WorldWideScience

Sample records for net economic effect

  1. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  2. Agent-based computational economics using NetLogo

    CERN Document Server

    Damaceanu, Romulus-Catalin

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based Computational Economics using NetLogo explores how researchers can create, use and implement multi-agent computational models in Economics by using NetLogo software platform. Problems of economic science can be solved using multi-agent modelling (MAM). This technique uses a computer model to simulate the actions and interactions of autonomous entities in a network, in order to analyze the effects on the entire economic system. MAM combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence and evolutionary programming. The Monte Carlo method is also used in this e-book to introduc

  3. Effects of tillage practices and straw returning methods on greenhouse gas emissions and net ecosystem economic budget in rice-wheat cropping systems in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Guo, L. J.; Liu, T. Q.; Li, C. F.; Cao, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted to assess the effects of conservation tillage (no-tillage [NT] and straw returning) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and net economic budget in crop growing seasons. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effects conservation tillage on the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB) in a rice-wheat cropping system. Therefore, a split-plot field experiment was performed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of tillage practices (i.e., conventional intensive tillage [CT] and NT) and straw returning methods (i.e., straw returning or removal of preceding crop) on the soil total organic carbon (TOC), GHG emissions, GWP, GHGI, and NEEB of sandy loam soil in a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Conservation tillage did not affect rice and wheat grain yields. Compared with CT and straw removal, NT and straw returning significantly increased the TOC of 0-5 cm soil layer by 2.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the TOC of 0-20 cm soil layer was not affected by tillage practices and straw returning methods. NT did not also affect the N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons; NT significantly decreased the annual CH4 emissions by 7.5% and the annual GWP by 7.8% compared with CT. Consequently, GHGI under NT was reduced by 8.1%. Similar to NT, straw returning did not affect N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons. Compared with straw removal, straw returning significantly increased annual CH4 emissions by 35.0%, annual GWP by 32.0%, and annual GHGI by 31.1%. Straw returning did not also affect NEEB; by contrast, NT significantly increased NEEB by 15.6%. NT without straw returning resulted in the lowest GWP, the lowest GHGI, and the highest NEEB among all treatments. This finding suggested that NT without straw returning may be applied as a sustainable technology to increase economic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, environmentally straw

  4. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  5. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  6. Prediction of net energy consumption based on economic indicators (GNP and GDP) in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan [Technical Education Faculty, Mechanical Education Department, Energy Section, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kirikkale University, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    The most important theme in this study is to obtain equations based on economic indicators (gross national product - GNP and gross domestic product - GDP) and population increase to predict the net energy consumption of Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to determine future level of the energy consumption and make correct investments in Turkey. In this study, three different models were used in order to train the ANN. In one of them (Model 1), energy indicators such as installed capacity, generation, energy import and energy export, in second (Model 2), GNP was used and in the third (Model 3), GDP was used as the input layer of the network. The net energy consumption (NEC) is in the output layer for all models. In order to train the neural network, economic and energy data for last 37 years (1968-2005) are used in network for all models. The aim of used different models is to demonstrate the effect of economic indicators on the estimation of NEC. The maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 2.322732, 1.110525 and 1.122048 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. R{sup 2} values were obtained as 0.999444, 0.999903 and 0.999903 for training data of Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The ANN approach shows greater accuracy for evaluating NEC based on economic indicators. Based on the outputs of the study, the ANN model can be used to estimate the NEC from the country's population and economic indicators with high confidence for planing future projections. (author)

  7. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  8. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: an economic measure of regional sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Templeton, Joshua J; Wu, Shanshan

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). We measured the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNRP over time. Any attempt at green accounting requires both economic and natural capital data. However, limited data for the Basin requires a number of simplifying assumptions and requires transforming economic data at the national, state, and county levels to the level of the SLB. Given the contribution of agribusiness to the SLB, we included the depletion of both groundwater and soil as components in the depreciation of natural capital. We also captured the effect of the consumption of energy on climate change for future generations through carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. In order to estimate the depreciation of natural capital, the shadow price of water for agriculture, the economic damages from soil erosion due to wind, and the social cost of carbon emissions were obtained from the literature and applied to the SLB using benefit transfer. We used Colorado's total factor productivity for agriculture to estimate the value of time (i.e., to include the effects of exogenous technological progress). We aggregated the economic data and the depreciation of natural capital for the SLB from 1980 to 2005. The results suggest that GNRP had a slight upward trend through most of this time period, despite temporary negative trends, the longest of which occurred during the period 1985-86 to 1987-88. However, given the upward trend in GNRP and the possibility of business cycles causing the temporary declines, there is no definitive evidence of moving away from sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability (Journal article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show...

  10. Neural-net based real-time economic dispatch for thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M.; Milosevic, B. [Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Power Systems; Calovic, M. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This paper proposes the application of artificial neural networks to real-time optimal generation dispatch of thermal units. The approach can take into account the operational requirements and network losses. The proposed economic dispatch uses an artificial neural network (ANN) for generation of penalty factors, depending on the input generator powers and identified system load change. Then, a few additional iterations are performed within an iterative computation procedure for the solution of coordination equations, by using reference-bus penalty-factors derived from the Newton-Raphson load flow. A coordination technique for environmental and economic dispatch of pure thermal systems, based on the neural-net theory for simplified solution algorithms and improved man-machine interface is introduced. Numerical results on two test examples show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently and accurately develop optimal and feasible generator output trajectories, by applying neural-net forecasts of system load patterns.

  11. Why Net Domestic Product Should Replace Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Spant

    2003-01-01

    In the third article, Roland Spant, a Swedish trade union economist, argues that Net Domestic Product (NDP) should replace GDP as a measure of economic growth for a number of purposes. The key difference between GDP and NDP is depreciation. With the shift in investment toward information technology assets with relatively short service lives, the share of depreciation in GDP has increased in most OECD countries and GDP growth now exceeds NDP growth. Spant points out that this means that the us...

  12. A reformulation of the Cost Plus Net Value Change (C+NVC) model of wildfire economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Douglas B. Rideout

    2003-01-01

    The Cost plus Net Value Change (C+NVC) model provides the theoretical foundation for wildland fire economics and provides the basis for the National Fire Management Analysis System (NFMAS). The C+NVC model is based on the earlier least Cost plus Loss model (LC+L) expressed by Sparhawk (1925). Mathematical and graphical analysis of the LC+L model illustrates two errors...

  13. Boron Application Improves Growth, Yield and Net Economic Return of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubshar HUSSAIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to evaluate the role of boron (B application at different growth stages in improving the growth, yield and net economic return of rice at farmer's fields during summer season, 2009. Boron was soil applied (1.5 kg/hm2 at the transplanting, tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice; foliar applied (1.5% B solution at the tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice, and dipped seedling roots in 1.5% B solution before transplanting; while control plots did not apply any B. Boron application (except dipping of seedling roots in B solution, which caused toxicity and reduced the number of tillers and straw yield than control substantially improved the rice growth and yield. However, soil application was better in improving the number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, harvest index, net economic income and ratio of benefit to cost compared with the rest of treatments. Overall, for improving rice performance and maximizing the net economic returns, B might be applied as soil application at flowering.

  14. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and untreated nets to prevent malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Singhal, Maneesh; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Agarwal, Satya P

    2015-08-01

    India is the most malaria-endemic country in South-East Asia, resulting in a high socio-economic burden. Insecticide-treated or untreated nets are effective interventions to prevent malaria. As part of an Indian first-aid guideline project, we aimed to investigate the magnitude of this effect in India. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Central to systematically review Indian studies on the effectiveness of treated or untreated vs. no nets. Parasite prevalence and annual parasite incidence served as malaria outcomes. The overall effect was investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating the pooled risk ratios (RR) and incidence rate ratios. Of 479 articles, we finally retained 16 Indian studies. Untreated nets decreased the risk of parasite prevalence compared to no nets [RR 0.69 (95% CI; 0.55, 0.87) in high-endemic areas, RR 0.49 (95% CI; 0.28, 0.84) in low-endemic areas], as was the case but more pronounced for treated nets [RR 0.35 (95% CI; 0.26, 0.47) in high-endemic areas, risk ratio 0.16 (95% CI; 0.06, 0.44) in low-endemic areas]. Incidence rate ratios showed a similar observation: a significantly reduced rate of parasites in the blood for untreated nets vs. no nets, which was more pronounced in low-endemic areas and for those who used treated nets. The average effect of treated nets (vs. no nets) on parasite prevalence was higher in Indian studies (RR 0.16-0.35) than in non-Indian studies (data derived from a Cochrane systematic review; RR 0.58-0.87). Both treated and untreated nets have a clear protective effect against malaria in the Indian context. This effect is more pronounced there than in other countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Economic effects on taxing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaparanta, P. [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland); Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J. [The Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO{sub 2} taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO{sub 2} tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  16. The Economic Value of PV and Net Metering to Residential Customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-05-17

    In this paper, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of the California's two largest electric utilities, under existing net metering tariffs as well as under several alternative compensation mechanisms. We find that economic value of PV to the customer is dependent on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate and can vary quite significantly from one customer to another. In addition, we find that the value of the bill savings from PV generally declines with PV penetration level, as increased PV generation tends to offset lower-priced usage. Customers in our sample from both utilities are significantly better off with net metering than with a feed-in tariff where all PV generation is compensated at long-run avoided generation supply costs. Other compensation schemeswhich allow customers to displace their consumption with PV generation within each hour or each month, and are also based on the avoided costs, yield similar value to the customer as net metering.

  17. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 2: Total Economy Expenditure Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We translate between energetic and economic metrics that characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, we estimate monetary expenditures for the primary energy and net external power ratio (NEPR direct ; NEPR, net external power ratio, a power return ratio of annual energy production divided by annual direct energy inputs within the energy industry. We estimate these on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010. Expressed as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP, f e , GDP , the forty-four country aggregate (composing >90% world GDP worldwide expenditures on energy decreased from a maximum of 10.3% in 1979 to a minimum of 3.0% in 1998 before increasing to a second peak of 8.1% in 2008. While the global f e , GDP fluctuates significantly, global NEPR direct declined from a value of 34 in 1980 to 17 in 1986 before staying in a range between 14 and 16 from 1991 to 2010. In comparing both of these metrics as ratios of power output over power input, one economic ( f e , GDP - 1 and one biophysical (NEPR direct , we see that when the former divided by the latter is below unity, the world was in a low-growth or recessionary state.

  18. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  19. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rivers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questions: What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? Design: A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Results: Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. Conclusion: With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. [Rivers G, Foo J, Ilic D, Nicklen P, Reeves S, Walsh K, Maloney S (2015 The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 148–154

  20. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ilic, Dragan; Nicklen, Peter; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Maloney, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  2. The Economic Phenomena of Net Games and of Bit Coins in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hanlin

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with a special but highly-developing industry in China, net game industry. Due to the significant construction and improvement have been happening at China since 30 years ago, and the influence of traditional culture, population boom or demographic dividend and the invasion of western technologies and cultures, net game industry, which has been only existing for less than 15 years at China, has become one of most profitable industries and changed the living of millions...

  3. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  4. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Han, Gi Ppeum; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-09-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary net energy (NE) concentrations on growth performance and NE intake of growing gilts. Five diets were formulated to contain 9.6, 10.1, 10.6, 11.1, and 11.6 MJ NE/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial with 10 growing pigs (average body weight [BW] = 15.9±0.24 kg) was conducted to determine NE concentrations of 5 diets based on French and Dutch NE systems in a 5×5 replicated Latin square design. A growth trial also was performed with five dietary treatments and 12 replicates per treatment using 60 growing gilts (average BW = 15.9±0.55 kg) for 28 days. A regression analysis was performed to predict daily NE intake from the BW of growing gilts. Increasing NE concentrations of diets did not influence average daily gain and average daily feed intake of growing gilts. There was a quadratic relationship (p = 0.01) between dietary NE concentrations and feed efficiency (G:F), although the difference in G:F among treatment means was relatively small. Regression analysis revealed that daily NE intake was linearly associated with the BW of growing gilts. The prediction equations for NE intake with the BW of growing gilts were: NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.442+(0.562×BW, kg), R 2 = 0.796 when French NE system was used, whereas NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.533+(0.614×BW, kg), R 2 = 0.810 when Dutch NE system was used. Increasing NE concentrations of diets from 9.6 to 11.6 MJ NE/kg have little impacts on growth performance of growing gilts. Daily NE intake can be predicted from the BW between 15 and 40 kg in growing gilts.

  5. System effectiveness of a targeted free mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Ali K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITN and long-lasting insecticidal treated nets (LLIN are important means of malaria prevention. Although there is consensus regarding their importance, there is uncertainty as to which delivery strategies are optimal for dispensing these life saving interventions. A targeted mass distribution of free LLINs to children under five and pregnant women was implemented in Zanzibar between August 2005 and January 2006. The outcomes of this distribution among children under five were evaluated, four to nine months after implementation. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in May 2006 in two districts of Zanzibar: Micheweni (MI on Pemba Island and North A (NA on Unguja Island. Household interviews were conducted with 509 caretakers of under-five children, who were surveyed for socio-economic status, the net distribution process, perceptions and use of bed nets. Each step in the distribution process was assessed in all children one to five years of age for unconditional and conditional proportion of success. System effectiveness (the accumulated proportion of success and equity effectiveness were calculated, and predictors for LLIN use were identified. Results The overall proportion of children under five sleeping under any type of treated net was 83.7% (318/380 in MI and 91.8% (357/389 in NA. The LLIN usage was 56.8% (216/380 in MI and 86.9% (338/389 in NA. Overall system effectiveness was 49% in MI and 87% in NA, and equity was found in the distribution scale-up in NA. In both districts, the predicting factor of a child sleeping under an LLIN was caretakers thinking that LLINs are better than conventional nets (OR = 2.8, p = 0.005 in MI and 2.5, p = 0.041 in NA, in addition to receiving an LLIN (OR = 4.9, p Conclusions Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there

  6. System effectiveness of a targeted free mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Netta; Ali, Abdullah S; de Savigny, Don; Al-Mafazy, Abdul-Wahiyd H; Ramsan, Mahdi; Abass, Ali K; Omari, Rahila S; Björkman, Anders; Källander, Karin

    2010-06-18

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and long-lasting insecticidal treated nets (LLIN) are important means of malaria prevention. Although there is consensus regarding their importance, there is uncertainty as to which delivery strategies are optimal for dispensing these life saving interventions. A targeted mass distribution of free LLINs to children under five and pregnant women was implemented in Zanzibar between August 2005 and January 2006. The outcomes of this distribution among children under five were evaluated, four to nine months after implementation. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in May 2006 in two districts of Zanzibar: Micheweni (MI) on Pemba Island and North A (NA) on Unguja Island. Household interviews were conducted with 509 caretakers of under-five children, who were surveyed for socio-economic status, the net distribution process, perceptions and use of bed nets. Each step in the distribution process was assessed in all children one to five years of age for unconditional and conditional proportion of success. System effectiveness (the accumulated proportion of success) and equity effectiveness were calculated, and predictors for LLIN use were identified. The overall proportion of children under five sleeping under any type of treated net was 83.7% (318/380) in MI and 91.8% (357/389) in NA. The LLIN usage was 56.8% (216/380) in MI and 86.9% (338/389) in NA. Overall system effectiveness was 49% in MI and 87% in NA, and equity was found in the distribution scale-up in NA. In both districts, the predicting factor of a child sleeping under an LLIN was caretakers thinking that LLINs are better than conventional nets (OR = 2.8, p = 0.005 in MI and 2.5, p = 0.041 in NA), in addition to receiving an LLIN (OR = 4.9, p < 0.001 in MI and in OR = 30.1, p = 0.001 in NA). Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there is need

  7. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  8. Costs and effects of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme for insecticide-treated nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in reducing morbidity and mortality is well established. International focus has now moved on to how best to scale up coverage and what financing mechanisms might be used to achieve this. The approach in Tanzania has been to deliver a targeted subsidy for those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria while at the same time providing support to the development of the commercial ITN distribution system. In October 2004, with funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria, the government launched the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS, a nationwide discounted voucher scheme for ITNs for pregnant women and their infants. This paper analyses the costs and effects of the scheme and compares it with other approaches to distribution. Methods Economic costs were estimated using the ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of the intervention (including the user contribution are quantified and valued. Effects were measured in terms of number of vouchers used (and therefore nets delivered and treated nets years. Estimates were also made for the cost per malaria case and death averted. Results and Conclusion The total financial cost of the programme represents around 5% of the Ministry of Health's total budget. The average economic cost of delivering an ITN using the voucher scheme, including the user contribution, was $7.57. The cost-effectiveness results are within the benchmarks set by other malaria prevention studies. The Government of Tanzania's approach to scaling up ITNs uses both the public and private sectors in order to achieve and sustain the level of coverage required to meet the Abuja targets. The results presented here suggest that the TNVS is a cost-effective strategy for delivering subsidized ITNs to targeted vulnerable groups.

  9. The economics of social marketing: the case of mosquito nets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikumbih, Nassor; Hanson, Kara; Mills, Anne; Mponda, Hadji; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the role of the private sector in expanding the use of key health interventions. At the policy level, this has raised questions about how public sector resources can best be used to encourage the private sector in order to achieve public health impact. Social marketing has increasingly been used to distribute public health products in developing countries. The Kilombero and Ulanga Insecticide-Treated Net Project (KINET) project used a social marketing approach in two districts of Tanzania to stimulate the development of the market for insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for malaria control. Using evidence from household surveys, focus group discussions and a costing study in the intervention area and a control area, this paper examines two issues: (1) How does social marketing affect the market for ITNs, where this is described in terms of price and coverage levels; and (2) What does the added cost of social marketing "buy" in terms of coverage and equity, compared with an unassisted commercial sector model? It appears that supply improved in both areas, although there was a greater increase in supply in the intervention area. However, the main impact of social marketing on the market for nets was to shift demand in the intervention district, leading to a higher coverage market outcome. While social marketing was more costly per net distributed than the unassisted commercial sector, higher overall levels of coverage were achieved in the social marketing area together with higher coverage of the lowest socioeconomic group, of pregnant women and children under 5 years, and of those living on the periphery of their villages. These findings are interpreted in the context of Tanzania's national plan for scaling up ITNs.

  10. Urbanization has a positive net effect on soil carbon stocks: modelling outcomes for the Moscow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Leemans, Rik; Valentini, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is responsible for large environmental changes worldwide. Urbanization was traditionally related to negative environmental impacts, but recent research highlights the potential to store soil carbon (C) in urban areas. The net effect of urbanization on soil C is, however, poorly understood. Negative influences of construction and soil sealing can be compensated by establishing of green areas. We explored possible net effects of future urbanization on soil C-stocks in the Moscow Region. Urbanization was modelled as a function of environmental, socio-economic and neighbourhood factors. This yielded three alternative scenarios: i) including neighbourhood factors; ii) excluding neighbourhood factors and focusing on environmental drivers; and iii) considering the New Moscow Project, establishing 1500km2 of new urbanized area following governmental regulation. All three scenarios showed substantial urbanization on 500 to 2000km2 former forests and arable lands. Our analysis shows a positive net effect on SOC stocks of 5 to 11 TgC. The highest increase occurred on the less fertile Orthic Podzols and Eutric Podzoluvisols, whereas C-storage in Orthic Luvisols, Luvic Chernozems, Dystric Histosols and Eutric Fluvisols increased less. Subsoil C-stocks were much more affected with an extra 4 to 10 TgC than those in the topsoils. The highest increase of both topsoil and subsoil C stocks occurred in the New Moscow scenario with the highest urbanization. Even when the relatively high uncertainties of the absolute C-values are considered, a clear positive net effect of urbanization on C-stocks is apparent. This highlights the potential of cities to enhance C-storage. This will progressively become more important in the future following the increasing world-wide urbanization.

  11. Effects of net hapa on the survival of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of net hapa on the survival of fry from diffe rent brood stock sizes of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) was investigated in indoor aquaria for five weeks. Net hapa was incorporated to facilitate the separation of hatch lings from unhatched eggs and shells. The use of incubating net hapa with kakabans inside did ...

  12. Effects of labour migration on economic development during economic downturn and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available International labour migration is mainly promoted by economic interests. This paper focuses on the period before and after the economic crisis and puts together important facts regarding motivation to labour migration and provides explanations of its causes and impacts on the macroeconomic level. The economic explanation why is migration so severely restricted is that migration policies are essentially distributive tools, aiming at reducing negative effects of migration on wages and unemployment among natives and moreover, we may stress out the gradualist tendencies of migration and such migration restrictions can mitigate supply-side shocks that may negatively affect incomes or jobs of some specific groups. A partial objective of the practical part of the paper is to evaluate relationships between the rate of migration and selected economic indicators using adequate quantitative methods. While the correlation between the crude rate of net migration and the GDP per capita is very low, the existence of correlation between the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate is evident in the most of analysed countries. Statistical insignificance of correlation indices in some countries can be then attributed to structural problems of those economies.

  13. Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Line; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kargo, Morten

    2015-01-01

    simulates the parity distribution of the dams of heifer calves. The ADAM program estimates genetic merit per year in a herd under different strategies for use of sexed semen and genomic tests. The annual net return per slot was calculated as the sum of operational return and value of genetic lag minus costs......Until now, genomic information has mainly been used to improve the accuracy of genomic breeding values for breeding animals at a population level. However, we hypothesize that the use of information from genotyped females also opens up the possibility of reducing genetic lag in a dairy herd......, especially if genomic tests are used in combination with sexed semen or a high management level for reproductive performance, because both factors provide the opportunity for generating a reproductive surplus in the herd. In this study, sexed semen is used in combination with beef semen to produce high-value...

  14. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ENERGY POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights some of the issues raised by the implementation of energy policies and the fiscal measures in the energy sector and it aims to identify the impact of energy policies at regional level. It is emphasized, along with the environmental impact of the use of renewable resources and economic and social effects on sustainable regional development which can generate state intervention through direct and indirect, financial and non-financial instruments. Given the complex energy profile of Romania, the paper reveals also, the problems that have had to face in the last two decades and the impact of energy policies of Romanian governments. The research is based on an analysis of statistics, publications in energy sector, as well as primary and specific legislation.

  15. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  16. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  17. Repellent effect of alphacypermethrin-treated netting against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Kamal, A; Gogo, E; Saidi, M; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2014-04-01

    For > 20 yr, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius persists as a begomovirus vector and is a serious problem in tomato production in many parts of the world. In tropical countries, the use of netting to protect horticultural crops has proven to be an effective and sustainable tool against Lepidoptera but not against small insects. This study evaluated the repellent effect of AgroNet 0.9T, a 0.9-mm pore diameter and 40-mesh size netting treated with alphacypermethrin insecticide against B. tabaci. This pyrethroid insecticide is known to have toxic and repellent effects against mosquitoes and has been used for treatment of mosquito nets. Two nontreated netting materials were used as control: AgroNet 0.9NT with 0.9-mm pore diameter and 40-mesh size and AgroNet 0.4NT with 0.4-mm pore diameter and 80-mesh size. The behavior of B. tabaci and its parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan as they progressed through the treated netting was studied in the laboratory in choice and no-choice tests. The development of wild B. tabaci population on tomato plants protected by the same nets was followed in two field trials implemented in Njoro, Kenya. Results obtained with the no-choice tests showed a significant reduction of movement on the treated net with 40-mesh (19%) compared with nontreated netting (35 and 46% with 80- and 40-mesh, respectively). The mortality of B. tabaci was significantly higher (two-fold) in the test tube containing only the treated netting compared with the nontreated one. The repellent effect of the treated netting was also demonstrated against E. formosa, but it did not have this toxic effect. Unlike for B. tabaci, the treated and nontreated nets appeared to have a similar repellent effect on E. formosa in the choice test, which suggests a learning behavior of the parasitoid. In both field tests, B. tabaci population was significantly lower on tomato protected by the treated net compared with the same nontreated net. However there was no significant difference in B. tabaci

  18. Economic Effects Real Estate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The real estate tax is usually a fiscal instrument which performs the property tax. When it comes to real property or immovable this term include: apartments, houses, land, cottages, excess housing landscape and more. The real estate tax as a form of the fiscal charges ownership or use of certain forms of real estate, and the revenue from this tax is levied on the area where the property is located regardless of the place of residence of its owner. The tax base for the calculation of this tax usually consists of the market, estimated or annuity value of certain real estate. This form of taxation in the Republic of Serbian applies from 1.1.2012., and its introduction has been replaced by former property taxes. The differences between the two concepts mentioned taxes are numerous and significant. Among the more important are: subject to taxation under the new concept of the real estate rather than law, a taxpayer is any property owner rather than the holder of rights to immovable property tax base is the market value of real estate which is replaced by the payment of taxes per square meter of usable area, the rate of property tax is determined local government, which can not be lower than 0.05% of the estimated value of the real estate nor higher than 0.5% of the appraised value of real estate. The last change, ie. The new law on Property Tax from 5.11.2015. was determined by the tax rate to 20%. The fact that local governments each of them determines the tax rate on real estate which range from high to low rates of multiple, makes this tax is progressive. Progression is particularly expressed in the distinction applied tax rates of developed and undeveloped municipalities, where we have a case that less developed tolerate a higher tax burden, which leads to negative economic effects. However, real estate tax has its own economic and social characteristics which must be aligned with the objectives of tax policy. This means that the real estate tax

  19. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  20. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  1. The household-level economics of using permethrin-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in children less than five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltzer, Martin I.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Odhacha, Amos; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Vulule, John M.; Alaii, Jane A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hawley, William A.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.

    2003-01-01

    We measured the two-week household-level economic impact of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) used to prevent malaria among children less than five years of age in Asembo, Kenya. The ITNs induced a two-week reduction of 15 Kenyan shillings (KSH) (0.25 U.S. dollars; P < 0.0001) in

  2. The economic effects of international migration: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillen, M J

    1982-03-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to present empirical evidence on the national economic effects of international migratory flows involving member countries of the European Communities (EC). Although these countries as a group constituted an area of net immigration in the post war period, some member states have been important sources of emigration (Greece, Italy, Ireland) as have been the two applicant countries (Portugal, Spain)." The benefits and costs of this migration are examined for both sending and receiving countries, and some conclusions are drawn in the final section. excerpt

  3. Effects of climate change and shifts in forest composition on forest net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyh-Min Chiang; Louts [Louis] R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Forests are dynamic in both structure and species composition, and these dynamics are strongly influenced by climate. However, the net effects of future tree species composition on net primary production (NPP) are not well understood. The objective of this work was to model the potential range shifts of tree species (DISTRIB Model) and predict their impacts on NPP (...

  4. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  5. Effect of insecticide treated nets fence in protect- ing cattle against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was carried out to assess the effect of insecticide treated net in pro- tecting cattle from tsetse and other flies. A total of 35 pens were constructed, out of which 30 of them were fenced with insecticide treated net which served as treatment group and the remaining 5 pens were untreated controls. The fly populations ...

  6. The effect of netting solidity ratio and inclined angle on the hydrodynamic characteristics of knotless polyethylene netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Hu, Fuxiang; Xu, Liuxiong; Dong, Shuchuang; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xuefang

    2017-10-01

    Knotless polyethylene (PE) netting has been widely used in aquaculture cages and fishing gears, especially in Japan. In this study, the hydrodynamic coefficient of six knotless PE netting panels with different solidity ratios were assessed in a flume tank under various attack angles of netting from 0° (parallel to flow) to 90° (perpendicular to flow) and current speeds from 40 cm s-1 to 130 cm s-1. It was found that the drag coefficient was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio and attack angle of netting. The solidity ratio was positively related with drag coefficient for netting panel perpendicular to flow, whereas when setting the netting panel parallel to the flow the opposite result was obtained. For netting panels placed at an angle to the flow, the lift coefficient reached the maximum at an attack angle of 50° and then decreased as the attack angle further increased. The solidity ratio had a dual influence on drag coefficient of inclined netting panels. Compared to result in the literature, the normal drag coefficient of knotless PE netting measured in this study is larger than that of nylon netting or Dyneema netting.

  7. Field issues related to effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanger, T E; Enayati, A A; Hemingway, J; Mshinda, H; Tami, A; Lengeler, C

    2004-06-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides have become one of the most promising interventions to prevent malaria in highly endemic areas. Despite the large body of experience documenting their health impact and the best way to distribute them, some key practical issues remain unresolved. For example, the duration of effective life of a net under field conditions is unknown. The most important factor affecting net effectiveness is the issue of regular re-treatment with insecticide. Washing is also an important determinant of insecticide longevity in the field. Trials were undertaken to provide some essential field information on ITNs within the site of an extended ITN programme in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. It was found that 45% of all nets were in bad condition (defined as more than seven large holes). It is concluded that an effective 'life' for polyester nets is 2-3 years. Further, two-thirds of the 20% of nets that were reported as having been re-treated within the last 12 months had less than 5 mg/m(2) of insecticide. According to the World Health Organization this is insufficient to be effective. People reported that they washed their nets four to seven times per year, usually with soap. Observations showed that such washing does not harm the nets and that the wash-water was unlikely to have an impact on the environment. Finally, bioassays were carried out with Anopheles gambiae on polyester netting with 0.5, 2, 5, 10 and 30 mg/m(2) of deltamethrin, alphacypermethrin and lambdacyhalothrin to assess the effectiveness of pyrethroids. The results confirmed that even with low insecticide concentrations, nets can still provide partial protection.

  8. Do evergreen and deciduous trees have different effects on net N mineralization in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Oleksyn, Jacek; Reich, Peter B; Eissenstat, David M

    2012-06-01

    Evergreen and deciduous plants are widely expected to have different impacts on soil nitrogen (N) availability because of differences in leaf litter chemistry and ensuing effects on net N mineralization (N(min)). We evaluated this hypothesis by compiling published data on net N(min) rates beneath co-occurring stands of evergreen and deciduous trees. The compiled data included 35 sets of co-occurring stands in temperate and boreal forests. Evergreen and deciduous stands did not have consistently divergent effects on net N(min) rates; net N(min) beneath deciduous trees was higher when comparing natural stands (19 contrasts), but equivalent to evergreens in plantations (16 contrasts). We also compared net N(min) rates beneath pairs of co-occurring genera. Most pairs of genera did not differ consistently, i.e., tree species from one genus had higher net N(min) at some sites and lower net N(min) at other sites. Moreover, several common deciduous genera (Acer, Betula, Populus) and deciduous Quercus spp. did not typically have higher net N(min) rates than common evergreen genera (Pinus, Picea). There are several reasons why tree effects on net N(min) are poorly predicted by leaf habit and phylogeny. For example, the amount of N mineralized from decomposing leaves might be less than the amount of N mineralized from organic matter pools that are less affected by leaf litter traits, such as dead roots and soil organic matter. Also, effects of plant traits and plant groups on net N(min) probably depend on site-specific factors such as stand age and soil type.

  9. The effect of net foreign assets on saving rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben David Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observing empirical data we find that many countries try to delay the decision of increasing saving rate in order to avoid a decrease of the living standards. However the delay leads a deterioration of countries financial stability. We present a simple theoretical model that connects between countries' saving rate and their net foreign assets. Using cross section data set of 135 countries in 2010 we estimated the econometric relation between saving rate in 2010 as dependent variable and two explanatory variables: the current account in 2010 and the aggregated current account during 1980-2010. Our findings show that industrial countries in a bad financial state tend to decrease their saving rate as external debt is larger causing to deterioration in external debt while countries with good financial state tend to increase their saving rate and the tendency increase as financial state becomes better. Only in countries with a very large external debt saving rate tends to grow. The results point that gross foreign debt will keep increasing and will worsen world financial state causing increased risk of getting into a world crisis.

  10. The Economic Impact of Productive Safety Net Program on Poverty: Microeconometrics Analysis, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the impact of productive safety net program on poverty using primary data from randomly selected 600 households in central zone of Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke were used to evaluate impact of the program and poverty, respectively. The paper revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on consumption, livestock holdings, and productive assets. Moreover, impact of the program on total consumption expenditure per adult equivalent was found to be positive and significant. Using total poverty line, poverty rate was lowest among program participants (30.33% than non-participants (31.1%. Highest poverty rate was found among households headed by women (38.42% while households headed by men (23.1%. The study also revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on poverty reduction and protecting productive assets. Finally, it was recommended that female headed program participants based programs should be provided to help boost their agricultural output and reduce endemic poverty.

  11. Effects of economic interactions on credit risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchett, J P L [Laboratory for Mathematical Neuroscience, RIKEN BSI, Hirosawa 2-1, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kuehn, R [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-10

    We study a credit-risk model which captures effects of economic interactions on a firm's default probability. Economic interactions are represented as a functionally defined graph, and the existence of both cooperative and competitive business relations is taken into account. We provide an analytic solution of the model in a limit where the number of business relations of each company is large, but the overall fraction of the economy with which a given company interacts may be small. While the effects of economic interactions are relatively weak in typical (most probable) scenarios, they are pronounced in situations of economic stress, and thus lead to a substantial fattening of the tails of loss distributions in large loan portfolios. This manifests itself in a pronounced enhancement of the value at risk computed for interacting economies in comparison with their non-interacting counterparts.

  12. Association mapping utilizing diverse barley lines reveals net form net blotch seedling resistance/susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrenophora teres f. teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of the economically important foliar disease net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley. The deployment of effective and durable resistance against P. teres f. teres has been hindered by the complexity of quantitative resist...

  13. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent......, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h....

  14. Effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep release on postrelease mortality of Lake Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elizabeth L.; Fredericks, Jim P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Unaccounted postrelease mortality violates assumptions of many fisheries studies, thereby biasing parameter estimates and reducing efficiency. We evaluated effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep-release treatment on postrelease mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Lake trout were captured at depths up to 65 m with gill nets in Priest Lake, Idaho, and held in a large enclosure for 10–12 d. Postrelease mortality was the same for surface-release–and deep-release–treated fish (41%). Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of intrinsic and environmental factors on the probability of mortality. Presence of gill-net trauma and degree of barotrauma were associated with increased probability of postrelease mortality. Smaller fish were also more likely to suffer postrelease mortality. On average, deep-release treatment did not reduce postrelease mortality, but effectiveness of treatment increased with fish length. Of the environmental factors evaluated, only elapsed time between lifting the first and last anchors of a gill-net gang (i.e., lift time) was significantly related to postrelease mortality. Longer lift times, which may allow ascending lake trout to acclimate to depressurization, were associated with lower postrelease mortality rates. Our study suggests that postrelease mortality may be higher than previously assumed for lake trout because mortality continues after 48 h. In future studies, postrelease mortality could be reduced by increasing gill-net lift times and increasing mesh size used to increase length of fish captured.

  15. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  16. Entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in Western Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithuis, Frank M.; Kyaw, Moe Kyaw; Phe, U. Ohn; van der Broek, Ingrid; Katterman, Nina; Rogers, Colin; Almeida, Patrick; Kager, Piet A.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lubell, Yoel; Simpson, Julie A.; White, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector

  17. 47 CFR 32.7910 - Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Income Accounts § 32.7910 Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences—net. This account shall include the impact on revenues and expenses of the jurisdictional ratemaking practices which vary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking...

  18. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Barry T. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-02-02

    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focused on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed

  19. Quantifying the net economic benefits of mechanical wildfire hazard treatments on timberlands of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; James R. Barbour

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical treatment of vegetation is done on public and private lands for many possible reasons, including enhancing wildlife habitat, increasing timber growth of residual stands, and improving resistance to damaging pests. Few studies, however, have focused on the circumstances under which mechanical wildfire hazard reduction treatments can yield positive net...

  20. Malaria risk factors in North West Tanzania: the effect of spraying, nets and wealth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A West

    Full Text Available Malaria prevalence remains high in many African countries despite massive scaling-up of insecticide treated nets (ITN and indoor residual spraying (IRS. This paper evaluates the protective effect of pyrethroid IRS and ITNs in relation to risk factors for malaria based on a study conducted in North-West Tanzania, where IRS has been conducted since 2007 and universal coverage of ITNs has been carried out recently. In 2011 community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the two main malaria transmission periods that occur after the short and long rainy seasons. These included 5,152 and 4,325 children aged 0.5-14 years, respectively. Data on IRS and ITN coverage, household demographics and socio-economic status were collected using an adapted version of the Malaria Indicator Survey. Children were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic test. In the second survey, haemoglobin density was measured and filter paper blood spots were collected to determine age-specific sero-prevalence in each community surveyed. Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in children 0.5-14 years old was 9.3% (95%CI:5.9-14.5 and 22.8% (95%CI:17.3-29.4 in the two surveys. Risk factors for infection after the short rains included households not being sprayed (OR = 0.39; 95%CI:0.20-0.75; low community net ownership (OR = 0.45; 95%CI:0.21-0.95; and low community SES (least poor vs. poorest tertile: OR = 0.13, 95%CI:0.05-0.34. Risk factors after the long rains included household poverty (per quintile increase: OR = 0.89; 95%CI:0.82-0.97 and community poverty (least poor vs. poorest tertile: OR = 0.26, 95%CI:0.15-0.44; household IRS or high community ITN ownership were not protective. Despite high IRS coverage and equitable LLIN distribution, poverty was an important risk factor for malaria suggesting it could be beneficial to target additional malaria control activities to poor households and communities. High malaria prevalence in some clusters

  1. Mesh Grid of SILVACO TCAD Effect on Net Doping Profile for NMOS Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan, M.; Ayub, B.; Shahrir, M.; Suziana, O.; Yunus, M.; Abdullah, M. H.; Noor, U. M.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Process of developing the NMOS structure is performed in 2D SILVACO Athena and Atlas Simulation. The NMOS fabrication process steps were chosen from reference [4]. Mesh grid effect on net doping profile was obtained by varying the grid. Variation of grid was determined through observation between fine mesh and loosen mesh in y-axis. Simulation results show that mesh grid affects the doping concentration inside the substrate. Doping concentration will affect junction depth formation where the net doping of phosphorus shows a different concentration at the surface of substrate. Changes of junction depth formation will then gave an effect to the value of threshold voltage. Observation using sheet resistance of Athena tool shows that having high density mesh in y-axis will results in increases in net doping in polysilicon and highly doped region but reduced the concentration in the lightly doped region.

  2. Economic effectiveness of treating the near-face zone of oil and injection wells in the Tatar ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khegay, V.F.; Nekrasova, A.P.; Vostrikova, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified formula is presented for calculating the economic effectiveness of treating the near-face zone of oil wells. The specific nature of the proposed technique of calculations is such that their result will be more accurate if the economic effect is determined for each well separately, and then the result is summed for the enterprise. In this case, it is necessary to adopt as the base net cost, the net cost of the association, and not of each well, for each well separately influences the indicators of the enterprise not in the size of the economic effect obtained from the individual net cost, but in the size of increase in product and level of outlays to obtain it. An example of analysis of treating the near face zone of oil wells is presented for 191 repair and near-face well zone for injection wells for 1207 repairs.

