WorldWideScience

Sample records for net economic benefit

  1. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  2. Quantifying the net economic benefits of mechanical wildfire hazard treatments on timberlands of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; James R. Barbour

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical treatment of vegetation is done on public and private lands for many possible reasons, including enhancing wildlife habitat, increasing timber growth of residual stands, and improving resistance to damaging pests. Few studies, however, have focused on the circumstances under which mechanical wildfire hazard reduction treatments can yield positive net...

  3. VALUASI EKONOMI KEHILANGAN MANFAAT BERSIH AKIBAT BIAYA KESEHATAN PENGGUNAAN PESTISIDA KIMIA (Economic Valuation of Net Benefit Loss Due to Health Cost of Chemical Pesticides Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mengingat pestisida merupakan bahan beracun, maka penggunaannya juga menimbulkan  risiko kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengestimasi bsarnya kehilangan manfaat bersih akibat adanya eksternalitas yang diakibatkan oleh penggunaan pestisda kimia. Manfaat yang hilang ditentukan menghitung selisih antara manfaat bersihmaksimum dihitung dengan menggunakan konsep yang mendalilkan bahwa manfaat bersih marjinal sama dengan biaya eksternal marjinal. Manfaat bersih marjinal diturunkan dari fungsi produksi, sedangkan biaya eksternal marjinal diperoleh dari fungsi biaya kesehatan yang telah diestimasi oleh peneliti sebelumnya. Studi ini menggunakan data nasional produksi padi mulai tahun 1974 sampai dengan 2000. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa kehilangan manfaat bersih akibat biaya kesehatan karena penggunaan pestisida sangat tinggi. Kehilangan manfaat bersih yang sangat tinggi ini terjadi karena elastisitas produksi dari pestisida terhadap padi sangat kecil.   ABSTRACT Since pesticide is a poisonous agent, its use also causes health risk. The objective of this study is to estimate the value of net benefit loss associated with chemical pestiside uses. The net benefit loss is determined by finding the difference between actual value of net benefit and maximum value of net benefit of pesticides use. The maximum value of net benefit can be obtained by employing the concept postulating that the net benefit is occurred when the marginal net benefit is aqual to marginal external cost. The marginal net benefit is derived from estimated production function of rice, whereas the marginal external cost is obtained by adopting health cost function of pesticides use that has been estimated by previous researchers. The study utilized the national data of rice production and agro-chemical input use during from 1974 to 2000. The results of the study show that there are extremely high net benefit losses associated with health costs of pesticides use. It is

  4. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit......) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk...... reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple...

  5. Anticipating the Economic Benefits of Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this general overview article intended for non-experts, I define blockchain technology and some of the key concepts, and then I elaborate four specific applications that highlight the potential economic benefits of digital ledgers. These applications are digital asset registries, blockchains as leapfrog technology for global financial inclusion, long-tail personalized economic services, and net settlement payment channels. I also highlight key challenges that offset the potential economic benefits of blockchain distributed ledgers, while arguing that the benefits would outweigh the potential risks. The overarching theme is that an increasing amount of everyday operations involving money, assets, and documents could start to be conducted via blockchain-based distributed network ledgers with cryptographic security, and at more granular levels of detail. One economic implication of widespread blockchain adoption is that the institutional structure of society could shift to one that is computationally-based and thus has a diminished need for human-operated brick-and-mortar institutions.

  6. Modelling major projects: What are the factors that determine net social benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    James A Giesecke; Madden, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Economic impact statements are part and parcel of project proponents seeking government assistance, infrastructure, or environmental clearance. Such impact assessments are increasingly being conducted with computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. Frequently, however, CGE modellers do not report results in economic welfare terms nor give sufficient attention to the proper simulation requirements for determining net social benefits correctly. In this paper we take the example of a major min...

  7. The Economic Benefits of Advanced Product Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kordell, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    The benefits of computer-aided design (CAD) are widely accepted for new designs. What, however, are the economic benefits of converting drawings to CAD models for military mechanical spare parts procurement and production...

  8. Agent-based computational economics using NetLogo

    CERN Document Server

    Damaceanu, Romulus-Catalin

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based Computational Economics using NetLogo explores how researchers can create, use and implement multi-agent computational models in Economics by using NetLogo software platform. Problems of economic science can be solved using multi-agent modelling (MAM). This technique uses a computer model to simulate the actions and interactions of autonomous entities in a network, in order to analyze the effects on the entire economic system. MAM combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence and evolutionary programming. The Monte Carlo method is also used in this e-book to introduc

  9. Quantifying economic benefits for rail infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This project identifies metrics for measuring the benefit of rail infrastructure projects for key : stakeholders. It is important that stakeholders with an interest in community economic development play an active : role in the development of the rai...

  10. Affirmative Action: Overcoming Disparities Yields Economic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Affirmative action is a necessary and effective strategy to end racial and gender inequalities. While moral and historical defenses of affirmative action have merit, economic reasoning is a more potent argument. Analysis of the economic costs and benefits of affirmative action in higher education illustrate its effectiveness in reducing income…

  11. Economic benefit assignment in environmental cost allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to suggest a model to reward a dirty product which has the potential to offer sales promotion services to other clean products in a multiple product firm. The paper suggests a model economic benefit assignment (eba) for apportionment of direct waste costs where a polluting product offers a sales promotion benefit to other clean products of the same company, which proposes that benefiting products should be assigned a proportion of the direct waste cost of the polluting product...

