needs for comfort, safety and communication. Additional loads are expected around the Powertrain in order to improve the efficiency (CO2 emission) of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), mainly triggered by legislation. Somewhat contradictory, the market is requiring more driving fun in combination with low fuel consumption. It is predictable that the already started activities to control the energy needs of the 14V board net with an intelligent control and power management won't be sufficient in all cases. The integration of a mild or power hybrid into the Powertrain allows to avoid a shortage in electrical energy supply on a midterm base. In a long term (2020 to 2030) we will see improved and synthetic fuels which satisfy all emission regulations. Although still in small number compared to the ICE dominated Powertrains, there will be some Fuel Cell cars in the market providing enough power and energy for the board net loads and eventually the propulsion. [German] Der mittlere elektrische Energiebedarf in Kraftfahrzeugen ist in den letzten Jahren stetig angestiegen. Kurz- bis mittelfristig (2010 bis 2020) ist mit einem weiteren starken Anstieg zu rechnen, trotz eines moeglichen elektrischen Energie-Managements. Dies ist hauptsaechlich bedingt durch die Zunahme von Verbrauchern fuer Komfort, Sicherheit und Kommunikation. Aber auch am Antriebstrang werden weitere Verbraucher zum Einsatz kommen, um die Effizienz des Verbrennungsmotors (CO2 Ausstoss) zu steigern und die Abgas Emissionen zu reduzieren, getrieben durch gesetzliche Vorgaben. Verschaerfend wirken dabei die gegensaetzlichen Forderungen der Kunden nach mehr Fahrspass bei maximal moeglicher Fahroekonomie. Es ist abzusehen

  3. The CUNY Energy Institute Electrical Energy Storage Development for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-03-31

    1. Project Objectives The objectives of the project are to elucidate science issues intrinsic to high energy density electricity storage (battery) systems for smart-grid applications, research improvements in such systems to enable scale-up to grid-scale and demonstrate a large 200 kWh battery to facilitate transfer of the technology to industry. 2. Background Complex and difficult to control interfacial phenomena are intrinsic to high energy density electrical energy storage systems, since they are typically operated far from equilibrium. One example of such phenomena is the formation of dendrites. Such dendrites occur on battery electrodes as they cycle, and can lead to internal short circuits, reducing cycle life. An improved understanding of the formation of dendrites and their control can improve the cycle life and safety of many energy storage systems, including rechargeable lithium and zinc batteries. Another area where improved understanding is desirable is the application of ionic liquids as electrolytes in energy storage systems. An ionic liquid is typically thought of as a material that is fully ionized (consisting only of anions and cations) and is fluid at or near room temperature. Some features of ionic liquids include a generally high thermal stability (up to 450 °C), a high electrochemical window (up to 6 V) and relatively high intrinsic conductivities. Such features make them attractive as battery or capacitor electrolytes, and may enable batteries which are safer (due to the good thermal stability) and of much higher energy density (due to the higher voltage electrode materials which may be employed) than state of the art secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Of particular interest is the use of such liquids as electrolytes in metal air batteries, where energy densities on the order of 1-2,000 Wh / kg are possible; this is 5-10 times that of existing state of the art lithium battery technology. The Energy Institute has been engaged in the

  4. Neural nets with varying topology for high-energy particle recognition: an outlook of computational dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Antonio L.; Messi, Roberto; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Basti, Gianfranco

    1993-09-01

    With respect to Rosenblatt linear perceptron, a classical limitation theorem demonstrated by M. Minsky and S. Papert is discussed. This theorem, '$PSIOne-in-a-box', ultimately concern the intrinsic limitations of parallel calculations in pattern calculations in pattern recognition problems. We demonstrate a possible solution of this limitation problem by substituting the static definition of characteristic functions and of their domains in the 'geometrical' perceptron, with their dynamic definition. This dynamics consists in the mutual redefinition of the characteristic function and of its domain depending on the matching with the input. We show an application of this 'dynamic' perceptron scheme in particle tracks recognition in high energy physics. Actually, this algorithm is being used for real time automatic triggering of ADONE e+e- storage ring (Frascati, Rome) to evaluate the neutron time-like electromagnetic form factor in the context of 'Fenice' collaboration by Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN).

  5. Demonstration of the Energy Component of the Installation Master Plan Using the Net Zero Energy Planner Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-07

    solutions such as solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, wind energy, bio -mass (wood chips, etc.), bio -gas, or synthetic gas are considered as part of the...from four sources (natural gas, biogas, diesel/fuel oil, and bio - mass). This should allow the installation to maintain critical functions even under...distribution system. • Storm drainage system. • Wastewater system (sewers). • Natural gas distribution system. • Petroleum, Oils, and lubricants (POL – fuel

  6. 77 FR 28869 - Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC, PSEG Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC...(e), Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC, and PSEG Energy... parties in EL12-63. Joint Complainants state that they are unable to confirm service on Unnamed...