  3. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  4. The FY2014 Government Shutdown: Economic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations, coordinated by Mindy R. Levit . 3 Government spending’s contribution...Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases, by D. Andrew Austin and Mindy R. Levit . The FY2014 Government Shutdown: Economic Effects Congressional...the labor force through the furlough of non-excepted federal employees.17 Estimates of the number of federal employees furloughed vary widely, and

  5. Estimating climate change effects on net primary production of rangelands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Reeves; Adam L. Moreno; Karen E. Bagne; Steven W. Running

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) of U.S. rangelands were evaluated using estimated climate regimes from the A1B, A2 and B2 global change scenarios imposed on the biogeochemical cycling model, Biome-BGC from 2001 to 2100. Temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, day length, solar radiation, CO2 enrichment and nitrogen...

  6. Assessing marginal, threshold and net effects of financial globalisation on financial development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice

    2017-01-01

    The present inquiry contributes to extant literature by simultaneously accounting for variations in financial development and financial globalisation in the assessment of hypothetical initial financial development conditions for the rewards of financial globalisation. For this purpose, we examine marginal, threshold and net effects of financial globalisation on financial development throughout the conditional distributions of financial development. The empirical evidence is based on contempor...

  7. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachan Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Methods Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY. These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. Results After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja and 99% (ANC Adjumani were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja. Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27 compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23 in Adjumani. Conclusions Targeted campaigns and routine ANC

  8. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Kolaczinski, Kate; Kyabayinze, Daniel; Strachan, Daniel; Temperley, Matilda; Wijayanandana, Nayantara; Kilian, Albert

    2010-04-20

    In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC) services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY). These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja) and 99% (ANC Adjumani) were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja). Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27) compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23) in Adjumani. Targeted campaigns and routine ANC services can both achieve high LLIN retention and use among

  9. Petroleum: Social and economic effect in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aguas Pután

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the results of the research work related to the social and economic impact of the exploitation of oil in Ecuador, presents the reader with the methodologies that allowed obtaining the results and the most viable solution to the economic problems facing the country . The purpose of the investigative work is to propose a practical solution to the economic and social situation in the country, especially in the last years when the business started with the international oil companies which did not respect the agreement made by both parties that produced Negative consequences for the land, such as damages, contamination of the rivers, damage of the flora and fauna of the surroundings, it is considered that there were and there are economic fluctuations that have varied the economy and development of the fulfillment of the state budget and the breach of the same Towards social promises to the people of Ecuador, for not having the necessary provisions in the fall of the price of oil and this has its effect on the national budget.

  10. Commercial Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) culture in British Columbia, Canada: The effects of predator netting on intertidal sediment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Daphne; McKinley, R. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Quantifying risks posed by aquaculture to adjacent coastal ecosystems is necessary to ensure long term stability of coastal systems and the sustainability of industries that exist therein. Research has demonstrated that the use of predator netting in shellfish aquaculture increases sedimentation rates and productivity; here we examine the influence of netting on the west coast of Canada. Changes in percent silt (sediment particles 2 mm), organic and inorganic carbon levels and temperature, and differences in clam populations were monitored on paired netted and non-netted Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) plots on four farmed beaches at Baynes Sound, British Columbia in 2003 and 2004. There were no significant differences in the levels of silt ( p = 0.129, n = 8), gravel ( p = 0.723, n = 8), or inorganic carbon ( p = 0.070, n = 8) between netted and non-netted plots. However, the level of organic carbon was significantly higher on netted plots ( p = 0.014, n = 8) and a slight temperature buffering effect of the netting during low-tide events over the period of study. There were significantly more T. philippinarum on netted plots compared to non-netted plots ( p = 0.001, n = 8) and the length frequency distribution of the populations also differed ( p British Columbia, has limited effect on the sediment.

  11. The Army’s Local Economic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Using RIMS II Multipliers,” paper presented at the 50th Southern Regional Science Association Conference, New Orleans , La., March 23–27, 2011; and...territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico from the analysis. This means that the economic effects of spending in these areas are not...Regional Science Association Conference, New Orleans , La., March 23–27, 2011. As of February 12, 2014: http://www.bea.gov/papers/pdf

  12. Air pollution causes health effects and net national product of a country decreases: a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with green accounting and accounts the health effects of air pollution. It shows that due to air pollution human capital can not be utilized properly and net national product of a country decreases. The willing to pay system among workers is beneficial to the government, factory owners and workers of a country. The marginal cost-benefit rule for an optimal level of air pollution creates negative health effects. The air pollution cause both direct disutility and indirect welfar...

  13. The net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdolska, Ralitza; Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul; Edland, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Increasing the proportion of subjects allocated to the experimental treatment in controlled clinical trials is often advocated as a method of increasing recruitment rates and improving the performance of trials. The presumption is that the higher likelihood of randomization to the experimental treatment will be perceived by potential study enrollees as an added benefit of participation and will increase recruitment rates and speed the completion of trials. However, studies with alternative allocation ratios require a larger sample size to maintain statistical power, which may result in a net increase in time required to complete recruitment and a net increase in total trial cost. To describe the potential net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost. Models of recruitment time and trial cost were developed and used to compare trials with 1:1 allocation to trials with alternative allocation ratios under a range of per subject costs, per day costs, and enrollment rates. In regard to time required to complete recruitment, alternative allocation ratios are net beneficial if the recruitment rate improves by more than about 4% for trials with a 1.5:1 allocation ratio and 12% for trials with a 2:1 allocation ratio. More substantial improvements in recruitment rate, 13 and 47% respectively for scenarios we considered, are required for alternative allocation to be net beneficial in terms of tangible monetary cost. The cost models were developed expressly for trials comparing proportions or means across treatment groups. Using alternative allocation ratio designs to improve recruitment may or may not be time and cost-effective. Using alternative allocation for this purpose should only be considered for trial contexts where there is both clear evidence that the alternative design does improve recruitment rates and the attained time or cost efficiency justifies the added study subject burden implied by a larger sample size.

  14. Costs and cost-effectiveness of vector control in Eritrea using insecticide-treated bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua O; Zerom, Mehari; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Lengeler, Christian

    2009-03-30

    While insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are a recognized effective method for preventing malaria, there has been an extensive debate in recent years about the best large-scale implementation strategy. Implementation costs and cost-effectiveness are important elements to consider when planning ITN programmes, but so far little information on these aspects is available from national programmes. This study uses a standardized methodology, as part of a larger comparative study, to collect cost data and cost-effectiveness estimates from a large programme providing ITNs at the community level and ante-natal care facilities in Eritrea. This is a unique model of ITN implementation fully integrated into the public health system. Base case analysis results indicated that the average annual cost of ITN delivery (2005 USD 3.98) was very attractive when compared with past ITN delivery studies at different scales. Financing was largely from donor sources though the Eritrean government and net users also contributed funding. The intervention's cost-effectiveness was in a highly attractive range for sub-Saharan Africa. The cost per DALY averted was USD 13 - 44. The cost per death averted was USD 438-1449. Distribution of nets coincided with significant increases in coverage and usage of nets nationwide, approaching or exceeding international targets in some areas. ITNs can be cost-effectively delivered at a large scale in sub-Saharan Africa through a distribution system that is highly integrated into the health system. Operating and sustaining such a system still requires strong donor funding and support as well as a functional and extensive system of health facilities and community health workers already in place.

  15. Factors shaping effective utilization of health information technology in urban safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Garth, Belinda; Fish, Allison; Baker, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Urban safety-net clinics are considered prime targets for the adoption of health information technology innovations; however, little is known about their utilization in such safety-net settings. Current scholarship provides limited guidance on the implementation of health information technology into safety-net settings as it typically assumes that adopting institutions have sufficient basic resources. This study addresses this gap by exploring the unique challenges urban resource-poor safety-net clinics must consider when adopting and utilizing health information technology. In-depth interviews (N = 15) were used with key stakeholders (clinic chief executive officers, medical directors, nursing directors, chief financial officers, and information technology directors) from staff at four clinics to explore (a) nonhealth information technology-related clinic needs, (b) how health information technology may provide solutions, and (c) perceptions of and experiences with health information technology. Participants identified several challenges, some of which appear amenable to health information technology solutions. Also identified were requirements for effective utilization of health information technology including physical infrastructural improvements, funding for equipment/training, creation of user groups to share health information technology knowledge/experiences, and specially tailored electronic billing guidelines. We found that despite the potential benefit that can be derived from health information technologies, the unplanned and uninformed introduction of these tools into these settings might actually create more problems than are solved. From these data, we were able to identify a set of factors that should be considered when integrating health information technology into the existing workflows of low-resourced urban safety-net clinics in order to maximize their utilization and enhance the quality of health care in such settings.

  16. Effect of network topology on the evolutionary ultimatum game based on the net-profit decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shun-Qiang; Wang, Lu; Jones, Michael C.; Ye, Ye; Wang, Meng; Xie, Neng-Gang

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquity of altruist behavior amongst humans has long been a significant puzzle in the social sciences. Ultimatum game has proved to be a useful tool for explaining altruistic behavior among selfish individuals. In an ultimatum game where alternating roles exist, we suppose that players make their decisions based on the net profit of their own. In this paper, we specify a player's strategy with two parameters: offer level α ∈ [ 0,1) and net profit acceptance level β ∈ [ - 1,1). By Monte Carlo simulation, we analyze separately the effect of the size of the neighborhood, the small-world property and the heterogeneity of the degree distributions of the networks. Results show that compared with results observed for homogeneous networks, heterogeneous networks lead to more rational outcomes. Moreover, network structure has no effect on the evolution of kindness level, so moderate kindness is adaptable to any social groups and organizations.

  17. The costs and effects of a nationwide insecticide-treated net programme: the case of Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Juan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are a proven intervention to reduce the burden of malaria, yet there remains a debate as to the best method of ensuring they are universally utilized. This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention in Malawi that started in 1998, in Blantyre district, before expanding nationwide. Over the 5-year period, 1.5 million ITNs were sold. Methods The costs were calculated retrospectively through analysis of expenditure data. Costs and effects were measured as cost per treated-net year (cost/TNY and cost per net distributed. Results The mean cost/TNY was calculated at $4.41, and the mean cost/ITN distributed at $2.63. It also shows evidence of economies of scale, with the cost/TNY falling from $7.69 in year one (72,196 ITN to $3.44 in year five (720,577 ITN. Cost/ITN distributed dropped from $5.04 to $1.92. Conclusion Combining targeting and social marketing has the potential of being both cost-effective and capable of achieving high levels of coverage, and it is possible that increasing returns to scale can be achieved.

  18. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Kristian; Wahlström, Helene; Ivarsson, Sofie; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs) were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million), implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year), with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million) and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million). Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  19. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Sundström

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae, for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million, implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year, with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million. Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  20. Effect of osmolality on net fluid absorption in non-infected and ETEC-infected piglet small intestinal segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    In the small intestinal segment perfusion model the effect of osmolality on net fluid absorption in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-infected and non-infected small intestinal segments of piglets was investigated. In ETEC-infected segments net fluid absorption was reduced. Lowering the

  1. Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE

  2. 2D net shape weaving for cost effective manufacture of textile reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, D. M. P.; Kern, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Cherif, C.

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant weight and performance advantages over metal parts, the today’s demand for fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) has been limited mainly by their large manufacturing cost. The combination of dry textile preforms and low-cost consolidation processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) has been appointed as a promising approach to low-cost FRPC manufacture. At the current state of the art, tooling and impregnation technology is well understood whereas preform fabrication technology has not been developed effectively. This paper presents an advanced 2D net shape weaving technology developed with the aim to establish a more cost effective system for the manufacture of dry textile preforms for FRPC. 2D net shape weaving is developed based on open reed weave (ORW) technology and enables the manufacture of 2D contoured woven fabrics with firm edge, so that oversize cutting and hand trimming after molding are no longer required. The introduction of 2D net shape woven fabrics helps to reduce material waste, cycle time and preform manufacturing cost significantly. Furthermore, higher grade of automation in preform fabrication can be achieved.

  3. An improved null model for assessing the net effects of multiple stressors on communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patrick L; MacLennan, Megan M; Vinebrooke, Rolf D

    2017-07-28

    Ecological stressors (i.e., environmental factors outside their normal range of variation) can mediate each other through their interactions, leading to unexpected combined effects on communities. Determining whether the net effect of stressors is ecologically surprising requires comparing their cumulative impact to a null model that represents the linear combination of their individual effects (i.e., an additive expectation). However, we show that standard additive and multiplicative null models that base their predictions on the effects of single stressors on community properties (e.g., species richness or biomass) do not provide this linear expectation, leading to incorrect interpretations of antagonistic and synergistic responses by communities. We present an alternative, the compositional null model, which instead bases its predictions on the effects of stressors on individual species, and then aggregates them to the community level. Simulations demonstrate the improved ability of the compositional null model to accurately provide a linear expectation of the net effect of stressors. We simulate the response of communities to paired stressors that affect species in a purely additive fashion and compare the relative abilities of the compositional null model and two standard community property null models (additive and multiplicative) to predict these linear changes in species richness and community biomass across different combinations (both positive, negative, or opposite) and intensities of stressors. The compositional model predicts the linear effects of multiple stressors under almost all scenarios, allowing for proper classification of net effects, whereas the standard null models do not. Our findings suggest that current estimates of the prevalence of ecological surprises on communities based on community property null models are unreliable, and should be improved by integrating the responses of individual species to the community level as does our

  4. Costing the distribution of insecticide-treated nets: a review of cost and cost-effectiveness studies to provide guidance on standardization of costing methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczinski, Jan; Hanson, Kara

    2006-05-08

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an effective and cost-effective means of malaria control. Scaling-up coverage of ITNs is challenging. It requires substantial resources and there are a number of strategies to choose from. Information on the cost of different strategies is still scarce. To guide the choice of a delivery strategy (or combination of strategies), reliable and standardized cost information for the different options is required. The electronic online database PubMed was used for a systematic search of the published English literature on costing and economic evaluations of ITN distribution programmes. The keywords used were: net, bednet, insecticide, treated, ITN, cost, effectiveness, economic and evaluation. Identified papers were analysed to determine and evaluate the costing methods used. Methods were judged against existing standards of cost analysis to arrive at proposed standards for undertaking and presenting cost analyses. Cost estimates were often not readily comparable or could not be adjusted to a different context. This resulted from the wide range of methods applied and measures of output chosen. Most common shortcomings were the omission of certain costs and failure to adjust financial costs to generate economic costs. Generalisability was hampered by authors not reporting quantities and prices of resources separately and not examining the sensitivity of their results to variations in underlying assumptions. The observed shortcomings have arisen despite the abundance of literature and guidelines on costing of health care interventions. This paper provides ITN specific recommendations in the hope that these will help to standardize future cost estimates.

  5. Effect of site of starch digestion on portal nutrient net fluxes in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, Pierre; Rémond, Didier; Lemosquet, Sophie; Chauveau, Béatrice; Durand, Denys; Poncet, Claude

    2005-08-01

    Processing of maize grain is known to modulate the site of starch digestion, thus the nature and amount of nutrients delivered for absorption. We assessed the effect of site of starch digestion on nutrient net fluxes across portal-drained viscera (PDV). Three steers, fitted with permanent digestive cannulas and blood catheters, successively received two diets containing 35 % starch as dent maize grain. Diets differed according to maize presentation: dry and cracked (by-pass, BP) v. wet and ground (control, C). Ruminal physicochemical parameters were not significantly affected. Between C and BP, the decrease in ruminal starch digestion was compensated by an increase in starch digestion in the small intestine. The amount of glucose and soluble alpha-glucoside reaching the ileum was not affected. The amount of glucose disappearing in the small intestine increased from 238 to 531 g/d between C and BP, but portal net flux of glucose remained unchanged (-97 g/d). The portal O2 consumption and net energy release were not significantly affected, averaging 16 % and 57 % of metabolizable energy intake, respectively. The whole-body glucose appearance rate, measured by jugular infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose, averaged 916 g/d. The present study shows that the increase in the amount of glucose disappearing in the small intestine of conventionally fed cattle at a moderate intake level induces no change in portal net flux of glucose, reflecting an increase in glucose utilization by PDV. That could contribute to the low response of whole-body glucose appearance rate observed at this moderate level of intestinal glucose supply.

  6. The economic effect of Planet Health on preventing bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Nichols, Lauren P; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-08-01

    To assess the economic effect of the school-based obesity prevention program Planet Health on preventing disordered weight control behaviors and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of its combined effect on prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors. On the basis of the intervention's short-term effect on disordered weight control behaviors prevention, we projected the number of girls who were prevented from developing bulimia nervosa by age 17 years. We further estimated medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years gained by the intervention over 10 years. As a final step, we compared the intervention costs with the combined intervention benefits from both obesity prevention (reported previously) and prevention of disordered weight control behaviors to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Middle schools. A sample of 254 intervention girls aged 10 to 14 years. The Planet Health program was implemented during the school years from 1995 to 1997 and was designed to promote healthful nutrition and physical activity among youth. Intervention costs, medical costs saved, quality-adjusted life years gained, and cost-effectiveness ratio. An estimated 1 case of bulimia nervosa would have been prevented. As a result, an estimated $33 999 in medical costs and 0.7 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. At an intervention cost of $46 803, the combined prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors would yield a net savings of $14 238 and a gain of 4.8 quality-adjusted life years. Primary prevention programs, such as Planet Health, warrant careful consideration by policy makers and program planners. The findings of this study provide additional argument for integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders.

  7. Effect of large-scale social marketing of insecticide-treated nets on child survival in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, J R; Abdulla, S; Nathan, R; Mukasa, O; Marchant, T J; Kikumbih, N; Mushi, A K; Mponda, H; Minja, H; Mshinda, H; Tanner, M; Lengeler, C

    2001-04-21

    Insecticide-treated nets have proven efficacy as a malaria-control tool in Africa. However, the transition from efficacy to effectiveness cannot be taken for granted. We assessed coverage and the effect on child survival of a large-scale social marketing programme for insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of southern Tanzania with high perennial malaria transmission. Socially marketed insecticide-treated nets were introduced step-wise over a 2-year period from May, 1997, in a population of 480000 people. Cross-sectional coverage surveys were done at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years. A demographic surveillance system (DSS) was set up in an area of 60000 people to record population, births, and deaths. Within the DSS area, the effect of insecticide-treated nets on child survival was assessed by a case-control approach. Cases were deaths in children aged between 1 month and 4 years. Four controls for each case were chosen from the DSS database. Use of insecticide-treated nets and potential confounding factors were assessed by questionnaire. Individual effectiveness estimates from the case-control study were combined with coverage to estimate community effectiveness. Insecticide-treated net coverage of infants in the DSS area rose from less than 10% at baseline to more than 50% 3 years later. Insecticide-treated nets were associated with a 27% increase in survival in children aged 1 month to 4 years (95% CI 3-45). Coverage in such children was higher in areas with longer access to the programme. The modest average coverage achieved by 1999 in the two districts (18% in children younger than 5 years) suggests that insecticide-treated nets prevented 1 in 20 child deaths at that time. Social marketing of insecticide-treated nets has great potential for effective malaria control in rural African settings.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-01-01

    To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost 1560 US dollars per death averted and 57 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to 1018 US dollars and 37 US dollars, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria.

  9. Economic Impact of Net Carbon Payments and Bioenergy Production in Fertilized and Non-Fertilized Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prativa Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sequestering carbon in forest stands and using woody bioenergy are two potential ways to utilize forests in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Such forestry related strategies are, however, greatly influenced by carbon and bioenergy markets. This study investigates the impact of both carbon and woody bioenergy markets on land expectation value (LEV and rotation age of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. forests in the southeastern United States for two scenarios—one with thinning and no fertilization and the other with thinning and fertilization. Economic analysis was conducted using a modified Hartman model. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted during various activities such as management of stands, harvesting, and product decay was included in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with a range of carbon offset, wood for bioenergy, and forest product prices. The results showed that LEV increased in both management scenarios as the price of carbon and wood for bioenergy increased. However, the results indicated that the management scenario without fertilizer was optimal at low carbon prices and the management scenario with fertilizer was optimal at higher carbon prices for medium and low forest product prices. Carbon payments had a greater impact on LEV than prices for wood utilized for bioenergy. Also, increase in the carbon price increased the optimal rotation age, whereas, wood prices for bioenergy had little impact. The management scenario without fertilizer was found to have longer optimal rotation ages.

  10. Determining and addressing obstacles to the effective use of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benziger Peter W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this project was to achieve high, sustainable levels of net coverage in a village in rural Tanzania by combining free distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs with community-tailored education. In Tanzania, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although malaria bed nets have a well-established role in reducing disease burden, few rural households have access to nets, and effective use depends on personal practices and attitudes. Methods Five practices and attitudes inconsistent with effective LLIN use were identified from household interviews (n = 10. A randomized survey of villagers (n = 132 verified local prevalence of these practices and attitudes. Community leaders held an educational session for two members of every household addressing these practice and attitudes, demonstrating proper LLIN use, and emphasizing behaviour modification. Attendees received one or two LLINs per household. Surveys distributed three weeks (n = 104 and 15 months (n = 104 post-intervention assessed corrected practices and attitudes. Project efficacy was defined by correction of baseline practices and attitudes as well as high rates of reported daily net use, with statistical significance determined by chi-square test. Results Baseline interviews and surveys revealed incorrect practices and attitudes regarding 1 use of nets in dry season, 2 need to retreat LLINs, 3 children napping under nets, 4 need to repair nets, and 5 net procurement as a priority, with 53- 88.6% incorrect responses (11.4-47% correct responses. A three-week follow-up demonstrated 83-95% correct responses. Fifteen-month follow-up showed statistically significant (p Conclusions Results suggest that addressing community-specific practices and attitudes prior to LLIN distribution promotes consistent and correct use, and helps change attitudes towards bed nets as a preventative health measure. Future LLIN distributions

  11. Estimating Damage Cost of Net Primary Production due to Climate Change and Ozone(O3) Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Sung, S.; Kim, H. G.; Mo, Y.; Kim, S.; Kil, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forests are absorbing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis. The forests are not only preventing global warming but also influencing temperature, precipitation and humidity (Costanza et al., 1997; de Groot et al., 2002). Also the forests are recognized as a carbon sink internationally (van Kooten, 2009). The Korean Government supports the economic activity such as carbon offset projects in accordance with 'ACT ON THE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF CARBON SINK' Article27 (Korea Forest Service, 2013) and aims to make a policy which improves the CO2 capacity of forest for Paris Agreement discussed in UNFCCC COP21, December 2015 (Korea Forest Service, 2015). However, the social-economic activities make to increase aerosols as well as greenhouse gases significantly since the industrial revolution, as a result, the chemical composition of the atmosphere has changed significantly. According to the resent studies, not only CO2 but atmospheric chemistries such as ozone (O3), aerosol and black carbon can be an important factor causing climate change (Hansen et al., 2007; IPCC, 2007). In the past, acid rain affected on forest, but in these days, O3, nitrogen oxide (NOX) and sulfur oxide (SOX) are the most threatening factors on forest ecosystem (Lee et al, 2011). In particular, O3accounts for most of the photochemical products and causes a direct significant impact or damage on the plant because of high toxicity (Han et al., 2006). The research questions of this study are "How does O3 effects on forest productivity in the present and future? " What is the damage cost by the O3 effect in the future? In this study, we developed a statistical model using the parameters which effect on the forest productivity. We estimated the forest productivity using on the derived model in the present and future on a SSP scenarios. Lastly, we evaluated the economic effect or damage cost of O3effect by introducing the concept of climate insurance. The average forest

  12. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF EMIGRATION OF YOUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the oldest phenomena that accompanied the development of human society, sometimes causing clashes between peoples, cultures and civilizations. Recent events or from a not too distant past of Europe show that tensions created by migratory movements often have an impact on political and economic relations between countries, cultures and religions. The Romanian reality shows that after 1989 the resident population experienced a decline. According to the National Institute of Statistics, in the period 1989-2012, Romania's population decreased by about 3.1 million, this reduction being due to both migration phenomenon and negative natural increase of population. Some statistic records also show that the extremes are usually among those who decide to emigrate. On the one hand those who are choosing this path are individuals with low income and a low or medium level of education; on the other hand, we can find the phenomenon of brain drain. It is alarming that among those who choose to emigrate are registered young people able to work, this generating the problem of funding on medium and long term the social services. Starting from such aspects, this paper aims to highlight key issues regarding the intention of emigration of highly educated young people. Using quantitative and qualitative methods the authors of this paper aim to identify some possible causes that may determine the highly educated youth to emigrate, evaluate some possible effects due to this phenomenon and to find proposals to limit the negative effects of demographic decline.

  13. Effects of sex control and twinning on economic optimization of culling cows in Japanese Black cow-calf production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2012-01-15

    The effects of sex control and twinning techniques on determination of optimal culling parity of cows in beef cow-calf production systems were deterministically analyzed using a herd model simulation. The model simulated the annualized net revenue as an economic indicator during the whole life cycle of a cow. Biological factors (survivability, growth, reproduction, and feed requirements) and economic factors (returns from sales of live calves and cows' carcasses and production costs) were included in the model. Some biological and economic parameters relating to these factors were altered from a base condition in order to adapt the production systems with sex control and twinning techniques. Based on the model, early culling was optimal for all production systems when biological efficiency was used as an indicator of production; however, later culling was optimal for single production, but slightly earlier culling was optimal for twin production, when annualized net revenue was evaluated. The introduction of sex control did not greatly affect the determination of the optimal culling parity of cows. When production included the sex control, female sexing increased biological efficiency, whereas male sexing increased annualized net revenue. In the present beef cow-calf production circumstances in Japan, introduction of sex control did not have economically appreciable effects, but twinning was economically beneficial. For production involving sex control, improvement in the conception rate per mating and/or reduction of technical cost were required for this technology to be profitable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of Good Governance and Education on Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Good Governance and Education on Economic Stability and Growth in Nigeria. ... Economic and Policy Review ... Therefore there is the need for Nigerians to demonstrate a commitment to the democratic principles and economic goals, and to develop the skills and values needed to sustain a constitutional ...

  15. Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor® long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Rajendra M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, Interceptor®, long-lasting polyester net, 75 denier and bursting strength of minimum 250 kPa coated with alpha-cypermethrin @ 200 mg/m2 was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the mosquito density, blood feeding inhibition and malaria incidence in a tribal dominated malaria endemic area in Chhattisgarh state, central India. Its durability, washing practices and usage pattern by the community was also assessed up to a period of three years. Methods The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase (September 2006 to August 2007, 16 malaria endemic villages in district Kanker were randomized into three groups, viz. Interceptor net (LN, untreated polyester net (100 denier and without net. Malaria cases were detected by undertaking fortnightly surveillance by home visits and treated as per the national drug policy. Mosquito collections were made by hand catch and pyrethrum space spray methods from human dwellings once every month. Slide positivity rate (SPR and malaria incidence per 1000 population (PI were compared between the three study arms to assess the impact of use of Interceptor nets. Simultaneously, wash resistance studies were carried out in the laboratory by doing cone bioassays on Interceptor LNs washed up to 20 times. Activities undertaken in second Phase (April 2008 to October 2009 after an interval of about 18 months post-net distribution included questionnaire based surveys at every six months, i.e. 18, 24, 30 and 36 months to observe durability, usage pattern of LNs and washing practices by the community. After 36 months of field use, 30 nets were retrieved and sampled destructively for chemical analysis. Results Interceptor nets were found effective in reducing the density, parity rate and blood feeding success rate of main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies as compared to that in untreated net and no net villages. SPR in LN villages was 3.7% as compared to 6

  16. Land Use Effects on Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in the US Great Plains: Historical Trends and Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S. J.; Parton, W. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Mosier, A. R.; Mosier, A. R.; Paustian, K.; Peterson, G. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present maps showing regional patterns of land use change and soil C levels in the US Great Plains during the 20th century and time series of net greenhouse gas fluxes associated with different land uses. Net greenhouse gas fluxes were calculated by accounting for soil CO2 fluxes, the CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions and CH4 uptake, and the CO2 costs of N fertilizer production. Both historical and modern agriculture in this region have been net sources of greenhouse gases. The primary reason for this, prior to 1950, is that agriculture mined soil C and resulted in net CO2 emissions. When chemical N fertilizer became widely used in the 1950's agricultural soils began to sequester CO2-C but these soils were still net greenhouse gas sources if the effects of increased N2O emissions and decreased CH4 uptake are included. The sensitivity of net greenhouse gas fluxes to conventional and alternative land uses was explored using the DAYCENT ecosystem model. Model projections suggest that conversion to no-till, reduction of the fallow period, and use of nitrification inhibitors can significantly decrease net greenhouse gas emissions in dryland and irrigated systems, while maintaining or increasing crop yields.

  17. The Effects of Economic Crisis on Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica Drutu (Ivan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper proposes a listing of the main effects of economic and financial crisis ontourism, followed by an analysis of key trends in tourism development and mutations occurring in consumerbuying behavior of such services. Prior Work. All these have a significant impact on the strategies thatshould be used for tourist destinations, given that the last 20 years, tourism has made a great contribution tothe global economy, being the fastest growing sector in terms of External revenue and create jobs, andeconomic and financial crisis that has affected the world economy in 2008, has led to decreasing the flow ofboth domestic and international tourists. Approach. In terms of sustainable development, a concern must beemphasized that tourism as a phenomenon, but also as an activity is unique in its kind that manifests itself bydependence on the environment, social environment and cultural values, that are found in areas of interest.Value. Because of this dependency, tourism has an undeniable interest in ensuring the sustainability of thesevalues.

  18. Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

  19. Economic effects of interventions to reduce obesity in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginsberg Gary M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major risk factor for many diseases. The paper calculates the economic impact and the cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY resulting from the adoption of eight interventions comprising the clinical and part of the community components of the National Prevention and Health Promotion Program (NPHPP of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH which represents the obesity control implementation arm of the MOH Healthy Israel 2020 Initiative. Methods Health care costs per person were calculated by body mass index (BMI by applying Israeli cost data to aggregated results from international studies. These were applied to BMI changes from eight intervention programmes in order to calculate reductions in direct treatment costs. Indirect cost savings were also estimated as were additional costs due to increased longevity of program participants. Data on costs and QALYs gained from Israeli and International dietary interventions were combined to provide cost-utility estimates of an intervention program to reduce obesity in Israel over a range of recidivism rates. Results On average, persons who were overweight (25 ≤ BMI For overweight (25 ≤ BMI A program directed at the entire Israeli population aged 20 and over, using a variety of eight different interventions would cost 2.07 billion NIS overall. In the baseline scenario (with an assumed recidivism rate of 50% per annum, approximately 620,000,000 NIS would be recouped in the form of decreased treatment costs and indirect costs, increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. After discounting the 89,000,000 NIS additional health costs attributable to these extra life years, it is estimated that the total net costs to society would be 1.55 billion NIS. This total net cost was relatively stable to increases in the program's recidivism rates, but highly sensitive to reductions in recidivism rates. Under baseline assumptions, implementation of the cluster of interventions

  20. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  1. Petroleum: Social and economic effect in Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Aguas Pután

    2016-01-01

    The present article presents the results of the research work related to the social and economic impact of the exploitation of oil in Ecuador, presents the reader with the methodologies that allowed...

  2. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy.......A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...

  3. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    L.C.Risti; C. Nicolaescu; D.Tăgăduan

    2013-01-01

    The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  4. Sex effects on net protein and energy requirements for growth of Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A P; St-Pierre, N R; Fernandes, M H R M; Almeida, A K; Vargas, J A C; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-06-01

    Requirements for growth in the different sexes remain poorly quantified in goats. The objective of this study was to develop equations for estimating net protein (NP G ) and net energy (NE G ) for growth in Saanen goats of different sexes from 5 to 45 kg of body weight (BW). A data set from 7 comparative slaughter studies (238 individual records) of Saanen goats was used. Allometric equations were developed to determine body protein and energy contents in the empty BW (EBW) as dependent variables and EBW as the allometric predictor. Parameter estimates were obtained using a linearized (log-transformation) expression of the allometric equations using the MIXED procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The model included the random effect of the study and the fixed effects of sex (intact male, castrated male, and female; n = 94, 73, and 71, respectively), EBW, and their interactions. Net requirements for growth were estimated as the first partial derivative of the allometric equations with respect to EBW. Additionally, net requirements for growth were evaluated based on the degree of maturity. Monte Carlo techniques were used to estimate the uncertainty of the calculated net requirement values. Sex affected allometric relationships for protein and energy in Saanen goats. The allometric equation for protein content in the EBW of intact and castrated males was log 10 protein (g) = 2.221 (±0.0224) + 1.015 (±0.0165) × log 10 EBW (kg). For females, the relationship was log 10 protein (g) = 2.277 (±0.0288) + 0.958 (±0.0218) × log 10 EBW (kg). Therefore, NP G for males was greater than for females. The allometric equation for the energy content in the EBW of intact males was log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.988 (±0.0323) + 1.240 (±0.0238) × log 10 EBW (kg); of castrated males, log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.873 (±0.0377) + 1.359 (±0.0283) × log 10 EBW (kg); and of females, log 10 energy (kcal) = 2.820 (±0.0377) + 1.442 (±0.0281) × log 10 EBW (kg). The NE G

  5. Detrimental effect of cypermethrin treated nets on Culicoides populations (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) and non-targeted fauna in livestock farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, R; Barceló, C; Lucientes, J; Miranda, M A

    2014-01-31

    Bluetongue (BT) is an important disease of ruminants which exhibits its most severe clinical signs on cattle and especially on certain breeds of sheep. The known vectors of BT are small insects of the genus Culicoides (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae). Two species from this genus - Culicoides imicola and Culicoides obsoletus - play the major role in the transmission of the disease in Europe. Several prophylactic methods are used to avoid transmission; however, an easy and cost-effective preventive technique would be very useful for the control of the Culicoides populations near the animals. In the present study, the insecticide effect of cypermethrin treated nets on a Culicoides population was evaluated. A polyethylene net sprayed with 1L cypermethrin solution (1%) surrounding a UV light suction trap was placed at a cattle farm in Majorca (Balearic Islands). Collections of Culicoides and other fauna from the trap and floor around the net were compared with a control. Results showed no significant differences in the collection of Culicoides midges between the insecticide-treated net and the control. However, significant differences were observed in the collection of the non-target fauna between the treated net and the control, indicating that the dose used in the present trial was enough to kill most of the arthropods that contacted the net. The reasons for these equivocal findings and means to improve this technique for the control of Culicoides midges are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The need for nutrition education, women empowerment, health support and safety nets by government and non-governmental organizations cannot be overemphasized in reducing prevalence of malnutrition among these vulnerable groups. Keywords: Socio-economic factors, malnutrition, safety nets, lactating ...

  7. Proteolytic Remodeling of Perineuronal Nets: Effects on Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lorenzo Bozzelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The perineuronal net (PNN represents a lattice-like structure that is prominently expressed along the soma and proximal dendrites of parvalbumin- (PV- positive interneurons in varied brain regions including the cortex and hippocampus. It is thus apposed to sites at which PV neurons receive synaptic input. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in PNN integrity may affect glutamatergic input to PV interneurons, a population that is critical for the expression of synchronous neuronal population discharges that occur with gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripples. The present review is focused on the composition of PNNs, posttranslation modulation of PNN components by sulfation and proteolysis, PNN alterations in disease, and potential effects of PNN remodeling on neuronal plasticity at the single-cell and population level.

  8. Evaluation of a universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution campaign in Ghana: cost effectiveness of distribution and hang-up activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Paintain, Lucy; Awini, Elizabeth; Addei, Sheila; Kukula, Vida; Nikoi, Christian; Sarpong, Doris; Kwesi Manyei, Alfred; Yayemain, Daniel; Rusamira, Etienne; Agborson, Josephine; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Bart-Plange, Constance; Chatterjee, Anirban; Gyapong, Margaret; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay

    2014-02-28

    Between May 2010 and October 2012, approximately 12.5 million long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were distributed through a national universal mass distribution campaign in Ghana. The campaign included pre-registration of persons and sleeping places, door-to-door distribution of LLINs with 'hang-up' activities by volunteers and post-distribution 'keep-up' behaviour change communication activities. Hang-up activities were included to encourage high and sustained use. The cost and cost-effectiveness of the LLIN Campaign were evaluated using a before-after design in three regions: Brong Ahafo, Central and Western. The incremental cost effectiveness of the 'hang-up' component was estimated using reported variation in the implementation of hang-up activities and LLIN use. Economic costs were estimated from a societal perspective assuming LLINs would be replaced after three years, and included the time of unpaid volunteers and household contributions given to volunteers. Across the three regions, 3.6 million campaign LLINs were distributed, and 45.5% of households reported the LLINs received were hung-up by a volunteer. The financial cost of the campaign was USD 6.51 per LLIN delivered. The average annual economic cost was USD 2.90 per LLIN delivered and USD 6,619 per additional child death averted by the campaign. The cost-effectiveness of the campaign was sensitive to the price, lifespan and protective efficacy of LLINs.Hang-up activities constituted 7% of the annual economic cost, though the additional financial cost was modest given the use of volunteers. LLIN use was greater in households in which one or more campaign LLINs were hung by a volunteer (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.09, 2.27; p=0.02). The additional economic cost of the hang-up activities was USD 0.23 per LLIN delivered, and achieved a net saving per LLIN used and per death averted. In this campaign, hang-up activities were estimated to be net saving if hang-up increased LLIN use by 10% or more. This suggests

  9. Education's Effect on Income Inequality: An Economic Globalisation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…

  10. Perceived economic and behavioural effects of the mentally ill on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is no documented evidence in Kenya on relatives' perceptions of economic and behavioural effects of the mentally ill patients and their coping mechanisms. To document what relatives of mentally ill patients perceive to be the economic effects of the patients on the family and how they are affected by and ...