  12. QuarkNet: Benefits for Teachers, Their Students and Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Marjorie

    2017-01-01

    The QuarkNet Collaboration has forged nontraditional relationships among particle physicists, high school teachers and their students. QuarkNet centers are located at 50 + universities and labs across the U.S. and Puerto Rico. We provide professional development for teachers and create opportunities for teachers and students to engage in particle physics data investigations and join research teams. Students develop scientific knowledge and habits of mind by working alongside scientists to make sense of the world using authentic experimental data. Our program is based a classroom vision where teaching strategies emulate closely the way scientists build knowledge through inquiry. We look at how student engagement in research and masterclasses develops an understanding about the process of scientific discovery and science using current scientific data. We also look at ways and to what extent teachers provide scientific discovery and science practices for students and how QuarkNet contributes to the professionalism of participating teachers. Also, we describe success factors that enhance local center programs and describe important benefits of the program that flow to university faculty. Funded by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy.

  13. Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  14. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  15. Multilevel models for estimating incremental net benefits in multinational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Richard; Nixon, Richard; Thompson, Simon G; Cairns, John

    2007-08-01

    Multilevel models (MLMs) have been recommended for estimating incremental net benefits (INBs) in multicentre cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). However, these models have assumed that the INBs are exchangeable and that there is a common variance across all centres. This paper examines the plausibility of these assumptions by comparing various MLMs for estimating the mean INB in a multinational CEA. The results showed that the MLMs that assumed the INBs were exchangeable and had a common variance led to incorrect inferences. The MLMs that included covariates to allow for systematic differences across the centres, and estimated different variances in each centre, made more plausible assumptions, fitted the data better and led to more appropriate inferences. We conclude that the validity of assumptions underlying MLMs used in CEA need to be critically evaluated before reliable conclusions can be drawn. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Economic benefits of the EU Ecodesign Directive. Improving European economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenbroek, E.; Cuijpers, M.; Blok, K.

    2012-04-15

    The EU Ecodesign Directive aims at reducing the environmental impact of a number of products sold in the EU, with emphasis on their energy consumption. Ecofys investigated economic benefits related to the Directive. A correct implementation of the EU Ecodesign Directive would yield yearly savings of up to 600 TWh of electricity and 600 TWh of heat in 2020. In addition to these environmental benefits, this study identified important economic advantages like: Net savings for European consumers and businesses of 90 billion euro per year (1% of EU's current GDP) in the year 2020; Reinvesting these savings in other sectors of the economy would result in the creation of one million jobs; Dependency on imports of energy would be reduced by 23% and 37% for natural gas and coal, respectively. This means the EU could slash natural gas imports from Russia by more than half and imports of coal from Russia could be stopped altogether.

  17. Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2006-01-01

    Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for a landscape in the Atlantic forests of Paraguay. We considered five ecosystem services (i.e., sustainable bushmeat harvest, sustainable timber harvest, bioprospecting for pharmaceutical products, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates of the opportunity costs of conservation. We found a high degree of spatial variability in both costs and benefits over this relatively small (~3,000 km2) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon storage dominating the ecosystem service values and swamping opportunity costs. Other benefits associated with conservation were more modest and exceeded costs only in protected areas and indigenous reserves. We used this cost-benefit information to show that one potential corridor between two large forest patches had net benefits that were three times greater than two otherwise similar alternatives. Spatial cost-benefit analysis can powerfully inform conservation planning, even though the availability of relevant data may be limited, as was the case in our study area. It can help us understand the synergies between biodiversity conservation and economic development when the two are indeed aligned and to clearly understand the trade-offs when they are not. PMID:17076583

  18. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control....

  19. Economic Benefits of Space Tourism to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    The European aerospace industry has been very slow to consider the commercial opportunities in supplying passenger space travel services. This has been a costly mistake not just of space policy, but also of economic policy and environmental policy. This is because it is very unlikely that space tourism will remain just a small-scale activity of the very rich; it is much more likely to grow into a major new industry, employing millions of people in high quality employment - eventually much of it outside the Earth's eco-system. This is particularly important because, although the European “social-economic model” has greater popular support than the “USA model” (including among the general USA population), Europe today faces the major problem of high unemployment, which is imposing heavy social and economic costs. If Europe makes serious efforts soon to encourage the growth of passenger space travel, and of the many other economically and environmentally valuable space activities to which this will lead, then commercial space activities could become a major new axis of economic growth and employment-creation for Europe. Moreover, Europe has several advantages over the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India, and so could play a leading role in this field, if policy errors are corrected. The paper discusses the above possibilities, and the potential economic, environmental and other benefits for Europe in investing boldly in this fledgling industry.

  20. Economic benefits of education – Kosovo Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Arbër Reçi

    2011-12-01

    Confident of the key role of education in economic development, the paper puts a special accent on economic benefits of an individual from higher education. Apart from this accent, a summary of empirical studies, which reflect facts and analysis of various countries, on economic benefits of education. Empirical analysis in many countries have shown that the role of education is key in a global competition, where knowledge is the key to success of economy and social development. From this perspective, young and vital population is the most important resource of Kosovo, the relevance of which will be assessed by the knowledge and skills acquired in institutions of higher education, very demanded in the labour market, as an important factor of economic and social change in the country. The results so far have shown that the investment rate of 3.3% of Gross Domestic Product allocated to education (around 6,0% in developed countries is insufficient for the Kosovo’s economy to compete successfully with economies of other countries, in premises of an already global competition.

  1. Boron Application Improves Growth, Yield and Net Economic Return of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubshar HUSSAIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to evaluate the role of boron (B application at different growth stages in improving the growth, yield and net economic return of rice at farmer's fields during summer season, 2009. Boron was soil applied (1.5 kg/hm2 at the transplanting, tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice; foliar applied (1.5% B solution at the tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice, and dipped seedling roots in 1.5% B solution before transplanting; while control plots did not apply any B. Boron application (except dipping of seedling roots in B solution, which caused toxicity and reduced the number of tillers and straw yield than control substantially improved the rice growth and yield. However, soil application was better in improving the number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, harvest index, net economic income and ratio of benefit to cost compared with the rest of treatments. Overall, for improving rice performance and maximizing the net economic returns, B might be applied as soil application at flowering.