  7. 75 FR 78979 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc... line, operated at 69-kV, connect the integrated pulp and paper operations owned by Twin Rivers and its...

  8. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  9. 76 FR 11436 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) has..., Ontario Power Generation Inc., ] 700 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario M5G 1XG and Jerry L. Pfeffer...

  10. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The

  11. 76 FR 20651 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing... Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has...

  12. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  13. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. Design of a Load Torque Based Control Strategy for Improving Electric Tractor Motor Energy Conversion Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mengnan Liu; Liyou Xu; Zhili Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the electrical conversion efficiency of an electric tractor motor, a load torque based control strategy (LTCS) is designed in this paper by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). By mathematically modeling electric-mechanical performance and theoretical energy waste of the electric motor, as well as the transmission characteristics of the drivetrain, the objective function, control relationship, and analytical platform are established. Torque and rotation spe...

  15. Offshore wind farms energy injection in the electrical grid - Lithium battery to mitigate power fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    IKNI, DJAMEL; Camara, Mamadou Baïlo; Dakyo, Brayima

    2016-01-01

    The wind farm energy injection in the electrical grid generates the economic and technical challenges which must to be solved for successful large scale wind energy integration in electrical grids. Due to wind speed variations, the wind farm output power presents the fluctuating components which are not compatible to the electrical grid requirements. Today, this problem is a major challenge with the wind farm projects increasing in the world. Large power variations cause the deviations of rms...

  16. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  17. Procedure to determine module distribution within a solar array to increase the net energy collection in a solar competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás.; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    In solar vehicle competition, the available space for installation of the solar panel in the car is limited. In order to optimize space, it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows, even if they cause reduction of efficiency in the overall photoelectric generation. Shadow patterns arise from the relative position of the sun to the earth, and the relative position of the vehicle towards both of them. Since vehicle, earth and sun are moving in semi-predictable patterns, computer simulations can cross and match data from such sources to forecast generation behavior. The outputs of such simulations are shadow patterns on the surface of the vehicle, indicating locations that are suitable or unsuitable to install solar cells. This paper will show the design procedure of the solar panel for a Challenger Class solar vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013, intended to increase the net energy collection. The results obtained, illustrate how the employment of a computational tool can help in the acquisition of both qualitative and quantitative information, related to shadows position and their impact on energy collection. With data inputs such as vehicle geometry and its relative position towards the route, the tool was used to evaluate different possible configurations of solar panel module distribution and select the ones that are more convenient to the given scenario. Therefore, this analysis allows improving the solar panel design by considering important variables that were often overlooked.

  18. Transition metal doped graphene for energy and electrical applications =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rahul

    atoms on receptor sites. Similarly, highly active and cost effective nanocomposite CoxB Ni/RGO was also synthesized for hydrogen production through electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in alkaline medium under catalysis reaction. The electrochemical behavior of nanocomposite was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The catalytic activity of nanocomposite was evaluated continuously for 50 cyclic run; amazingly, results shows that the increase of current density after 50 cycle run suggests the self-cleaning process and robustness of catalyst system. For energy application, graphene based nanocomposite has also been employed for catalysis reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) organic pollutant. For this work, a wide range of graphene nanocomposite catalysts has been synthesized and the effort was to reduce reaction time and cost of nanocatalyst system. Finally, graphene based nanocomposite (Ni/RGO) is used for electrical and electronics applications also, to fabricate the memristor devices and glucose biosensor. A wide range of characterization techniques mainly X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), current vs. voltage (I-V) measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed for analysis of transition metals doped graphene nanocomposites for various kind of energy applications.

  19. Method for analysing the adequacy of electric power systems with wind power plants and energy storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzhabinsky Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are actively introduced into electric power systems. We developed method to analyze the adequacy of these electric power systems. The method takes into account the uncertainty of electricity generation by wind power plants and the processes of energy storage. The method is based on the Monte Carlo method and allowed to use of long-term meteorological data in open access. The performed experimental research of electrical power system is constructed on the basis of the real technical and meteorological data. The method allows to estimate of effectiveness of introducing generators based on renewable energy sources and energy storages in electric power systems.

  20. Optimal Electric and Heat Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially-Coordinated Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nah-Oak Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optimal electric and heat energy management for a cooperative multi-microgrid community. The sequentially-coordinated operation for heat energy is proposed in order to distribute the computational burden as an extension of “Optimal Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially Coordinated Operations” and is following the sequentially-coordinated operations for electric energy in it. This sequentially-coordinated operation for heat energy is mathematically modeled and how to obtain the global heat energy optimization solution in the cooperative multi-microgrid community is presented. The global heat energy optimization is achieved for the cooperative community by adjusting the combined electric and heat energy production amounts of combined heat and power (CHP generators and the heat energy production amount of heat only boilers (HOBs which satisfy all heat loads, as well as optimize the external electric energy trading in order to minimize the unnecessary cost from the external electric trading, and/or maximize the profit from the external electric trading. To validate the proposed mathematical energy management models, a simulation study is also conducted.