  11. Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

  12. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  13. Cognitive Capitalism: Economic Freedom Moderates the Effects of Intellectual and Average Classes on Economic Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas R; Rindermann, Heiner; Hancock, Dale

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity. However, the effects of cognitive ability may be stronger in free and open economies, where competition rewards merit and achievement. To test this hypothesis, ability levels of intellectual classes (top 5%) and average classes (country averages) were estimated using international student assessments (Programme for International Student Assessment; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) (N = 99 countries). The ability levels were correlated with indicators of economic freedom (Fraser Institute), scientific achievement (patent rates), innovation (Global Innovation Index), competitiveness (Global Competitiveness Index), and wealth (gross domestic product). Ability levels of intellectual and average classes strongly predicted all economic criteria. In addition, economic freedom moderated the effects of cognitive ability (for both classes), with stronger effects at higher levels of freedom. Effects were particularly robust for scientific achievements when the full range of freedom was analyzed. The results support cognitive capitalism theory: cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity, and its effects are enhanced by economic freedom. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  15. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangasa Augustinus Sipahutar

    2016-06-01

                  Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and how much they contribute to explaining economic growth.  We also estimate an ECM to document the relationship between banks credit to both unemployment and poverty.  This paper revealed bi-direction causality between banks credit and economic growth.  Banks credit promotes economic growth and economic growth affects credit depth and financial development.  Furthermore, banks credit is a growth accelerating factor on Indonesian economic growth.  Banks credit is an endogenous growth and a good predictor on Indonesian economy. Our estimation model explained that credit allocated by banks increases business escalation to the real sectors then promotes economic growth, decreases unemployment rate through increasing in labor demanded, increases income and then decrease poverty.  This overall transmission mechanism just occurred through presence of banks credit by increasing money supply to the real sectors, promotes growth and social welfare.   Keywords :  banks credit, economic growth, growth accelerating factor, poverty, unemployment   JEL Classification : E51, E52, E58

  16. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  17. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  18. Costing the distribution of insecticide-treated nets: a review of cost and cost-effectiveness studies to provide guidance on standardization of costing methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are an effective and cost-effective means of malaria control. Scaling-up coverage of ITNs is challenging. It requires substantial resources and there are a number of strategies to choose from. Information on the cost of different strategies is still scarce. To guide the choice of a delivery strategy (or combination of strategies, reliable and standardized cost information for the different options is required. Methods The electronic online database PubMed was used for a systematic search of the published English literature on costing and economic evaluations of ITN distribution programmes. The keywords used were: net, bednet, insecticide, treated, ITN, cost, effectiveness, economic and evaluation. Identified papers were analysed to determine and evaluate the costing methods used. Methods were judged against existing standards of cost analysis to arrive at proposed standards for undertaking and presenting cost analyses. Results Cost estimates were often not readily comparable or could not be adjusted to a different context. This resulted from the wide range of methods applied and measures of output chosen. Most common shortcomings were the omission of certain costs and failure to adjust financial costs to generate economic costs. Generalisability was hampered by authors not reporting quantities and prices of resources separately and not examining the sensitivity of their results to variations in underlying assumptions. Conclusion The observed shortcomings have arisen despite the abundance of literature and guidelines on costing of health care interventions. This paper provides ITN specific recommendations in the hope that these will help to standardize future cost estimates.

  19. Effects of private transportation improvements on economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    In this project, we explored opportunities and effects of public-private or private-private partnerships for mobility improvements (incl. alternative fueled shuttles and IT infrastructure) and assessed their effects on local and regional economic dev...

  20. The Economic Effects of Comprehensive Tax Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    components people save. But how the motive to leave bequests of total compensation, and hence pension contributions should be modeled is highly uncertain...in the central case). 2 for a bequest upon death. The model avoids the many possible motivations for individual bequests , or the At the second stage...repealing the in- motivated behavior, such as sheltering income or reduc- vestment tax credit and limiting certain allowances for ing real economic

  1. Sectoral Employment Effects of Economic Downturns

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Foster-McGregor; Doris Hanzl-Weiss; Leitner, Sandra M.; Sebastian Leitner; Nirina Rabemiafara; Fadila Sanoussi; Robert Stehrer; Terry Ward

    2012-01-01

    The recent economic downturn The decline in GDP during the recession has been concentrated in manufacturing and construction and triggered significant (though smaller) declines in basic services (distribution, hotels and restaurants, and transport). The decline in manufacturing production was particularly strong in Germany, while in Spain and Ireland as well as the Baltic states there was a pronounced decline in construction, which had expanded markedly in these countries over the years prece...

  2. *Abstracts - 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium, Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety - November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Heather; Verhoef, Marja J

    2012-10-23

    Abstract The following are abstracts of oral and poster presentations given at the 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium - Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety, and the 4th HomeoNet Research Forum, a pre-Symposium event. The IN-CAM Research Symposium was held November 2 to 4, 2012 at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. For more information, please visit: www.incamresearch.ca.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Soil Moisture on Net Ecosystem Exchange in Shale Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Z. G.; Davis, K. J.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon sinks have the ability to absorb more carbon dioxide than what they emit. The terrestrial biome acts as a huge carbon sink, however, this ability is dependent on different environmental factors. This study focused on the effects of soil moisture on net ecosystem exchange(NEE) in the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, PA. It was hypothesized that the strength of the carbon sink would grow with wetter soils. Data was collected from the eddy-covariance flux tower, a COSMOS soil moisture probe, automated soil respiration chambers and sap flow probes for May to August between the years 2011-2016. Since temperature and photosynthetically active radiation(PAR) also have an effect on carbon fluxes, these variables were isolated to properly study soil moisture and carbon fluxes. Generally, less carbon dioxide was absorbed with increasing soil moisture. Since NEE is a combination of photosynthesis and respiration, the effect of soil moisture was studied separately for each process. The sap flow data showed a decrease in activity with increasing soil moisture, hence photosynthesis was most likely reduced. Additionally, more carbon dioxide was emitted from respiration with increasing soil moisture. These findings could possibly explain why the forest at Shale Hills tends to release more carbon dioxide with increasing soil moisture.

  4. Net effect of wort osmotic pressure on fermentation course, yeast vitality, beer flavor, and haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, K; Matoulková, D; Dienstbier, M; Gabriel, P

    2009-04-01

    The net effect of increased wort osmolarity on fermentation time, bottom yeast vitality and sedimentation, beer flavor compounds, and haze was determined in fermentations with 12 degrees all-malt wort supplemented with sorbitol to reach osmolarity equal to 16 degrees and 20 degrees. Three pitchings were performed in 12 degrees/12 degrees/12 degrees, 16 degrees/16 degrees/12 degrees, and 20 degrees/20 degrees/12 degrees worts. Fermentations in 16 degrees and 20 degrees worts decreased yeast vitality measured as acidification power (AP) by a maximum of 10%, lowered yeast proliferation, and increased fermentation time. Repitching aggravated these effects. The 3rd "back to normal" pitching into 12 degrees wort restored the yeast AP and reproductive abilities while the extended fermentation time remained. Yeast sedimentation in 16 degrees and 20 degrees worts was delayed but increased about two times at fermentation end relative to that in 12 degrees wort. Third "back-to-normal" pitching abolished the delay in sedimentation and reduced its extent, which became nearly equal in all variants. Beer brewed at increased osmolarity was characterized by increased levels of diacetyl and pentanedione and lower levels of dimethylsulfide and acetaldehyde. Esters and higher alcohols displayed small variations irrespective of wort osmolarity or repitching. Increased wort osmolarity had no appreciable effect on the haze of green beer and accelerated beer clarification during maturation. In all variants, chill haze increased with repitching.

  5. Viabilidade econômica do uso da tela antigranizo em pomares de pêra-japonesa Economic evaluation of the use of hail protection net in japonese pear orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS LEOMAR KREUZ

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o uso da tela de proteção ao granizo sob a perspectiva de um investimento na cultura da pêra-japonesa nas condições do Sul do Brasil. Os resultados evidenciam que, dado um risco médio de ocorrência de granizo de 10% ao ano, o seu uso se justifica para produtores que possuem disponibilidade de capital, bem como para aqueles que buscam uma constância no atendimento ao mercado.This study was carried out to analyse the economic viability of the use of a hail protection net in Japanese pear orchards in Southern Brazil. The hail has a chance of 10% to occur yearly. The use of the hail net protection did not improve the economic return. It is suggested the use when capital is not a limiting production factor, and in order to constantly supply the market.

  6. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  7. VALUASI EKONOMI KEHILANGAN MANFAAT BERSIH AKIBAT BIAYA KESEHATAN PENGGUNAAN PESTISIDA KIMIA (Economic Valuation of Net Benefit Loss Due to Health Cost of Chemical Pesticides Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mengingat pestisida merupakan bahan beracun, maka penggunaannya juga menimbulkan  risiko kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengestimasi bsarnya kehilangan manfaat bersih akibat adanya eksternalitas yang diakibatkan oleh penggunaan pestisda kimia. Manfaat yang hilang ditentukan menghitung selisih antara manfaat bersihmaksimum dihitung dengan menggunakan konsep yang mendalilkan bahwa manfaat bersih marjinal sama dengan biaya eksternal marjinal. Manfaat bersih marjinal diturunkan dari fungsi produksi, sedangkan biaya eksternal marjinal diperoleh dari fungsi biaya kesehatan yang telah diestimasi oleh peneliti sebelumnya. Studi ini menggunakan data nasional produksi padi mulai tahun 1974 sampai dengan 2000. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa kehilangan manfaat bersih akibat biaya kesehatan karena penggunaan pestisida sangat tinggi. Kehilangan manfaat bersih yang sangat tinggi ini terjadi karena elastisitas produksi dari pestisida terhadap padi sangat kecil.   ABSTRACT Since pesticide is a poisonous agent, its use also causes health risk. The objective of this study is to estimate the value of net benefit loss associated with chemical pestiside uses. The net benefit loss is determined by finding the difference between actual value of net benefit and maximum value of net benefit of pesticides use. The maximum value of net benefit can be obtained by employing the concept postulating that the net benefit is occurred when the marginal net benefit is aqual to marginal external cost. The marginal net benefit is derived from estimated production function of rice, whereas the marginal external cost is obtained by adopting health cost function of pesticides use that has been estimated by previous researchers. The study utilized the national data of rice production and agro-chemical input use during from 1974 to 2000. The results of the study show that there are extremely high net benefit losses associated with health costs of pesticides use. It is

  8. Effects of Chinese Economic Stimulus Package on Economic Growth in the Post-Crisis China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglv Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the contribution of investment expansion policy after financial crisis as well as describe the possible economic perspectives in the post-crisis period by using scenario simulation method based on Chinese dynamic economic CGE (computable general equilibrium model. Energy consumption and CO2 emission are also considered in order to access the possible negative effects owing to investment enlargement. The results show that expanding investment response to financial crisis increases economic growth rate by 6.74% from 2.36% in 2009. It can relieve the fluctuation in economy and bring the economic growth close to baseline level in the near post-crisis period. However, higher energy consumption intensity and CO2 emission intensity compared to baseline owing to the increasing investment make energy saving and CO2 mitigation more difficult.

  9. The economic effects of labor unions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedder, R.; Gallaway, L. [Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2002-12-31

    Using a variety of statistical techniques, it is concluded that labor unions have reduced U.S. output by significant amounts - trillions of dollars over time. Additionally, the employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate have been adversely affected by the presence of unions. From the very beginning, unionization materially lowered employment in the auto and steel industries, and union militancy in coal mining has contributed importantly to largely eliminating employment in this once large industry. While some individual workers have profited from unions, the aggregate economic impact is strongly negative.

  10. Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank; ECLOUD'12

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the Joint INFN-Frascati, INFN-Pisa, CERN-LER and EuCARD-AccNet Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects, “ECLOUD12”, held at La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, from 5 to 9 June 2012. The ECLOUD12 workshop reviewed many recent electron-cloud (EC) observations at existing storage rings, EC predictions for future accelerators, electron-cloud studies at DAFNE, EC mitigation by clearing electrodes and graphite/carbon coatings, modeling of incoherent EC effects, self-consistent simulations, synergies with other communities like the Valencia Space Consortium and the European Space Agency. ECLOUD12 discussed new EC observations at existing machines including LHC, CesrTA, PETRA-3, J-PARC, and FNAL MI; latest experimental efforts to characterize the EC – including EC diagnostics, experimental techniques, mitigation techniques such as coating and conditioning, advanced chemical and physical analyses of various vacuum-chamber surfaces, beam instabilities and emittance growth –; the...

  11. The effect of deltamethrin-treated net fencing around cattle enclosures on outdoor-biting mosquitoes in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Marta Ferreira; Abonuusum, Ayimbire; Lorenz, Lena Maria; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Garms, Rolf; Kruppa, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and -resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m(2)) attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A - with cattle and no net; B - with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C - with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D - no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (penclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa.

  12. Study on Climate Change Effect on Net Irrigation Requirement and Yield for Rice Crop (Case Study: Tajan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheidaeian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, impact of climate change on net irrigation requirement (In and yield of Rice Crop using HadCM3 climate projection model, one of the AOGCM models, in Tajan Plain area is evaluated. Changes in temperature and precipitation were simulated run under the IPCC scenario A2 for 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods. This work was done by using statistical and proportional downscaling techniques. For estimating Net Irrigation Requirement, Potential evapotranspiration (ETo and effective rainfall (Pe were calculated using Penman Monteith equation and USDA method With Cropwat Model, respectively. Impact of water deficit on crop yield was estimated using the linear crop-water production function developed by FAO. The results of downscaling by using SDSM model and proportional method indicate that the decrease in rainfall and increase in the temperature are in future periods. CROPWAT model results indicate that the effect of climate change with increased Potential evapotranspiration and decreased effective Rainfall and increased water consumption of the plant, can be increased, the net irrigation requirement of rice plants in the basin duration years future to come by the year 2100. As a result of climate change and rising temperatures and reduced rainfall, the yield reduction percent to low levels to rise in the coming years. So it can be conclude that the effect of climate change closer to the year 2100 when effective rainfall is less could provide water consumption and net irrigation requirement of rice in the area.

  13. Effects of Channel Geometry and Coolant Fluid on Thermoelectric Net Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    generation in TEG for different size of hydraulic diameter of plate-fin heat sink and over a wide range of Reynolds number. The particular focus of this study is to find optimal Reynolds number in each considered channel hydraulic diameter and to explore optimal channel hydraulic diameter for maximum TEG net......, and the maximum net power output occurs at smaller Reynolds number when the channel hydraulic diameter reduces.......Channel geometry has a strong influence on the heat transfer coefficient and cooling energy input in a heat sink. The net power output in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be defined as power generation minus the required cooling energy in TEG. This study aims to evaluate the net power...

  14. Evaluating the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen treated mosquito nets against Anopheles gambiae at different blood-feeding intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Aneesa; Protopopoff, Natacha; Mosha, Franklin W; Malone, David; Rowland, Mark W; Oxborough, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    Pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and new insecticides with different modes of action are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone mimic that reduces fecundity and fertility of adult Anopheles mosquitoes when used as a contact insecticide. A long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating pyriproxyfen is under development. As wild, host-seeking females may succeed in blood-feeding at different intervals after initial contact with mosquito nets the aim of this study was to determine the effect that age and gonotrophic status (nulliparous or parous) and the interval between initial pyriproxyfen exposure and blood-feeding has in terms of subsequent reduced fecundity and fertility. Anopheles gambiae s.s. were exposed to pyriproxyfen LLIN for three minutes in WHO cone bioassays. Four regimens were tested with different blood-feeding intervals A-1 hour (nulliparous), B-1 hour (parous), C-24h (nulliparous), or D-120h (nulliparous) after pyriproxyfen exposure. Mosquito oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility of eggs were recorded for several days. All four treatment regimens produced levels of mortality similar to unexposed females. The overall reduction in reproductive rate of 99.9% for regimen A relative to the untreated net was primarily due to oviposition inhibition in exposed females (97%). Pyriproxyfen was equally effective against older parous mosquitoes and when blood-feeding was 24h after exposure. Regimen D produced a reduction in reproductive rate of 60.1% but this was of lesser magnitude than other regimens and was the only regimen that failed to reduce fertility of laid eggs, indicating the effects of pyriproxyfen exposure on reproduction are to some extent reversible as mosquitoes age. In an area of moderate to high mosquito net coverage a host-seeking mosquito is likely to contact a treated mosquito net before: (a) penetrating a holed net and blood-feeding shortly after exposure or, (b) be frustrated

  15. FILTER-NET STRUCTURE AND PUMPING ACTIVITY IN THE POLYCHAETE NEREIS-DIVERSICOLOR - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PUMP-MODELING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H.U.; Vedel, A.; Boye, H.

    1992-01-01

    Electron micrographs of the filter-net structure in the facultatively suspension-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor O. F. Muller showed that the net is composed of an irregular mesh-work made up of long, relatively thick filaments (up to 300 nm) interconnected with a variety of shorter...... and thinner filaments. The thinner filaments range in diameter from 5 to >25 nm. The average size of the meshes, measured directly on the micrographs, lies between 0.5 and 1.0-mu-m, but due to shrinkage the values represent only about 75 % of the actual dimension of the intact net. The effects of temperature...... increase in clearance, and a doubling of the temperature was followed by a doubling in clearance. Direct measurements of pumping rate showed that high stroke frequency was correlated with high pumping rate. A doubling of temperature from 13 to 23-29-degrees-C led to a doubling of the stroke frequency...

  16. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  17. Effect of supplementary feeding during the sucking period on net absorption from the small intestine of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Zijderveld-van Bemmel, van A.

    1996-01-01

    An intestinal perfusion technique was used to measure the effects of supplementary feeding (experiment 1) and temporary weaning (experiment 2) during the sucking period on the net absorption of fluid, sodium, chloride and potassium from the small intestine of pigs after weaning. The technique was

  18. The cost-effectiveness of permethrin-treated bed nets in an area of intense malaria transmission in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiseman, Virginia; Hawley, William A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Vulule, John M.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Mills, Anne J.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the costs and effects of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed net (ITN) use in children less than five years of age in an area of intense, perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. The data were derived from a group-randomized controlled trial of ITNs conducted between

  19. Effect of processed and fermented soyabeans on net absorption in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-infected piglet small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Andel, van E.E.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a major problem in both children and piglets. Infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In the present study the effect of processed and fermented soyabean products on net absorption during

  20. Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Schoute, Erik; Kamau, Luna; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in neighboring villages lacking ITNs was studied during a randomized controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. There was a trend of decreased abundance of Anopheles gambiae with decreasing

  1. Tax Shift by Economic Functions and Its Effect on Economic Growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine effects of tax shift on economic growth and provide a direct empirical evidence in the European Union (EU. It is used the Eurostat’s definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and implicit tax rates of consumption, labour and capital are investigated. First, paper summarizes main development of tax shift in a whole EU till 2014 and followed empirical analysis is based on annual panel data of 22 EU Member States in years 1995–2012 (time span is divided into a pre-crisis and a post-crisis period. Explanatory variables are not examined in individual regressions, but the study uses Generalized Method of Moments applied on dynamic panel data and estimations are based on Arellan-Bond estimator (1991. Results confirm positive and statistically significant impact of consumption taxes and weaker but negative effect of labour taxation on economic growth. In a post-crisis period, findings report raising labour taxes as the strongest and the only significant variable. It suggests that harmful effect of labour taxation is enlarging in a time of unfavorable economic conditions. A tax shift on capital taxation has negative but often statistically insignificant impact on economic growth.

  2. Economic effects of interventions to reduce obesity in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary M; Rosenberg, Elliot

    2012-04-18

    . In the baseline scenario (with an assumed recidivism rate of 50% per annum), approximately 620,000,000 NIS would be recouped in the form of decreased treatment costs and indirect costs, increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. After discounting the 89,000,000 NIS additional health costs attributable to these extra life years, it is estimated that the total net costs to society would be 1.55 billion NIS. This total net cost was relatively stable to increases in the program's recidivism rates, but highly sensitive to reductions in recidivism rates.Under baseline assumptions, implementation of the cluster of interventions would save 32,671 discounted QALYs at a cost of only 47,559 NIS per QALY, less than half of the Israeli per capita GNP (104,000 NIS). Thus implementation of these components of the NPHPP should be considered very cost-effective. Despite the large costs of such a large national program to control obesity, cost-utility analysis strongly supports its introduction.

  3. Net ecosystem carbon exchange in three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems – the effect of drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts reduce gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco, contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean, droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and changes in rain seasonality. We compared carbon fluxes measured by the eddy covariance technique in three contrasting ecosystems in southern Portugal: an evergreen oak woodland (savannah-like with ca.~21% tree crown cover, a grassland dominated by herbaceous annuals and a coppiced short-rotation eucalyptus plantation. During the experimental period (2003–2006 the eucalyptus plantation was always the strongest sink for carbon: net ecosystem exchange rate (NEE between −861 and −399 g C m−2 year−1. The oak woodland and the grassland were much weaker sinks for carbon: NEE varied in the oak woodland between −140 and −28 g C m−2 year−1 and in the grassland between −190 and +49 g C m−2 year−1. The eucalyptus stand had higher GPP and a lower proportion of GPP spent in respiration than the other systems. The higher GPP resulted from high leaf area duration (LAD, as a surrogate for the photosynthetic photon flux density absorbed by the canopy. The eucalyptus had also higher rain use efficiency (GPP per unit of rain volume and light use efficiency (the daily GPP per unit incident photosynthetic photon flux density than the other two ecosystems. The effects of a severe drought could be evaluated during the hydrological-year (i.e., from October to September of 2004–2005. Between October 2004 and June 2005 the precipitation was only 40% of the long-term average. In 2004–2005 all ecosystems had GPP lower than in wetter years and carbon sequestration was strongly restricted (less negative NEE. The grassland was a net source of carbon dioxide (+49 g C m−2 year−1. In the oak woodland a large proportion of GPP resulted from carbon assimilated by its annual vegetation

  4. EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMIC FREEDOMS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE EU AND COMCEC COUNTRIES (1996-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALİL İBRAHİM AYDIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of the economic freedoms on the economic growth for EU and COMCEC countries at different development/income level are econometrically analyzed via panel data analysis for the period of 1996- 2014 by being considered the improvement of economic growth theories for the key determinants of economic growth. From this aspect, it is aimed at this research that to evaluate the effects of the economic freedoms on the long termed economic growth performances and income level differences of EU and COMCEC countries which have different statuses in terms of economic freedoms and income level indicators. It is determined at the end of the study that the economic freedoms have a positive and statistically significant effect on the economic growth of EU countries in investigation period, on the other hand, these freedoms have not any effect on the economic growth of COMCEC countries. Moreover, the existence of a one-way causality relation operates from economic freedoms to the economic growth in EU countries is specified while there is any causality link found between these freedoms and the economic growth for the countries in COMCEC group. All these results indicate that also the economic freedoms besides the physical human capital accumulation, in other words, whether the EU and COMCEC countries have a market economy adopts outward-oriented liberal fiscal policies plays a major role in differentiating the income levels or the economic growth performances.

  5. Modeling hydrochory effects on the Tunisian island populations of Pancratium maritimum L. using colored Petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaa, Adnen; Ben Abid, Samir; Boulila, Abdennacer; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Ben Fadhel, Najeh

    2015-03-01

    Hydrochory, the seed dispersal by water, is a strategy used by many aquatic and some terrestrial plants to move into areas appropriate for establishment. In this paper we model the hydrochory effects on the Tunisian island populations of Pancratium maritimum L. using colored Petri nets. Nineteen Tunisian coastal sites were considered including fourteen mainland and five island sites. The model was simulated for 400 thousand Atlantic Tunisian Current cycles (years). Snapshots of the island population's genetic makeup were taken for 50, 200 and 400 thousand years. The evolution of the obtained dendrograms showed a clear divide between the northern and southern island populations according to their estimated genetic make-up for the considered simulation durations. Hydrochory is not only with important ecological consequences, such as maintaining the populations of P. maritimum but also it may move species into areas appropriate for establishment. In this context, in situ and ex situ conservation measures of P. maritimum populations should be adopted very fast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic Environment as a Predictor of Effective Sport Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The target population comprised of employed coaches, athletes, sports psychologists, sports journalists, workers in corporate and private organizations with sport ... Multiple regression analysis of the data generated revealed that the Nigeria economic environment would significantly predict effective sport marketing.

  7. Economical effectiveness of therapy in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nel'ubova 0.I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of regulatory acts and publications of domestic and foreign authors on the methods of economic evaluation of treatment effectiveness and quality of medical care to patients with psoriasis was presented

  8. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  9. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  10. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980–2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially ‘normal’ ones are not commonly researched. Theoretical background According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. Data and results A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries. PMID:28654644

  11. Study of Different Effects of Nets Impregnated with Different Pyrethroids on Susceptible and Resistant Strains of Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hodjati

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the insecticidal, irritant and anti-feeding effects of nets treated with various pyrethroids against susceptible and highly pyrethroid resistant strains of An. stephensi. Materials & Methods: Tests were carried out inside a mosquito cage measuring 25×25×25 cm where mosquitoes were offered the opportunity to feed blood on an arm through the top face of the cage which had been pyrethroid treated.Results: With all the pyrethroids tested, the resistant strain spent a longer time in contact with a treated net, which was in contact with a human arm, than did the susceptible strain. With permethrin the resistant strain fed significantly more successfully through the treated netting than did the susceptible strain. With deltamethrin there was a non-significant tendency in the same direction in comparing the two strains. However, with alphacypermethrin there was a non-significant tendency in the reverse direction. After 15 min in the cage which tested for the ability to feed through a pyrethroid treated net, observed mortality was higher with the susceptible than the resistant strain. Conclusion: Thus there was no sign that the longer resting of the resistant strain on treated netting would compensate for the fact that a higher dose was needed to kill this strain. Such compensation had been suggested with the West African An. gambiae where treated nets continue to work well against a highly resistant wild population. However this does not seem to apply to our resistant An. stephens.

  12. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, Dirk H M

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially 'normal' ones are not commonly researched. According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries.

  13. Effect of human behavior on economizer efficacy and thermal comfort in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, TIghe Glennon

    California has set a zero net-energy conservation goal for the residential sector that is to be achieved by 2020 (California Energy Commission 2011). To reduce energy consumption in the building sector, modern buildings should fundamentally incorporate sustainable performance standards, involving renewable systems, climate-specific strategies, and consideration of a variety of users. Building occupants must operate in concert with the buildings they inhabit in order to maximize the potential of the building, its systems, and their own comfort. In climates with significant diurnal temperature swings, environmental controls designed to capitalize on this should be considered to reduce cooling-related loads. One specific strategy is the air-side economizer, which uses daily outdoor temperature swings to reduce indoor temperature swings. Traditionally a similar effect could be achieved by using thermal mass to buffer indoor temperature swings through thermal lag. Economizers reduce the amount of thermal mass typically required by naturally ventilated buildings. Fans are used to force cool nighttime air deep into the building, allowing lower mass buildings to take advantage of nighttime cooling. Economizers connect to a thermostat, and when the outdoor temperature dips below a programmed set-point the economizer draws cool air from outside, flushing out the warmed interior air. This type of system can be simulated with reasonable accuracy by energy modeling programs; however, because the system is occupant-driven (as opposed to a truly passive mass-driven system) any unpredictable occupant behavior can reduce its effectiveness and create misleading simulation results. This unpredictably has helped prevent the spread of economizers in the residential market. This study investigated to what extent human behavior affected the performance of economizer-based HVAC systems, based on physical observations, environmental data collections, and energy simulations of a residential

  14. Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittemyer, George

    2011-10-01

    Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas development theory links natural resource use to social-economic conditions, few empirical studies of the effect of economic downturns on wild animal species have been conducted. I assessed the relations between African elephant (Loxodonta africana) mortality and human-caused wounds in Samburu, Kenya and (1) livestock and maize prices (measures of local economic conditions), (2) change in national and regional gross domestic product (GDP) (measures of macroeconomic conditions), and (3) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (a correlate of primary productivity). In addition, I analyzed household survey data to determine the attitudes of local people toward protected areas and wild animals in the area. When cattle prices in the pastoralist study region were low, human-caused wounds to and adult mortality of elephants increased. The NDVI was negatively correlated with juvenile mortality, but not correlated with adult mortality. Changes in Kenyan and East Asian (primary market for ivory) GDP did not explain significant variation in mortality. Increased human wounding of elephants and elephant mortality during periods of low livestock prices (local economic downturns) likely reflect an economically driven increase in ivory poaching. Local but not macroeconomic indices explained significant variation in mortality, likely due to the dominance of the subsistence economy in the study area and its political and economic isolation. My results suggest economic metrics can serve as effective indicators of changes in human use of and resulting effects on natural resources. Such information can help focus management approaches (e.g., antipoaching effort or proffering of

  15. Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  16. Effects of Educational Intervention on Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Use in a Malarious Area, Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Madani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs have been advocated as an effective tool against malaria transmission. However, success of this community based intervention largely depends on the knowledge and practice regarding malaria and its prevention. According to the national strategy plan on evaluation of LLINs (Olyset nets, this study was conducted to determine the perceptions and practices about malaria and to improve use of LLINs in Bashagard district, one of the important foci of malaria in southeast Iran. The study area comprised 14 villages that were randomized in two clusters and designated as LLINs and untreated nets. Each of households in both clusters received two bed nets by the free distribution and delivery. After one month quantitative data collection method was used to collect information regarding the objectives of the study. On the basis of this information, an educational program was carried out in both areas to increase motivation for use of bed nets. Community knowledge and practice regarding malaria and LLIN use assessed pre- and post-educational program. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. At baseline, 77.5% of respondents in intervention and 69.4 % in control area mentioned mosquito bite as the cause of malaria, this awareness increased significantly in intervention (90.3% and control areas (87.9%, following the educational program. A significant increase also was seen in the proportion of households who used LLINs the previous night (92.5% compared with untreated nets (87.1%. Educational status was an important predictor of LLINs use. Regular use of LLIN was considerably higher than the targeted coverage (80% which recommended by World Heaths Organization. About 81.1% and 85.3% of respondents from LLIN and control areas reported that mosquito nuisance and subsequent malaria transmission were the main determinants of bed net use. These findings highlight a need for educational intervention in implementation of

  17. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  18. Effectiveness of insecticidal nets on uncomplicated clinical malaria: a case-control study for operational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damien, Georgia Barikissou; Djènontin, Armel; Chaffa, Evelyne; Yamadjako, Sandra; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Ndille, Emmanuel Elanga; Henry, Marie-Claire; Corbel, Vincent; Remoué, Franck; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-02-19

    In a context of large-scale implementation of malaria vector control tools, such as the distribution of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLIN), it is necessary to regularly assess whether strategies are progressing as expected and then evaluate their effectiveness. The present study used the case-control approach to evaluate the effectiveness of LLIN 42 months after national wide distribution. This study design offers an alternative to cohort study and randomized control trial as it permits to avoid many ethical issues inherent to them. From April to August 2011, a case-control study was conducted in two health districts in Benin; Ouidah-Kpomasse-Tori (OKT) in the south and Djougou-Copargo-Ouake (DCO) in the north. Children aged 0-60 months randomly selected from community were included. Cases were children with a high axillary temperature (≥37.5 °C) or a reported history of fever during the last 48 h with a positive rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Controls were children with neither fever nor signs suggesting malaria with a negative RDT. The necessary sample size was at least 396 cases and 1188 controls from each site. The main exposure variable was "sleeping every night under an LLIN for the 2 weeks before the survey" (SL). The protective effectiveness (PE) of LLIN was calculated as PE = 1 - odds ratio. The declared SL range was low, with 17.0 and 27.5 % in cases and controls in the OKT area, and 44.9 and 56.5 % in cases and controls, in the DCO area, respectively. The declared SL conferred 40.5 % (95 % CI 22.2-54.5 %) and 55.5 % (95 % CI 28.2-72.4 %) protection against uncomplicated malaria in the OKT and the DCO areas, respectively. Significant differences in PE were observed according to the mother's education level. In the context of a mass distribution of LLIN, their use still conferred protection in up to 55 % against the occurrence of clinical malaria cases in children. Social factors, the poor use and the poor condition of an LLIN can be in disfavour with

  19. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceschia, Eric; Bêziat, P; Dejoux, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    , with or without irrigation, etc.) and were cultivated with 15 representative crop species common to Europe. At all sites, carbon inputs (organic fertilisation and seeds), carbon exports (harvest or fire) and net ecosystem production (NEP), measured with the eddy covariance technique, were calculated...... were estimated from the literature for the rice crop site only. At the other sites, CH4 emissions/oxidation were assumed to be negligible compared to other contributions to the net GHGB. Finally, we evaluated crop efficiencies (CE) in relation to global warming potential as the ratio of C exported from...

  20. Participate or observe? Effects of economic classroom experiments on students’ economic literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, R.F.; Sent, E.-M.; Vries, B. de

    2017-01-01

    Economic classroom experiments are controlled interactive learning exercises targeting the comprehension of economic concepts in an inductive way. Aiming at increasing students’ knowledge of economic concepts, two types of economic classroom experiments are examined in a sample of 134 secondary

  1. The Economic Crisis and its Effects on SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela Hodorogel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania has ended a high growth cycle. The world economic crisis is worsening with every passing day and Romania increasingly feels the effects of this economic downturn. The sector of small and medium enterprises (SMEs is the most dynamic in the Romanian economy, but it will also be one of the first to be hit by the global financial crisis the ripples of which have reached Romania as well. SMEs are now considered the most sensitive sector and worst affected by the economic climate. The economic crisis has prompted the member states of the European Union, too, to adopt packages of measures to counteract the effect of the crisis. Here below I will exemplify with the cases of Romania, the Italian Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Slovak Republic and the Republic of Hungary.

  2. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  3. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  4. Effect of cholera toxin on glucose absorption and net movements of water and electrolytes in the intestinal loop of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, H S; Onaga, T; Mineo, H; Kim, J T; Kato, S

    1996-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cholera toxin on glucose absorption and net movement of water and electrolytes in the jejunal loop of sheep. Intraluminal perfusion was performed at the rate of 1 ml/min with isotonic 10 mM glucose solution. Osmolality was adjusted by adding NaCl, and the outflow solution was collected every 10 min. After a 30 min control period, cholera toxin was applied intraluminally for 30 min at doses of 30, 60, and 120 micrograms/loop. In the control period, water, sodium and chloride were absorbed, while potassium and bicarbonate were secreted. Cholera toxin reversed the net absorption of water, sodium and chloride to net secretions, and this secretory response to cholera toxin was dose-dependent. Bicarbonate secretion was stimulated dose-dependently by cholera toxin. Potassium secretion was also increased at all doses, though this response was not dose-dependent. The net glucose absorption was decreased dose-dependently by cholera toxin. In conclusion, these results indicate that cholera toxin stimulates water and electrolyte secretion, and inhibits glucose absorption in the jejunal loop of sheep.

  5. The Effectiveness of Fiscal Policy in Combating Economic Crisis. An Analysis Based on the Economic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify, in the economic literature, the main factors which constrain the transmission of the fiscal shocks to the real economy. The interest in finding the most efficient fiscal stimuli in recovery the economies passing through crisis period has got increased as soon as the expansionary monetary policy promoted by most of the central banks has not generated an increase of the confidence in the private economic agents and, as a consequence, an increase of consumption and of the private investments. Even though it represents the Keynesian solution for recovery the economies which have been affected by the crisis, the fiscal expansion promoted during the recession periods does not generate the same expected positive effects any more (increase of consumption, significant decrease of unemployment, increase of revenues in economy, as they are conditioned by the reaction of the private economic agents to the fiscal stimuli. For example, the decision to decrease taxation may not automatically generate the significant increase of consumption (a condition for spreading the multiplier effect in economy, under the terms of pessimism or of the difficulty to access loans. As a result, the fiscal multipliers tend to be rather proper, and their value decreases more during the deep economic recession periods.

  6. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jens Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P...... restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net Pi recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of Pi) and apparently digested tP (feed – fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake...... (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed...

  7. Effect of twine diameter on fishing power of experimental gill nets used in Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgård, Holger

    1996-01-01

    The relative fishing powers of experimental gill nets were estimated for shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The results suggested that fishing power was negatively correlated to the ratio between twine diameter and mesh size...

  8. Effects of precipitation changes on aboveground net primary production and soil respiration in a switchgrass field

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study attempted to test whether switchgrass aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responds to precipitation (PPT) changes in a double asymmetry pattern as framed by Knapp et al. (2016), and whether it is held true for other ecosystem processes such as soil respiration (SR). Data were colle...

  9. Rotational effects of polymeric fluids on shape of filaments in melt extruded net structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rawal, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the net structures, which are produced by replacing the static die (spinneret) with two concentric dies rotating in opposite directions in a melt extrusion process. These dies consist of defined number of slots with non...

  10. The effect of insecticide-treated bed net on malarial parasitaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, some field studies have indicated that the efficacy achieved might be due to the high coverage rate achieved during the trial that produced a mass killing of mosquitoes in the communities. Aim: To assess the impact of the use of the insecticide-treated bed net in a programme situation, on malarial parasitaemia, ...

  11. Economic Effectiveness of The Florida Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.; Simmons, K.

    2016-12-01

    In response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 Florida adopted a new statewide code as a way to limit wind losses. The Florida Building Code (FBC) was fully implemented in 2002, becoming one of the strictest in the United States. This study combines ten years of statewide realized insured loss data from 2001 to 2010 with wind data and exposure and vulnerability indicators to show that the FBC reduced wind losses by up to 72%, with statistical results robust across a number of specifications and consistent with other previous findings. A benefit-cost analysis on the implementation of the FBC finds that the code passes the benefit-cost test on the order of 4 dollars in losses saved to every 1 dollar spent on new construction, with a payback period for the investment of stronger codes estimated at approximately 12 years. This analysis is then used to assess how the estimated cost effectiveness may change under future windstorm scenarios modified by climate change. Finally, we assess the relative importance of three wind field parameters (wind speed, duration, and steadiness - a measure of wind directional change) in driving hurricane wind losses, and quantify the effectiveness of the FBC against the different wind field parameters. All three wind field parameters are significantly correlated with loss, but duration is only important for minor hurricanes. The total effect of the FBC in reducing damages appears to be effective against the different wind speed impacts, but at the margin results are less than robust for minor hurricane damage and high duration.

  12. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to lower average real fares, although various barriers to entry still allow carriers to keep prices above competitive levels. Environmental effects have thus far not received much attention in the discus...

  13. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, X.; Ju, W.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs) for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP) estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI) is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE) in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m-2 yr-1 to 4.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m-2 yr-1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI) and elevation have small and additive effects on improving the spatial scaling

  14. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m−2 yr−1 to 4.8 g C m−2 yr−1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m−2 yr−1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI and elevation have small and additive effects on improving

  15. Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

    2014-12-30

    Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood.

  16. The Giffen Effect: A Note on Economic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Giffen effect: demand for a commodity increases as price increases. Explains how applying control theory eliminates the paradox that the Giffen effect presents to classic economics supply and demand theory. Notes the differences in how conventional demand theory and control theory treat consumer behavior. (CH)

  17. Falling through the Safety Net: Latinos and the Declining Effectiveness of Anti-Poverty Programs in the 1980s. Public Policy Report 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischetto, Robert R.; Leonard, Paul A.

    This report provides data and discusses trends in the demography and economics of Latinos. It was compiled in response to a request from Latino leaders for information on the needs of their constituents. In general the trends show that Latinos are falling through the safety net that government agencies are supposed to provide. Changes in the…

  18. Effectiveness and equity of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme for mosquito nets over 10 years of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen; Mandike, Renata; Nathan, Rose; Mohamed, Ally; Lynch, Matthew; Brown, Nick; Mnzava, Ally; Rimisho, Wilhelmina; Lengeler, Christian

    2017-06-15

    The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) was a public private partnership managed by the Ministry of Health that provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized (long-lasting) insecticide-treated nets between 2004 and 2014. It was implemented in the context of the National Insecticide Treated Nets (NATNETS) Programme and was the main keep up strategy for vulnerable populations. The programme design was adjusted considerably over time to incorporate new evidence, shifting public health policies, and changing donor priorities. Three TNVS models can be distinguished: (1) the fixed discount; (2) the fixed top-up; (3) the hybrid voucher model. The changes improved equity and effectiveness, but also had a profound effect on how the programme was managed and implemented. The TNVS reached the majority of beneficiaries with vouchers, and significantly increased household ownership and use of LLINs. While two mass distribution campaigns implemented between 2009 and 2011 achieved universal coverage and equity, the TNVS ensured continuous protection of the vulnerable populations before, during and after the campaigns. The TNVS stimulated and maintained a large national retail network which managed the LLIN supply chain. The effectiveness of the TNVS was a function of several interdependent factors, including the supply chain of vouchers through the public health system; the supply chain of nets in the commercial sector; the demand for nets from voucher recipients; management and risk mitigation measures; and the influence of global and donor objectives. The TNVS was a highly innovative and globally influential programme, which stimulated the thinking around effectively and equitably distributing ITNs, and contributed directly to the evolution of global policy. It was a fundamental component of the NATNETS programme which protected a malaria-vulnerable population for over a decade.