  2. The Economic Benefits of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    The recent growth of activities towards developing passenger space travel services is very promising; however there is a widespread but mistaken idea that space tourism will remain a small-scale activity of the very wealthy. The truth is that, having been delayed for over three decades by government space agencies' failure to develop more than a small fraction of the commercial potential of space, the start of space travel services is long overdue, and so they are capable of growing rapidly into a major new industry. That is, the technical and business know-how exists to enable space tourism to grow to a turnover of 100 billion Euros/year within a few decades if it receives public support of even 10% of space agencies budgets. This development would sharply reduce the cost of accessing the resources of space, which could prevent the spread of the “resource wars” which have begun so ominously. No activity therefore offers greater economic benefits than the rapid development of low-cost space tourism services. A range of government policies should be revised to reflect this.

  3. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  4. The economic and social benefits of childhood vaccinations in BRICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirelman, Andrew J; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun

    2014-01-01

      Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) have considerable potential to save lives and obtain economic benefits through introducing or scaling up childhood vaccination...

  5. Will Workers Benefit from This Economic Recovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Kochan, Thomas Anton

    2010-01-01

    Every 2 years, staff at the Economic Policy Institute publishes a labor market and employment sourcebook. The State of Working America 2008-2009 is an especially important and valuable contribution. It documents how poorly working families fared in the period prior to the recent economic crisis and therefore provides a benchmark for assessing whether current economic recovery policies will reverse these trends. The author draws on the data and analysis presented in this volume to suggest poli...

  6. The distribution of net benefits under the National Health Insurance programme in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nicole; Yip, Winnie; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Wang, Pen-Jen

    2007-01-01

    The redistributive effects of a social insurance programme are determined by how the programme is paid for-who pays and how much do they pay?-and how the benefits are distributed. As a result, the redistributive effects of a social health insurance programme should be evaluated on the basis of its net benefit-the difference between benefits and payment. Among the rich body of empirical analysis on equity in health care financing, however, most studies have relied on partial analysis, assessing equity by source of financing while ignoring the benefit side, or looking at equity in benefits but ignoring the funding side. Either approach risks misleading findings. In this study, therefore, the primary objective was to assess the distribution of net benefits across income groups under Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) programme. This study observed a nationally representative sample of 74 012 NHI enrolees from 1996 to 2000. The unique NHI databases in Taiwan provide comprehensive enrolment and utilization information, and allowed linkage to each enrolee's income tax files. In addition to crude estimates, two-part models and ordinary least-square models were used to adjust inpatient and outpatient benefits for health care needs (age, sex, major disease status and physical disability). After adjusting for health care needs, the distribution of net benefits showed an apparent pro-poor pattern, with the lowest income group receiving the highest net benefits (NT$3353) and the top income group receiving the lowest net benefits (-NT$3072) in 1996. Although a clear pro-poor pattern was observed among those enrolees who paid wage-based premiums, this vertically equitable pattern was less evident among the enrolees who paid fixed premiums. Overall, a trend of increasing net benefits was observed in all income groups between 1996 and 2000, and all the NHI enrolees can be considered better off over time. In addition to contributing to the limited literature on equity in net

  7. Will Mangrove Reforestation Provide Net Benefits: A Case in Sibunag, Guimaras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Joy Fernandez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the threats in mangrove resources such as massive fishpond conversion, industrialization,and increased human settlements in coastal areas, the province of Guimaras answered these threats bywidespread mangrove reforestation projects in its coastal communities. These projects were found outto be beneficial, as depicted on large gap on the mangroves overall benefits and the costs of implementationof the mangrove reforestation project. Results of the study show that the present total benefit of mangroveper hectare with sustainable harvesting in the first year is lesser than the costs. However after the firstyear, the net benefits are positive. However, in compliance with Republic Act 7161 (R.A. 7161 thatbanned the cutting/using of all mangrove species, cost-benefit analysis of mangrove reforestation withoutharvesting was also computed. The net benefits exceed the costs from the start of the year up to the 20thyear. Both the scenarios include the Mean WTP equivalent to PhP 142.75, which is the amount peopleare willing to give for the conservation of mangroves. The net present values (net benefits of mangrovereforestation were found positive for both scenarios: with sustainable harvesting and without harvesting.

  8. Maximising the net social benefit of the construction of post-disaster alternative housing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anwar, Omar

    2013-07-01

    The widespread destruction that follows large-scale natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, challenges the efficacy of traditional temporary housing methods in providing adequate solutions to housing needs. Recognising these housing challenges, the Congress of the United States allocated, in 2006, USD 400 million to the Department of Homeland Security to support Alternative Housing Pilot Programs, which are intended to explore the possibilities of providing permanent and affordable housing to displaced families instead of traditional temporary housing. This paper presents a new methodology and optimisation model to identify the optimal configurations of post-shelter housing arrangements to maximise the overall net socioeconomic benefit. The model is capable of quantifying and optimising the impacts of substituting temporary housing with alternative housing on the social and economic welfare of displaced families as well as the required additional costs of doing so. An application example is presented to illustrate the use of the model and its capabilities. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  9. Expected Net Benefit of Vaccinating Rangeland Sheep against Bluetongue Virus Using a Modified-Live versus Killed Virus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsick, Tristram R; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P; Jones, Randall; Jones, Michelle; Miller, Myrna M

    2017-01-01

    Recurring outbreaks of bluetongue virus in domestic sheep of the US Intermountain West have prompted questions about the economic benefits and costs of vaccinating individual flocks against bluetongue (BT) disease. We estimate the cost of a BT outbreak on a representative rangeland sheep operation in the Big Horn Basin of the state of Wyoming using enterprise budgets and stochastic simulation. The latter accounts for variability in disease severity and lamb price, as well as uncertainty about when an outbreak will occur. We then estimate the cost of purchasing and administering a BT vaccine. Finally, we calculate expected annual net benefit of vaccinating under various outbreak intervals. Expected annual net benefit is calculated for both a killed virus (KV) vaccine and modified-live virus vaccine, using an observed price of $0.32 per dose for modified-live and an estimated price of $1.20 per dose for KV. The modified-live vaccine's expected annual net benefit has a 100% chance of being positive for an outbreak interval of 5, 10, or 20 years, and a 77% chance of being positive for a 50-year interval. The KV vaccine's expected annual net benefit has a 97% chance of being positive for a 5-year outbreak interval, and a 42% chance of being positive for a 10-year interval. A KV vaccine is, therefore, unlikely to be economically attractive to producers in areas exposed less frequently to BT disease. A modified-live vaccine, however, requires rigorous authorization before legal use can occur in Wyoming. To date, no company has requested to manufacture a modified-live vaccine for commercial use in Wyoming. The KV vaccine poses less risk to sheep reproduction and less risk of unintentional spread, both of which facilitate approval for commercial production. Yet, our results show an economically consequential tradeoff between a KV vaccine's relative safety and higher cost. Unless the purchase price is reduced below our assumed $1.20 per dose, producer adoption of a KV

  10. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  11. Nutrition economics: towards comprehensive understanding of the benefits of nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Koponen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the knowledge and interest on nutrition, and functional foods have gained popularity over the last few decades, and the trend is increasing. Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most studied functional foods. Nutrition economics has been defined as the discipline dedicated to researching and characterising health and economic outcomes in nutrition for the benefit of society. The concept and its application to probiotics and prebiotics will be discussed in terms of health and economic benefits and their evaluation. Health economics and concrete applications showing how to maximise long-term nutritional benefits will contribute to motivate consumers in making food choices based on a rational understanding of their own interest. We present a model that shows that nutrition economics can be used as an analytical tool for product and service network development.

  12. Livelihoods and economic benefits of wetland utilization in the Little ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the contribution of wetland agriculture production to socio - economic in the Little Ruaha sub-catchment is scanty thus constraining the wise use and sustainable utilization of the wetlands. This study was conducted in the wetlands of the Little Ruaha sub-catchment to assess livelihoods and economic benefits ...

  13. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Bath, A.

    2011-01-01

    to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO2-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3...... ± 0.2 per delivered m3 for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water...... supply planning and management....

  14. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rivers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questions: What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? Design: A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Results: Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. Conclusion: With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. [Rivers G, Foo J, Ilic D, Nicklen P, Reeves S, Walsh K, Maloney S (2015 The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 148–154

  15. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: an economic measure of regional sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Templeton, Joshua J; Wu, Shanshan

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). We measured the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNRP over time. Any attempt at green accounting requires both economic and natural capital data. However, limited data for the Basin requires a number of simplifying assumptions and requires transforming economic data at the national, state, and county levels to the level of the SLB. Given the contribution of agribusiness to the SLB, we included the depletion of both groundwater and soil as components in the depreciation of natural capital. We also captured the effect of the consumption of energy on climate change for future generations through carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. In order to estimate the depreciation of natural capital, the shadow price of water for agriculture, the economic damages from soil erosion due to wind, and the social cost of carbon emissions were obtained from the literature and applied to the SLB using benefit transfer. We used Colorado's total factor productivity for agriculture to estimate the value of time (i.e., to include the effects of exogenous technological progress). We aggregated the economic data and the depreciation of natural capital for the SLB from 1980 to 2005. The results suggest that GNRP had a slight upward trend through most of this time period, despite temporary negative trends, the longest of which occurred during the period 1985-86 to 1987-88. However, given the upward trend in GNRP and the possibility of business cycles causing the temporary declines, there is no definitive evidence of moving away from sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanding research frontier in the landscape architecture discipline, landscape performance research, which embraces the scientific dimension of landscape architecture through evidence-based designs that are anchored in quantitative performance assessment. Specifically, this paper summarizes metrics and methods for determining landscape-derived economic benefits that have been utilized in the Landscape Performance Series (LPS initiated by the Landscape Architecture Foundation. This paper identifies 24 metrics and 32 associated methods for the assessment of economic benefits found in 82 published case studies. Common issues arising through research in quantifying economic benefits for the LPS are discussed and the various approaches taken by researchers are clarified. The paper also provides an analysis of three case studies from the LPS that are representative of common research methods used to quantify economic benefits. The paper suggests that high(er levels of sustainability in the built environment require the integration of economic benefits into landscape performance assessment portfolios in order to forecast project success and reduce uncertainties. Therefore, evidence-based design approaches increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture education and research, and elevate the status of the profession.

  17. Nutrition economics: towards comprehensive understanding of the benefits of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Koponen, Aki; Sandell, Mari; Salminen, Seppo; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the knowledge and interest on nutrition, and functional foods have gained popularity over the last few decades, and the trend is increasing. Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most studied functional foods. Nutrition economics has been defined as the discipline dedicated to researching and characterising health and economic outcomes in nutrition for the benefit of society. The concept and its application to probiotics and prebiotics will be discussed in term...