  19. FINANCIAL INFORMATION, EFFECTS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION ON ECONOMIC DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAK ISA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial information has, indisputably, an important effect in economics. To form an effective capital market, financial information must be reliable and accurate. Misleading financial information always has a negative impact on economic decision taken by users. It is known that financial information as the cornerstone of financial markets, can improve economic performance in several ways. Nowadays we are facing economic crisis due to irregularities of presentation of financial statements to users. Misunderstandings cause economic recession. Detection of fraudulent financial information, is an important issue facing the auditing profession. Currently, bankruptcy of companies around the world, leaves millions of people without jobs, this is caused by financial information which is manipulated by companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of errors and manipulation committed in the financial information sector on the real economy. Also one of the purposes of this paper is to analyze error and fraud in financial statements how it effects the real economy and the reasons for committing fraud in financial statements. Also, several suggestions are included in this study about actions that can be taken to prevent errors and manipulation in financial information.

  20. Effects of pyrethroid resistance on the cost effectiveness of a mass distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Penny, Melissa A; Hardy, Diggory; Awolola, Taiwo S; Van Bortel, Wim; Corbel, Vincent; Dabiré, Roch K; Etang, Josiane; Koudou, Benjamin G; Tungu, Patrick K; Chitnis, Nakul

    2013-02-25

    The effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets in preventing malaria is threatened by developing resistance against pyrethroids. Little is known about how strongly this affects the effectiveness of vector control programmes. Data from experimental hut studies on the effects of long-lasting, insecticidal nets (LLINs) on nine anopheline mosquito populations, with varying levels of mortality in World Health Organization susceptibility tests, were used to parameterize malaria models. Both simple static models predicting population-level insecticidal effectiveness and protection against blood feeding, and complex dynamic epidemiological models, where LLINs decayed over time, were used. The epidemiological models, implemented in OpenMalaria, were employed to study the impact of a single mass distribution of LLINs on malaria, both in terms of episodes prevented during the effective lifetime of the batch of LLINs, and in terms of net health benefits (NHB) expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted during that period, depending on net type (standard pyrethroid-only LLIN or pyrethroid-piperonyl butoxide combination LLIN), resistance status, coverage and pre-intervention transmission level. There were strong positive correlations between insecticide susceptibility status and predicted population level insecticidal effectiveness of and protection against blood feeding by LLIN intervention programmes. With the most resistant mosquito population, the LLIN mass distribution averted up to about 40% fewer episodes and DALYs during the effective lifetime of the batch than with fully susceptible populations. However, cost effectiveness of LLINs was more sensitive to the pre-intervention transmission level and coverage than to susceptibility status. For four out of the six Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations where direct comparisons between standard LLINs and combination LLINs were possible, combination nets were more cost effective, despite being more expensive

  1. Evaluation of runaway-electron effects on plasma-facing components for NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, H.; Calén, H.

    1991-03-01

    Runaway electrons which are generated during disruptions can cause serious damage to plasma facing components in a next generation device like NET. A study was performed to quantify the response of NET plasma facing components to runaway-electron impact. For the determination of the energy deposition in the component materials Monte Carlo computations were performed. Since the subsurface metal structures can be strongly heated under runaway-electron impact from the computed results damage threshold values for the thermal excursions were derived. These damage thresholds are strongly dependent on the materials selection and the component design. For a carbonmolybdenum divertor with 10 and 20 mm carbon armour thickness and 1 degree electron incidence the damage thresholds are 100 MJ/m 2 and 220 MJ/m 2. The thresholds for a carbon-copper divertor under the same conditions are about 50% lower. On the first wall damage is anticipated for energy depositions above 180 MJ/m 2.

  2. The Effects of Remedial Mathematics on the Learning of Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Seltzer, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of remedial mathematics on performance in university-level economics courses using a natural experiment. They studied exam results prior and subsequent to the implementation of a remedial mathematics course that was compulsory for a subset of students...... and unavailable for the others, controlling for background variables. They found that, consistent with previous studies, the level of and performance in secondary school mathematics have strong predictive power on students' performances at university-level economics. However, they found relatively little evidence...... for a positive effect of remedial mathematics on student performance....

  3. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  4. The intrusion of the discourse of economics into the clinical space III: economic rationalism and clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Language has always been a means of imposing political and economic dominance. The ascendancy of the discourse of economics is examined in the context of economic rationalism. Some of the effects of this discourse, both upon our services, as well as upon different modes of conceptualizing the therapeutic relationship, will be examined in this paper. The intensification of the use of terms from economics and management can be dated from the introduction of neo-liberal policies in our Western democracies, but the economic discourse circulates with a life of its own. The use of the language of economics and management has spread generally through our society. Thus, if the economic discourse is the language utilized by some clinicians, it is also to some degree the language adopted by our patients. It is proposed that the extension of the economic discourse into the clinical field is re-shaping the therapeutic relationship with our patients.

  5. The effect of twine thickness on the size selectivity and fishing power of Baltic cod gill nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Wileman, D.; Madsen, Niels

    2002-01-01

    . Subsequently a model was fitted for the mean selectivity taking between-set variation into account. The selectivity Curve that fitted the data best was given by the sum of two normal distributions. It was found that twine thickness and trials period had relatively little effect upon the shape......Sea trials were carried out on a Danish commercial vessel measuring the size selectivity and fishing power of gill nets used to catch Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). A comparison was made of two different twine thicknesses at two different times of the year. Nominal mesh sizes of 70-130 mm were used....... Method of capture, condition factor and girths were measured for sub- samples of the cod caught. A model of the size selectivity of the gill nets was adapted to the experimental conditions where two gears were fished on the same population. This model was fitted to the catch data for each set...

  6. The effects of terrorism on economic growth: Panel data approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çinar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effects of terrorism on economic growth experienced worldwide. More precisely these terrorist incidents and its effects on economic growth in most countries are classified according to income groups. In this respect, we conduct a panel study (FE and RE models to analyze the number of terrorist incidents in these countries and the data range from 2000 to 2015 covering a total of 115 countries. The result of the study is in line with other findings in the literature. Those terrorist attacks are causing a negative impact on the economic growth in most countries, particularly in low-income countries. Generally speaking, the findings show that low-income countries are affected about three times more than high-income countries as a result of these terrorist attacks.

  7. Effect of light on N2 fixation and net nitrogen release of Trichodesmium in a field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangyang; Wen, Zuozhu; Shi, Dalin; Chen, Mingming; Zhang, Yao; Bonnet, Sophie; Li, Yuhang; Tian, Jiwei; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2018-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation (NF) by marine cyanobacteria is an important pathway to replenish the oceanic bioavailable nitrogen inventory. Light is the key to modulating NF; however, field studies investigating the light response curve (NF-I curve) of NF rate and the effect of light on diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) net release are relatively sparse in the literature, hampering prediction using models. A dissolution method was applied using uncontaminated 15N2 gas to examine how the light changes may influence the NF intensity and DDN net release in the oligotrophic ocean. Experiments were conducted at stations with diazotrophs dominated by filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. in the western Pacific and the South China Sea. The effect of light on carbon fixation (CF) was measured in parallel using the 13C tracer method specifically for a station characterized by Trichodesmium bloom. Both NF-I and CF-I curves showed a Ik (light saturation coefficient) range of 193 to 315 µE m-2 s-1, with light saturation at around 400 µE m-2 s-1. The proportion of DDN net release ranged from ˜ 6 to ˜ 50 %, suggesting an increasing trend as the light intensity decreased. At the Trichodesmium bloom station, we found that the CF / NF ratio was light-dependent and the ratio started to increase as light was lower than the carbon compensation point of 200 µE m-2 s-1. Under low-light stress, Trichodesmium physiologically preferred to allocate more energy for CF to alleviate the intensive carbon consumption by respiration; thus, there is a metabolism tradeoff between CF and NF pathways. Results showed that short-term ( < 24 h) light change modulates the physiological state, which subsequently determined the C / N metabolism and DDN net release by Trichodesmium. Reallocation of energy associated with the variation in light intensity would be helpful for prediction of the global biogeochemical cycle of N by models involving Trichodesmium blooms.

  8. China and India: Openness, Trade and Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelli, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the economic growth of China and India in terms of their integration in the global economy. We begin with a discussion of some stylized facts concerning their recent economic growth, the most significant institutional reforms, with particular reference to trade relations, and their impact on their economic development. We then propose a descriptive analysis of economic growth, opening up of the economies and trade specialisation, by comparing the features and trends of the two countries (by considering trade and foreign direct investment data. We have also estimated some econometric relations between economic growth and trade/openness, with the addition of control variables (such as the gross fixed capital formation. We initially used a panel data model for the two countries, to be estimated with fixed effects; to test for reverse causality, we re-estimated the fixed effects model by 2SLS (with the inclusion of specific instrumental variables. The effect on economic growth (in terms of GDP per capita of our variables of interest - Openness and FDI - remains positive and statistically significant in all specifications, which confirms our findings even if we treat these variables as endogenous variables. The results prove the positive growth effects, for the two countries, of opening up and integrating in the world economy. Note that the robust growth of these two "giants" has contained the initial impact of the recent global crisis and is now sustaining the recovery of the entire world economy. Other policy relevant implications are discussed in the concluding section.

  9. Economic analysis of the effects of climate change on agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The results revealed that there has been an upward trend in Agricultural output over the years, and that the past level of changes in agricultural output has positive and significant effects on the present level of its economic performance. Also ...

  10. Flipped Classroom: Effects on Education for the Case of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The notion of the flipped classroom has been received much attention in the literature as it may increase learning outcomes and learning effectiveness elementary and secondary education as well as university learning. In the author's class on international finance (economics) features a blended flipped classroom and lecture; questionnaires were…

  11. Economic games on the internet: the effect of $1 stakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amir, Ofra; Rand, David G; Gal, Ya'akov Kobi

    2012-01-01

    .... Citation: Amir O, Rand DG, Gal YK (2012) Economic Games on the Internet: The Effect of $1 Stakes. PLoS ONE 7(2): e31461. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031461 Editor: Matjaz Perc, University of Maribor, Slovenia Received: December 25, 2011; Accepted: January 8, 2012; Published: February 21, 2012 Copyright: © 2012 Amir et al. This is an open...

  12. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M., E-mail: jmarchetti@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino La Carrindanga km 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. {yields} Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. {yields} Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  13. Vermiculture bio-technology: An effective tool for economic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr Hussaini

    Vermiculture bio-technology: An effective tool for economic and environmental sustainability. Abdullahi Hussaini. Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport, Nigeria. E-mail: usaini2000@yahoo.com. Accepted 28 June, 2012. Vermicompost production and use is an 'environment friendly, ...

  14. Performance and economic effects of partially replacing soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance and economic effects of replacing soybean meal with palm kernel cake (PKC) in broiler diet was investigated in other to determine the optimal level of inclusion for maximum production in broilers. A total of 120 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups of 30 birds each.

  15. The Economic Effect of Insurgency on Smoked Fish Sellers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    perishable nature and lack of access to capital with 21.9%, 31.4%. 22.5% and 24.3% respectively. The insurgency attack has negative effect on the economic activities of smoke fish sellers. Local dried fish marketers should be organized into cooperative groups by extension agents and government should provide adequate ...

  16. Monetary Development and Effects on Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analyses monetary development and effects on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1970-2008. The time series data used for the work were extracted from the central bank of Nigeria's statistical bulletin. The ultimate objective of the study is to determine the interdependency or directional causation of ...

  17. Household water treatment and safe storage-effectiveness and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Stefanie M L; Pelgrim-Adams, Alida; Szántó, Gabor L.; van Halem, D.

    2016-01-01

    Household Water Treatment and safe Storage (HWTS) systems aim to provide safe drinking water in an affordable manner to users where safe piped water supply is either not feasible or not reliable. In this study the effectiveness, economic parameters and costs of three selected HWTS systems were

  18. Socio-economic and environmental effects of tourism in Konso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic and environmental effects of tourism in Konso Terrace and cultural landscape, Ethiopia: perception of local communities. ... strengthening cultural heritage preservation, publicising the local Konso culture to the rest of the world, and building the positive images of Konso as a magnificent tourist attraction.

  19. Futher investigations on the effectiveness and economics of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Futher investigations on the effectiveness and economics of some herbicides in ginger. AA Melifonwu, GN Asumugha. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  20. Perceived economic and behavioural effects of the mentally ill on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the patients on the family and how they are affected by and cope with the disturbed behaviours of the patients. Method: This ... be the economic effects of the mental illness, how the various disturbed behaviours of the mentally ill affected them, and how they coped. ..... stigma and family burdens be used as an intervention.7.

  1. Refining cost-effectiveness analyses using the net benefit approach and econometric methods: an example from a trial of anti-depressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Kendricks, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluation analyses can be enhanced by employing regression methods, allowing for the identification of important sub-groups and to adjust for imperfect randomisation in clinical trials or to analyse non-randomised data. To explore the benefits of combining regression techniques and the standard Bayesian approach to refine cost-effectiveness analyses using data from randomised clinical trials. Data from a randomised trial of anti-depressant treatment were analysed and a regression model was used to explore the factors that have an impact on the net benefit (NB) statistic with the aim of using these findings to adjust the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Exploratory sub-samples' analyses were carried out to explore possible differences in cost-effectiveness. Results The analysis found that having suffered a previous similar depression is strongly correlated with a lower NB, independent of the outcome measure or follow-up point. In patients with previous similar depression, adding an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to supportive care for mild-to-moderate depression is probably cost-effective at the level used by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence to make recommendations. This analysis highlights the need for incorporation of econometric methods into cost-effectiveness analyses using the NB approach.

  2. Effects of light, temperature and canopy position on net photosynthesis and isoprene emission from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Zimmerman, P.

    1996-01-01

    In June 1993, net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and isoprene emission rates of sweetgum leaves (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were measured at the top of the forest canopy (sun leaves) and within the canopy at a height of 8-10 m above ground level (shade leaves). Large differences in net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were found between sun and shade leaves. Mean rates of isoprene emission, expressed on a leaf area basis, were significantly lower in shade leaves than in sun leaves (4.1 versus 17.1 nmol m(-2) s(-1)); however, because specific leaf area of sun leaves was lower than that of shade leaves (0.0121 versus 0.0334 m(2) g(-1)), the difference between sun and shade leaves was less, though still significant, when isoprene emissions were expressed on a dry mass basis (45.5 versus 29.0 micro g C g(-1) h(-1)). Saturation of both net photosynthesis and isoprene emission occurred at lower PPFDs in shade leaves than in sun leaves. The effect of leaf temperature on isoprene emissions also differed between sun and shade leaves. Sun leaves lost a significantly greater percentage of fixed carbon as isoprene than shade leaves. The leaf-level physiological measurements were used to derive parameters for a canopy-level isoprene flux model. The importance of incorporating differences between sun- and shade-leaf properties into existing models is discussed.

  3. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P lead, with decline of 57.8%,11.0%, respectively. Total content of ginsenoside in ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P lead concentration was also observed (P lead negatively affects photosynthetic performance in ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  4. Partitioning net ecosystem carbon exchange into net assimilation and respiration using 13CO2 measurements: A cost-effective sampling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OgéE, J.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Bariac, T.; Brunet, Y.; Berbigier, P.; Roche, C.; Richard, P.; Bardoux, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    The current emphasis on global climate studies has led the scientific community to set up a number of sites for measuring the long-term biosphere-atmosphere net CO2 exchange (net ecosystem exchange, NEE). Partitioning this flux into its elementary components, net assimilation (FA), and respiration (FR), remains necessary in order to get a better understanding of biosphere functioning and design better surface exchange models. Noting that FR and FA have different isotopic signatures, we evaluate the potential of isotopic 13CO2 measurements in the air (combined with CO2 flux and concentration measurements) to partition NEE into FR and FA on a routine basis. The study is conducted at a temperate coniferous forest where intensive isotopic measurements in air, soil, and biomass were performed in summer 1997. The multilayer soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA is adapted to compute 13CO2 flux and concentration profiles. Using MuSICA as a "perfect" simulator and taking advantage of the very dense spatiotemporal resolution of the isotopic data set (341 flasks over a 24-hour period) enable us to test each hypothesis and estimate the performance of the method. The partitioning works better in midafternoon when isotopic disequilibrium is strong. With only 15 flasks, i.e., two 13CO2 nighttime profiles (to estimate the isotopic signature of FR) and five daytime measurements (to perform the partitioning) we get mean daily estimates of FR and FA that agree with the model within 15-20%. However, knowledge of the mesophyll conductance seems crucial and may be a limitation to the method.

  5. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend...

  6. Participate or Observe? Effects of Economic Classroom Experiments on Students' Economic Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Roel; Sent, Esther-Mirjam; de Vries, Bregje

    2017-01-01

    Economic classroom experiments are controlled interactive learning exercises targeting the comprehension of economic concepts in an inductive way. Aiming at increasing students' knowledge of economic concepts, two types of economic classroom experiments are examined in a sample of 134 secondary school students. In the interactive research…

  7. Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Conditions on Facial Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Huber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434 to analyze the association between an individual's parental socioeconomic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old, controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood.

  8. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  9. Gyrations in African Mortality and their Effect on Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, David N

    2017-03-01

    I examine recent changes in African mortality and discuss their potential economic and demographic effects. Growth in life expectancy sharply departed from its trend after 1990, and then experienced a sharp acceleration after 2005. This latter acceleration was due overwhelmingly to improvements in HIV and malaria. Economists differ in their estimates of how large the structural effect of health on income is, with many estimates being relatively small. Taking seriously the delays built into many plausible causal channels would lead one to expect that any economic effects of these mortality changes, if they are detectable at all, will not appear for several decades. By contrast, the effect of declining mortality, especially from malaria, should soon be visible in data on population age structure in some countries.

  10. Technology-facilitated depression care management among predominantly Latino diabetes patients within a public safety net care system: comparative effectiveness trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Ell, Kathleen; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Katon, Wayne J; Nezu, Art M; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Vidyanti, Irene; Chou, Chih-Ping; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Health disparities in minority populations are well recognized. Hispanics and Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States; a significant proportion receives their care via a safety net. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression is high among this group, but the uptake of evidence-based collaborative depression care management has been suboptimal. The study design and baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample in the Diabetes-Depression Care-management Adoption Trial (DCAT) establishes a quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research clinical trial aimed at accelerating the adoption of collaborative depression care in safety net clinics. The study was conducted in collaboration with the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services at eight county-operated clinics. DCAT has enrolled 1406 low-income, predominantly Hispanic/Latino patients with diabetes to test a translational model of depression care management. This three-group study compares usual care with a collaborative care team support model and a technology-facilitated depression care model that provides automated telephonic depression screening and monitoring tailored to patient conditions and preferences. Call results are integrated into a diabetes disease management registry that delivers provider notifications, generates tasks, and issues critical alerts. All subjects receive comprehensive assessments at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months by independent English-Spanish bilingual interviewers. Study outcomes include depression outcomes, treatment adherence, satisfaction, acceptance of assessment and monitoring technology, social and economic stress reduction, diabetes self-care management, health care utilization, and care management model cost and cost-effectiveness comparisons. DCAT's goal is to optimize depression screening, treatment, follow-up, outcomes, and cost savings to reduce health disparities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Gender effects of education on economic development in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Gungor, Nil D.

    2012-01-01

    Several recent empirical studies have examined the gender effects of education on economic growth or on steady-state level of output using the much exploited, familiar cross-country data in order to determine their quantitative importance and the direction of correlation. This paper undertakes a similar study of the gender effects of education using province level data for Turkey. The main findings indicate that female education positively and significantly affects the steady-state level of l...

  12. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  13. [Effects of environmental factors on catch variation of main species of stow net fisheries in East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sufang; Fan, Wei; Cui, Xuesen; Cheng, Yanhong

    2004-09-01

    Stow net fishery is one of the important fishing methods in the East China Sea. This paper used the generalized additive models (GAMs) to quantitatively describe the relationships between stow net catch and environmental factors (sea surface temperature SST, water depth, fishing position and tide) in the East China Sea. The results indicated that each factor had its own nonlinear effect on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of haitail (Trichiurus japonicus), small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) and butter fish (Pampus spp.), and SST and water depth were the key factors. The GAMs' fitting results showed that SST had the strongest effect on the catch per unit effort of haitail, and water depth had the second one. The effects of fishing location and tide were very small. Water depth was the most influential variable when adjusted for the effects on small yellow croaker. SST, fishing location and tide had similar effects. Meanwhile, water depth and SST were the key factors affecting the catch per unit effort of butter fish. They had similar intensity.

  14. FISCAL EFFECTIVENESS UNDER REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: INDONESIAN AGRICULTURAL PERFORMANCE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrudin Nasrudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the effectiveness of fiscal policy in boosting agricultural sector performance and seeks the most effective policy in the presence of regional economic integration. It predicts the effectiveness of fiscal policy on the agricultural sector performance in four periods; the new order regime, the economic crisis, and pre and post China Free Trade Area (CAFTA. It also predicts the impact of fiscal policy on agricultural sector performance when CAFTA is fully implemented. It finds that fiscal policy is more effective in the optimum allocation of expenditures. It also finds that the agricultural sector can grow faster when the portion of capital expenditure increases.Keywords: Fiscal effectiveness, economic integration, agricultureJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17AbstrakMakalah ini menyelidiki efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam mendorong kinerja sektor pertanian dan mencari kebijakan yang paling efektif dengan adanya integrasi ekonomi regional. Makalah ini memprediksi efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam meningkatkan kinerja sektor pertanian dalam empat periode; rezim orde baru, krisis ekonomi, sebelum pelaksanaan China Free Trade Area (CAFTA, dan setelah pelaksanaan CAFTA. Makalah ini juga memprediksi dampak kebijakan fiskal terhadap kinerja sektor pertanian saat CAFTA sepenuhnya dilaksanakan. Hasil analisis menemukan bahwa kebijakan fiskal lebih efektif dalam alokasi optimal dari pengeluaran. Analisis juga menemukan bahwa sektor pertanian dapat tumbuh lebih cepat ketika porsi peningkatan belanja modal meningkat.Keywords: Efektivitas fiskal, integrasi ekonomi, pertanianJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17

  15. Assessing the Net Effects of Sanctions on the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    South Africa, and famously forced Coca Cola to sell 62 Hufbauer, et al., Economic Sanctions...inefficiency. Gaddafi’s proliferation ambitions began almost immediately, and he reportedly sought to purchase a nuclear weapon from China in 1970.122...immediate. France, Russian, and China balked at not being consulted before the launch of military operations, and protests over the attack spread

  16. Study protocol of the ASD-Net, the German research consortium for the study of Autism Spectrum Disorder across the lifespan: from a better etiological understanding, through valid diagnosis, to more effective health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Poustka, Luise; Bachmann, Christian; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hoffmann, Falk; Kanske, Philipp; Kirsch, Peter; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rietschel, Marcella; Roepke, Stefan; Roessner, Veit; Schad-Hansjosten, Tanja; Singer, Tania; Stroth, Sanna; Witt, Stephanie; Wermter, Anne-Kathrin

    2017-06-02

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe, lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder with early onset that places a heavy burden on affected individuals and their families. Due to the need for highly specialized health, educational and vocational services, ASD is a cost-intensive disorder, and strain on health care systems increases with increasing age of the affected individual. The ASD-Net will study Germany's largest cohort of patients with ASD over the lifespan. By combining methodological expertise from all levels of clinical research, the ASD-Net will follow a translational approach necessary to identify neurobiological pathways of different phenotypes and their appropriate identification and treatment. The work of the ASD-Net will be organized into three clusters concentrating on diagnostics, therapy and health economics. In the diagnostic cluster, data from a large, well-characterized sample (N = 2568) will be analyzed to improve the efficiency of diagnostic procedures. Pattern classification methods (machine learning) will be used to identify algorithms for screening purposes. In a second step, the developed algorithm will be tested in an independent sample. In the therapy cluster, we will unravel how an ASD-specific social skills training with concomitant oxytocin administration can modulate behavior through neurobiological pathways. For the first time, we will characterize long-term effects of a social skills training combined with oxytocin treatment on behavioral and neurobiological phenotypes. Also acute effects of oxytocin will be investigated to delineate general and specific effects of additional oxytocin treatment in order to develop biologically plausible models for symptoms and successful therapeutic interventions in ASD. Finally, in the health economics cluster, we will assess service utilization and ASD-related costs in order to identify potential needs and cost savings specifically tailored to Germany. The ASD-Net has been established as part of

  17. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M

    2007-03-16

    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-01-01

    To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use...

  19. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-04

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  20. KNOWLEDGE-INTENSIVE SERVICES AND THEIR EFFECT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOBAN GABRIELA-LILIANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the idea that the key determinants for economic growth can be: smart growth (promoting knowledge, innovation, education and the digital society, sustainable growth (a more competitive production, with a better use of resources and an economic growth that promotes togetherness (higher workforce participation, acquiring skills and the fight against poverty. I have also considered the fact that economic growth cannot be made at random, but has to consider the characteristics, as well as strong and weak points of the counties that are being analyzed. Notes so far are complemented by the analysis of some benchmarks for the economy of the EU countries (GDP, employment rate of labor, employment rate of dropping school, amount of GDP allocated to Research&Development, human poverty index. EU interest in obtaining long-term prosperity lies in analyzing the factors that contribute to this objective. Evaluation of the benchmarks and factors impacting economic growth highlights the purpose of this paper and its importance for the XXI century society. Proposed strategies involve a thorough research on the current situation in Romania and in the EU and in this case I consider that the economies are intrinsically linked and no member state can effectively address global challenges in an isolated action.

  1. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  2. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  3. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Sundström; Helene Wahlström; Sofie Ivarsson; Susanna Sternberg Lewerin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes i...

  4. Effects of economic classroom experiments on economic knowledge and reasoning in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, R.F.; Sent, E.-M.; Vries, B. de

    2016-01-01

    This study explored whether and how economic classroom experiments may enhance the economic knowledge and the reasoning ability of 108 secondary school students. Economic classroom experiments are controlled interactive learning exercises by means of which students can learn to think as economists.

  5. Effect of heifer frame score on growth, fertility, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, S; Landblom, D G; Perry, G A; Petry, T

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  6. Effect of Heifer Frame Score on Growth, Fertility, and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Şentürklü

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50 and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50 heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3 the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2. During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56% with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62% that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%. Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002. Percent of mature body weight (BW at the end of P1 (209 d was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02. At breeding initiation (P3, the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07 for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10. In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI was 20.1% less (p = 0.001 and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001, but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41. Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03. Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005 and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005. However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001 and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  7. A methodological framework to assess the environmental and economic effects of injection barriers against seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Dionysis; Mallios, Zisis; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2017-05-15

    Seawater intrusion is responsible for the progressive deterioration of groundwater quality in numerous coastal aquifers worldwide. As a consequence, seawater intrusion may constitute a serious threat to local groundwater resources, as well as to the regional economy of coastal areas. To alleviate these negative effects, a number of well-designed protective measures could be implemented. The implementation of these measures is usually associated with significant benefits for the environment and the local economy. In this perspective, the present study investigates the particular case of constructing injection barriers for controlling seawater intrusion by developing a methodological framework that combines numerical modeling with spatial and cost-benefit analyses. To this task, we introduce a novel approach, which considers the socio-economic aspects of seawater intrusion in the modeling procedure, and at the same time focuses on the spatial and temporal relationships between water salinity and farmers' income. To test the proposed methodology two alternative artificial recharge scenarios - with different volumes of water used for injection - are assessed. According to the results of this analysis, both scenarios are likely to have a positive impact on groundwater quality, as well as, a net economic benefit to local society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flood effects on efflux and net production of nitrous oxide in river floodplain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Bruderer, Christian; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Floodplain soils are often rich in nutrients and exhibit high spatial heterogeneity in terms of geomorphology, soil environmental conditions and substrate availability for processes involved in carbon and nutrient cycling. In addition, fluctuating water tables lead to temporally changing redox conditions. In such systems, there are ideal conditions for the occurrence of hot spots and moments of nitrous oxide emissions, a potent greenhouse gas. The factors that govern the spatial heterogeneity and dynamics of N2O formation in floodplain soils and the surface efflux of this gas are not fully understood. A particular issue is the contribution of N2O formation in the subsoil to surface efflux. We studied this question in the floodplain of a restored section of the Thur river (NE Switzerland) which is characterized by a flashy flow regime. As a consequence, the floodplain soils are unsaturated most of the time. We showed earlier that saturation during flood pulses leads to short phases of generally anoxic conditions followed by a drying phase with anoxic conditions within aggregates and oxic conditions in larger soil pores. The latter conditions are conducive for spatially closely-coupled nitrification-denitrification and related hot moments of nitrous oxide formation. In a floodplain zone characterized by about one meter of young, sandy sediments, that are mostly covered by the tall grass Phalaris arundinacea, we measured at several time points before and after a small flood event N2O surface efflux with the closed-chamber method, and assessed N2O concentrations in the soil air at four different depths using gas-permeable tubings. In addition, we calculated the N2O diffusivity in the soil from Radon diffusivity. The latter was estimated in-situ from the recovery of Radon concentration in the gas-permeable tubings after purging with ambient air. All these data were then used to calculate net N2O production rates at different soil depths with the gradient method. In

  9. Effects of Permafrost Thaw on Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance in a Subarctic Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Roulet, N. T.; Moore, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This research is to assess changes in net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) with permafrost thaw in northern peatland: in particular how changes in C biogeochemistry influence NECB. Thawed transects associated with varying stages of permafrost thaw: from palsas with intact permafrost (P), through edge of palsa (EP), dry lawn (DL), wet lawn (WL), edge of thawed pond (ET), pond sedges (PS), to several thawed ponds (TP) in a subarctic peatland in northern Quebec were sampled in the snow free seasons of 2013 and 2014. The exchange of CO2 and CH4, vegetation, dissolved organic C (DOC) concentration and biodegradability, active layer depth, air and peat temperatures, water table depth (WT), pH, and conductivity were measured. Peat temperatures were quite similar among different locations, but the WT decreased significantly along the transect creating varied environmental conditions that supporting different plant communities. From dry to wet area, vegetation abundance and biomass showed reductions of shrubs and lichens, and increases of Sphagnum, grasses and sedges. Pore water pH increased from dry to wet area, and conductivity slightly decreased. Wet thaw area WL, ET and PS had relatively higher season gross ecosystem production (GEP) and higher season ecosystem respiration (ER), but relative similar net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Only TP had a significant higher positive season NEE. Palsa was the only CH4 sink, and quite high CH4 emissions were found after it thawed. CH4-C release significantly increased from dry to wet in thawed area, which even several times bigger than total C exchange in ET and PS. Generally, wet area had higher DOC concentration and higher DOC biodegradability indicated by lower SUVA254 (except PS which received great influence from pond). All components in the NECB (GEP, ER, CH4, DOC) increased significantly in magnitude from palsa to wet thawed area, and ecosystem C sink turned into source as palsa thawed into PS and TP. These results

  10. Health Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets in the Control of Malaria in Endemic Regions, Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemicity of malaria in tropical areas of the world persists, especially in countries south of Saharan Africa. The efforts and concerns invested by the World Health Organization and other health agencies to eradicate malaria are commendable. However, in spite of all these efforts, the loss in economic and human resources continues. In a previous report, the long-term health effects of insecticide-impregnated bednet (IIBN use were highlighted with the expectation of attracting serious thoughts and further research on the issue. This present paper is an update on that expectation. Results from a comprehensive literature search show that not much work has been done on the effects of long-term exposure to IIBNs in combating malarial infection. The efficacy of IIBNs is not in question. What is in question is whether long-term exposure to IIBNs have any health effects. The aims and outcomes of the research found in the literature on the subject to date seem to support only the efficacy of the temporal use of plain bednets, but not the use of IIBNs, and do not tell much about the long-term effects of IIBN exposure. All pesticides are toxic by nature and present risks of adverse effects. While there is agreement that IIBNs can be effective in reducing malarial morbidity and mortality under field trials, a number of factors relating to their long-term-exposure health effects have yet to be determined. Further reliable research projects are recommended urgently. However, some of the anticipated behavioral effects caused by insecticidal use will be avoided by the use of untreated nets instead.

  11. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface Oxide Net Charge of a Titanium Alloy; Comparison Between Effects of Treatment With Heat or Radiofrequency Plasma Glow Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel E.; Rapuano, Bruce E.; Schniepp, Hannes C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we have compared the effects of heat and radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD) treatment of a Ti6Al4V alloy on the physico-chemical properties of the alloy’s surface oxide. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were passivated alone, heated to 600 °C, or RFGD plasma treated in pure oxygen. RFGD treatment did not alter the roughness, topography, elemental composition or thickness of the alloy’s surface oxide layer. In contrast, heat treatment altered oxide topography by creating a pattern of oxide elevations approximately 50–100 nm in diameter. These nanostructures exhibited a three-fold increase in roughness compared to untreated surfaces when RMS roughness was calculated after applying a spatial high-pass filter with a 200 nm cutoff wavelength. Heat treatment also produced a surface enrichment in aluminum and vanadium oxides. Both RFGD and heat treatment produced similar increases in oxide wettability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of metal surface oxide net charge signified by a long range force of attraction to or repulsion from a (negatively charged) silicon nitride AFM probe were also obtained for all three experimental groups. Force measurements showed that the RFGD-treated Ti6Al4V samples demonstrated a higher net positive surface charge at pH values below 6 and a higher net negative surface charge at physiological pH (pH values between 7 and 8) compared to control and heat-treated samples These findings suggest that RFGD treatment of metallic implant materials can be used to study the role of negatively charged surface oxide functional groups in protein bioactivity, osteogenic cell behavior and osseointegration independently of oxide topography. PMID:20880672

  13. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap.

  14. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  15. The Dynamic Effects of Entrepreneurship on Regional Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejovsky, Lukas; Mohapatra, Sandeep; Steiner, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the temporal pattern of income disparity for Canadian provinces in two estimation steps. First, an econometric growth regression model is applied to identify the impact of entrepreneurship on regional economic growth. The estimation results suggest that entrepreneurship......, measured in terms of the selfemployment rate, plays a pivotal role in determining regional development in Canada. Second, a dynamic vector autoregression (VAR) model is employed to predict the long-run regional growth effects that result from policy shocks affecting entrepreneurship. Compared to other...... growth drivers, entrepreneurship is found to have more pronounced and long-term stimulative effects on regional development for the period of 1987 to 2007...

  16. The effect of institutions on Latin American economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Vargas Chanes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify relevant characteristics of institutions that have an effect on economic growth in selected Latin American countries. A multilevel model was used for this propose, the dependent variable is the real per capita gdp, and the explanatory variables are indicators of governance provided by the World Bank. The results show that the significant variables are regulatory quality and control of corruption. This implies the need to strengthen the institutions of the rule of law, voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, and government effectiveness.

  17. EuroEco (European Health Economic Trial on Home Monitoring in ICD Patients): a provider perspective in five European countries on costs and net financial impact of follow-up with or without remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Hindricks, Gerd; Broadhurst, Paul; Van Erven, Lieselot; Fernandez-Lozano, Ignacio; Rivero-Ayerza, Maximo; Malinowski, Klaus; Marek, Andrea; Romero Garrido, Rafael F; Löscher, Steffen; Beeton, Ian; Garcia, Enrique; Cross, Stephen; Vijgen, Johan; Koivisto, Ulla-Maija; Peinado, Rafael; Smala, Antje; Annemans, Lieven

    2015-01-14

    Remote follow-up (FU) of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) allows for fewer in-office visits in combination with earlier detection of relevant findings. Its implementation requires investment and reorganization of care. Providers (physicians or hospitals) are unsure about the financial impact. The primary end-point of this randomized prospective multicentre health economic trial was the total FU-related cost for providers, comparing Home Monitoring facilitated FU (HM ON) to regular in-office FU (HM OFF) during the first 2 years after ICD implantation. Also the net financial impact on providers (taking national reimbursement into account) and costs from a healthcare payer perspective were evaluated. A total of 312 patients with VVI- or DDD-ICD implants from 17 centres in six EU countries were randomised to HM ON or OFF, of which 303 were eligible for data analysis. For all contacts (in-office, calendar- or alert-triggered web-based review, discussions, calls) time-expenditure was tracked. Country-specific cost parameters were used to convert resource use into monetary values. Remote FU equipment itself was not included in the cost calculations. Given only two patients from Finland (one in each group) a monetary valuation analysis was not performed for Finland. Average age was 62.4 ± 13.1 years, 81% were male, 39% received a DDD system, and 51% had a prophylactic ICD. Resource use with HM ON was clearly different: less FU visits (3.79 ± 1.67 vs. 5.53 ± 2.32; P financial impact on providers [profit of €408 (327-489) vs. €400 (345-455); range for difference (€-104 to 88), NS], but there was heterogeneity among countries, with less profit for providers in the absence of specific remote FU reimbursement (Belgium, Spain, and the Netherlands) and maintained or increased profit in cases where such reimbursement exists (Germany and UK). Quality of life (SF-36) was not different. For all the patients as a whole, FU-related costs for providers are not

  18. Effects of changing mosquito host searching behaviour on the cost effectiveness of a mass distribution of long-lasting, insecticidal nets : a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Briët, Olivier JT; Chitnis, Nakul

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of long-lasting, insecticidal nets (LLINs) in preventing malaria is threatened by the changing biting behaviour of mosquitoes, from nocturnal and endophagic to crepuscular and exophagic, and by their increasing resistance to insecticides. Methods Using epidemiological stochastic simulation models, we studied the impact of a mass LLIN distribution on Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Specifically, we looked at impact in terms of episodes prevented during the effective...

  19. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of an invasive plant infestation: new insights on the effects of phenology and management practices on structure and functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Oliver; Detto, Matteo; Runkle, Benjamin; Hatala, Jaclyn; Vargas, Rodrigo; Kelly, Maggi; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    The net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (FC) of invasive plant infestations has been subject of few studies only. Perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium L.) is an aggressive invasive plant with severe economic and environmental consequences for infested ecosystems. A characteristic feature of pepperweed's phenological cycle is the dense arrangement of small white flowers during secondary inflorescence. Little is known about how pepperweed flowering and management practices such as mowing affect canopy structure and canopy photosynthesis (FA) and autotrophic respiration (FAR) and thus ecosystem respiration (FER; FC=FER-FA with FER=FAR+heterotrophic respiration [FHR]). To examine these effects we analyzed three years (2007-2010) of CO2 flux measurements made with eddy covariance, supporting environmental measurements and near-surface remote sensing data (canopy-scale reflectance, digital camera imagery) from a pepperweed-infested pasture in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The measurements cover three meteorologically similar summers (1 May - 30 September) that slightly differed in terms of land use practices. In 2007-2010, the site was subjected to year-round grazing by beef cattle, and in 2008, the site was additionally mowed in mid-May during flowering. We described structural changes in canopy development through seasonal changes in surface roughness for momentum transfer (z0m). Weekly soil CO2 efflux (≈ FHR) estimates from static chamber measurements made over bare soil were used to separate FER into FAR and FHR. We identified the onset of pepperweed's key phenological phases (i.e., germination, early vegetative growth, flowering, seed maturation, senescence, dormancy) through the integrated analysis of albedo of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), a broad-band green normalized difference vegetation index, and a digital camera-based color index. We used non-linear mixed-effects model analysis to investigate the combined

  20. Effects of UVB radiation on net community production in the upper global ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2016-08-31

    Aim Erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with oligotrophication of the subtropical ocean is leading to enhanced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in ocean surface waters. The impact of increased exposure to UVB on planktonic primary producers and heterotrophs is uncertain. Here we test the null hypothesis that net community production (NCP) of plankton communities in surface waters of the tropical and subtropical ocean is not affected by ambient UVB radiation and extend this test to the global ocean, including the polar oceans and the Mediterranean Sea using previous results. Location We conducted experiments with 131 surface communities sampled during a circumnavigation cruise along the tropical and subtropical ocean and combined these results with 89 previous reports encompassing the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Methods The use of quartz (transparent to UVB radiation) and borosilicate glass materials (opaque to most UVB) for incubations allowed us to compare NCP between communities where UVB is excluded and those receiving natural UVB radiation. Results We found that NCP varies when exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to those where UVB was removed. NCP of autotrophic communities tended to decrease under natural UVB radiation, whereas the NCP of heterotrophic communities tended to increase. However, these variations showed the opposite trend under higher levels of UVB radiation. Main conclusions Our results suggest that earlier estimates of NCP for surface communities, which were hitherto derived using materials blocking UVB radiation were biased, with the direction and magnitude of this bias depending on the metabolic status of the communities and the underwater penetration of UVB radiation.

  1. Economic Analysis of Eucheumoid Algae Farming in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was done to determine their net yield and economic viability and included sensitivity analysis to determine the effects of decreased farm gate prices and increased operating costs on the return of investment (ROI) and payment period in eucheumoid farming. The average net yield varied from 880 to 1209 kg dry wt for E.

  2. Effect of Shock-Induced Cavitation Bubble Collapse on the damage in the Simulated Perineuronal Net of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Ting; Adnan, Ashfaq

    2017-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to conduct modeling and simulation to understand the effect of shock-induced mechanical loading, in the form of cavitation bubble collapse, on damage to the brain's perineuronal nets (PNNs). It is known that high-energy implosion due to cavitation collapse is responsible for corrosion or surface damage in many mechanical devices. In this case, cavitation refers to the bubble created by pressure drop. The presence of a similar damage mechanism in biophysical systems has long being suspected but not well-explored. In this paper, we use reactive molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate the scenario of a shock wave induced cavitation collapse within the perineuronal net (PNN), which is the near-neuron domain of a brain's extracellular matrix (ECM). Our model is focused on the damage in hyaluronan (HA), which is the main structural component of PNN. We have investigated the roles of cavitation bubble location, shockwave intensity and the size of a cavitation bubble on the structural evolution of PNN. Simulation results show that the localized supersonic water hammer created by an asymmetrical bubble collapse may break the hyaluronan. As such, the current study advances current knowledge and understanding of the connection between PNN damage and neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. The macro-economic effects of wind energy. De macro-economische effecten van windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Burg, T. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    First the characteristics of wind energy pertaining to business economics are discussed. Then attention is paid to the calculation of macro-economic effects. Special attention is paid to the efficiency of projects from a business economical point of view correlated to macro-economic effects, and subsidies for wind energy for the Dutch situation. From the economic analysis it appears that investments in wind energy have positive macro-economic effects, even if they are inefficient with regard to business economical aspects. 2 figs., 9 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    11 Former MA student, Department of Economics, University of Botswana. 12 Senior Lecturer .... expenditure has to be associated with an increase in gross private saving or taxes and thus, the net effect of a ... will result in a rise in private savings and lastly, an increase in government expenditure leads to an increase in ...

  5. Behavioral Effects in Forming the Preferences of the Economic Selection of the Economic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana, V. Belikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to substantiate the behavioral features of the economic choice of an economic entity in the context of the decision-making environment transformation, and also to study their influence on the forming subjective preferences. At the same time, the behavioral paradigm is identified as a basic theoretical construct, which makes it possible to identify the main irrationalizing factors. Based on the study of the conceptual provisions of the behavioral paradigm, it was concluded that the preferences of the economic entity in the process of implementing the economic choice are formed under the influence of motivational and cognitive predictors, which limit the rationality of the economic entity. Deviating from rational criteria towards irrational, the economic entity shapes its preferences on the basis of economic and non-economic criteria, systematically making mistakes in the context of the influence of cognitive distortions manifested in decision-making under modern conditions. Based on the findings, the author constructs a model of economic choice, taking into account behavioral predictors. Among the most important cognitive distortions are herd instinct, professional deformation, "curse of knowledge", bias toward information retrieval, error of substantiation of assessment, bias of confirmation, neglect of formalized methods of cognition, conservatism, preferences of personified trust and heuristics of asymmetric perception.

  6. Atmospheric natural disasters in Serbia: Management experience and economic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jugoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters occur as a result of an action of natural forces and represent limitations in spatial planning and efficient spatial development, with different consequences in terms of scope on humans, living things and tangible property. Consequences can be ecological, economic, in terms of health, demographic, social, psychological, etc. Weather modification management involves policies, methods, techniques and technologies that affect atmospheric features in order to make atmospheric water useful for humans, while eliminating its negative effects. Highly significant risk of natural disasters in Serbia is related to hailstorm disasters and droughts as atmospheric elementary disasters. The goal of this paper is to present certain methodologies and experience in Serbia in the weather modification management, mainly in the hailstorm processes. This paper provides analysis and critical review of the methodology of an action, with the analysis of the economic benefits. Cost-benefit analysis of a hail suppression project in Serbia was performed. The results point to the economic justification of some aspects of artificial influence on weather disasters.

  7. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  8. Effect of Glucagon on Net Splanchnic Cyclic AMP Production in Normal and Diabetic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljenquist, John E.; Bomboy, James D.; Lewis, Stephen B.; Sinclair-Smith, Bruce C.; Felts, Philip W.; Lacy, William W.; Crofford, Oscar B.; Liddle, Grant W.

    1974-01-01

    Glucagon activates hepatic adenylate cyclase, thereby increasing acutely the liver content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) as well as the release of cAMP into the hepatic vein. Insulin, on the other hand, antagonizes this glucagon-mediated cAMP production, thus providing a hypothetical mechanism through which insulin might correct some of the metabolic abnormalities of diabetes. To study this hormonal interaction in man, net splanchnic cAMP production (NScAMPP) was investigated in normal and insulin-dependent diabetic men under basal conditions and in response to intravenous glucagon, 50 ng/kg/min for 2 h. In normals (n=19), basal hepatic vein cAMP concentration was 23.6±1.1 nM and NScAMPP was 1.7±0.6 nmol/min. Glucagon stimulated NScAMPP in four normal subjects to a peak of 99.6±43 nmol/min at 25 min with a subsequent fall to 12.4±5.1 nmol/min by 90 min despite continuing glucagon infusion. Endogenous insulin secretion was stimulated as indicated by rising levels of immunoreactive insulin and C-peptide (connecting peptide) immunoreactivity, raising the possibility that endogenous insulin might be responsible for the fall in NScAMPP that followed the initial spike. In the diabetics (n=8), basal hepatic vein cAMP concentration was 24.7±1.2 nM and NScAMPP was undetectable. Glucagon stimulated NScAMPP in five diabetics to a peak of 169.9±42.6 with a subsequent fall to 17.4±3.9 nmol/min by 90 min even though endogenous insulin secretion was not stimulated (no rise in C-peptide immunoreactivity). Although the mean increase in NScAMPP was greater in the diabetics, the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions. In normal resting man the liver is a significant source of circulating cAMP. Diabetics do not release abnormally large amounts of hepatic cAMP under basal conditions. Glucagon markedly enhances hepatic cAMP release with a spike-decline pattern in both normal and diabetic men. The decline in hepatic cAMP release despite continuing glucagon stimulation is due

  9. Economic risk-based analysis: Effect of technical and market price uncertainties on the production of glycerol-based isobutanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the production of glycerol-based isobutanol is critically assessed in terms of its techno-economic performance through the estimation of economic indicators, net present value (NPV) and minimum selling price (MSP). The Monte Carlo method with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is used...

  10. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively....... The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range...... of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn....

  11. The Economic Effects of the President’s 2015 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    United States, changes in GNP are a better measure of changes in domestic residents’ income than are changes in GDP . CBO’s budget calculations for this...CBO’s Estimates of How the President’s Budget Would Affect GNP From 2020 to 2024 Under Various Models and Estimating Approaches 14Figure 1. CBO’s...Estimates of How the President’s Budget Would Affect Total and per Capita GNP and the Size of the U.S. Population 3CBO The Economic Effects of the

  12. Moderating factors of immediate, gross, and net cross-brand effects of price promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Horváth (Csilla); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines cross-price promotional effects in a dynamic context. Among other things, we investigate whether previously established findings hold when consumer and competitive dynamics are taken into account. Five main influential effects (asymmetric price effect, neighborhood

  13. Effect of the Aerosol Type Selection for the Retrieval of Shortwave Ground Net Radiation: Case Study Using Landsat 8 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Bassani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the aerosol radiative effects involved in the accuracy of shortwave net radiation, R n . s w , with s w ∈ (400–900 nm, retrieved by the Operational Land Imager (OLI, the new generation sensor of the Landsat mission. Net radiation is a key parameter for the energy exchange between the land and atmosphere; thus, R n . s w retrieval from space is under investigation by exploiting the increased spatial resolution of the visible and near-infrared OLI data. We adopted the latest version of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV atmospheric radiative transfer model implemented in the atmospheric correction algorithm (OLI Atmospherically-Corrected Reflectance Imagery (OLI@CRI developed specifically for OLI data. The values of R n . s w were obtained by varying the microphysical properties of the aerosol during the OLI@CRI retrieval of both the OLI surface reflectance, ρ p x l o l i , and the incoming solar irradiance at the surface. The analysis of the aerosol effects on the R n . s w was carried out on a spectrally-homogeneous desert area located in the southwestern Nile Delta. The results reveal that the R n . s w available for energy exchange between the land and atmosphere reduces the accuracy (NRMSE ≃ 14% when the local aerosol microphysical properties are not considered during the processing of space data. Consequently, these findings suggest that the aerosol type should be considered for variables retrieved by satellite observations concerning the energy exchange in the natural ecosystems, such as Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR. This will also improve the accuracy of land monitoring and of solar energy for power generation when space data are used.

  14. The effect of cannibalism intensity on the net primary production and the dynamics of trophic links in the aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirobokova, I.; Pechurkin, N.

    The aim of the work was to construct a mathematical model of the effect of cannibalism intensity on the dynamic behavior and functional characteristics of simple aquatic ecosystems. A mathematical model of an aquatic ecosystem has been constructed, with the following principal trophic links: limiting nutrient concentration, producers (phytoplankton), predators of the first order, and predators of the second order. The model takes into account the age structure of the second-order predator and includes two age groups (the young and adults). The adult predators of the second order are cannibals feeding on both first-order predators and their own young, which consume phytoplankton. The model was used to investigate the effect of cannibalism intensity on the net primary production and the dynamics of trophic links in the aquatic ecosystem characterized by cannibalism at the upper trophic level or by the emergence of a third-order predator in the system. It has been found that when cannibalism increases above a certain level, the concentrations of both adults and the young of the 2nd-order predators decrease. At the same time, the concentrations of the 1st-order predators and of nutrients increase, while the biomass of producers decreases. When the cannibalism intensity is low, the net primary production of the system increases to a certain level with the increase in cannibalism intensity and drops sharply when the level of consumption of the young is high. The emergence of the 3rd-order predator in the system leads to a change in the dynamics of links in conformity with the "bottom-up" and "top-down" control. Thus, cannibalism of a certain magnitude can lead to an increase in integrated parameters of aquatic ecosystems: the amount of energy used by the ecosystem and the productivity in the photosynthesis link.

  15. Potential economic effects of climate change on Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. KETTUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the assessment of the economic effects of climate change, changes in returns and costs have to be taken into consideration. Changes in returns are mainly caused by changes in the yield level. Costs are determined by various factors. Harvesting conditions may improve as the temperatures are higher. However, an increasing need for disease and pest control results in higher costs. Various extensive studies have indicated that rising temperatures with the CO2 fertilizing effect increase the crop potential in Finland. From the economic point of view an increase in yield level is highly significant, because the increase in costs remains quite small. A 10% increase in the yield level raises the farm income by about 6%. Because agriculture is supported in many ways either directly or indirectly, the rise in income level may be offset by lowering the support. Consequently, farmers may not benefit from an increase in the yield level, but the benefit will go to the state economy. However, an increase in the yield level resulting from rising temperatures is advantageous to the national economy, regardless of whether the benefit goes to the farmers or to the state.;

  16. Poverty and the economic effects of TB in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S; Sleigh, A C; Wang, G J; Liu, X L

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the economic effects of illness on individual tuberculosis (TB) cases in rural China and to use a case-control study to show a strong TB-poverty link. In 2002-2004 we studied 160 new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and 320 age- and sex-matched controls living in neighbouring houses in four rural counties of Henan Province. Cases and controls were interviewed 1-3 months after patients were diagnosed. We used matched multivariate logistic regression to compare cases with controls for poverty status using household income, household assets and relative wealth within the village. We conducted follow-up interviews of patients 10-12 months later to assess economic effects by collecting data on treatment costs, income losses, coping strategies and treatment completion. Poverty is strongly associated with TB incidence even after controlling for smoking and other risk factors. Excluding income losses, direct out-of-pocket treatment costs (medical and non-medical) accounted for 55.5% of average annual household income, and most TB cases fell into heavy debt. The DOTS cure rate was 91%. When DOTS was incomplete or not done, mortality was high. Poverty is both a cause and a devastating outcome of TB. Ongoing poverty reduction schemes in China must also include reducing TB.

  17. Economic effectiveness of direct drill in maize production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuža Desanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the concept of sustainable agriculture, raising environmental awareness of farmers and the preservation of natural resources, the implementation of the so-called conservation tillage began during the 1960s in the USA. It involves the application of a reduced or completely eliminated (no-till, zero tillage, direct drill sowing tillage, which prevents soil erosion, improves soil quality and biodiversity, also significantly reducing gas emissions by implementing a set of technical solutions. The application of this concept requires the existence of appropriate machinery that enables the use of direct seeding on land where plant residues of previous crops are present in the amount of minimum 30%. In addition to significant environmental impacts, this concept provides positive economic effects: for the whole society by eliminating the cost caused by soil degradation, but also for individual agricultural producers through the elimination of a significant number of complex machining operations and savings in diesel fuel and working hours of machines and employees. A comparative analysis of the economic effectiveness of maize production in terms of conventional tillage and no-till on a farm in Novi Sad showed that the application of direct drill allows skipping 4 to 5 machining operations, leading to a saving of 59 litres of diesel fuel per hectare of cultivated area while retaining the same average yield per ha, which resulted in increased profits by 4,246 RSD ha-1 compared to conventional tillage.

  18. Evaluation of the economic and ecological effects of the French 'bonus malus'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callonnec, Gael; Sannie, Isabelle (ADEME (France))

    2009-07-01

    The French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) has undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of a possible extension of the 'Bonus malus' system, applied to sales of automobiles, to several other classes of products. Equipment that consumes relatively little power, or goods that are relatively non-polluting, could benefit from a subsidy, while energy-intensive and/or highly polluting products could be taxed in proportion to their energy efficiency or degree of harmfulness. As the government wants to keep the global tax rate constant, bonuses would have to be strictly financed by income from penalties. To establish a scale that will produce a balanced budget, it is necessary to estimate accurately the changes in market share caused by the measure, which may be significant. For example, the market share of vehicles of classes A and B has increased from 20.4% to 31% in only three months. Two models were used to assess the economic and ecological effects of bonus malus. One relies on a representation of curves of aggregated demand in a situation of perfect competition. Another, inspired by the NPV (Net Present Value) theory, assumes that consumers maximize their profits. The theoretical assumptions, benefits and limitations of each model are presented. The models provide relatively homogeneous results, except when the price gaps between different classes of goods are too narrow. In such a case, an important threshold effect can occur.

  19. The NET effect of dispersants : A critical review of testing and modelling of surface oil dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra-Helfrich; Wierd Koops; Albertinka J. Murk

    2015-01-01

    Application of chemical dispersants or mechanical dispersion on surface oil is a trade-off between surface effects (impact of floating oil) and sub-surface effects (impact of suspended oil). Making an informed decision regarding such response, requires insight in the induced change in fate and

  20. The NET effect of dispersants - a critical review of testing and modelling of surface oil dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Application of chemical dispersants or mechanical dispersion on surface oil is a trade-off between surface effects (impact of floating oil) and sub-surface effects (impact of suspended oil). Making an informed decision regarding such response, requires insight in the induced change in fate and

  1. Middle-School Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect using a NetLogo Computer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a freely available agent based, modeling program as a learning tool for seventh and eighth grade students to explore the greenhouse effect without added curriculum. The investigation was conducted at two Maine middle-schools with 136 seventh-grade students and 11 eighth-grade students in eight classes. Students were given a pre-test that consisted of a concept map, a free-response question, and multiple-choice questions about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature. The computer model simulates the greenhouse effect and allows students to manipulate atmospheric and surface conditions to observe the effects on the Earth’s temperature. Students explored the Greenhouse Effect model for approximately twenty minutes with only two focus questions for guidance. After the exploration period, students were given a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Parametric post-test analysis of the assessments indicated middle-school students gained in their understanding about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature after exploring the computer model for approximately twenty minutes. The magnitude of the changes in pre- and post-test concept map and free-response scores were small (average free-response post-test score of 7.0) compared to an expert's score (48), indicating that students understood only a few of the system relationships. While students gained in their understanding about the greenhouse effect, there was evidence that students held onto their misconceptions that (1) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere deteriorates the ozone layer, (2) the greenhouse effect is a result of humans burning fossil fuels, and (3) infrared and visible light have similar behaviors with greenhouse gases. We recommend using the Greenhouse Effect computer model with guided inquiry to focus students’ investigations on the system relationships in the model.

  2. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009 : The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Dirk H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows,

  3. The Social Effects of the Economic Transformation in India (An Attempt at Measurement and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bywalec Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of significant and, at the same time, challenging research problems in Economics is measuring the social effect of economic growth (development. Economic growth should never be treated a goal per se. It is rational provided that it brings effects such as, generally speaking, an improvement in the standard of living. However, this is not always the case. Social sciences, including Economics, have not developed any uniform methods of measuring and evaluating such effects yet.

  4. It's like night and day: Diel net-effects on Cercopagidae densities in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenio, Patricia M.; Bunnell, David B.; Adams, Jean V.; Watson, Nicole M.; Woelmer, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, zooplankters are often sampled using standard ≤153 μm mesh nets without regard to the time of day they are collected. We sampled Cercopagidae during 2013–2014 in northern Lake Huron during day, dusk, and night using two different nets (a 0.5 m wide 153 μm mesh “standard” net and a 0.75 m wide 285 μm mesh “Bythotrephes” net) to determine if there were any differences in their sampled densities. Bythotrephes densities with the standard net were approximately 2.07-fold greater when captured at night than during the day. No time of day bias occurred with the Bythotrephes net. Nighttime Bythotrephes densities did not differ between the two net types. Cercopagis densities did not vary with net type or the time of day in this study, but future work should revisit this result given our low sample size and the low occurrence of Cercopagis in Lake Huron. To reduce bias and calculate accurate density estimates, Cercopagidae should be sampled at night if using a standard net or any time of day with the Bythotrephes net. Given the large impact of invasive predatory cladocerans Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi on food webs since their invasion in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the 1980s, proper estimation of their densities is essential.

  5. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to

  6. Shocks in economic growth=shocking effects for food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavallari, A.; Fellmann, T.; Hubertus Gay, H.

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic and financial turmoil raises the question on how global economic growth affects agricultural commodity markets and, hence, food security. To address this question, this paper assesses the potential impacts of faster economic growth in developed and emerging economies on the one

  7. INVASIVE WEED OPTIMIZATION FOR ECONOMIC DISPATCH WITH VALVE POINT EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMA PRABHA D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel optimization methodology aimed at solving economic dispatch (ED problem considering valve point effects using invasive weed optimization (IWO algorithm. IWO was recently proposed as a simple but powerful metaheuristic algorithm for real parameter optimization. IWO draws inspiration from the ecological process of weeds colonization and distribution and is capable of solving general multi-dimensional, linear and nonlinear optimization problems with appreciable efficiency. The proposed method has been applied to three test systems comprising 3, 13 and 40 units. These test systems are also solved using the catfish particle swarm optimisation (Catfish PSO algorithm - an improved version of PSO - for the comparison and validation of the solutions. The obtained best values have been compared with different methods in literature and the results of them have been discussed. The result obtained proves that the IWO algorithm is efficient and can be used practically for solving economic dispatch problem. A comparative analysis with other settled nature-inspired solution algorithms demonstrates the superior performance of the proposed methodology in terms of both solution accuracy and convergence performances.

  8. Effects of Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. P. Yue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268 and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440 breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats and daily milk yield (202 goats were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05. The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05.

  9. Net effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value and digestibility of oat forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications of soil amendments containing N are part of routine forage management strategies for grasses, with a primary goal of increasing forage yield. However, the effects of N fertilization on forage nutritive value, estimates of energy density, and in-vitro DM or NDF disappearance often have b...

  10. Net effects of gasoline price changes on transit ridership in U.S. urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using panel data of transit ridership and gasoline prices for ten selected U.S. urbanized areas over the time period of 2002 to 2011, : this study analyzes the effect of gasoline prices on ridership of the four main transit modesbus, light rail, h...

  11. Topographical effects of climate dataset and their impacts on the estimation of regional net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. Qing; Feng, Feng X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we first built and compared two different climate datasets for Wuling mountainous area in 2010, one of which considered topographical effects during the ANUSPLIN interpolation was referred as terrain-based climate dataset, while the other one did not was called ordinary climate dataset. Then, we quantified the topographical effects of climatic inputs on NPP estimation by inputting two different climate datasets to the same ecosystem model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to evaluate the importance of considering relief when estimating NPP. Finally, we found the primary contributing variables to the topographical effects through a series of experiments given an overall accuracy of the model output for NPP. The results showed that: (1) The terrain-based climate dataset presented more reliable topographic information and had closer agreements with the station dataset than the ordinary climate dataset at successive time series of 365 days in terms of the daily mean values. (2) On average, ordinary climate dataset underestimated NPP by 12.5% compared with terrain-based climate dataset over the whole study area. (3) The primary climate variables contributing to the topographical effects of climatic inputs for Wuling mountainous area were temperatures, which suggest that it is necessary to correct temperature differences for estimating NPP accurately in such a complex terrain.

  12. Effect of stroke rate on the distribution of net mechanical power in rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; Landman, E.H.; Smith, R.M.; van Soest, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of manipulating stroke rate on the distribution of mechanical power in rowing. Two causes of inefficient mechanical energy expenditure were identified in rowing. The ratio between power not lost at the blades and generated mechanical power (P̄

  13. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  14. Effects of nitrogen application rates on net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in double-rice cropping systems of the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongdu; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    The net global warming potential (NGWP) and net greenhouse gas intensity (NGHGI) of double-rice cropping systems are not well documented. We measured the NGWP and NGHGI including soil organic carbon (SOC) change and indirect emissions (IE) from double-crop rice fields with fertilizing systems in Southern China. These experiments with three different nitrogen (N) application rates since 2012 are as follows: 165 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 225 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N1), which was the local N application rates as the control; 135 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 180 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N2, 20 % reduction); and 105 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 135 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N3, 40 % reduction). Results showed that yields increased with the increase of N application rate, but without significant difference between N1 and N2 plots. Annual SOC sequestration rate under N1 was estimated to be 1.15 MgC ha -1  year -1 , which was higher than those under other fertilizing systems. Higher N application tended to increase CH 4 emissions during the flooded rice season and significantly increased N 2 O emissions from drained soils during the nonrice season, ranking as N1 > N2 > N3 with significant difference (P < 0.05). Two-year average IE has a huge contribution to GHG emissions mainly coming from the higher N inputs in the double-rice cropping system. Reducing N fertilizer usage can effectively decrease the NGWP and NGHGI in the double-rice cropping system, with the lowest NGHGI obtained in the N2 plot (0.99 kg CO 2 -eq kg -1 yield year -1 ). The results suggested that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be simultaneously achieved by properly reducing N fertilizer application in double-rice cropping systems.

  15. Background effects of emergencies on indicators of economic analysis of enterprise economic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Yu. Polyak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of scientific works on the issue of formation and development of organizational and methodological regulations of accounting and analytical support of the economic activity of an enterprise in emergencies, which led to the conclusion about the complex character of the study of theory, methodology and economic analysis of enterprises in various sectors of national economy. The author studies the approaches to the nature and methods of economic analysis that resulted in the presentation of instructional techniques to the economic structure. In assessing the consequences of emergencies, it is necessary to determine their impact on the indices of economic analysis; so, there was the need to define areas resulting index changes as a result of emergency situations by identifying its components which may affect emergencies. After analyzing the data, it was found that the consequences of emergency situations affecting the indices of business analysis and can lead to changes in management decisions of internal and external users.

  16. Effects of organic fertilizer on net global warming potential under an intensively managed vegetable field in southeastern China: A three-year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Li, B.; Xiong, Z. Q.

    2016-11-01

    Organic fertilizer may not only improve soil quality but may also contribute to climate protection by increasing carbon sequestration in agricultural ecosystems. A 3-yr study was conducted with ten consecutive vegetable crops in intensively managed vegetable cropping systems in southeastern China to examine the effects of organic fertilizer application (ORGA) on net global warming potential (net GWP) after accounting for carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from all sources including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration derived from the net ecosystem carbon budget). Results indicated that ORGA significantly increased ecosystem respiration by 13.9% without obvious effects on CH4 and N2O emissions as compared to local conventional chemical fertilization (CHEM). The SOC sequestration rates during the 3-year observation period were estimated at -0.52 t C ha-1 for the control, -0.42 t C ha-1 for the CHEM plot and 0.27 t C ha-1 for the ORGA plot, respectively, and thus contributed significantly to the net GWP. Overall, compared with CHEM, the ORGA significantly decreased net GWP and greenhouse gas intensity by 15.3% and 27.4%, respectively. Our findings suggest that higher yields and lower greenhouse gas intensities and carbon costs can be achieved by substituting chemical nitrogen fertilizers with organic fertilization strategies.

  17. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig’s pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  18. Net benefits: assessing the effectiveness of clinical networks in Australia through qualitative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the 21st century, government and industry are supplementing hierarchical, bureaucratic forms of organization with network forms, compatible with principles of devolved governance and decentralization of services. Clinical networks are employed as a key health policy approach to engage clinicians in improving patient care in Australia. With significant investment in such networks in Australia and internationally, it is important to assess their effectiveness and sustainability as implementation mechanisms. Methods In two purposively selected, musculoskeletal clinical networks, members and stakeholders were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions regarding key factors relating to network effectiveness and sustainability. We adopted a three-level approach to evaluating network effectiveness: at the community, network, and member levels, across the network lifecycle. Results Both networks studied are advisory networks displaying characteristics of the ‘enclave’ type of non-hierarchical network. They are hybrids of the mandated and natural network forms. In the short term, at member level, both networks were striving to create connectivity and collaboration of members. Over the short to medium term, at network level, both networks applied multi-disciplinary engagement in successfully developing models of care as key outputs, and disseminating information to stakeholders. In the long term, at both community and network levels, stakeholders would measure effectiveness by the broader statewide influence of the network in changing and improving practice. At community level, in the long term, stakeholders acknowledged both networks had raised the profile, and provided a ‘voice’ for musculoskeletal conditions, evidencing some progress with implementation of the network mission while pursuing additional implementation strategies. Conclusions This research sheds light on stakeholders’ perceptions of assessing clinical network effectiveness at

  19. Net benefits: assessing the effectiveness of clinical networks in Australia through qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Frances C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 21st century, government and industry are supplementing hierarchical, bureaucratic forms of organization with network forms, compatible with principles of devolved governance and decentralization of services. Clinical networks are employed as a key health policy approach to engage clinicians in improving patient care in Australia. With significant investment in such networks in Australia and internationally, it is important to assess their effectiveness and sustainability as implementation mechanisms. Methods In two purposively selected, musculoskeletal clinical networks, members and stakeholders were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions regarding key factors relating to network effectiveness and sustainability. We adopted a three-level approach to evaluating network effectiveness: at the community, network, and member levels, across the network lifecycle. Results Both networks studied are advisory networks displaying characteristics of the ‘enclave’ type of non-hierarchical network. They are hybrids of the mandated and natural network forms. In the short term, at member level, both networks were striving to create connectivity and collaboration of members. Over the short to medium term, at network level, both networks applied multi-disciplinary engagement in successfully developing models of care as key outputs, and disseminating information to stakeholders. In the long term, at both community and network levels, stakeholders would measure effectiveness by the broader statewide influence of the network in changing and improving practice. At community level, in the long term, stakeholders acknowledged both networks had raised the profile, and provided a ‘voice’ for musculoskeletal conditions, evidencing some progress with implementation of the network mission while pursuing additional implementation strategies. Conclusions This research sheds light on stakeholders’ perceptions of assessing clinical

  20. Effects of winter temperature and summer drought on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Campbell, Claire; Dinsmore, Kerry; Drewer, Julia; Coyle, Mhairi; Anderson, Margaret; Skiba, Ute; Nemitz, Eiko; Billett, Michael; Sutton, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Northern peatlands are one of the most important global sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); their ability to sequester C is a natural feedback mechanism controlled by climatic variables such as precipitation, temperature, length of growing season and period of snow cover. In the UK it has been predicted that peatlands could become a net source of carbon in response to climate change with climate models predicting a rise in global temperature of ca. 3oC between 1961-1990 and 2100. Land-atmosphere exchange of CO2in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variations, which have significant short- and long-term effects on carbon sink strength. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) at Auchencorth Moss (55° 47'32 N, 3° 14'35 W, 267 m a.s.l.), a temperate peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Auchencorth Moss is a low-lying, ombrotrophic peatland situated ca. 20 km south-west of Edinburgh. Peat depth ranges from 5 m and the site has a mean annual precipitation of 1155 mm. The vegetation present within the flux measurement footprint comprises mixed grass species, heather and substantial areas of moss species (Sphagnum spp. and Polytrichum spp.). The EC system consists of a LiCOR 7000 closed-path infrared gas analyser for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and water vapour and of a Gill Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer. Over the 10 year period, the site was a consistent yet variable sink of CO2 ranging from -34.1 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -69.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing seasons and mean winter air temperature explained 93% of the variability in summertime sink strength, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant development and productivity were stunted by colder winters causing a net reduction in the annual carbon sink strength of this peatland where autotrophic processes are thought to be

  1. Effects of Net Metering on the Use of Small-Scale Wind Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T. L.; Pedden, M.; Gagliano, T.

    2002-11-01

    Factors such as technological advancements, steadily decreasing costs, consumer demand, and state and federal policies are combining to make wind energy the world's fastest growing energy source. State and federal policies are facilitating the growth of the domestic, large-scale wind power market; however, small-scale wind projects (those with a capacity of less than 100 kilowatts[kW]) still face challenges in many states. Net metering, also referred to as net billing, is one particular policy that states are implementing to encourage the use of small renewable energy systems. Net metering allows individual, grid-tied customers who generate electricity using a small renewable energy system to receive credit from their utility for any excess power they generate beyond what they consume. Under most state rules, residential, commercial, and industrial customers are eligible for net metering; however, some states restrict eligibility to particular customer classes. This paper illustrates how net metering programs in certain states vary considerably in terms of how customers are credited for excess power they generate; the type and size of eligible technologies and whether the utility; the state, or some other entity administers the program. This paper focuses on10 particular states where net metering policies are in place. It analyzes how the different versions of these programs affect the use of small-scale wind technologies and whether some versions are more favorable to this technology than others. The choice of citizens in some states to net meter with photovoltaics is also examined.

  2. Simulating economic effects of disruptions in the telecommunications infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Roger Gary; Barton, Dianne Catherine; Reinert, Rhonda K.; Eidson, Eric D.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2004-01-01

    CommAspen is a new agent-based model for simulating the interdependent effects of market decisions and disruptions in the telecommunications infrastructure on other critical infrastructures in the U.S. economy such as banking and finance, and electric power. CommAspen extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen-EE, an agent-based model previously developed by Sandia National Laboratories to analyze the interdependencies between the electric power system and other critical infrastructures. CommAspen has been tested on a series of scenarios in which the communications network has been disrupted, due to congestion and outages. Analysis of the scenario results indicates that communications networks simulated by the model behave as their counterparts do in the real world. Results also show that the model could be used to analyze the economic impact of communications congestion and outages.

  3. Cost-effective sampling of ¹³⁷Cs-derived net soil redistribution: part 1--estimating the spatial mean across scales of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Chappell, A; Nyamdavaa, B; Yu, H; Davaasuren, D; Zoljargal, K

    2015-03-01

    The (137)Cs technique for estimating net time-integrated soil redistribution is valuable for understanding the factors controlling soil redistribution by all processes. The literature on this technique is dominated by studies of individual fields and describes its typically time-consuming nature. We contend that the community making these studies has inappropriately assumed that many (137)Cs measurements are required and hence estimates of net soil redistribution can only be made at the field scale. Here, we support future studies of (137)Cs-derived net soil redistribution to apply their often limited resources across scales of variation (field, catchment, region etc.) without compromising the quality of the estimates at any scale. We describe a hybrid, design-based and model-based, stratified random sampling design with composites to estimate the sampling variance and a cost model for fieldwork and laboratory measurements. Geostatistical mapping of net (1954-2012) soil redistribution as a case study on the Chinese Loess Plateau is compared with estimates for several other sampling designs popular in the literature. We demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid design for spatial estimation of net soil redistribution. To demonstrate the limitations of current sampling approaches to cut across scales of variation, we extrapolate our estimate of net soil redistribution across the region, show that for the same resources, estimates from many fields could have been provided and would elucidate the cause of differences within and between regional estimates. We recommend that future studies evaluate carefully the sampling design to consider the opportunity to investigate (137)Cs-derived net soil redistribution across scales of variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling effects of seasonal variation in water table depth on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a tropical peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Hirano, T.