  18. Economic benefits comparison of two pig breeding cycle modes -- Taking Liaoning Province as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yunan; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Pig breeding pollution has become one of the important sources of environmental pollution, and the circular economy has provided an effective way to alleviate the pollution of pig breeding. In this paper, the “Three-in-one” and “Four-in-one” mode of circular economy with methane as link were constructed, and taking Liaoning Province as the research area, the economic benefits of different pig breeding modes were compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) The modes of circular economy use the pig manure waste as raw materials through the digesters, solar greenhouse to generate new resources, compared with the traditional farming methods, created considerable economic benefits and also alleviated the pressure of pollution, is an effective way to control the pollution of pig breeding. (2) The economic benefit of the “Four-in-one” mode in Liaoning was much higher than the “Three-in-one” mode. The economic benefits of biogas digesters were higher than the “Three-in-one” mode of 125 million yuan, while the solar greenhouse would introduce the planting industry into the recycling chain, with a net profit of about 38.64*108 yuan.

  19. Growth Performance, Yields and Economic Benefits of Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish culture integration in the growth, yields and economic benefits of fish and vegetables. Two 200 m2 earthen fishponds were stocked with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 20,000 fish fingerlings per hectare. Pond A was fertilized with ...

  20. Assessing the benefits and economic values of trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental, economic, and social/community benefits of nature, in particular trees and forests, can lead to better vegetation management and designs to optimize environmental quality and human health for current and future generations. Computer models have been developed to assess forest composition and its associated effects on environmental...

  1. Evaluating economic costs and benefits of climate resilient livelihood strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for international development is to assist the poorest regions to achieve development targets while taking climate change into account. Such ‘climate resilient development’ (CRD must identify and implement adaptation strategies for improving livelihoods while also being cost-effective. While the idea that climate resilience and development goals should be compatible is often discussed, empirical evaluations of the economic impacts of actual CRD investments are practically non-existent. This paper outlines a framework to evaluate economic returns to CRD and applies it in two adaptation strategies trialed in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, eastern Indonesia. The evaluation framework is composed of three models: a household benefit cost model, a diffusion model, and a regional benefit cost model. The models draw upon the impact evaluation, technology diffusion, and risk assessment literatures, respectively. The analyzes are based on expert opinion and locally-derived information, and hence can be applied in data-poor situations typical of developing countries. Our results explore economic costs and benefits at the household and regional scale, and we identify key input variables that greatly influence the economic returns of the strategies. These variables should therefore be a focus of ongoing investment. We also discuss how the framework is more generally applicable, its limitations including challenges in accounting for less tangible social and ecosystem service benefits, potentially leading to the underestimation of impacts, and how the approach should be complemented by qualitative methods.

  2. Yam Storability and Economic Benefits of Storage Under the Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines yam storability and the economic benefits of storage under the modern (underground) and the traditional (yam barn) storage technologies in Southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected mainly from 55 respondents who were interviewed, as well as from measurement of storage parameters on yam ...

  3. Electronic Payment System in Nigeria: Its Economic Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okifo, Joseph; Igbunu, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The crux of this study is on the adoption of E-payment system in Nigeria: Its economic benefits and challenges. The arrival of the internet has taken electronic payments and transactions to an exponential growth level. Consumers could purchase goods and services from the internet and send unencrypted credit card numbers across the network, which…

  4. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through high levels of evapotranspiration, water hyacinth leads to substantial water losses that could otherwise be used more productively, thereby creating an externality on water-dependent industries, such as irrigation-fed agriculture. This study provides an economic valuation of the water-saving benefit of water hyacinth ...

  5. Net clinical benefit of new oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) versus no treatment in a 'real world' atrial fibrillation population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, A; Lane, D A; Torp-Pedersen, C

    2012-01-01

    on patients with non-valvular AF between 1997-2008, for dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban on the basis of recent clinical trial outcome data for these new OACs. In patients with CHADS2=0 but at high bleeding risk, apixaban and dabigatran 110 mg bid had a positive net clinical benefit. At CHA2DS2-VASc=1...... risk of stroke and thromboembolism gain the greatest benefit from OAC with warfarin. There are no data for the new OACs, that is, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, as yet. We calculated the net clinical benefit balancing IS against ICH using data from the Danish National Patient Registry......, apixaban and both doses of dabigatran (110 mg and 150 mg bid) had a positive net clinical benefit. In patients with CHADS2 score=1 or CHA2DS2-VASc=2, the three new OACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) appear superior to warfarin for net clinical benefit, regardless of risk of bleeding. When risk...

  6. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ilic, Dragan; Nicklen, Peter; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Maloney, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  8. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability (Journal article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show...

  9. Commercial Vessel Safety. Economic Benefits. Appendix A. Estimation Procedures for Benefits of Marine Safety Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    MICROCOPY HI SOLLJI ON If ( HAPI Report No. C D2-81 Commercial Vessel §afety. Economic 5enef its. APPENDIX Ae ESTIMATIONrOCEDURES FOR- ENEFITS...Lost From Work 124 10. Hospitalization Expense 125 11. Civilian Sa, aries 126 12. Military Pay and Allowance 127 13. Annual Standard Personnel Support...foreign benefits are not appropriate for inclusion in the cost-benefit analysis, they are often of interest due to the fact that the Coast Guard works

  10. Net Clinical Benefit of Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders Nissen; Lip, Gregory Y H; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The balance between stroke reduction and increased bleeding associated with antithrombotic therapy among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is controversial. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the risk associated with CKD in individual CHA₂DS₂-VASc...... (Congestive heart failure; Hypertension; Age ≥75 years; Diabetes mellitus; previous Stroke, transient ischemic attack, or thromboembolism; Vascular disease; Age 65 to 74 years; Sex category) strata and the net clinical benefit of warfarin in patients with AF and CKD in a nationwide cohort. METHODS...