    2014-02-01

    Seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD) determines the balance between aggradation and degradation of tropical peatlands. Longer dry seasons together with human interventions (e.g. drainage) can cause WTD drawdowns making tropical peatland C storage highly vulnerable. Better predictive capacity for effects of WTD on net CO2 exchange is thus essential to guide conservation of tropical peat deposits. Mathematical modelling of basic eco-hydrological processes under site-specific conditions can provide such predictive capacity. We hereby deploy a process-based mathematical model ecosys to study effects of seasonal variation in WTD on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of a drainage affected tropical peat swamp forest at Palangkaraya, Indonesia. Simulated NEP suggested that the peatland was a C source (NEP ~ -2 g C m-2 d-1, where a negative sign represents a C source and a positive sign a C sink) during rainy seasons with shallow WTD, C neutral or a small sink (NEP ~ +1 g C m-2 d-1) during early dry seasons with intermediate WTD and a substantial C source (NEP ~ -4 g C m-2 d-1) during late dry seasons with deep WTD from 2002 to 2005. These values were corroborated by regressions (P 0.8, intercepts approaching 0 and slopes approaching 1. We also simulated a gradual increase in annual NEP from 2002 (-609 g C m-2) to 2005 (-373 g C m-2) with decreasing WTD which was attributed to declines in duration and intensity of dry seasons following the El Niño event of 2002. This increase in modelled NEP was corroborated by EC-gap filled annual NEP estimates. Our modelling hypotheses suggested that (1) poor aeration in wet soils during shallow WTD caused slow nutrient (predominantly phosphorus) mineralization and consequent slow plant nutrient uptake that suppressed gross primary productivity (GPP) and hence NEP (2) better soil aeration during intermediate WTD enhanced nutrient mineralization and hence plant nutrient uptake, GPP and NEP and (3) deep WTD suppressed NEP through a

  5. Economic and environmental effects of the FQD on crude oil production from tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; De Buck, A.; Afman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Berg, J.; Otten, G.J. [Carbon Matters, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The production of unconventional crudes in Canada and Venezuela and exports of these crudes to the EU are investigated. In addition the potential economic and environmental impact of the proposed EU FQD measures (Fuel Quality Directive) on the production of crudes from tar sands and on new tar sand exploration projects are examined. CE Delft has analysed the impact by using a dedicated cost model. For existing projects, the model determines the effect on the basis of marginal production costs. For planned projects the model used the net present value (NPV) of proposed investments. The impacts were determined for a range of crude oil prices and FQD price effects. Combined, for existing and new projects together, the maximum effect would be at a price level at 60 USD/bbl, with savings of up to 19 Mt CO2/y at an FQD price differential of 3 euro/bbl. This overall effect would be substantial and come on top of the total emission reduction effect of the FQD of 60 Mt CO2/y, which will be achieved mostly by the blending of low-carbon fuels and reduced flaring and venting. As part of the reduction of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the revised FQD obliges fuel suppliers to reduce these emissions by 6% by 2020 on a well-to-wheel basis. The EU is currently developing a methodology to differentiate fossil fuels on the basis of feedstock and GHG emissions. In the proposal, diesel produced from tar sands, has been given a default emission value of 108.5 gCO2 eq/MJ, while diesel from conventional crude was set at 89.1 gCO2 eq/MJ. The Commission's proposal is currently undergoing an impact assessment and is expected to be resubmitted to the Council later this year (2013)

  6. Net effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value and digestibility of oat forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Akins, M S; Cavadini, J S; Jokela, W E

    2017-03-01

    Applications of soil amendments containing N are part of routine forage-management strategies for grasses, with a primary goal of increasing forage yield. However, the effects of N fertilization on forage nutritive value, estimates of energy density, and in vitro dry matter or neutral detergent fiber disappearance sometimes have been erratic or inconsistent. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on the nutritive value of a single cultivar (ForagePlus, Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI) of fall-grown oat fertilized at planting with 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100 kg of N/ha of urea or 2 rates of dairy slurry (42,300 or 84,600 L/ha). Nitrogen fertilization exhibited consistent effects on fiber components; forages fertilized with urea or dairy slurry had greater concentrations of fiber components compared with those harvested from unfertilized check plots (0 kg of N/ha), and fiber concentrations increased linearly with urea fertilization rate. In contrast, concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates were greatest for unfertilized forages (21.2%), but declined linearly with urea fertilization, exhibiting a minimum of 13.5% at the 80 kg of N/ha urea application rate. Similarly, nonfiber carbohydrates also declined linearly, from 34.8% for unfertilized check plots to a minimum of 24.6% at the 80 kg of N/ha urea application rate. Fertilization with urea resulted in consistent linear increases in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble CP, neutral detergent insoluble CP, and acid detergent insoluble CP; however, the partitioning of CP on the basis of association with specific fiber fractions could not be related to N fertilization when concentrations were expressed on a percentage of CP basis. The summative calculation of energy, expressed as total digestible nutrients was closely related to N fertilization rate during both the 2013 (y = -0.038x + 72.2; R2 = 0.961) and 2014 (y = -0.040x + 69.2; R2 = 0.771) production years. Following 30- or 48-h incubations

  7. The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on the incidence and prevalence of malaria in children in an area of unstable seasonal transmission in western Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithuis, Frank M; Kyaw, Moe Kyaw; Phe, U Ohn; van der Broek, Ingrid; Katterman, Nina; Rogers, Colin; Almeida, Patrick; Kager, Piet A; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lubell, Yoel; Simpson, Julie A; White, Nicholas J

    2013-10-11

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality consistently in Africa, but their benefits have been less consistent in Asia. This study's objective was to evaluate the malaria protective efficacy of village-wide usage of ITN in Western Myanmar and estimate the cost-effectiveness of ITN compared with extending early diagnosis and treatment services. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in Rakhine State to assess the efficacy of ITNs in preventing malaria and anaemia in children and their secondary effects on nutrition and development. The data were aggregated for each village to obtain cluster-level infection rates. In total 8,175 children under 10 years of age were followed up for 10 months, which included the main malaria transmission period. The incidence and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections, and the biting behaviour of Anopheles mosquitoes in the area were studied concurrently. The trial data along with costs for current recommended treatment practices were modelled to estimate the cost-effectiveness of ITNs compared with, or in addition to extending the coverage of early diagnosis and treatment services. In aggregate, malaria infections, spleen rates, haemoglobin concentrations, and weight for height, did not differ significantly during the study period between villages with and without ITNs, with a weighted mean difference of -2.6 P. falciparum episodes per 1,000 weeks at risk (95% Confidence Interval -7 to 1.8). In areas with a higher incidence of malaria there was some evidence ITN protective efficacy. The economic analysis indicated that, despite the uncertainty and variability in their protective efficacy in the different study sites, ITN could still be cost-effective, but not if they displaced funding for early diagnosis and effective treatment which is substantially more cost-effective. In Western Myanmar deployment of ITNs did not provide consistent protection against malaria

  8. Effect of propolis ethanol extract on myostatin gene expression and muscle morphometry of Nile tilapia in net cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, E L; Mizubuti, I Y; Alfieri, A A; Otonel, R A A; Buck, L Y; Souza, F P; Prado-Calixto, O P; Poveda-Parra, A R; Alexandre Filho, L; Lopera-Barrero, N M

    2017-03-16

    Propolis can be used as growth enhancer due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immune-stimulant properties, but its effects on morphometry and muscle gene expression are largely unknown. The present study evaluates the influence of propolis on muscle morphometry and myostatin gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) bred in net cages. Reversed males (GIFT strain) with an initial weight of 170 ± 25 g were distributed in a (2 x 4) factorial scheme, with two diets (DPRO, commercial diet with 4% propolis ethanol extract and DCON, commercial diet without propolis, control) and four assessment periods (0, 35, 70, and 105 experimental days). Muscles were evaluated at each assessment period. Histomorphometric analysis classified the fiber diameters into four groups: 50 μm. RT-qPCR was performed to assess myostatin gene expression. Fibers 30 µm (30-50 and > 50 µm) at 70 days were 25.39% and 40.07% for DPRO and DCON, respectively. There was greater myostatin gene expression at 105 days, averaging 1.93 and 1.89 for DCON and DPRO, respectively, with no significant difference in any of the analyzed periods. Propolis ethanol extract did not affect the diameter of muscle fibers or the gene expression of myostatin. Future studies should describe the mechanisms of natural products' effects on muscle growth and development since these factors are highly relevant for fish production performance.

  9. Effects of system net charge and electrostatic truncation on all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shen, Jana K

    2014-10-15

    Constant pH molecular dynamics offers a means to rigorously study the effects of solution pH on dynamical processes. Here, we address two critical questions arising from the most recent developments of the all-atom continuous constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) method: (1) What is the effect of spatial electrostatic truncation on the sampling of protonation states? (2) Is the enforcement of electrical neutrality necessary for constant pH simulations? We first examined how the generalized reaction field and force-shifting schemes modify the electrostatic forces on the titration coordinates. Free energy simulations of model compounds were then carried out to delineate the errors in the deprotonation free energy and salt-bridge stability due to electrostatic truncation and system net charge. Finally, CpHMD titration of a mini-protein HP36 was used to understand the manifestation of the two types of errors in the calculated pK(a) values. The major finding is that enforcing charge neutrality under all pH conditions and at all time via cotitrating ions significantly improves the accuracy of protonation-state sampling. We suggest that such finding is also relevant for simulations with particle mesh Ewald, considering the known artifacts due to charge-compensating background plasma. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of system net charge and electrostatic truncation on all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shen, Jana K.

    2014-01-01

    Constant pH molecular dynamics offers a means to rigorously study the effects of solution pH on dynamical processes. Here we address two critical questions arising from the most recent developments of the all-atom continuous constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) method: 1) What is the effect of spatial electrostatic truncation on the sampling of protonation states? 2) Is the enforcement of electrical neutrality necessary for constant pH simulations? We first examined how the generalized reaction field and force shifting schemes modify the electrostatic forces on the titration coordinates. Free energy simulations of model compounds were then carried out to delineate the errors in the deprotonation free energy and salt-bridge stability due to electrostatic truncation and system net charge. Finally, CpHMD titration of a mini-protein HP36 was used to understand the manifestation of the two types of errors in the calculated pK a values. The major finding is that enforcing charge neutrality under all pH conditions and at all time via co-titrating ions significantly improves the accuracy of protonation-state sampling. We suggest that such finding is also relevant for simulations with particle-mesh Ewald, considering the known artifacts due to charge-compensating background plasma. PMID:25142416

  11. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  12. Effectiveness and costs of specialised physiotherapy given via ParkinsonNet: a retrospective analysis of medical claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypinga, Jan H L; de Vries, Nienke M; Boonen, Lieke H H M; Koolman, Xander; Munneke, Marten; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2018-02-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex condition that is best managed by specialised professionals. Trials show that specialised allied health interventions are cost-effective, as compared with usual care. We aimed to study the long-term benefits of specialised physiotherapy using the ParkinsonNet approach in real-world practice. We did an observational study, retrospectively analysing a database of health insurance claims that included a representative population of Dutch patients with Parkinson's disease, who were followed for up to 3 years (Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2015). Eligibility criteria included having both a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and having received physiotherapy for the disease. Allocation to specialised or usual care physiotherapy was based on the choices of patients and referring physicians. We used a mixed-effects model to compare health-care use and outcomes between patients treated by specialised or usual care physiotherapists. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients with a Parkinson's disease-related complication (ie, visit or admission to hospital because of fracture, other orthopaedic injuries, or pneumonia) adjusted for baseline variables. We compared physiotherapist caseload, the number of physiotherapy sessions, physiotherapy costs, and total health-care costs (including hospital care, but excluding community care, long-term care, and informal care) between the groups, and used a Cox's proportional hazard model for survival time to establish whether mortality was influenced by treatment by a specialised physiotherapist. We analysed 2129 patients (4649 observations) receiving specialised physiotherapy and 2252 patients (5353 observations) receiving usual care physiotherapy. Significantly fewer patients treated by a specialised physiotherapist had a Parkinson's disease-related complication (n=368 [17%]) than patients treated by a usual care physiotherapist (n=480 [21%]; odds ratio 0·67, 95% CI 0·56-0·81, plower for specialised

  13. Greenlining : economic and environmental effects of government facilitated lending to sustainable economic activities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We

  14. Accounting for the effects of a ruminal nitrogen deficiency within the structure of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tedeschi, L. O; Fox, D. G; Russell, J. B

    2000-01-01

    .... The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) prediction of fiber digestion and microbial mass production from ruminally degraded carbohydrate has been adjusted to accommodate a ruminal N deficiency...

  15. Accounting for the effects of a ruminal nitrogen deficiency within the structure of the Cornell Net Carbonhydrate and Protein System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L O Tedeschi; D G Fox; J B Russell

    2000-01-01

      The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) prediction of fiber digestion and microbial mass production from ruminally degraded carbohydrate has been adjusted to accommodate a ruminal N deficiency...

  16. Malaysian economic crisis: causes, effects, recovery actions, and lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Amir

    2000-01-01

    Malaysia and several East Asian economies have been caught in the grip of the currency crisis that started in July 1997. At the start of the crisis, Malaysia adopted a tight fiscal and monetary policy in response of the economic environment prevailing at that time it was obvious that the initial policy package resulted in severe economic contraction and deterioration in the health of the financial system. In response, the Government unveiled the National Economic Recovery Plan (NERP) which re...

  17. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framework for economic analysis. As a second step calculations of the costs of mastitis and the costs in relation to the benefits of mastitis management published since 1990 in peer-reviewed journals are...

  18. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  19. Effect of economic parameters on power generation expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevilgen, S.H.; Erdem, H.H.; Cetin, B.; Akkaya, A.V.; Dagdas, A. [Yiliz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The increasing consumption of electricity within time forces countries to build additional power plants. Because of technical and economic differences of the additional power plants, economic methodologies are used to determine the best technology for the additional capacity. The annual levelized cost method is used for this purpose, and the technology giving the minimum value for the additional load range is chosen. However, the economic parameters such as interest rate, construction escalation, fuel escalation, maintenance escalation and discount factor can affect the annual levelized cost considerably and change the economic range of the plants. Determining the values of the economical parameters in the future is very difficult, especially in developing countries. For this reason, the analysis of the changing rates of the mentioned values is of great importance for the planners of the additional capacity. In this study, the changing rates of the economic parameters that influence the annual levelized cost of the alternative power plant types are discussed. The alternative power plants considered for the electricity generation sector of Turkey, and the economic parameters dominating each plant type, are determined. It is clearly seen that the annual levelized cost for additional power plants varies with the economic parameters. The results show that the economic parameter variation has to be taken into consideration in electricity generation planning. (author)

  20. Comparison of the effects of two bongo net mesh sizes on the estimation of abundance and size of Engraulidae eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies of ichthyoplankton retention by nets of different mesh sizes are important because they help in choosing a sampler when planning collection and the establishment of correction factors. These factors make it possible to compare studies performed with nets of different mesh sizes. In most studies of mesh retention of fish eggs, the taxonomic identification is done at the family level, resulting in the loss of detailed information. We separated Engraulidae eggs, obtained with 0.333 mm and 0.505 mm mesh bongo nets at 172 oceanographic stations in the southeastern Brazilian Bight, into four groups based on their morphometric characteristics. The difference in the abundance of eggs caught by the two nets was not significant for those groups with highest volume, types A and B, but in type C (Engraulis anchoita, the most eccentric, and in type D, of the smallest volume, the difference was significant. However, no significant difference was observed in the egg size sampled with each net for E. anchoita and type D, which exhibited higher abundance in the 0.333 mm mesh net and minor axis varying from 0.45-0.71 mm, smaller than the 0.505 mm mesh aperture and the mesh diagonal.

  1. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  2. Synergistic effect of embryo vaccination with Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens NetB proteins on inducing protective immunity against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of embryo vaccination with Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens NetB toxin proteins in combination with the Montanide IMS-OVO adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis were investigated using an E. maxima/C. perfringens co-infection model. Eighteen-day-old br...

  3. The effects of substitution of incandescent light bulbs over the energy net; Os efeitos da substituicao de lampadas incandescentes sobre a rede eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Juergen [A-Eberle GmbH (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Fluorescent compact lamps and LED light require reactors to work. Analyzing the consumed power by these lamps, complex effects with no positive consequences over the electric energy net is observed. In the context of the harmonics, should be considered mainly the reactive power of distortion. The article clarifies the related concepts and presents practical examples.

  4. Effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on immunity to malaria in western Kenya II. Antibody responses in young children in an area of intense malaria transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Simon K.; Lal, Altaf A.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Ong'echa, John M. O.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Orago, Alloys S. S.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hawley, William A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Shi, Ya Ping

    2003-01-01

    As part of a large community-based trial on the impact of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on childhood morbidity and mortality in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya, we assessed the effects of ITNs on malaria-specific humoral responses in young

  5. The use of mediation analysis to assess the effects of a behaviour change communication strategy on bed net ideation and household universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily E; Boulay, Marc; Ainslie, Robert; Babalola, Stella; Fotheringham, Megan; Koenker, Hannah; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-01-21

    SBCC campaigns are designed to act on cognitive, social and emotional factors at the individual or community level. The combination of these factors, referred to as 'ideation', play a role in determining behaviour by reinforcing and confirming decisions about a particular health topic. This study introduces ideation theory and mediation analysis as a way to evaluate the impact of a malaria SBCC campaign in Tanzania, to determine whether exposure to a communication programme influenced universal coverage through mediating ideational variables. A household survey in three districts where community change agents (CCAs) were active was conducted to collect information on ITN use, number of ITNs in the household, and perceptions about ITN use and ownership. Variables relating to attitudes and beliefs were combined to make 'net ideation'. Using an ideational framework, a mediation analysis was conducted to see the impact exposure to a CCA only, mass media and community (M & C) messaging only, or exposure to both, had on household universal coverage, through the mediating variable net ideation. All three levels of exposure (CCA, M & C messaging, or exposure to both) were significantly associated with increased net ideation (CCA: 0.283, 95% CI: 0.136-0.429, p-value: effects between any exposure and universal coverage when controlling for net ideation. The results of this study indicate that mediation analysis is an applicable new tool to assess SBCC campaigns. Ideation as a mediator of the effects of communication exposure on household universal coverage has implications for designing SBCC to support both mass and continuous distribution efforts, since both heavily rely on consumer participation to obtain and maintain ITNs. Such systems can be strengthened by SBCC programming, generating demand through improving social norms about net ownership and use, perceived benefits of nets, and other behavioural constructs.

  6. The effect of political leaders on economic growth through institutional change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Zolcsák

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the influence of political leaders on institutions which, according to institutional economics, directly influences economic growth. Furthermore, the study reviews the literature in which leadership itself becomes a significant factor as a possible explanation for the reason for economic growth through institutional change. Although political leader or its role in growth is still viewed as a controversial issue in economics, the paper emphasises what kind of cause-effect relations exist between political leaders and economic growth and reveals that leaders do matter directly in economic performance by the formation of institutions.

  7. Landscape Scale Study of the Net Effect of Proximity to a Neonicotinoid-Treated Crop on Bee Colony Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Nicholas J; Al Toufailia, Hasan; Scandian, Luciano; Blanchard, Héloïse E; Jesse, Matthew P; Carreck, Norman L; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2017-09-19

    Since 2013, the European Commission has restricted the use of three neonicotinoid insecticides as seed dressings on bee-attractive crops. Such crops represent an important source of forage for bees, which is often scarce in agro-ecosystems. However, this benefit has often been overlooked in the design of previous field studies, leaving the net impact of neonicotinoid treated crops on bees relatively unknown. Here, we determine the combined benefit (forage) and cost (insecticide) of oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seeds on Bombus terrestris and Apis mellifera colonies. In April 2014, 36 colonies per species were located adjacent to three large oilseed rape fields (12 colonies per field). Another 36 were in three nearby locations in the same agro-ecosystem, but several kilometers distant from any oilseed rape fields. We found that Bombus colony growth and reproduction were unaffected by location (distant versus adjacent) following the two month flowering period. Apis colony and queen survival were unaffected. However, there was a small, but significant, negative relationship between honey and pollen neonicotinoid contamination and Apis colony weight gain. We hypothesize that any sublethal effects of neonicotinoid seed dressings on Bombus colonies are potentially offset by the additional foraging resources provided. A better understanding of the ecological and agronomic factors underlying neonicotinoid residues is needed to inform evidence-based policy.

  8. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  9. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  10. Effects of changing mosquito host searching behaviour on the cost effectiveness of a mass distribution of long-lasting, insecticidal nets: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Chitnis, Nakul

    2013-06-26

    The effectiveness of long-lasting, insecticidal nets (LLINs) in preventing malaria is threatened by the changing biting behaviour of mosquitoes, from nocturnal and endophagic to crepuscular and exophagic, and by their increasing resistance to insecticides. Using epidemiological stochastic simulation models, we studied the impact of a mass LLIN distribution on Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Specifically, we looked at impact in terms of episodes prevented during the effective life of the batch and in terms of net health benefits (NHB) expressed in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted, depending on biting behaviour, resistance (as measured in experimental hut studies), and on pre-intervention transmission levels. Results were very sensitive to assumptions about the probabilistic nature of host searching behaviour. With a shift towards crepuscular biting, under the assumption that individual mosquitoes repeat their behaviour each gonotrophic cycle, LLIN effectiveness was far less than when individual mosquitoes were assumed to vary their behaviour between gonotrophic cycles. LLIN effectiveness was equally sensitive to variations in host-searching behaviour (if repeated) and to variations in resistance. LLIN effectiveness was most sensitive to pre-intervention transmission level, with LLINs being least effective at both very low and very high transmission levels, and most effective at around four infectious bites per adult per year. A single LLIN distribution round remained cost effective, except in transmission settings with a pre-intervention inoculation rate of over 128 bites per year and with resistant mosquitoes that displayed a high proportion (over 40%) of determined crepuscular host searching, where some model variants showed negative NHB. Shifts towards crepuscular host searching behaviour can be as important in reducing LLIN effectiveness and cost effectiveness as resistance to pyrethroids. As resistance to insecticides is likely to slow down the

  11. The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-27

    Shapiro, “Cities and Welfare: The Impact of Terrorism on Urban Form,” Journal of Urban Economics , vol. 51, no. 2, March 2002, p. 214. 75 Edward L. Glaeser...and Jesse M. Shapiro, “Cities and Welfare: The Impact of Terrorism on Urban Form,” Journal of Urban Economics , vol. 51, no. 2, March 2002, p. 214. 76

  12. A STUDY ABOUT EFFECT OF SOCIO ECONOMIC TRENDS ON STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Paras Jain *, Mr.Soman Malaiya

    2016-01-01

    Students are influenced by current socio economic trends. Awareness for quality education, studies in English medium schools, girl’s education promotion, participation in activities, advance teaching pedagogy, learning by activities, expense on education, family support are current socio economic trends. These trends influence positively quality education concept.

  13. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a

  14. Effective Teaching of Economics: A Constrained Optimization Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Patrik T.; Calonge, David Santandreu

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental tenets of economics is that decisions are often the result of optimization problems subject to resource constraints. Consumers optimize utility, subject to constraints imposed by prices and income. As economics faculty, instructors attempt to maximize student learning while being constrained by their own and students'…

  15. Chapter 4. Economic Considerations: Cost-Effective and Efficient Climate Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Auffhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter we discuss the economics of climate change. We begin with a discussion of economic considerations that are important to take into account when designing and evaluating climate policy, including cost effectiveness and efficiency. We then discuss specific policies at the state, national, and international level in light of these economic considerations.  We have several recommendations for the path forward for climate policy. First, the goal of climate policy should be to reduce the damages caused by greenhouse gases. In addition to mitigation policy to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, one can also reduce the damages causes by greenhouse gases by adaptation measures that reduce our vulnerability to climate change impacts.  Second, policy-makers should use incentive- (or market- based instruments as opposed to command and control policies (including quantity-based mandates whenever possible. Whenever unpriced emissions are the sole market failure, incentive-based instruments such as a carbon tax or cap and trade program are more likely to achieve the social optimum and maximize social net benefits [1, 2]. Lin and Prince [3] calculate that the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California is $1.37 per gallon.  Our third recommendation is to address the risk of emissions leakage, which arises when only one jurisdiction (e.g., California imposes climate policy, but not the entire world. One way to reduce emissions leakage is to use the strategic distribution of emissions allowances to local producers. This method, known as “output-based allocation” or benchmarking, effectively subsidizes local producers and at least partially offsets the increase in their costs caused by an emissions cap [4]. Importantly, only local production is eligible for an allocation of valuable allowances, providing a counterweight to the incentive for emission leakage. Our fourth recommendation is that if they are used instead

  16. Effect of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zare Feizabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., a Randomized Complete Block design with 12 treatments and four replications was conducted in Mahvelat of Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of weeding, harrowing, burning, two times weeding, weeding + harrowing, weeding + burning, harrowing + harrowing, harrowing + weeding, harrowing + burning, weeding+ harrowing+ burning, weed free and weedy as a check treatment. Investigated traits were plant height, number of boll in plant, 20 boll weight, 20 boll cotton lint weight, cotton lint yield per plant, cotton yield, number and biomass of weeds, outcome, net and gross income. The result showed that treatments had significant effect (p

  17. Linking net entry to regional economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.F.G. Dejardin (Marcus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRegional growth differentials could be explained by how intensively and dynamically new firms of a particular region enter expanding industries. Although the direct contribution of new firms to value creation and growth may be regarded as tautological, the aggregate impacts are largely

  18. The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, S. M.; Kunreuther, H.

    2005-12-01

    Policy formulation for the mitigation and management of risks posed by natural hazards requires that governments confront difficult decisions for resource allocation and be able to justify their spending. Governments also need to recognize when spending offers little improvement and the circumstances in which relatively small amounts of spending can make substantial differences. Because natural hazards can have detrimental impacts on local and regional economies, patterns of economic development can also be affected by spending decisions for disaster mitigation. This paper argues that by mapping interdependencies among physical, social and economic factors, governments can improve resource allocation to mitigate the risks of natural hazards while improving economic development on local and regional scales. Case studies of natural hazards in Turkey have been used to explore specific "filters" that act to modify short- and long-term outcomes. Pre-event filters can prevent an event from becoming a natural disaster or change a routine event into a disaster. Post-event filters affect both short and long-term recovery and development. Some filters cannot be easily modified by spending (e.g., rural-urban migration) but others (e.g., land-use practices) provide realistic spending targets. Net social benefits derived from spending, however, will also depend on the ways by which filters are linked, or so-called "interdependencies". A single weak link in an interdependent system, such as a power grid, can trigger a cascade of failures. Similarly, weak links in social and commercial networks can send waves of disruption through communities. Conversely, by understanding the positive impacts of interdependencies, spending can be targeted to maximize net social benefits while mitigating risks and improving economic development. Detailed information on public spending was not available for this study but case studies illustrate how networks of interdependent filters can modify

  19. Pharmacovigilance in hospice/palliative care: the net immediate and short-term effects of dexamethasone for anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yutaka; Moroni, Matteo; Wilcock, Andrew; Quinn, Stephen; Csikós, Ágnes; Allan, Simon G; Agar, Meera; Clark, Katherine; Clayton, Josephine M; Currow, David C

    2016-09-01

    Loss of appetite is prevalent in palliative care and distressing for patients and families. Therapies include corticosteroids or progestogens. This study explores the net effect of dexamethasone on anorexia. Prospective data were collected when dexamethasone was started for anorexia as part of routine care. The National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (NCICTCAE) Likert scales assessed severity of anorexia and immediate and short-term harms at 2 time points: baseline and 7 days. This study (41 sites, 8 countries) collected data (July 2013 to July 2014) from 114 patients (mean age 71 (SD 11), 96% with cancer). Median Australian-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale was 50% (range 20-70). Mean baseline NCICTCAE anorexia score was 2.7 (SD 0.6; median 3). 6 patients died by day 7. Of 108 evaluable patients, 74 (68.5%; 95% CI 59.0% to 76.7%) reported ≥1 reduction anorexia scores by day 7, of whom 30 were 0. Mean dexamethasone dose on day 7 was 4.1 mg/day (SD 3.4; median 4; range 0-46 mg). 24 patients reported ≥1 harms (32.4% CI 22.6% to 44.1%; insomnia n=10, depression n=7, euphoria n=7 and hyperglycaemia n=7). Of 24 patients with no benefit, 10 reported ≥1 harms. This study shows positive and negative effects of 7 days of dexamethasone as an appetite stimulant in patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses. Identifying clinicodemographic characteristics of people most at risk of harms with no benefit is a crucial next step. Longer term follow-up will help to understand longer term and cumulative harms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  1. Economic games on the internet: the effect of $1 stakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Amir

    Full Text Available Online labor markets such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk offer an unprecedented opportunity to run economic game experiments quickly and inexpensively. Using Mturk, we recruited 756 subjects and examined their behavior in four canonical economic games, with two payoff conditions each: a stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings were based on the outcome of the game (maximum earnings of $1; and a no-stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings are unaffected by the outcome of the game. Our results demonstrate that economic game experiments run on MTurk are comparable to those run in laboratory settings, even when using very low stakes.

  2. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  3. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  4. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, T; Huijps, K; Østerås, O; Hogeveen, H

    2007-03-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framework for economic analysis. As a second step calculations of the costs of mastitis and the costs in relation to the benefits of mastitis management published since 1990 in peer-reviewed journals are extensively reviewed and analysed. The result shows a large variation in the calculated costs and benefits of mastitis and mastitis management between the different studies. Moreover, it is clear that important factors were ignored in some of the studies. The framework provided in this paper can provide a basis for analysis for future studies on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management.

  5. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF OUTSOURCING SERVICES IN REGARD TO Foreign ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Sergeevna Gracheva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite enterprises, which render outsourcing services, appeared on the Russian services market with the beginning of market relations, there are not many researches that deal with competition and cost-effectiveness analyses of outsourcing services in regard to foreign economic activity. Economic integration of Russian business into international economic relations leads to complication of all national foreign economic complex and to the necessity of international economic infrastructure development. One of its most important parts are both services which deal with execution of support international economic operations (interpreting and translation services, transport services, customs services etc. and conducting foreign economic activity for client-enterprise (complex outsourcing FEA. Welcoming environment is formed nowadays for outsourcing business development in regard to foreign economic activity. It dictates the need for more thorough study of this type of business activity and development of indicators system for cost-effectiveness analysis of outsourcing in regard to foreign economic activity. Purpose – to define the complex outsourcing FEA, to develop the indicators system for cost-effectiveness analysis of outsourcing services in regard to foreign economic activity. Methodology: in article following scientific methods are used: functional method and statistical method. Results: is given authorial definition of complex outsourcing FEA, is developed the indicators system for cost-effectiveness analysis of outsourcing. Practical implications: the results of this research may be used by the businesses, which render outsourcing and intermediary services in regard to foreign economic activity.

  6. Cost effectiveness and resource allocation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria control in Myanmar: a modelling analysis of bed nets and community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Tom L; Kyaw, Shwe Sin; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Smithuis, Frank M; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Lisa J; Lubell, Yoel

    2015-09-29

    Funding for malaria control and elimination in Myanmar has increased markedly in recent years. While there are various malaria control tools currently available, two interventions receive the majority of malaria control funding in Myanmar: (1) insecticide-treated bed nets and (2) early diagnosis and treatment through malaria community health workers. This study aims to provide practical recommendations on how to maximize impact from investment in these interventions. A simple decision tree is used to model intervention costs and effects in terms of years of life lost. The evaluation is from the perspective of the service provider and costs and effects are calculated in line with standard methodology. Sensitivity and scenario analysis are undertaken to identify key drivers of cost effectiveness. Standard cost effectiveness analysis is then extended via a spatially explicit resource allocation model. Community health workers have the potential for high impact on malaria, particularly where there are few alternatives to access malaria treatment, but are relatively costly. Insecticide-treated bed nets are comparatively inexpensive and modestly effective in Myanmar, representing a low risk but modest return intervention. Unlike some healthcare interventions, bed nets and community health workers are not mutually exclusive nor are they necessarily at their most efficient when universally applied. Modelled resource allocation scenarios highlight that in this case there is no "one size fits all" cost effectiveness result. Health gains will be maximized by effective targeting of both interventions.

  7. Economic development and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, D M

    1966-06-01

    Two schools of theorists have been concerned with the effect of economic development on fertility. One school has contended that economic development has an inhibiting effect on fertility. The demographic transition which has occurred among the non-developed countries confirms their viewpoint. Another school of thought, including in its members Thomas Malthus, has believed that economic development promoted fertility. Much empirical evidence may also be brought to bear to support this viewpoint.The present paper attempts to reconcile these viewpoints. It is hypothesized that the direct effect of economic development is to increase fertility. However, various factors which usually accompany the process of economic development serve to reduce fertility. These include an increase in the level of education and a reduction in infant and childhood mortality. Making use of data for 41 nations pertaining to the decade of the 1950's, it is found that fertility is directly associated with per capita net national product when controls for other relevant variables are in8tituted. On the other hand, per capita newspaper circulation is inversely related to fertility, and infant mortality is directly related.If the hypothesis advanced in this paper is correct, relatively large governmental expenditures on health and education will enhance the reduction in fertility obtainable from an increase in national economic level alone.

  8. Football marketing and its effect on economic boom

    OpenAIRE

    Homayounifar, Masuod; Mosaveri, Kamran Pahlavan; Shahriari, Elmira

    2014-01-01

    Football sport marketing has been considered a tool, on economizing sports, producing the value added and an important solution for earning income through sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of football marketing in the country's economic boom, and the method of analytical survey was conducted using questionnaires. The study statistical society consisted of football experts, economists, management experts and football fans. The statistical sample was selected from a suit...

  9. The Economic Crisis Seen from Israel: Cause and Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Polliack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper indicates a correlation between the economic crisis and America's Middle East policy. It contends that the protracted war effort in Iraq and Afghanistan have crippled the US national economy to a degree that only if the US changes its approach to Middle East conflict, will it be able to reduce the federal budget deficit, a necessary step towards economic recovery.

  10. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  11. Direct and indirect effects of climatic variations on the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange across terrestrial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiong Shao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variables not only directly affect the interannual variability (IAV in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE but also indirectly drive it by changing the physiological parameters. Identifying these direct and indirect paths can reveal the underlying mechanisms of carbon (C dynamics. In this study, we applied a path analysis using flux data from 65 sites to quantify the direct and indirect climatic effects on IAV in NEE and to evaluate the potential relationships among the climatic variables and physiological parameters that represent physiology and phenology of ecosystems. We found that the maximum photosynthetic rate was the most important factor for the IAV in gross primary productivity (GPP, which was mainly induced by the variation in vapour pressure deficit. For ecosystem respiration (RE, the most important drivers were GPP and the reference respiratory rate. The biome type regulated the direct and indirect paths, with distinctive differences between forests and non-forests, evergreen needleleaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests, and between grasslands and croplands. Different paths were also found among wet, moist and dry ecosystems. However, the climatic variables can only partly explain the IAV in physiological parameters, suggesting that the latter may also result from other biotic and disturbance factors. In addition, the climatic variables related to NEE were not necessarily the same as those related to GPP and RE, indicating the emerging difficulty encountered when studying the IAV in NEE. Overall, our results highlight the contribution of certain physiological parameters to the IAV in C fluxes and the importance of biome type and multi-year water conditions, which should receive more attention in future experimental and modelling research.

  12. Applying the net-benefit framework for analyzing and presenting cost-effectiveness analysis of a maternal and newborn health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounton, Sennen; Newlands, David

    2012-01-01

    Coverage of maternal and newborn health (MNH) interventions is often influenced by important determinants and decision makers are often concerned with equity issues. The net-benefit framework developed and applied alongside clinical trials and in pharmacoeconomics offers the potential for exploring how cost-effectiveness of MNH interventions varies at the margin by important covariates as well as for handling uncertainties around the ICER estimate. We applied the net-benefit framework to analyze cost-effectiveness of the Skilled Care Initiative and assessed relative advantages over a standard computation of incremental cost effectiveness ratios. Household and facility surveys were carried out from January to July 2006 in Ouargaye district (where the Skilled Care Initiative was implemented) and Diapaga (comparison site) district in Burkina Faso. Pregnancy-related and perinatal mortality were retrospectively assessed and data were collected on place of delivery, education, asset ownership, place, and distance to health facilities, costs borne by households for institutional delivery, and cost of standard provision of maternal care. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. There was a 30% increase in institutional births in the intervention district compared to 10% increase in comparison district, and a significant reduction of perinatal mortality rates (OR 0.75, CI 0.70-0.80) in intervention district. The incremental cost for achieving one additional institutional delivery in Ouargaye district compared to Diapaga district was estimated to be 170 international dollars and varied significantly by covariates. However, the joint probability distribution (net-benefit framework) of the effectiveness measure (institutional delivery), the cost data and covariates indicated distance to health facilities as the single most important determinant of the cost-effectiveness analysis with implications for policy making. The net-benefit framework, the application of which

  13. EFFECTIVE STIMULATION WORKERS – BASIS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Drobyshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. At the present stage of development of domestic agricultural production is a key strategic direction of the innovative development of the industry. Tasked by the government to effectively modernize the economy reflect the latest scientific and technological progress, innovation, positive perception of new ideas and breakthrough technologies. In this regard, the decisive role played by the information network , computer systems, high production technology and intellectual resources of society, innovative organization of various spheres of human activity , as well as a new level of relations to knowledge. The main driving force of innovation development of agro-industrial production in Russia at the present stage is the human potential to carry out the restructuring of the agricultural sector with the latest achievements of scientific and technical progress. Famous slogan - "cadres decide everything" under the innovation paradigm of reforming the economy is of particular relevance. One of the important reasons for the low level of innovative development of agricultural production is the lack of motivation of creative work in the agricultural workers business organizations. For the development of advanced technologies for improving the quality and reducing the material cost per unit of cash - produ Dima products they do not receive adequate material compensation. This is largely inhibits the activity of employees in the development of advanced low-cost and resource-saving technologies in agricultural production. We propose an original model for innovative employee incentiveing activity and a real contribution to improving the efficiency of the enterprise. To take into account the personal contribution of the employee in additional economic benefit through innovative component and determining bonuses, proposed to use the "coefficient of innovation activity employee" (CIAE. The value of this coefficient is defined as the ratio of profits

  14. What is the net effect of introducing vitrification for cryopreservation of surplus 2PN oocytes in an IVF program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golakov, Manja; Depenbusch, Marion; Schultze-Mosgau, Askan; Schoepper, Beate; Hajek, Jennifer; Neumann, Kay; Griesinger, Georg

    2018-02-01

    impressively higher cryo-survival rates with vitrification. The "true" net efficacy effect of introducing 2PN vitrification in an IVF program will, in real life, be lower due to patients not having surplus 2PN oocytes available for freezing and later transfer.

  15. The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ankomah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria’s 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P<0.0001. Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P=0.020, while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P=0.019. Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria.

  16. Pore pressure effects on fracture net pressure and hydraulic fracture containment : Insights from an empirical and simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabhakaran, R.; de Pater, C.J.; Shaoul, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Pore pressure and its relationship with fracture net pressure has been reported qualitatively from both field and experimental observations. From a modeling perspective, the ubiquitously used pseudo 3D (P3D) models that are based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) do not include the

  17. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  18. The effect of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Møllegaard; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural...... and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose...

  19. The effect of economic development on population health: a review of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Simon; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth is considered an important determinant of population health. Relevant studies investigating the effect of economic growth on health outcomes were identified from Google Scholar and PubMed searches in economics and medical journals. Additional resources generated through economic growth are potentially useful for improving population health. The empirical evidence on the aggregate effect of economic growth on population health is rather mixed and inconclusive. The causal pathways from economic growth to population health are crucial and failure or success in completing the pathways explains differences in empirical findings. Future research should investigate how additional resources can more effectively reach those in need and how additional resources can be used more efficiently. It is particularly relevant to understand why preventive health care in developing countries is very price elastic whereas curative health care is very health inelastic and how this understanding can inform public health policy.

  20. Real effects of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Danial Ariff Burhanudin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The persistent increase of government debt in Malaysia in the recent years has raised con-cerns as to whether the borrowings have spurred the economy or became a drag on econom-ic growth. The present paper investigates the real effect of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach for the period of 1970-2015. The results show there are positive significant long- and short-run relationships between government debt and sustainable economic growth. There is also a unidirectional causality running from government debt to sustainable economic growth. The findings indicate that Malaysia’s government debt is an important macroeconomic element for sustainability of economic growth in Malaysia. There is no evidence, however, to con-clude that the level of government debt had any adverse impacts on sustainable economic growth.

  1. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  2. Effect of site characteristics on the productivity and economic returns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    stripped treatment. Root yield of cassava cowpea mixed intercrop for example ranged from 38 to 88 t/ha. In the second year however, considerable variations were observed among the treatments with ... plete the soil of its nutrients and diminish the economics ... carting of manure to farm site, labour for application also.

  3. Socially, politically and economically mediated health effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aggravated by diminished economic growth – one of the most widely predicted consequences of climate change. Furthermore, migration will increase, which will stretch and could even overwhelm health systems in destination areas, in addition to sapping donor locations of the financial and human capital they could use ...

  4. Effects of approach and withdrawal motivation on interactive economic decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harle, Katia; Sanfey, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Although recent economic models of human decision making have recognised the role of emotion as an important biasing factor, the impact of incidental emotion on decisions has remained poorly explored. To address this question, we jointly explored the role of emotional valence (i.e., positive vs.

  5. Municipal Debt and Its Economic Effects – The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bilan

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account the particularities of the socio-economic environment and the currentsocio-political realities of Romania, as a European Union Member State, our assessments arecarried out by reference to the developments in the municipal indebtedness of other Europeancountries, developed but also developing ones. The quantitative analysis is based on both nationaland European regulations and incident databases of national authorities and Eurostat.

  6. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, G.C.; Valin, H.; Sands, R.D.; Havlik, P.; Ahammad, H.; Deryng, D.; Elliott, J.; Fujimori, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heyhoe, E.; Kyle, P.; Lampe, von M.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Croz, d' D.M.; Meijl, van H.; Mensbrugghe, van der D.; Muller, C.; Popp, A.; Robertson, R.; Robinson, S.; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, C.; Tabeau, A.A.; Willenbockel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and

  7. Vocational Education: Effective a Bridge to Economic Melt Down ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic melt down is not that monies of every country is melting away, but that fewer monies are available for spending and this is due to high rate of depth incurred through lending caused by the federal reserve whose loyalty is believed to firstly lies with bankers, most especially, Wall Street and now is reflected in every ...