  11. Economic costs and benefits of promoting healthy takeaway meals at workplace canteens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    to assess the net society costs and benefits associated with an extended use of canteen takeaway meals as a health promotion strategy. The results show that employees have a positive willingness to pay for health attributes in canteen takeaway meals, but with a minority having a highly negative willingness......Canteen Takeaway is a novel concept, which entails workplace canteens to utilise existing production capacity to supply packaged meals for employees to bring home. The concept has a potential to raise the average nutritional quality of employees' diets. The purpose of the study is to assess...... the economic net gains for users, and for society as a whole, of promoting healthy canteen takeaway meals, using Danish workplaces as an example. The analytical framework for the study combines direct cost analyses, users’ willingness to pay estimated through a choice experiment and cost-of-illness methods...

  12. Economic costs and benefits of promoting healthy takeaway meals at workplace canteens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2012-01-01

    to assess the net society costs and benefits associated with an extended use of canteen takeaway meals as a health promotion strategy. The results show that employees have a positive willingness to pay for health attributes in canteen takeaway meals, but with a minority having a highly negative willingness......Canteen Takeaway is a novel concept, which entails workplace canteens to utilise existing production capacity to supply packaged meals for employees to bring home. The concept has a potential to raise the average nutritional quality of employees' diets. The purpose of the study is to assess...... the economic net gains for users, and for society as a whole, of promoting healthy canteen takeaway meals, using Danish workplaces as an example. The analytical framework for the study combines direct cost analyses, users’ willingness to pay estimated through a choice experiment and cost-of-illness methods...

  13. Quantifying the net social benefits of vehicle trip reductions : guidance for customizing the TRIMMS(c) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study details the development of a series of enhancements to the Trip Reduction Impacts of : Mobility Management Strategies (TRIMMS) model. TRIMMS allows quantifying the net social : benefits of a wide range of transportation demand management...

  14. Dollars from Sense: The Economic Benefits of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This document illustrates direct economic benefits, including job creation, of renewable energy technologies. Examples of electricity generation from biomass, wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, and geothermal energy are given, with emphasis on the impact of individual projects on the state and local community. Employment numbers at existing facilities are provided, including total national employment for each renewable industry where available. Renewable energy technologies offer economic advantages because they are more labor-intensive than conventional generation technologies, and they use primarily indigenous resources.

  15. The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha (-1) when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha (-1)-$332.50 ha (-1) based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25-$275 ha (-1) averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision.

  16. Economic benefits of an economizer system: Energy savings and reduced sick leave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, D.C. with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The annual financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modeling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  17. Economic Benefits of Self-Employment for Canadian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaie, Reza

    2015-11-01

    This paper evaluates the economic benefits of self-employment in Canada for 12 groups of ethno-racial immigrants. It tests whether or not their self-employment earnings are higher or lower than similar groups in wage and salary employment, whether ethnic minorities earn more or less from self-employment compared to White immigrants, and whether self-employment earnings of immigrant groups vary by their industrial sectors of employment. Using the Canadian Census 2006, I show that self-employed ethno-racial immigrants earn less than White immigrants. I also show that the economic benefits of self-employment depend on the ethno-racial groups and the industrial mix of their self-employment. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  18. The impact of two pharmaceutical risk-sharing agreements on pricing, promotion, and net health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Gregory S; Xie, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Health insurers are increasingly making use of risk-sharing agreements with drug manufacturers to manage uncertainties regarding the costs and effectiveness of new drugs. Several risk-sharing models exist including those based on sales volume, achievement of clinical thresholds, and achievement of cost-effectiveness thresholds. The objective of this article is to compare two risk-sharing arrangements and to investigate conditions under which each is preferable from the perspective of the payer and the manufacturer. We develop two two-period models to compare two risk-sharing arrangements between a payer and a drug manufacturer in which there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the new drug. In the first risk-sharing agreement, the drug is listed on a formulary in the first period but delisted in the second period if the net monetary benefit in the first period is negative. In the second risk-sharing agreement, the manufacturer pays a rebate in each period if the net monetary benefit in that period is negative. We show that the relative performance of the two arrangements depends on several factors and that neither arrangement is always preferred. Additionally, we are able to identify situations in which a payer and a manufacturer would prefer the same plan and other situations in which the two parties would disagree on which plan was most desirable. Because neither risk-sharing arrangement is always preferred, payers and manufacturers must carefully consider the characteristics of their individual situation when entering into such contracts.

  19. Quantifying economic and environmental benefits of co-located firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertow, Marian R; Lombardi, D Rachel

    2005-09-01

    Resource sharing among co-located firms--referenced in the industrial ecology literature as "industrial symbiosis"--engages traditionally separate industries in a collective approach to business and environmental management involving the physical exchanges of materials, energy, water, and byproducts. While industrial symbiosis is seen hypothetically as a win-win situation, there are few analyses of the economic and environmental consequences for the individual participants in multi-faceted exchanges. In this article, the nascent industrial symbiosis network in Guayama, Puerto Rico, is explored from environmental, economic, and regulatory perspectives of the individual participants and the community. A coal-fired power plant, owned and operated by the AES Corporation, draws five million gallons per day of process water from nearby sources thus avoiding freshwater withdrawals and, through steam sales, significantly reduces emissions from a nearby refinery. This article quantifies economic and environmental costs and benefits for the symbiosis participants, concluding that there are substantial benefits to engaging in symbiosis, although these benefits fall unevenly on participating organizations. Policy intervention can be a viable means of motivating more regular occurrences of resource exchanges among groups of firms.