  8. Local socio-economic effects of protected area conservation: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    people around the Maromizaha protected area in order to reduce the dependency on natural resources. During April 2014, GERP or- ganized a rapid socio-economic survey of 70 households across six villages, in order to make a preliminary, comparison and as- sessment of this development support and its impact on the ...

  9. Socio–economic and environmental effects of Bakolori irrigation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is in recognition of the enormous influence of irrigation on farm level productivity and enhanced living standard that government and development agencies embark on gigantic irrigation projects. This study therefore, investigated the socio - economic and environmental impacts of two irrigation projects in a semi arid ...

  10. Effects of socio-economic and behavioural factors on early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of dental caries among the children was 95.5%, most of whom had poor oral hygiene. The high decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) was associated with the low socio-economic status of the parents/guardians, poor oral hygiene, increased consumption of cariogenic sugars and low oral health ...

  11. Federal outdoor recreation trends: effects on economic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Donald B.K. English

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor recreation is a central way that people interact with the natural environment. Federal land agencies are key providers of settings, facilities, and landscapes for recreation. Outdoor recreation is also an important driver of economic activity in rural communities near recreation destinations and across the United States. Future participation in outdoor...

  12. Socio-Economic Analysis Of Income Effects Of Forest Products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economic importance of exploiting forest products in Enugu State. This study shows that majority of the household heads were between the age of 31 and 50 years. From the study it was found that more of the household heads are males. They engage mainly in different ombined operation in ...

  13. Effects of economics and demographics on global fisheries sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong

    2017-08-01

    A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to developing sustainable global fisheries. We used balanced panel models and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1970-2010) of 122 nations to examine how economic prosperity and population growth affected the sustainability of marine ecosystems. We used catches in economic exclusive zone (EEZ); mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL); primary production required to sustain catches (expressed as percentage of local primary production [%PPR]); and an index of ecosystem overfishing (i.e., the loss in secondary production index [L index]) as indicators of ecological change in marine ecosystems. The EEZ catch, %PPR, and L index declined gradually after gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reached $15,000, $14,000, and $19,000, respectively, and MTL increased steadily once GDP per capita exceeded $20,000. These relationships suggest that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are compatible goals. However, increasing human populations would degrade marine ecosystems. Specifically, a doubling of human population caused an increase in the %PPR of 17.1% and in the L index of 0.0254 and a decline in the MTL of 0.176. A 1% increase in human population resulted in a 0.744% increase in EEZ catch. These results highlight the importance of considering social and economic factors in developing sustainable fisheries management policy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Awareness on Economic, Social, and Environmental Effects of the Global Warming: Experimental Findings From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Rüştü YAYAR; Kaplan, Çetin; Şimşek, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to reveal the awareness upon the various effects of global warming. In this sense, we tried to reveal social, economic, and environmental effects of the global warming and the awareness related to these effects. In this study, the effects of global warming and awareness issues are discussed in the concept of global warming. Economic, social, and environmental effects of global warming are established, a questionnaire was applied to investigate global warming awareness within th...

  15. Effectiveness and economic evaluation of chiropractic care for the treatment of low back pain: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Marc-André; Bussières, André; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Boruff, Jill; Harrison, Pamela

    2015-03-18

    Chiropractic care is a common treatment for low back pain (LBP). Previous studies have failed to clarify the relative cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care in comparison with other commonly used approaches because previous attempts to synthetize the economic literature has only included partial economic evaluations. The objective of this project is to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care compared to other commonly used care approaches among adult patients with non-specific LBP. Two systematic reviews will be conducted to identify 1) randomized controlled trials and 2) full economic evaluations of chiropractic care for low back pain compared to standard care provided by other healthcare providers. We will conduct searches in specialized electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and full economic evaluations published between 1990 and 2014 using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms. This will be supplemented by a search of the gray literature. Citations, abstracts, and relevant papers will be screened for eligibility by two reviewers independently. Studies will be critically appraised using 1) the Cochrane risk of bias tool and 2) the Drummond (BMJ) checklist. Results will be summarized using Slavin's qualitative best-evidence synthesis approach. Data relating to the primary outcomes of the effectiveness study will be evaluated for inclusion in meta-analyses. The costs will be standardized to the same currency (USD) and adjusted to the same year for inflation. The incremental cost-effectiveness, incremental net benefit, and relevant confidant intervals will be recalculated in order to facilitate comparison between studies. Our review will evaluate both the clinical effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness associated with chiropractic care for LBP. A more precise estimate of the cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care for LBP relative to other forms of conservative care is needed for decision-makers and

  16. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  17. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  18. Effectiveness of essential amino acid supplementation in stimulating whole body net protein anabolism is comparable between COPD patients and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Renate; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep; Erbland, Marcia L; Anderson, Paula J; Engelen, Mariëlle Pkj

    2017-04-01

    The development of effective nutritional strategies in support of muscle growth for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains challenging. Dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) are the main driver of postprandial net protein anabolism. In agreement, EAA supplements in healthy older adults are more effective than supplements with the composition of complete proteins. In patients with COPD it is still unknown whether complete protein supplements can be substituted with only EAAs, and whether they are as effective as in healthy older adults. According to a double-blind randomized crossover design, we examined in 23 patients with moderate to very severe COPD (age: 65±2 years, FEV1: 40±2% of predicted) and 19 healthy age-matched subjects (age: 64±2 years), whether a free EAA mixture with a high proportion (40%) of leucine (EAA mixture) stimulated whole body net protein gain more than a similar mixture of balanced free EAAs and non-EAAs as present in whey protein (TAA mixture). Whole body net protein gain and splanchnic extraction of phenylalanine (PHE) were assessed by continuous IV infusion of L-[ring-2H5]-PHE and L-[ring-2H2]-tyrosine, and enteral intake of L-[15N]-PHE (added to the mixtures). Besides an excellent positive linear relationship between PHE intake and net protein gain in both groups (r=0.84-0.91, Panabolism more than free amino acid supplements with the composition of complete proteins. Therefore, free EAA supplements may aid in the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of tillage practice on soil structure, N2O emissions and economics in cereal production under current socio-economic conditions in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žurovec, Ognjen; Sitaula, Bishal Kumar; Čustović, Hamid; Žurovec, Jasminka; Dörsch, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT). The field experiment was conducted in the Sarajevo region on a clayey loam under typical climatic conditions for humid, continental BH. N2O emissions were monitored in a Maize-Barley rotation over two cropping seasons. Soil structure was studied at the end of the second season. In the much wetter 2014, N2O emission were in the order of CT > RT > NT, while in the drier 2015, the order was RT > CT > NT. The emission factors were within or slightly above the uncertainty range of the IPCC Tier 1 factor, if taking account for the N input from the cover crop (alfalfa) preceding the first experimental year. Saturated soils in spring, formation of soil crusts and occasional droughts adversely affected yields, particularly in the second year (barley). In 2014, yield-scaled N2O emissions ranged from 83.2 to 161.7 g N Mg-1 grain (corn) but were much greater in the second year due to crop failure (barley). RT had the smallest yield-scaled N2O emission in both years. NT resulted in economically inacceptable returns, due to the increased costs of weed control and low yields in both years. The reduced number of operations in RT reduced production costs and generated positive net returns. Therefore, RT could potentially provide agronomic and environmental benefits in crop production in BH.

  20. The Effects of Economic and Financial Development on Financial Inclusion in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Olaniyi

    2015-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence on the effects of economic and financial development on financial inclusion in Africa, using panel FMOLS for the 2005-2014 period. The study shows that economic growth has a significant positive impact on financial inclusion, meaning that African countries with higher economic growth have more inclusive financial systems. GDP per capita has a significant positive impact on financial inclusion. That is, income is an important factor in explaining the leve...

  1. Stochastic effects in a discretized kinetic model of economic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Modanese, G.

    2017-04-01

    Linear stochastic models and discretized kinetic theory are two complementary analytical techniques used for the investigation of complex systems of economic interactions. The former employ Langevin equations, with an emphasis on stock trade; the latter is based on systems of ordinary differential equations and is better suited for the description of binary interactions, taxation and welfare redistribution. We propose a new framework which establishes a connection between the two approaches by introducing random fluctuations into the kinetic model based on Langevin and Fokker-Planck formalisms. Numerical simulations of the resulting model indicate positive correlations between the Gini index and the total wealth, that suggest a growing inequality with increasing income. Further analysis shows, in the presence of a conserved total wealth, a simultaneous decrease in inequality as social mobility increases, in conformity with economic data.

  2. Fertilizing growth: Agricultural inputs and their effects in economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John W; McCord, Gordon C

    2017-07-01

    This paper estimates the role of agronomic inputs in cereal yield improvements and the consequences for countries' processes of structural change. The results suggest a clear role for fertilizer, modern seeds and water in boosting yields. We then test for respective empirical links between agricultural yields and economic growth, labor share in agriculture and non-agricultural value added per worker. The identification strategy includes a novel instrumental variable that exploits the unique economic geography of fertilizer production and transport costs to countries' agricultural heartlands. We estimate that a half ton increase in staple yields generates a 14 to 19 percent higher GDP per capita and a 4.6 to 5.6 percentage point lower labor share in agriculture five years later. The results suggest a strong role for agricultural productivity as a driver of structural change.

  3. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  4. Effective bank assets - the important source of economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    RAKHMATOV KHASAN

    2016-01-01

    In this article conditions of liberalizing the economy the improvement of financial stability and capitalization of commercial banks, further strengthening of their position in the financial market is of actual importance as the priority directions of economic reforms. In the basis of these problems there are issues such as further improvement in financial mediation role of banks in the economy, the constant increase of the volume of transactions related to assets.

  5. Economic and social factors effects to stress level

    OpenAIRE

    PUPELYTĖ AGNĖ; BARKAUSKAITĖ AIDA; RAKICKAS JULIUS

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the incidence of stress among Lithuanian citizens, and to find out the influence of salary and education on stress level. Stress is the one of most common totalities of organism reactions that influences personal life and career. It is very important to understand stressors, its origins and influence, to avoid unwanted reactions in social and economic being.

  6. The effect of different feeding technologies on productivity of cows and economical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Makauskas, Saulius

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research: To define the effect of the feeding of dairy cows roughage rations on their productivity, physiological state and economical parameters. The tasks of the research – to define the effect of feeding technologies on: forage intake; milk production and quality; microbiological and biochemical parameters of the rumen; forage OM digestibility in vitro; biochemical parameters of blood; economical effect. Novelty of the research: The effect of different feeding t...

  7. The Economic Crisis and Several Effects on Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina BRAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main mechanism of profit making is not production according to the outcomes of several analyses of the current economic crisis. This mechanism is circulation and exchange. Starting with this observation the paper goes through a number of aspects regarding the relation between crisis and economy at global level. These aspects consist in the recent financial turmoil; who pays for the crisis; stabilizing the financial sector; recession and the financial crisis; the internationalization of the crisis; commodities and the ecological crisis; an end to neo-liberalism; what should socialists demand. We notice and comment on how important current development in the wake of the banking crisis is for the transmission of that crisis to the rest of the economy and its interaction with the more general economic crisis now emerging. It was concluded that there are good chances that the current economic order to be broken. The future shape of the order will depend more on vision of managers than on the influence of the so called objective factors.

  8. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  9. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  10. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  11. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  12. Effects of a clearcut on the net rates of nitrification and N mineralization in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2005-01-01

    The Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York receive among the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in eastern North America, and ecosystems in the region may be sensitive to human disturbances that affect the N cycle. We studied the effects of a clearcut in a northern hardwood forest within a 24-ha Catskill watershed on the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification in soil plots during 6 years (1994-1999) that encompassed 3-year pre- and post-harvesting periods. Despite stream NO3- concentrations that increased by more than 1400 ??mol l-1 within 5 months after the clearcut, and three measures of NO3- availability in soil that increased 6- to 8-fold during the 1st year after harvest, the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification as measured by in situ incubation in the soil remained unchanged. The net N-mineralization rate in O-horizon soil was 1- 2 mg N kg-1 day-1 and the net nitrification rate was about 1 mg N kg-1 day-1, and rates in B-horizon soil were only one-fifth to one-tenth those of the O-horizon. These rates were obtained in single 625 m2 plots in the clearcut watershed and reference area, and were confirmed by rate measurements at 6 plots in 1999 that showed little difference in N-mineralization and nitrification rates between the treatment and reference areas. Soil temperature increased 1 ?? 0.8??C in a clearcut study plot relative to a reference plot during the post-harvest period, and soil moisture in the clearcut plot was indistinguishable from that in the reference plot. These results are contrary to the initial hypothesis that the clearcut would cause net rates of these N-cycling processes to increase sharply. The in situ incubation method used in this study isolated the samples from ambient roots and thereby prevented plant N uptake; therefore, the increases in stream NO3- concentrations and export following harvest largely reflect diminished uptake. Changes in temperature and moisture after the clearcut were

  13. A regional analysis of the effects generated by the economic crisis and its impact on the outstanding loan portfolio in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina BRĂTUCU (LUCA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Known as the biggest crises since the Great Depression, the actual global crisis has modified the economical structures of many countries and a vicious circle of tightening credit, has reduced demand and rapid job cuts occurred. In Romania, the situation evolved with rapidity based on a series of snow-ball effects and the economy suffered severe damages in terms of intensive growth and sustainability. The lending activity was seriously damaged and many people got in a difficult situation with no jobs and with higher interest rates on loans.For a better understanding of the economic crisis phenomena consequences in Romania, we will try to emphasize the main implications of the influences of unemployment and medium net wages on the banking activity using a regional econometric model for panel data.

  14. Effect of different crop management systems on net primary productivity and relative carbon allocation coefficients for corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khorramdel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different crop management practices on corn (Zea mays L. net primary productivity (NPP and relative carbon allocation coefficients, a field experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized block design with four replications in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during two growing season 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Treatments including two low input management systems based on application of cow manure and compost municipal made from house-hold waste, a medium input system and a high input system. Application of inputs and management practices were based on a basic assumption made prior to the start of the experiment. On the other words, for each of the management system the particular set of inputs were allocated. In this respect, for low input system 30 t.ha-1 cow manure or 30 t.ha-1 compost municipal made from house-hold waste, twice hand weeding were used. In medium management system, 15 t.ha-1 compost municipal made from house-hold waste, 150 kg.ha-1 urea, two seed bed operations, 1.5 l.ha-1 2, 4-D herbicide applied at five-leaf stage and one time hand weeding were used. In high input system, the inputs were two seed bed operations, 2 l.ha-1 Paraquat herbicide used after seeding and 1.5 l.ha-1 2, 4-D applied at five-leaf stage. Results showed that the effect of different crop management practices on the shoot biomass, seed weight, root biomass, total biomass, shoot biomass: root biomass (S:R, SRL and HI were significant (p≥0.01. High input management system enhanced total biomass and S:R and decreased seed weight, root biomass and SRL. The highest and the lowest total biomass observed in high input (18.3 kg.m-2.yr-1 and low input with using compost (10.3 kg.m-2.yr-1, respectively. The maximum SRL observed in low input based on cow manure application (19.8 cm.cm-3 soil and the minimum SRL was in high input (1.3 cm.cm-3 soil. Range of relative carbon allocation

  15. Environmental and economic effects of the Copenhagen pledges and more ambitious emission reduction targets. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki; Peterson, Everett B. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics

    2010-06-15

    Global carbon dioxide emissions need to be reduced by at least 50 to 85 % in 2050 compared to 2000 levels to limit global surface temperature increase to 2 C compared to preindustrial levels (IPCC 2007). As an intermediate greenhouse gas emission reduction target for industrialized countries in 2020 the IPCC (2007) confirmed a range of 25 % to 40 % compared to 1990, together with a substantial deviation from baseline in some developing regions, which was quantified as reductions in the range of 15 % to 30 % below baseline (den Elzen and Hoehne 2008). This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord as quantifiable emission reductions or as NAMAs. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges leading to emission reductions of 17 % below 1990 levels for Annex I countries and 13 % below reference levels for Non-Annex I countries. Both scenarios do not reach the level of ambition indicated as necessary by science to keep temperature increase below 2 C. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO{sub 2}-emissions by 30 % and by 40 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels, respectively. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In the scenarios for 2030 all but the least developed countries are assumed to take on emission targets, but emission caps are considerably less stringent for developing countries than for developed countries. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target. The analyses are carried out with the dynamic Computable General

  16. The effects of foreign direct investment on economic growth: evidence for Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Tachiwou ABOUDOU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI on economic growth. I use data running over 33 years from 1975 to 2008. Generally, the results, obtained by using the ordinary least squares (OLS methods show foreign direct investment (FDI, Trade volume, and Human capital to have a positive impact on economic growth. There is some evidence that inflation and Government consumption to found to have a negative impact on economic growth. The empirical analysis shows that FDI alone plays an ambiguous role in contributing to economic growth.

  17. Large-scale implementation of disease control programmes: a cost-effectiveness analysis of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net distribution channels in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya-a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Niessen, Louis; Buff, Ann M; Kariuki, Simon

    2016-11-21

    Historically, Kenya has used various distribution models for long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) with variable results in population coverage. The models presently vary widely in scale, target population and strategy. There is limited information to determine the best combination of distribution models, which will lead to sustained high coverage and are operationally efficient and cost-effective. Standardised cost information is needed in combination with programme effectiveness estimates to judge the efficiency of LLIN distribution models and options for improvement in implementing malaria control programmes. The study aims to address the information gap, estimating distribution cost and the effectiveness of different LLIN distribution models, and comparing them in an economic evaluation. Evaluation of cost and coverage will be determined for 5 different distribution models in Busia County, an area of perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Cost data will be collected retrospectively from health facilities, the Ministry of Health, donors and distributors. Programme-effectiveness data, defined as the number of people with access to an LLIN per 1000 population, will be collected through triangulation of data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional malaria survey, a cross-sectional survey administered to a subsample of beneficiaries in Busia County and LLIN distributors' records. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis will be used for the evaluation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a health-systems perspective, and cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques. The study has been evaluated and approved by Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific and Ethical Review Unit (SERU number 2997). All participants will provide written informed consent. The findings of this economic evaluation will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  18. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  19. Factors Affecting Effective Teaching and Learning of Economics in Some Ogbomosho High Schools, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Gbemisola Motunrayo; Nkoyane, Vusy

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the present curriculum of Economics as a subject in some Ogbomoso Senior High Schools and to determine factors affecting effective teaching of economics in the schools. Variables such as number of students, teachers' ratio available textbooks were also examined. The study adopted descriptive design since it is…

  20. Effect of small and medium scale enterprises on economic growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper recognised SMEs as source of economic growth in Nigeria. The paper identified SMEs' contribution to Nigeria's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from 1982 to 2012, and carried out analysis on the effect of SMEs on economic growth in Nigeria, within the same period. Secondary data were collected from CBN ...

  1. Economic effects of crude oil spillages on crop farms in Rivers state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focused on economic effects of crude oil spillages on crop farms in Rivers State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to calculate the areas of crop farms spilled by crude oil and estimate the corresponding economic losses. Data for the study were collected using a multistage sampling procedure. A total of ...

  2. The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Pearl Millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Pearl Millet ( Pennisetum glaucum l.) Production in ... Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... The study investigated farmers' socio-economic factor affecting pearl millet production in randomly selected villages in Magumeri Local Government Area of Borno State. A total of ...

  3. The economic cost of adverse health effects from wildfire-smoke exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuho Kochi; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    The economic costs of adverse health effects associated with exposure to wildfire smoke should be given serious consideration in determining the optimal wildfire management policy. Unfortunately, the literature in this research area is thin. In an effort to better understand the nature of these economic costs, we review and synthesise the relevant literature in three...

  4. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF MIGRATION. A ROMANIAN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Panfil IVAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a complex phenomenon, with complex and diverse implications. Meanwhile the society is in a constant change the major changes occurring internationally may generate new migratory flows or different views regarding this phenomenon. The most obvious consequences are arising from economic and social area. Issuing country can experience both increases and losses in the short term, but long-term gain. For receiving countries, new workers can address short-term needs of existing labor market, but in the long term they can cause decreases in wages on the labor market, because the problem isn’t migration itself, but the integration of migrants in host societies.

  5. Singapore's economic internationalization and its effects on work and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A

    2000-04-01

    There are tensions between Singapore's economic strategy of internationalization and the emphasis on family life. Frequent travelers, unaccompanied expatriates, and their families experience these tensions. The frequent or extended absences of frequent travelers and expatriates make it difficult for them to fulfill their family roles and obligations, and may lead to estrangement from their families. Families who are left behind may face role conflict and role strain, but actually draw closer in their efforts to cope with the absence of their absent members. Researchers, policy-makers, and employers can contribute towards reducing the tensions between internationalization and family togetherness.

  6. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem

  7. Coupled eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms enable the simulation of water table depth effects on boreal peatland net CO2 exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezbahuddin, Mohammad; Grant, Robert F.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.

    2017-12-01

    Water table depth (WTD) effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of boreal peatlands are largely mediated by hydrological effects on peat biogeochemistry and the ecophysiology of peatland vegetation. The lack of representation of these effects in carbon models currently limits our predictive capacity for changes in boreal peatland carbon deposits under potential future drier and warmer climates. We examined whether a process-level coupling of a prognostic WTD with (1) oxygen transport, which controls energy yields from microbial and root oxidation-reduction reactions, and (2) vascular and nonvascular plant water relations could explain mechanisms that control variations in net CO2 exchange of a boreal fen under contrasting WTD conditions, i.e., shallow vs. deep WTD. Such coupling of eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms in a process-based ecosystem model, ecosys, was tested against net ecosystem CO2 exchange measurements in a western Canadian boreal fen peatland over a period of drier-weather-driven gradual WTD drawdown. A May-October WTD drawdown of ˜ 0.25 m from 2004 to 2009 hastened oxygen transport to microbial and root surfaces, enabling greater microbial and root energy yields and peat and litter decomposition, which raised modeled ecosystem respiration (Re) by 0.26 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. It also augmented nutrient mineralization, and hence root nutrient availability and uptake, which resulted in improved leaf nutrient (nitrogen) status that facilitated carboxylation and raised modeled vascular gross primary productivity (GPP) and plant growth. The increase in modeled vascular GPP exceeded declines in modeled nonvascular (moss) GPP due to greater shading from increased vascular plant growth and moss drying from near-surface peat desiccation, thereby causing a net increase in modeled growing season GPP by 0.39 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. Similar increases in GPP and Re caused no significant WTD effects on modeled

  8. Coupled eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms enable the simulation of water table depth effects on boreal peatland net CO2 exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mezbahuddin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water table depth (WTD effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of boreal peatlands are largely mediated by hydrological effects on peat biogeochemistry and the ecophysiology of peatland vegetation. The lack of representation of these effects in carbon models currently limits our predictive capacity for changes in boreal peatland carbon deposits under potential future drier and warmer climates. We examined whether a process-level coupling of a prognostic WTD with (1 oxygen transport, which controls energy yields from microbial and root oxidation–reduction reactions, and (2 vascular and nonvascular plant water relations could explain mechanisms that control variations in net CO2 exchange of a boreal fen under contrasting WTD conditions, i.e., shallow vs. deep WTD. Such coupling of eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms in a process-based ecosystem model, ecosys, was tested against net ecosystem CO2 exchange measurements in a western Canadian boreal fen peatland over a period of drier-weather-driven gradual WTD drawdown. A May–October WTD drawdown of  ∼  0.25 m from 2004 to 2009 hastened oxygen transport to microbial and root surfaces, enabling greater microbial and root energy yields and peat and litter decomposition, which raised modeled ecosystem respiration (Re by 0.26 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. It also augmented nutrient mineralization, and hence root nutrient availability and uptake, which resulted in improved leaf nutrient (nitrogen status that facilitated carboxylation and raised modeled vascular gross primary productivity (GPP and plant growth. The increase in modeled vascular GPP exceeded declines in modeled nonvascular (moss GPP due to greater shading from increased vascular plant growth and moss drying from near-surface peat desiccation, thereby causing a net increase in modeled growing season GPP by 0.39 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. Similar increases in

  9. Long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets: effects of washing processes on pesticide residues, and human and environmental exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the public health problems in the world. More than 3.3 billion people are at risk of malaria. Children under the age of five year, and pregnant women are most severely affected. The disease is transmitted to human through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles. Nowadays Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets (LNs) are the most popular and useful tools for malaria control. At the same time LNs face some challenges as the need for reliable methods to c...

  10. Effects of Insect-Proof Net Cultivation, Rice-Duck Farming, and Organic Matter Return on Rice Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Guochun; Wang, Qiangsheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11-4.28 and 4.78-7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE). These results attributed to an increase in leaf SPAD values and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) after the EG. Compared to conventional rice farming (CR), RD promoted the rice yield by 1.52-3.74%, and contributed to higher the leaf photosynthesis, dry matter and N accumulation, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. IPN decreased the intensity of sun radiation in the nets due to the coverage of the insect-proof nets, which declined the leaf Pn, dry matter accumulation and translocation, N absorption and translocation, and NRE compared to open field cultivation (OFC). The rice yield of IPN were 2.48-4.98% lower than that of OFC. Compared to the interaction between CR and IN, the interaction between RD and OM improved the rice yield by 5.26-9.33%, and increased dry matter and N accumulation after the EG, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. These results indicated that OM, RD and the interaction between RD and OM could promote dry matter accumulation and N utilization, which was beneficial to improve the rice yield.

  11. Effects of Insect-Proof Net Cultivation, Rice-Duck Farming, and Organic Matter Return on Rice Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Guochun; Wang, Qiangsheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11–4.28 and 4.78–7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE). These results attributed to an increase in leaf SPAD values and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) after the EG. Compared to conventional rice farming (CR), RD promoted the rice yield by 1.52–3.74%, and contributed to higher the leaf photosynthesis, dry matter and N accumulation, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. IPN decreased the intensity of sun radiation in the nets due to the coverage of the insect-proof nets, which declined the leaf Pn, dry matter accumulation and translocation, N absorption and translocation, and NRE compared to open field cultivation (OFC). The rice yield of IPN were 2.48–4.98% lower than that of OFC. Compared to the interaction between CR and IN, the interaction between RD and OM improved the rice yield by 5.26–9.33%, and increased dry matter and N accumulation after the EG, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. These results indicated that OM, RD and the interaction between RD and OM could promote dry matter accumulation and N utilization, which was beneficial to improve the rice yield. PMID:28174589

  12. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  13. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  14. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  15. THE EFFECT OF INVESTMENT, WORKER AND GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN KUTAI KARTANEGARA REGENCY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is still the main goal and an important indicator of the success of regional economic development. Kutai Kartanegara regency has fluctuation level of economic growth and the economic growth on average over the study period is moderately high (approaching double digits/average 9.43% over the study period compare with 4 districts/major cities in East Kalimantan as well as national economic growth. The purpose of this study is to determine how much the influence of investment, worker and government expenditure on economic growth of Kutai Kartanegara regency. This study uses theory of regional economic growth Solow-swan basing on Cobb Douglas production function with consideration of its ability to show the relationship balance between production result and combination of factor production used. The data use is Gross Regional Domestic Product (PDRB data according to constant prices and the amount of worker that is published by Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS of Kutai Kartanegara regency, government expenditure data based on Regional Budget (APBD of Kutai Kartanegara regency and private investment data from Regional Investment Agency (BPMD of Kutai Kartanegara regency began in 2007-2011 (time series. Regression analysis used is OLS with the assistance of EVIEWS 7 software. The study results show that private investment variable has negative effect but not significant to local economic growth and level of error is α 5%, but worker variable has significant positive effect and government expenditure variable has positive effect but not significant.

  16. Spatial Spillover Effects of Transport Infrastructure in Chinese New Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the inner-effect mechanism of transport infrastructure and regional economic growth, this paper builds a specialized spatial weight matrix by utilizing the panel data from 31 provinces in New Silk Road Economic Belt (NSREB and other areas from 2005 to 2014, and combines with the spatial panel model to analyze the spatial spillover effects of transport infrastructure. According to the analysis, the transport infrastructure plays an obvious lead role in regional economy growth alongside the NSREB, and the economic growth invigorates common development in surrounding regions. In addition, differences were observed among the different transport infrastructure with regard to their influences on regional economic development, as the highway transport affects regional economic growth to a larger degree than railway transport.

  17. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  18. The effect of long and short time oil shocks on economic growth in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Abdolmajid Jalaee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil is one of the strategic good so that price fluctuations and shocks of it have major effects on economic growth and recession in depended countries to revenues of it. In this study, it is tried that the effect of oil price shocks investigated in two types (short and long time on Economic growth in Iran. Its Period is from 1974 to 2006. According it, oil price uncertainty is quantized by GARCH model and is determined the effects of oil price shocks on economic growth in Iran during a short and extended time by Vector Auto-regression Estimates (VAR, Vector Error Correction Estimates (VECM, Unrestricted Co-integration Rank Test (Trace tests. The results of these estimations have shown that the effect of oil price shocks in short and prolonged course on economic growth in Iran had been negative.

  19. Gender differences in sleep deprivation effects on risk and inequality aversion: evidence from an economic experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    ..., may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects' risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics...

  20. Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Food Consumption Pattern on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Food Consumption Pattern on Household Energy uses: Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation around Wondo Genet Catchments, South-Central Ethiopia.

  1. Free to Squander? Democracy, Institutional Design, and Economic Sustainability, 1975–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Indra de Soysa; Jennifer Bailey; Eric Neumayer

    2004-01-01

    While democracy’s effect on economic growth has come under intense empirical scrutiny, its effect on economic sustainability has been noticeably neglected. We assess the effects of regime type and democratic institutional design on economic, or “weak” sustainability. Sustainability requires that stocks of capital do not depreciate in value over time. The World Bank gauges the rate of net investment in manufactured, human, and natural capital, a unified indicator of weak sustainability (the ge...

  2. Interacting effects of elevated temperature and additional water on plant physiology and net ecosystem carbon fluxes in a high Arctic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseyk, Kadmiel; Seibt, Ulrike; Lett, Céline; Lupascu, Massimo; Czimczik, Claudia; Sullivan, Patrick; Welker, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are experiencing temperature increases more strongly than the global average, and increases in precipitation are also expected amongst the climate impacts on this region in the future. These changes are expected to strongly influence plant physiology and soil biogeochemistry with subsequent implications for system carbon balance. We have investigated the effects of a long-term (10 years) increase in temperature, soil water and the combination of both on a tundra ecosystem at a field manipulation experiment in NW Greenland. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content and leaf isotopic composition, and leaf morphology were measured on Salix arctica plants in treatment and control plots in June-July 2011, and continuous measurements of net plant and soil fluxes of CO2 and water were made using automatic chambers coupled to a trace gas laser analyzer. Plants in the elevated temperature (T2) treatment had the highest photosynthetic capacity in terms of net CO2 assimilation rates and photosystem II efficiencies, and lowest rates of non-photochemical energy dissipation during photosynthesis. T2 plants also had the highest leaf N content, specific leaf area (SLA) and saturation light level of photosynthesis. It appears that warming increases soil N availability, which the plants direct towards increasing photosynthetic capacity and producing larger thinner leaves. On the other hand, the plants in the plots with both elevated temperatures and additional water (T2W) had the lowest photosystem II efficiencies and the highest rates of non-photochemical energy dissipation, due more to higher levels of constitutive energy dissipation than regulated thermal quenching. Watering, both in combination with higher temperatures and alone (W treatment), also reduced leaf SLA and leaf N relative to control plots. However, net photosynthetic rates remained similar to control plants, due in part to higher stomatal conductance (W) and

  3. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

  4. Prioritizing social and economic effects of sport places on Urban Environment (A case study: Yazd City)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Soltanhosseini; M.Salimi; M. Salimi; M. Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Extended Abstract1- IntroductionSport facilities and sport places as one of important land uses in urban environment can have positive and negative effects on their surroundings, of which the most important can be addressed to economic and social ones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify, assess and prioritize the social and economic effects of sport places on the urban environment. Based on these objectives, five typical sport places (Shahid Sadoughi, Shahid Paak Nejad, Shahid Na...

  5. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  6. An adjusted bed net coverage indicator with estimations for 23 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-12-20

    different populations than the level of bed net coverage by itself. Data from the following countries was used: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo Democratic Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The priority order given by the ABC and the bed net coverage are compared at the countries' level, the first level administrative divisions and for five different wealth quintiles. Both at national level and at the level of the administrative divisions the ABC suggests a different priority order for selecting countries and divisions for future interventions. When taking into account malaria endemicity, measures assessing equality in access to bed nets across wealth quintiles, such as slopes of inequality, are prone to change. This suggests that when assessing inequality in access to bed nets one should take into account the local malaria endemicity for populations from different wealth quintiles. Accounting for malaria endemicity highlights different countries, regions and socio-economic strata for future intervention than the bed net coverage by itself. Therefore, care should be taken to factor out any effects of local malaria endemicity in assessing bed net coverage and in prioritizing populations for further scale-up of bed net coverage. The ABC is proposed as a simple means to do this that is derived from an existing model of malaria epidemiology.

  7. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, James P; Edmonston, Barry

    1997-01-01

    ...?-- What are the overall effects of immigration on federal, state, and local government budgets?-- What effects will immigration have on the future size and makeup of the nation's population over the next 50 years...

  8. A safety-net antibiotic prescription for otitis media: the effects of a PBRN study on patients and practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert M; Bien, James; Lichtenstein, Philip; Davis, James; Khoury, Jane C; Knight, Jamie E; Kiely, Michele; Bernier, Jeralyn

    2006-07-01

    Pediatricians can decrease antibiotic use by treating acute otitis media (AOM) with a safety-net antibiotic prescription (SNAP). This study assessed whether the practitioners of the Practice-Based Research Network who participated in the study continued to use the SNAP and report a 60-day follow-up of the study patients. Charts were reviewed of study patients for 60 days following study enrollment. A survey on antibiotic use for AOM was mailed to the 17 study practitioners (SP) and 30 randomly selected community pediatricians (CP). Eight of the SP used the SNAP more than 20 times over the year following the study vs 1 of the CP. Sixty-two percent of patients never received antibiotics. The recurrence/relapse rate was greater in children younger than 2 years old compared to those older, 34% vs 10%. Practitioners who participate in a Practice-Based Research Network study are more likely to use a study intervention than others.

  9. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  10. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  11. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  12. ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTRODUCTION OF MODULAR TECHNOLOGY IN RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Bilous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the current state of the railway engineering industry in the world, the problems of its development prospects, especially the introduction of the modular process technology and economic impact of its introduction. Methodology. The research is based on statistical information from public sources, which is used to confirm the veracity of the thesis put forward about the feasibility of further implementation of the principle of modularity in the railway engineering sector. Data was also obtained from the websites of manufacturers of railway equipment. Also, in the study of the issue, analytical articles on the economic development of the sector of railway engineering in the world were used. Results of the research showed that today, in transport engineering industry, in particular – in the railway engineering, there is a problem of inefficient implementation and use of technological developments, which are used in the manufacture of railway rolling stock. Many technical solutions are duplicated, leading to more time and financial costs. At the same time, there is no free access to information about existing technical solutions, which significantly slows down the development of rail transport. One of the main solutions to the problem is the use of modular technology in the design and manufacture of rolling stock. Leading global manufacturers have already begun to use the modules in the production of their rolling stock, but the technology is not yet sufficiently developed and finds its realization only in reducing the costs of production of rolling stock by specific manufacturers. The full benefits of the new technology have not yet been obtained by producers and operators. Thus, there is a considerable margin for the implementation of modular technology in the production of railway vehicles, which will result in further reducing both production costs and the costs of maintenance, operation and repair of

  13. The health and economic effects of counterfeit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Erwin A; Fuhr, Joseph P; Pociask, Steve

    2014-06-01

    Counterfeit drugs comprise an increasing percentage of the US drug market and even a larger percentage in less developed countries. Counterfeit drugs involve both lifesaving and lifestyle drugs. To review the health and economic consequences of counterfeit drugs on the US public and on the healthcare system as a whole. This comprehensive review of the literature encompassed a search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, and ProQuest using the keywords "counterfeit drugs," "counterfeit medicines," "fake drugs," and "fake medicines." A search of the various FiercePharma daily newsletter series on the healthcare market was also conducted. In addition, the US Food and Drug Administration and the World Health Organization websites were reviewed for additional information. The issue of counterfeit drugs has been growing in importance in the United States, with the supply of these counterfeit drugs coming from all over the world. Innovation is important to economic growth and US competitiveness in the global marketplace, and intellectual property protections provide the ability for society to prosper from innovation. Especially important in terms of innovation in healthcare are the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries. In addition to taking income from consumers and drug companies, counterfeit drugs also pose health hazards to patients, including death. The case of bevacizumab (Avastin) is presented as one recent example. Internet pharmacies, which are often the source of counterfeit drugs, often falsely portray themselves as Canadian, to enhance their consumer acceptance. Adding to the problems are drug shortages, which facilitate access for counterfeits. A long and convoluted supply chain also facilitates counterfeits. In addition, the wholesale market involving numerous firms is a convenient target for counterfeit drugs. Trafficking in counterfeits can be extremely profitable; detection of counterfeits is difficult, and the penalties are modest. Counterfeit

  14. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sorathiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50% of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  15. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo®, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s.: a release-recapture assay in experimental huts

    OpenAIRE

    Djènontin, A; Ahoua Alou, LP; Koffi, A; Zogo, B; Duarte, E.; N'Guessan, R; Moiroux, N; Pennetier, C

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN), Olyset (R) Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER) and the insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen (PPF). An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset (R) Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of ho...

  16. Effect of socio-economic status on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Won Hee; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Gunha; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Byung Min

    2017-06-01

    Sufficient sleep is an important factor in physical and mental health. Sleep duration can be affected by socio-economic status (SES). This study aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and SES in Korean adolescents. This study was conducted with 1608 adolescents aged 12-18 years, based on data from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Sleep duration was self-reported in hours and three SES indicators were used: household income, basic livelihood security programmes and type of health insurance. Confounding factors in this study were age, mental health and physical activity. Participants' average age was 15.6 ± 0.05 years and average sleep duration was 7.04 ± 0.05 h. There was a strong association between sleep duration and household income (P sleep duration was significantly associated with age, body mass index (P sleep and long sleep (>9 h/night). We found similar results in both genders, that is, that the highest income group had shorter sleep duration than the lowest income group. This study shows that the SES, particularly household income, is an important factor in short sleep duration in Korean adolescents. Our findings suggest that, in future investigations of the adolescent's sleep problem, attention should be paid to household income. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-06-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  18. Improving models of democracy: the example of lagged effects of economic development, education, and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  20. Effect of Dietary Types on Feed Intakes, Growth Performance and Economic Benefit in Tibetan sheep and Yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during Cold Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianwei; Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Li; Liu, Hongjin; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-01-01

    Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment. Daily dry matter intake was determined; all animals were weighed at the beginning and every 15 days of the 135-day experiment. Then, the total live-weight gain, average daily live-weight gain, gain rate, feed efficiency and net economic benefit were calculated. Results indicated that feed and nutrient intakes (DMI, DMI/kg LW, DMI/kg LW0.75 and CPI) of TMR, OH and OS were higher than TG (P 0.05). Results indicated that TMR was a reasonable diet in promoting feed intakes, animal performance, feed efficiency and economic returns in domestic livestock, which should be considered by local herdsmen to increase their breeding profit during cold season.