  20. Neural-net based real-time economic dispatch for thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M.; Milosevic, B. [Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Power Systems; Calovic, M. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This paper proposes the application of artificial neural networks to real-time optimal generation dispatch of thermal units. The approach can take into account the operational requirements and network losses. The proposed economic dispatch uses an artificial neural network (ANN) for generation of penalty factors, depending on the input generator powers and identified system load change. Then, a few additional iterations are performed within an iterative computation procedure for the solution of coordination equations, by using reference-bus penalty-factors derived from the Newton-Raphson load flow. A coordination technique for environmental and economic dispatch of pure thermal systems, based on the neural-net theory for simplified solution algorithms and improved man-machine interface is introduced. Numerical results on two test examples show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently and accurately develop optimal and feasible generator output trajectories, by applying neural-net forecasts of system load patterns.

  1. Why Net Domestic Product Should Replace Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Spant

    2003-01-01

    In the third article, Roland Spant, a Swedish trade union economist, argues that Net Domestic Product (NDP) should replace GDP as a measure of economic growth for a number of purposes. The key difference between GDP and NDP is depreciation. With the shift in investment toward information technology assets with relatively short service lives, the share of depreciation in GDP has increased in most OECD countries and GDP growth now exceeds NDP growth. Spant points out that this means that the us...

  2. A reformulation of the Cost Plus Net Value Change (C+NVC) model of wildfire economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Douglas B. Rideout

    2003-01-01

    The Cost plus Net Value Change (C+NVC) model provides the theoretical foundation for wildland fire economics and provides the basis for the National Fire Management Analysis System (NFMAS). The C+NVC model is based on the earlier least Cost plus Loss model (LC+L) expressed by Sparhawk (1925). Mathematical and graphical analysis of the LC+L model illustrates two errors...

  3. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health.Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1. In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles.The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development.This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better

  4. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  5. Net environmental benefit: introducing a new LCA approach on wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, D; Bouchard, C; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) allows evaluating the potential environmental impacts of a product or a service in relation to its function and over its life cycle. In past LCAs applied to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the system function definition has received little attention despite its great importance. This has led to some limitations in LCA results interpretation. A new methodology to perform LCA on WWTPs is proposed to avoid those limitations. It is based on net environmental benefit (NEB) evaluation and requires assessing the potential impact of releasing wastewater without and with treatment besides assessing the impact of the WWTP's life cycle. The NEB allows showing the environmental trade-offs between avoided impact due to wastewater treatment and induced impact by the WWTP's life cycle. NEB is compared with a standard LCA through the case study of a small municipal WWTP consisting of facultative aerated lagoons. The NEB and standard LCA show similar results for impact categories solely related to the WWTP's life cycle but differ in categories where wastewater treatment environmental benefit is accounted for as NEB considers influent wastewater quality whereas standard LCA does not.

  6. The economic costs and benefits of dental education: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L; Nourzad, Farrokh; Lobb, William K; Beall, Jason R

    2014-11-01

    The rising costs associated with obtaining a dental education have caused some to question the financial benefit of pursuing a dental degree. There is a concern that recent graduates may have difficulty finding professional opportunities that provide the income necessary to service their accumulated educational debt. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends in educational costs to aid in making an accurate appraisal of the financial benefit of a dental education. Adjusted into constant dollar terms, data from a variety of sources were collected for economic variables such as tuition, fees, student indebtedness, and dentists' earnings. These variables were then analyzed to determine the true costs and benefits of obtaining a dental education. The results showed that, over the course of the last decade, educational costs increased faster than the real net income of practicing dentists, which led to a decline in the return on investment in dental education. However, regardless of an applicant's choice of public or private dental school, there continues to be a positive economic return on students' commitment of both financial resources and time to receive a dental education.

  7. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  8. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  9. The economic costs and benefits of dog guides for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Rein, David B

    2008-01-01

    To document the economic costs and benefits associated with providing dog guide services for blind individuals able to benefit from them. This study estimates the annual cost of dog guide services accounting for cost offsets associated with reduced informal and formal care costs over the working life of the animal (8 years). We estimated the cost per dog guide trained using previously unpublished survey data from dog guide training schools in the United States. We also estimated the incremental economic benefits as the reduction in costs associated with formal and informal care using published studies and a set of reasonable assumptions. Costs were discounted to 2006$ using a 3% discount rate. We found the average total cost per dog guide over its working life was $40,598, of which $21,568 were off-set by reductions in other costs. The costs associated with dog guides included $35,536 in dog acquisition costs and $5,061 for annual maintenance over the animal's working life. The economic benefits included $16,324 and $5,244 in reduced formal and informal care costs, respectively. The average net cost of dog guide ownership per year over the working life of the animal was $2,379. Using available information and reasonable assumptions, this study documents the costs of dog guides accounting for a limited number of cost off-setting elements. However, given limited available evidence, further study of the impact of guide dogs on the lives of blind individuals who use them should be conducted to validate this study's results.

  10. Improving the Net Benefits from Tourism for People Living in Remote Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Greiner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism can be an important source of livelihoods at a destination level. Yet, while there are economic benefits associated with more tourists, there can also be costs to destinations in the form of negative environmental and social impacts. This paper illustrates tourism-related dilemmas for two remote regions within Australia’s tropical savannas where increasing visitor numbers are straining not only the very environmental assets that attract tourist, but also the host communities. The paper draws on research conducted under the auspices of the Tropical Savannas Management Cooperative Research Centre. Tourism impacts on the regions are described and, where possible, quantified and distributional effects discussed. Evidence is provided that host populations in the remote of Australia’s tropical savannas are willing to trade off environmental and social costs for economic benefits, but that this situation may not be ecologically sustainable. The regions are parts of much larger destinations and consequently peripheral to their concerns. The onus for sustainable tourism and regional development strategies therefore falls on local decision makers. The research presented here provides a framework for local decision makers and stakeholders to ask questions, collect relevant data, and proceed with informed debates and choices.