  1. The effect of economic downturn on the volume of surgical procedures: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Nasa; Lark, Meghan E; Fujihara, Yuki; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-08-01

    Economic downturn can have a wide range of effects on medicine at both individual and national levels. We aim to describe these effects in relation to surgical volume to guide future planning for physician specialization, patient expectations in the face of economic crises, or estimating healthcare expenditure. We hypothesized that because of high out-of-pocket costs, cosmetic procedure volumes would be most affected by economic decline. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and ABI/INFORMS. The main search terms were "economic recession" and "surgical procedures, operative". Studies were included if surgical volumes were measured and economic indicators were used as predictors of economic conditions. Twelve studies were included, and the most common subject was cosmetic (n = 5), followed by orthopedic (n = 2) and cardiac surgeries (n = 2). The majority of studies found that in periods of economic downturn, surgical volume decreased. Among the eight studies using Pearson's correlation analysis, there were no significant differences between cosmetic procedures and other elective procedures, indicating that cosmetic procedures may display trends similar to those of non-cosmetic elective procedures in periods of economic downturn. Surgical volume generally decreased when economic indicators declined, observed for both elective and non-elective surgery fields. However, a few specific procedure volumes such as vasectomy and caesarean section for male babies increased during the economic downturn. Knowledge of these trends can be useful for future surgical planning and distribution of healthcare resources. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  3. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  4. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  5. Osteopathic manipulative treatment: A systematic review and critical appraisal of comparative effectiveness and health economics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Amie; Sundberg, Tobias; Reid, Rebecca; Ward, Lesley; Bishop, Felicity L; Leach, Matthew; Cramer, Holger; Wardle, Jon; Adams, Jon

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, evidence has emerged regarding the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatments (OMT). Despite growing evidence in this field, there is need for appropriate research designs that effectively reflect the person-centred system of care promoted in osteopathy and provide data which can inform policy decisions within the healthcare system. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesise the evidence from comparative effectiveness and economic evaluation research involving OMT. A database search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, PEDro, AMED, SCOPUS and OSTMED.DR, from their inception to May 2015. Two separate searches were undertaken to identify original research articles encompassing the economic evaluation and comparative effectiveness of OMT. Identified comparative effectives studies were evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and appraised using the Good Reporting of Comparative Effectiveness (GRACE) principles. Identified economic studies were assessed with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) guidelines. Sixteen studies reporting the findings of comparative effectiveness (n = 9) and economic evaluation (n = 7) research were included. The comparative effectiveness studies reported outcomes for varied health conditions and the majority (n = 6) demonstrated a high risk of bias. The economic evaluations included a range of analyses and considerable differences in the quality of reporting were evident. Despite some positive findings, published comparative effectiveness and health economic studies in OMT are of insufficient quality and quantity to inform policy and practice. High quality, well-designed, research that aligns with international best practice is greatly needed to build a pragmatic evidence base for OMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Filling the strategic petroleum reserve: its price and economic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.S.

    1980-03-01

    The estimated movements of the economic indicators under the 1989 target plan (with no OPEC retaliation) are small and could be considered almost negligible when viewed against the size of the economy and the error properties inherent in the macroeconomic model. Therefore, it cannot be firmly stated that a significant loss in real output and increases in inflation and unemployment occur in filling the Reserve. Accelerating the fill rate to meet the 1985 Target (without OPEC retaliation) could increase world oil prices from $0.90 to $1.00 above the base case of no Reserve buildup for the year 1980 to 1985. For the same period, this results in an estimated average decrease in real output of 0.6 percent per year below the baseline level for the United States, an increase in the inflation rate by an average of 0.3 percentage points per year, and an increase in the unemployment rate by an average of 0.2 percentage points per year above their baseline values. In the OPEC retaliation scenario, the world oil price is projected to rise immediately by 19.6 percent above its baseline level, and, by 1985, to be 6.1 percent above the baseline level for the 1989 Target, and 8.4 percent for the 1985 Target. The average loss in real output in the United States could be 0.8 percent below the baseline value for the year 1980 to 1985 for 1985 and 1989 Targets. The GNP deflator could be greater by an average of 0.8 percentage points, and the unemployment rate greater by an average of 0.5 percentage points per year when compared with their baseline values.

  7. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  8. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  9. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  10. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  11. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  12. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  13. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xu X; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-11-13

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens.

  14. Causes and Effects in Macroeconomics: 2011 Nobel Prize Lecture in Economic Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlair Abdulkhaleq Al-Zanganee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Noble Laureates Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims have been granted the 2011 Noble Prize in economic sciences in appreciation of their empirical research on causes and effects in macroeconomics. The controversy on causality in macroeconomics was discussed in both of Sargent’s and Sims’s 2011 Prize lectures. While Sargent attempts to use the economic theory to interpret some historical events in order to gain insights on some contemporary issues, such as sovereign defaults, federal bailouts, and the coordination of monetary and fiscal policies, Sims is emphasizing the importance of large-scale economic models and calling for more research to be done in that area.

  15. Effects of Special Use Airspace on Economic Benefits of Direct Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Barrington, Craig; Foster, John D. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of Special Use Airspace (SUA) on direct route flights is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on evaluating operating costs of aircraft and analyzing the different ground-track distances traveled by flights under different air traffic scenarios. Using this methodology the following objectives are evaluated: optimistic bias of studies that assume accessible SUAs the maximum economic benefit of dynamic use of SUAs and the marginal economic benefit of the dynamic use of individual SUAs.

  16. The Effect of Grandparents' Economic, Cultural and Social Capital on Grandchildren's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllegaard Pedersen, Stine; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren’s educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural and soc...... the academic track in upper secondary education over the vocational track or no education. These results suggest that, at least in the Scandinavian context, the ways in which grandparents affect grandchildren’s educational success is via transmission of non-economic resources....

  17. Effects of capital markets development on economic growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Artor Nuhiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this research paper we have tried to elaborate the issue whether capital market development is an alternative towards economic growth and economic prosperity of developing countries in general, the Western Balkan countries in particular. The focus of the paper is to study the effects of proper functioning of capital markets and their im-pact on increasing the level of savings, capital investments and in locating relevant resources for long-term financing of the economy. The research paper presents positive and negative arguments, linking the establishment and development of a capital market and its impact on economic development of developing countries, particularly Western Balkan countries.

  18. Intensive induction is effective in selected octogenarian acute myeloid leukemia patients: prognostic significance of karyotype and selected molecular markers used in the European LeukemiaNet classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Meir; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Dombret, Hervé; Döhner, Hartmut; Pilorge, Sylvain; Krug, Utz; Carroll, Andrew J; Larson, Richard A; Marcucci, Guido; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Büchner, Thomas; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2014-02-01

    We investigated whether octogenarian patients with acute myeloid leukemia enrolled onto Cooperative Group clinical trials and treated with intensive induction therapy could be cured, and whether karyotype and selected molecular markers had any prognostic significance in these patients. Among 138 patients with cytogenetic information, normal karyotype was the most common (47.1%) followed by complex karyotype (14.5%) and sole +8 (9.4%). Among these patients, the relapse-free survival rate at 1 year was 37% and 13% at 3 years, and the respective overall survival rates were 24% and 8%. Whereas the 90 patients who survived beyond 30 days had the same relapse-free survival rates, their 1-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 36% and 11%, respectively. Of the 66 patients surviving beyond 30 days who could be classified into European LeukemiaNet genetic groups, those in the intermediate-I group had better overall survival than patients in the adverse group (P=0.01). Among patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia who were tested for the European LeukemiaNet-associated molecular alterations, FLT3-internal tandem duplication and NPM1 mutations, it was found that FLT3-internal tandem duplication (detected in 29% of patients) did not associate with overall survival (P=0.31), whereas NPM1 mutations (30%) were associated with a significantly longer overall survival (P=0.002). We conclude that intensive induction is effective and indicated in selected octogenarians with acute myeloid leukemia, that their overall survival varies among the European LeukemiaNet genetic groups and that NPM1 mutations may be of prognostic significance among octogenarian patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.

  19. Divisia decomposition method and its application to changes of net oil import intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Liao; Zhao-Yi; Ce Wang

    2013-01-01

    The existing oil import dependence index cannot exactly measure the economic cost or scales, and it is difficult to describe the economical aspect of oil security. To measure the foreign dependence of one country's economy and reflect its oil economic security, this paper defines the net oil import intensity as the ratio of net import cost to GDP. By using Divisia Index Decomposition, the change of net oil import intensity in five industrialized countries and five newly industrialized countri...

  20. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households' existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Rudy K; Lynch, Matt; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Kate

    2013-06-14

    Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. Where pre-campaign coverage

  1. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  2. Effect of shading nets on the production and quality of blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcelo Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth, development and fruit quality blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. variety Brigitta under different shade nets were evaluated. Assays were performed in plants 7 years in a commercial orchard Collipulli, Araucanía Region, Chile. Treatments were a control without shading and four types of screens: a red 40% and 18% shade; aluminized mesh with 40% shade and a black mesh 35% shade. In fruits shade of red mesh 40% greater equatorial and polar diameter were observed and three weeks later harvested the fruits of treatment without mesh. In growing shade 40% aluminized mesh phenological stages extension lag and the maximum weekly production two weeks over control was observed. The highest yields were observed in plants of treatment and control shade of red mesh 40%, with 11008 kg ha-1 and 10461 kg ha-1, respectively, while the lowest was in red mesh 18% with 9668 kg ha-1. The fruits grown under shade of red mesh 18% showed the highest number of fruits per plant with 1806 berries per plant, fruit weight less than 1.69 g with the strongest with 3.76 N mm-1 module deformability. Therefore, the largest weight berry fruits observed in non-mesh screen and 40% red shading, together with the increased size and performance.

  3. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT QUALITY PELLETED FEEDS ON THE GROWTH OF GREEN CATFISH (Hemibagrus nemurus IN FLOATING NET CAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningrum Suhenda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the different protein content of fish feed on the growth performance of green catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus. Two thousand fingerlings averaging 3.92±0.32 g of individual body weight were stocked in each floating net cage (3 m x 3 m x 3 m in Musi River, South Sumatra. They were fed daily for four months with feed protein content of 27% and 31%. The feed was given in pelleted form at 4%-8% of the total body weight. The result showed that the feed with 31% protein content gave better performance and significant different (P<0.05 than 27% protein feed. The feed content 31% protein was optimum for green catfish fingerlings and gave higher average individual weight gain (80.48 g, specific growth rate (2.67%, fat retention (29.48% and better feed conversion ratio (2.28. Survival rates were the same for 2 treatments and ranged between 94.17%-95.18%.

  4. 2012 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  5. The Economics of the Drug War: Effective Federal Policy of Missed Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    FamilyWatch, Efficacy, ReconsiDer Forum of Drug Policy, Multi-Disciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, and finally, the National...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS THE ECONOMICS OF THE DRUG WAR: EFFECTIVE FEDERAL POLICY OR MISSED OPPORTUNITY? by...ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2002 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: The Economics of the Drug

  6. 2013 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors form across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  7. The Effect of Fertility Reduction on Economic Growth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Quamrul H.; Weil, David N.; Wilde, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We assess quantitatively the effect of exogenous reductions in fertility on output per capita. Our simulation model allows for effects that run through schooling, the size and age structure of the population, capital accumulation, parental time input into child-rearing, and crowding of fixed natural resources. The model is parameterized using a combination of microeconomic estimates, data on demographics and natural resource income in developing countries, and standard components of quantitative macroeconomic theory. We apply the model to examine the effect of a change in fertility from the UN medium-variant to the UN low-variant projection, using Nigerian vital rates as a baseline. For a base case set of parameters, we find that such a change would raise output per capita by 5.6 percent at a horizon of 20 years, and by 11.9 percent at a horizon of 50 years. PMID:25525283

  8. The Effect of Fertility Reduction on Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Quamrul H; Weil, David N; Wilde, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    We assess quantitatively the effect of exogenous reductions in fertility on output per capita. Our simulation model allows for effects that run through schooling, the size and age structure of the population, capital accumulation, parental time input into child-rearing, and crowding of fixed natural resources. The model is parameterized using a combination of microeconomic estimates, data on demographics and natural resource income in developing countries, and standard components of quantitative macroeconomic theory. We apply the model to examine the effect of a change in fertility from the UN medium-variant to the UN low-variant projection, using Nigerian vital rates as a baseline. For a base case set of parameters, we find that such a change would raise output per capita by 5.6 percent at a horizon of 20 years, and by 11.9 percent at a horizon of 50 years.

  9. A new variant of Petri net controlled grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2015-10-01

    A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.

  10. MANAGING ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF MARKETING IN TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Bulkot

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The purpose of the study is a generalization of international experience with regard to marketing efficiency control and development of qualitative and quantitative methods to be implemented in the estimation of marketing activity of TNCs. Methodology. The survey is based on research, conducted for 60 companies in the spring of 2015 (32% of which were Ukrainian and 68% – offices and affiliates of international companies, namely Bayer, Coca-Cola, Pepsi Co, Mondelez, Mars, Mintel, Cargill, and many others. The practical results of monitoring the effectiveness of annual plans of named companies done by authors through implementing original author’ methodology based on presenting key performance indicators (KPI. Results. The theoretical approaches to the estimation of marketing efficiency are analysed. The conditions, under which the organization is working by analysing external environment and internal company’s potential, are determined. It is substantiated by the authors that direct development of marketing plans should be based on marketing objectives, developed as a result of the situational analysis. It is proved that monitoring the effectiveness of annual plans may be done by implementing key performance indicators that enable to develop quantitative evaluation system of the organization’s strategy, based on control of its goals. The results of the research allowed authors to distinguish two major groups of effectiveness indicators for TNCs, which are financial and marketing indicators. In this standpoint, financial indicators are divided into costs’, productivity and profitability indicators and to the marketing effectiveness indicators belong market indexes, competitiveness indexes, and client’s indicators. Practical implications. The proposed methodology can be implemented for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of marketing effectiveness not only in TNCs but in small and medium business companies as well

  11. The economic effects of pre-school education and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cattan, Sarah; Crawford, Claire; Dearden, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The Effective Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education (EPPSE) project is the first large-scale British study on the effects of different pre-school experiences on children's outcomes. It enables researchers to look at the impact of both pre-school education and pre-school quality not only on short-term education outcomes, but also on long-term education and possible future labour market outcomes for a cohort of individuals who did not have access to universal pre-school education. It is t...

  12. The effect of economic change and elite framing on support for welfare state retrenchment: a survey experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, P.; Schumacher, G.

    2016-01-01

    How do economic downturns affect citizens’ support for welfare state retrenchment? Existing observational studies fail to isolate the effect of economic conditions and the effect of elite framing of these conditions. We therefore designed a survey experiment to evaluate how economic change in

  13. Effects Of Socio-Economic Characteristics Of Farmers On Savings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined savings mobilization and its effects on agricultural production in Mubi Region, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Primary data were obtained from sample of 241 farmers using questionnaire. Secondary data was also used in the study. Findings of the study revealed that 67.2% of the farmers have ages between ...

  14. Another frame, another game? : Explaining framing effects in economic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, B.; Hopfensitz, A.; Lori, E.

    2016-01-01

    Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate

  15. The Economic Effects of a Russia-EU FTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Manchin (Miriam)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the effects of Russia joining the WTO taking into account energy sector reform and the impact of a future Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the enlarged EU and Russia. The paper uses Computable General Equilibrium Modelling techniques for quantifying the different

  16. Effect of slaughter weight on characteristics and economics of pig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate the effect of slaughter weight on carcass characteristics of pigs was conducted using twenty four Landrace X Large White crossbred pigs. Twelve castrates and twelve gilts with average initial weight of 35 ± 4.4 kg were randomly assigned to three targeted slaughter weights. Pigs were slaughtered at live ...

  17. Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study adopted ex-post facto research design, the sample for the study comprised of 95 participants. The instrument used to gather primary information was tagged Students Academic Achievement Scale (SAAS) r=0.78. Significant effect of financial status of parents was found on academic achievement of female ...

  18. Effect of site characteristics on the productivity and economic returns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Stylosanthes at three locations with different soil and environmental conditions, to determine the effect of site ... system of management in one environment with a particular set of climate and soil conditions may not necessarily be suitable in another environment.

  19. The Effect of Information Technology on Economic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    The author evaluated the effect on student performance of using a new information technology (IT) enhancement that permits students to participate in the recording of lectures that can be downloaded later from the Internet. The author compared two sections of the same Intermediate Microeconomics class and observed the sample students to be…

  20. System dynamics modelling and simulating the effects of intellectual capital on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Milić Beran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics modelling is one of the best scientific methods for modelling complex, nonlinear natural, economic and technical system dynamics as it enables both monitoring and assessment of the effects of intellectual capital on economic growth. Intellectual capital is defined as “the ability to transform knowledge and intangible assets into resources to create wealth for a company and a country.” Transformation of knowledge is crucial. Knowledge increases a country’s wealth only if its importance is recognized and applied differently from existing work practices. The aim of this paper is to show the efficiency of modelling system dynamics and simulating the effects of intellectual capital on economic growth. A computer simulation provided a mathematical model, providing practical insight into the dynamic behavior of the observed system, i.e. the analysis of economic growth and observation of mutual correlation between individual parameters. The results of the simulation are presented in graphical form. The dynamic model of the effects of intellectual capital on Croatia’s economic growth has been verified by comparing simulation results with existing data on economic growth.

  1. 2016 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.

  2. 2015 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.

  3. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING ON TOURISM DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Gabriel Brida; Stefan Franz Schubert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a dynamic model to study the macroeconomic effects of advertising activities in tourism. The agents of the model are a representative consumer which optimize their intertemporal welfare, a representative firm that produces tourism services, an authority which organizes tourism advertising abroad and foreigner tourists. We show that in the short run, an increase in marketing expenditures raises foreigner's tourism demand, leads to an increase in the relative price of...

  4. Accounting for the effects of a ruminal nitrogen deficiency within the structure of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, L O; Fox, D G; Russell, J B

    2000-06-01

    The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) prediction of fiber digestion and microbial mass production from ruminally degraded carbohydrate has been adjusted to accommodate a ruminal N deficiency. The steps for the adjustment are as follows: 1) the ruminal available peptide and ammonia pools are used to determine the N allowable microbial growth; 2) this value is subtracted from the energy allowable microbial growth to obtain the reduction in microbial mass; 3) this mass reduction is allocated between pools of bacteria digesting fiber (FC) and nonfiber (NFC) carbohydrate according to their original proportions in the energy allowable microbial growth; 4) the reduction in fermented FC is computed as the FC bacterial mass reduction divided by its yield (g bacteria/g FC digested); and 5) this reduction is added to the FC fraction escaping the rumen. Five published studies included information that allowed us to evaluate the response of animals to added dietary N. These evaluations compared observed and CNCPS-predicted ADG with and without this adjustment. The adjustment decreased the CNCPS overprediction of ADG from 19.2 to 4.7%, mean bias declined from .16 to .04 kg/d, and the r2 of the regression between observed and metabolizable energy (ME) or metabolizable protein allowable ADG was increased from .83 to .88 with the adjustment. When the observed dry matter intake was regressed against CNCPS-predicted DMI with an adjustment for reduction in cell wall digestibility, the r2 was increased from .77 to .88. These results indicated the adjustment for ruminal nitrogen deficiency increased the accuracy of the CNCPS model in evaluating diets of growing animals when ruminally degraded N is deficient.

  5. Immediate and delayed effects of gill-net capture on acid-base balance and intramuscular lactate concentration of gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Lorenz H; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2012-06-01

    Many sharks are captured as untargeted by-catch during commercial fishing operations and are subsequently discarded. A reliable assessment of the proportion of discarded sharks that die post-release as a result of excessive physiological stress is important for fisheries management and conservation purposes, but a reliable physiological predictor of post-release mortality has not been identified. To investigate effects of gill-net capture on the acid-base balance of sharks, we exposed gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus, to 60 min of gill-net capture in a controlled setting, and obtained multiple blood and muscle tissue samples during a 72-h recovery period following the capture event. Overall mortality of gummy sharks was low (9%). Blood pH was significantly depressed immediately after the capture event due to a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Maximum concentrations of plasma lactate (9.9 ± 1.5 mmol L(-1)) were measured 3h after the capture event. Maximum intramuscular lactate concentrations (37.0 ± 4.6 μmol g(-1)) were measured immediately after the capture event, and intramuscular lactate concentrations were substantially higher than plasma lactate concentrations at all times. Sharks in poor condition had low blood pH and high intramuscular lactate concentration, but blood pH does not appear to be a reliable predictor of survival. Suitability of intramuscular lactate concentration as predictor of delayed mortality deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  7. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results.

  8. The Non-Linear Effect of Corporate Taxes on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huňady Ján

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of taxation and its potential impact on economic growth and presents some new empirical insights into this topic. The main aim of the paper is to verify an assumed nonlinear impact of corporate tax rates on economic growth. Based on the theory of public finance and taxation, we hypothesize that at relatively low tax rates it is possible that the impact of taxation on economic growth become slightly positive. On the other hand when the tax rates are higher a negative impact of taxation on economic growth could be expected. Despite the fact that the most of the existing studies find a negative linear relationship between these variables, we can also find strong support for a non-linear relationship from several theoretical models as well as some empirical studies. Based on panel data fixed-effects econometric models, we, as well, find empirical evidence for a non-linear relationship between nominal and effective corporate tax rates and economic growth. Our data consists of annual observations for the period 1999 to 2011 for EU Member States. Based on the results, we also estimated the optimal level of the corporate tax rate in terms of maximizing economic growth in the average of the EU countries.

  9. The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment in Economic Growth from the Perspective of Nonlinear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. K. Volos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized economy one of the most crucial factors for the economic growth of a country, especially of a developing country, is the foreign direct investment, not only because of the transfer of capital but also of technology. In this work, the effect of foreign direct investments in a county’s economic growth by using tools of nonlinear dynamics is studied. As a model of the economic growth of a country, a well-known nonlinear discrete-time dynamical system, the Logistic map, is used. The system under study consists of two countries with a strong economic relationship. The source country of foreign direct investments is an industrialized, economically powerful and technologically advanced country that makes significant investments in the host country, which is a developing country and strong dependent from the source country. Simulation results of system’s behavior and especially the bifurcation diagrams reveal the strong connection between the countries of the proposed system and the effect of foreign direct investments in the economic growth of the host country.

  10. A Survey of Residents' Perceptions of the Effect of Large-Scale Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Anthony; Geller, Ruth; Bazaco, Michael; Bear, Todd M; Foulds, Abigail L; Duell, Jessica; Sharma, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents' perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  11. Freeze-out conditions from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Paolo; Alberico, Wanda [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bellwied, Rene [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Bluhm, Marcus [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Mantovani Sarti, Valentina [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Nahrgang, Marlene [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ratti, Claudia [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-11-10

    We calculate ratios of higher-order susceptibilities quantifying fluctuations in the number of net-protons and in the net-electric charge using the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. We take into account the effect of resonance decays, the kinematic acceptance cuts in rapidity, pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum used in the experimental analysis, as well as a randomization of the isospin of nucleons in the hadronic phase. By comparing these results to the latest experimental data from the STAR Collaboration, we determine the freeze-out conditions from net-electric charge and net-proton distributions and discuss their consistency.

  12. Indirect economic effects of new infrastructure : A comparison of Dutch high speed rail variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.; Romp, W.

    2003-01-01

    New transport infrastructure has a myriad of direct and indirect effects. The indirect effects on population and economic activity are most difficult to estimate. This paper introduces three different models to estimate the impacts of new infrastructure on labour supply and demand, and carefully

  13. Women's Labour Market Position and Divorce in the Netherlands : Evaluating Economic Interpretations of the Work Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.; Kalmijn, M.

    2002-01-01

    This article studies the influence of women's work on the risk of divorce, using data from the Netherlands. We examine economic interpretations of the work effect by disentangling the work effect into five dimensions: (a) the intensity of wife's work, (b) the status of wife's work, (c) potential

  14. Women's labour market position and divorce in the Netherlands: evaluating economic interpretations of the work effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.R.; Kalmijn, M.

    2002-01-01

    This article studies the influence of women's work on the risk of divorce, using data from the Netherlands. We examine economic interpretations of the work effect by disentangling the work effect into five dimensions: (a) the intensity of wife's work, (b) the status of wife's work, (c) potential

  15. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Economic effect of smoke-free ordinances on 11 Missouri cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, Noaman; Cowan, Stanley R; Homan, Sherri G; Wilson, Janet; Warren, Victoria Fehrmann; Yun, Shumei

    2012-01-01

    The harmful effects of secondhand smoke are convincing more and more communities across the United States and the world to prohibit smoking in public places, especially in eating and drinking establishments. A 1993 Missouri state law allows smoking in designated areas in indoor public places such as restaurants and bars. Consequently, some Missouri communities have adopted local ordinances that prohibit smoking in all indoor workplaces, including restaurants and bars. We used an objective measure of economic activity, the taxable sales revenues of eating and drinking establishments, to empirically examine the economic effect of smoke-free ordinances. We studied the economic effect of smoke-free ordinances in 11 Missouri cities using multivariate log-linear regression models with log-transformed taxable sales revenues of eating and drinking establishments as the dependent variable and the smoke-free ordinance as the independent variable, while controlling for seasonality, economic condition and unemployment. We used data from 20 quarters before the smoke-free ordinances and at least 10 quarters after the smoke-free ordinances for all cities. The null hypothesis of no effect of smoke-free ordinance on taxable sales of the eating and drinking establishments was tested. Eight of the 11 cities had increased taxable sales for eating and drinking establishments postordinance. The remaining 3 experienced no change. The findings of our study are consistent with findings from most published economic studies that a smoke-free ordinance does not harm a local economy.

  17. Economic effects of recent immigration on American workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreitas, G

    1988-01-01

    DeFreitas examines the principal positions which have emerged among economists about immigration's impact, and reports results of his empirical analysis of the wage and employment effects of both recent undocumented aliens and settled migrants on native-born workers. A large 1980 census microdata bank is used to permit separate estimates for men and women, subdivided by race and Spanish origin. The sample used includes male and female respondents, ages 16-64, in the 79 largest metropolitan areas in the country. To test the segmented labor market model, the author acquired the detailed industrial/occupational matrix developed by Gerald Oster and David Gordon and applied it to the 1980 census microdata. A multivariate regression procedure was used to evaluate immigrant influence on employment and wage levels. The study shows that migrant workers today are disproportionately concentrated in low-wage jobs in distinct industries. Contrary to common belief, recent immigrants do not typically constitute a high-turnover labor pool with unemployment above that of similar natives. Results indicate that increased migration does not significantly affect the employment or wages of native-born Hispanics. Recent undocumented migration does reduce black men's employment and black women's wages; larger concentrations of settled immigrants are associated with lower Anglo wages, but the estimated magnitudes of these effects are not large. Empirical analysis raises questions about the direct applicability to modern immigration of the coreperiphery segmentation scheme used in the dual labor market literature. Nevertheless, the findings appear to be far less consistent with theories emphasizing migrant-native suitability over complementarity. Employment and training programs that provide upward mobility for natives, coupled with stepped-up unionization efforts among both the native and migrant unskilled seem more promising ameliorative measures than present policies focused on

  18. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  19. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  20. Economic importance of ticks and their effective control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haranahalli Vasanthachar Manjunathachar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of livestock in improvement of a country ’s economy is inevitable. Livestock contributes a lion ’s share in agricultural sector of developing countries. Several developing countries have adopted the use of exotic germplasm to improve the productivity of their native breeds, which has brought down the disease resistance. Among various problems hindering the growth and productivity of livestock, parasite related problem plays a major role. Tick and tick borne diseases are prevalent in 80% of the cattle population around the globe. They cause various worries to the farmers by transmitting major disease causing pathogens and jeopardize animal health leading to poor production. Ticks transmit various pathogenic agents like virus, bacteria, protozoa and other parasites as well. Many of them are dangerous for the livestock health and some are also zoonotic hence, need to be checked at the initial stages. Control of ticks is the major concern in the present situation as the use of anti-parasitic drugs has led to the current trend of resistance development. Search for an effective alternative method has begun; vaccination will be a better alternative and promising tool for protecting livestock from the tick infestations and thereby tick borne diseases.

  1. Making NEPA more effective and economical for the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HANSEN,ROGER P.; WOLFF,THEODORE A.

    2000-03-08

    This paper focuses on a ten-element strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act's objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. In other words, this paper proposes a strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less. How these ten elements are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining. The strategy elements discussed in this paper, in no particular order of priority, are as follows: (1) integrate the NEPA process with other environmental compliance and review procedures; (2) accelerate the decision time for determining the appropriate level of NEPA documentation; (3) conduct early and thorough internal EIS (or EA) scoping before public scoping or other public participation begins; (4) organize and implement public scoping processes that are more participatory than confrontational; (5) maintain an up-to-date compendium of environmental baseline information; (6) prepare more comprehensive, broad-scope umbrella EISs that can be used effectively for tiering; (7) encourage preparation of annotated outlines with detailed guidance that serve as a road map for preparation of each EIS or EA; (8) decrease the length and complexity of highly technical portions of NEPA documents; (9) increase and systematize NEPA compliance outreach, training, and organizational support; and (10) work diligently to influence the preparation of better organized, shorter, and more readable NEPA documents.

  2. Comparing relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Elsie R; Fuchs, Regina; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Research on the social determinants of health has often considered education and economic resources as separate indicators of socioeconomic status. From a policy perspective, however, it is important to understand the relative strength of the effect of these social factors on health outcomes, particularly in developing countries. It is also important to examine not only the impact of education and economic resources of individuals, but also whether community and country levels of these factors affect health outcomes. This analysis uses multilevel regression models to assess the relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality at the family, community, and country level using data from demographic and Health Surveys in 43 low-and lower-middle-income countries. We find strong effects for both per capita gross national income and completed secondary education at the country level, but a greater impact of education within families and communities.

  3. Boosting beauty in an economic decline: mating, spending, and the lipstick effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Rodeheffer, Christopher D; Griskevicius, Vladas; Durante, Kristina; White, Andrew Edward

    2012-08-01

    Although consumer spending typically declines in economic recessions, some observers have noted that recessions appear to increase women's spending on beauty products--the so-called lipstick effect. Using both historical spending data and rigorous experiments, the authors examine how and why economic recessions influence women's consumer behavior. Findings revealed that recessionary cues--whether naturally occurring or experimentally primed--decreased desire for most products (e.g., electronics, household items). However, these cues consistently increased women's desire for products that increase attractiveness to mates--the first experimental demonstration of the lipstick effect. Additional studies show that this effect is driven by women's desire to attract mates with resources and depends on the perceived mate attraction function served by these products. In addition to showing how and why economic recessions influence women's desire for beauty products, this research provides novel insights into women's mating psychology, consumer behavior, and the relationship between the two.

  4. The economic implications of bush encroachment and bush control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Income (11, 76%) and cost (15, 86%) are adapted annually for 20 years and discounted for the same period to net present value at a rate of 12%. A computer model was developed to estimate the economically viable treatment cost for bush control at different bush densities and different effective treatment lifespans.

  5. A model of the health and economic impact of posttransfusion hepatitis C: application to cost-effectiveness analysis of further expansion of HCV screening protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A; Sanz, C

    2000-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to decide the value of further expansion of the screening protocols for HCV in blood donors. However, such analyses are hampered by imperfect knowledge of the health and economic repercussions of posttransfusion hepatitis C (PTHC). A Monte Carlo simulation of a Markov model representing the outcomes of patients transfused with HCV-infective blood was used to estimate the health and economic impact of PTHC and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of various HCV screening methods. Median survival for hypothetical patients with PTHC and for controls without hepatitis was 11.25 and 11.75 years, respectively. Overall, 12.3 percent of patients receiving HCV-infective blood will develop chronic hepatitis, 9.3 percent will progress to liver failure, and 9. 25 percent will eventually die of liver disease after a median time of 20.75 years (range, 6-70). Ninety-one percent of the infected blood recipients had no reduction in life expectancy due to PTHC, and the average loss per patient was 0.754 years. The present value of the lifetime health costs incurred by patients with PTHC is $6330 per case. HCV antibody testing increases the patients' life expectancy by 20.4 hours per blood collection tested, and it results in net savings by decreasing the number of patients that will require treatment for liver disease in the future. Adding HCV NAT increases the patients' life expectancy by 0.08 hours per blood collection tested, at a cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,829,611 per QALY gained. PTHC has low health benefits because of the advanced age of many blood recipients. Testing donors for HCV antibodies results in net savings for the health care system, despite low health benefits. Adding HCV NAT would produce little additional gain at a very high cost.

  6. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by subsidiary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of...

  7. Effects of South Africa’s Economic Growth on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Sik Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Major countries, such as the United States, Japan, and China have already recognized the potential of Africa’s markets. Korea has also taken notice of Africa's diverse export markets recently. However, Africa is comprised of 53 different countries and, as a result, entry into the region poses a formidable strategic challenge. Korean authorities and export groups have suggested a "3 plus 2 Country Strategy" in order to make inroads into the African region. This paper contributes to discussions of this strategy by comparing the effects of economic growth in South Africa and Nigeria on Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, because economic power in Africa is concentrated in a small number of countries, whose market characteristics are different from those of integrated unions, the determinants of economic growth in Africa as a whole and unions may be different. This paper investigates whether or not this is, in fact, the case. The empirical results can be summarized as follows: First, the effects of South Africa's economic growth on Sub-Saharan Africa and the SADC (a representative union of South Africa are much larger than the effects of Nigeria's growth on Sub-Saharan Africa and the ECOWAS (a representative union of Nigeria. These empirical results imply that the preferred country to pursue economic cooperation with is South Africa. Second, we confirm that determinants of economic growth are different for Africa and the unions. The main determinant of growth in African countries may be the population ratio, but in the SADC, growth appears to be determined by ratio trade volumes of GDP. Finally, we also find that the ratio investments of GDP have a positive influence on the economic growth of both Africa and SADC.

  8. The Effect of Openness on Economic Growth for BRIC-T Countries: Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of trade openness on economic growth was searched for the most rapidly developing countries (emerging markets; Brazil, Russia, India, China and Turkey, BRIC-T via panel data analysis by using the annual data of the period from 1989 to 2010. As trade openness variable, the rate of external trade (Export+ Import to GDP was used. According to empirical evidence derived from the study made with panel data analysis it was found that the effect of openness on economic growth was positive, and statistically significant in line with theoretical expectations.

  9. The Effects of 1929 Economic Depression and 2008 Global Crisis on Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat IŞIK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; effects of 1929 Economic Depression and 2008 Global Crisis on Turkey’s economy is studied with the help of selected indicators. Turkey, which had an agriculture oriented economy during 1929 Depression, experienced a deflationist process caused by fallings at agricultural product prices; shrank in the economy and widely decreases at foreign trade volume. 2008 Global Crisis effected Turkish economy negatively in terms of multiple economic variables such as huge depreciations in the stock market, shrinkages in foreign trade volume, degradations in real sector and consumer confidence indexes etc.

  10. Effective management models and methods of economic educations in regional industrial complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Butrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the methodical bases of management by the integrated industrial enterprises is developed according to the indicators of sustainable economic development of the region. The scope of the research is the region as the difficult mesosystem consisting of logistic clusters. The subject matter of the research is the organizational and economic relations developing in the course of interaction of participants of the regional economy as mesosystems. The models and methods of management by the large economic systems in the economy of the industrially developed region are developed; the organizational and economic essence of a logistic cluster as the subject of the regional economy us revealed. The mechanism of management by the integrated enterprises with using the cluster approach, technologies of logistics, management of supply chains is offered. They allow to the management of an enterprises to make scientifically reasonable effective decisions developing programs of supply, economic production and realization of finished goods in the close connection with programs of regional economic development.

  11. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  12. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  14. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  16. Mothership Cost Earnings Data - Economic Data Collection for Monitoring the Economic Effects of the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Rationalization Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project was initiated in response to regulation 50 CFR 660.114, which mandates that economic data be collected from every participant in the trawl...

  17. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 1. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials. Methods Nine separate focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out in Dili, Manatuto, and Covalima districts, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, in July 2010. These focus groups primarily explored themes of perceived malaria risk, causes of malaria, net usage patterns within families, barriers to correct and consistent usage, and the daily experience of users (both male and female in households with at least one net. Comprehensive qualitative analysis utilized open source analysis software. Results The primary determinants of net usage were a widespread perception that nets could or should only be used by pregnant women and young children, and the availability of sufficient sleeping space under a limited number of nets within households. Both nuisance biting and disease prevention were commonly cited as primary motivations for usage, while seasonality was not a significant factor. Long-term net durability and ease of hanging were seen as key attributes in net design preference. Very frequent washing cycles were common, potentially degrading net effectiveness. Finally, extensive re-purposing of nets (fishing, protecting crops was both reported and observed, and may

  18. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lover, Andrew A; Sutton, Brett A; Asy, Angelina J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2011-07-21

    The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 1. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC) programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials. Nine separate focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out in Dili, Manatuto, and Covalima districts, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, in July 2010.These focus groups primarily explored themes of perceived malaria risk, causes of malaria, net usage patterns within families, barriers to correct and consistent usage, and the daily experience of users (both male and female) in households with at least one net. Comprehensive qualitative analysis utilized open source analysis software. The primary determinants of net usage were a widespread perception that nets could or should only be used by pregnant women and young children, and the availability of sufficient sleeping space under a limited number of nets within households. Both nuisance biting and disease prevention were commonly cited as primary motivations for usage, while seasonality was not a significant factor. Long-term net durability and ease of hanging were seen as key attributes in net design preference. Very frequent washing cycles were common, potentially degrading net effectiveness. Finally, extensive re-purposing of nets (fishing, protecting crops) was both reported and observed, and may significantly decrease availability of nighttime sleeping

  19. THE EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMICAL CRISIS ON THE STATE’S BUDGET AND BUDGETS OF REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES OF ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget represents a document which states the annually approved incomes, revenues and expenses, expenditures or, only the expenses depending on the self-financing form of the economical enterprise. The consolidated budget of the state is elaborated starting from the budget which encompasses all the economical transactions which take place in the national economy; however it only includes the resources and the expenses of the public structures.

  20. The Effects of the Recent Economic Crisis on Social Protection and Labour Market Arrangements across Socio-Economic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, Gaetano; Dolls, Matthias; Eichhorst, Werner; Leoni, Thomas; Peichl, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The Great Recession did not only affect European countries to a varying extent, its impact on national labour markets and on specific socio-economic groups in those markets also varied greatly. Institutional arrangements such as employment protection, unemployment insurance benefits and minimum income support, working time flexibility and wage setting played a crucial role in determining to what extent the economic crisis led to higher unemployment, wage cuts or income losses and rising pover...