  11. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  12. Prediction of net energy consumption based on economic indicators (GNP and GDP) in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan [Technical Education Faculty, Mechanical Education Department, Energy Section, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kirikkale University, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    The most important theme in this study is to obtain equations based on economic indicators (gross national product - GNP and gross domestic product - GDP) and population increase to predict the net energy consumption of Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to determine future level of the energy consumption and make correct investments in Turkey. In this study, three different models were used in order to train the ANN. In one of them (Model 1), energy indicators such as installed capacity, generation, energy import and energy export, in second (Model 2), GNP was used and in the third (Model 3), GDP was used as the input layer of the network. The net energy consumption (NEC) is in the output layer for all models. In order to train the neural network, economic and energy data for last 37 years (1968-2005) are used in network for all models. The aim of used different models is to demonstrate the effect of economic indicators on the estimation of NEC. The maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 2.322732, 1.110525 and 1.122048 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. R{sup 2} values were obtained as 0.999444, 0.999903 and 0.999903 for training data of Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The ANN approach shows greater accuracy for evaluating NEC based on economic indicators. Based on the outputs of the study, the ANN model can be used to estimate the NEC from the country's population and economic indicators with high confidence for planing future projections. (author)

  13. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  14. Economic, Social and Environmental Benefits of Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas MIKALAUSKAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new technologies is faster than ever before in the human history, and as such there is an increased need of adaptation. In this sense, the present paper argues that current electrical grids should be transformed into a more modern and sustainable grid – the smart grid. This article will review the current situation from three main perspectives: economic, social and environmental. Each of these dimensions is influenced by various factors and in this paper we will systematically evaluate them. Our analysis suggests that currently there is a series of benefits offered by smart grids attributable to each dimension. Still, the level to which consumers will enjoy them is also conditioned by their willingness to embrace this technical change and transition to a new way of engaging with energy consumption through a user mediated relationship

  15. Economic and welfare benefits of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, E H; Estévez, I

    2008-01-01

    Designs to enrich the environment are crucial in the effort to fully address the biological needs of domestic animals. Although enrichment programs have been shown to improve health and welfare, little is known of their potential for application to commercial broiler breeder environments. We investigated the potential benefits of cover panels for broiler breeder reproductive performance in a commercial setting. This demonstration trial occurred on 5 commercial broiler breeder farms, each with a control and panel treatment room containing approximately 7,000 females and 800 males. Reproductive performance was measured from 25 to 60 wk by the number of eggs laid per female per week as well as weekly fertility and hatchability rates. The location of marked males was recorded weekly to quantify male movement. Access to cover panels improved egg production by 2.1% and maintained better hatchability and fertility throughout the breeding cycle (significant interactions of age and panel treatment) leading to an additional 4.5 chicks/female. Male home ranges, based on minimum convex polygons, were larger in the enriched (259 +/- 24.4 m(2)) vs. control flocks (184 +/- 23.1 m(2)). Providing enrichment in the form of cover panels improved reproductive performance, most likely by increasing males' mating opportunities and reducing female stress. We found a clear economic benefit to providing enrichment, an estimated $3 million if all breeder houses within the participating company were outfitted with the panels. These results demonstrate that environmental enrichment is not only beneficial for broiler breeder welfare, but can also be economically advantageous, resulting in a win-win situation for poultry welfare and production.

  16. Net benefits: a multicountry analysis of observational data examining associations between insecticide-treated mosquito nets and health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sub-Saharan African countries have rapidly scaled up the number of households that own insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs. Although the efficacy of ITNs in trials has been shown, evidence on their impact under routine conditions is limited to a few countries and the extent to which the scale-up of ITNs has improved population health remains uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used matched logistic regression to assess the individual-level association between household ITN ownership or use in children under 5 years of age and the prevalence of parasitemia among children using six malaria indicator surveys (MIS and one demographic and health survey. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relationship between ITN household ownership and child mortality using 29 demographic and health surveys. The pooled relative reduction in parasitemia prevalence from random effects meta-analysis associated with household ownership of at least one ITN was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3%-35%; I² = 73.5%, p0.05 for I² value. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings across a number of sub-Saharan African countries were highly consistent with results from previous clinical trials. These findings suggest that the recent scale-up in ITN coverage has likely been accompanied by significant reductions in child mortality and that additional health gains could be achieved with further increases in ITN coverage in populations at risk of malaria. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. The Economic Value of PV and Net Metering to Residential Customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-05-17

    In this paper, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of the California's two largest electric utilities, under existing net metering tariffs as well as under several alternative compensation mechanisms. We find that economic value of PV to the customer is dependent on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate and can vary quite significantly from one customer to another. In addition, we find that the value of the bill savings from PV generally declines with PV penetration level, as increased PV generation tends to offset lower-priced usage. Customers in our sample from both utilities are significantly better off with net metering than with a feed-in tariff where all PV generation is compensated at long-run avoided generation supply costs. Other compensation schemeswhich allow customers to displace their consumption with PV generation within each hour or each month, and are also based on the avoided costs, yield similar value to the customer as net metering.

  18. Optimal scale of China's cities under the maximization of economic benefits and environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Wu, Sanmang; He, Chunyan; Chen, Jiabin; Yan, Dan

    2017-08-01

    The cities are the consumption concentration of energy, resources, and the concentration of CO2 emissions. The cities' area only accounted for 2% in the world's surface; however, their population accounted for about 50% of the total population, and CO2 emissions accounted for about 80% of the total emissions. The cities lie in a key position in solving the global climate change. China's urbanization level was just exceeding by 50%, which was in the intermediate stage of urbanization. The rapid development of the urbanization process and the expansion of city scale have brought economic growth and all kinds of environmental issues. Therefore, is there an optimal city scale which can make cities maintain economic growth and can also reduce or even avoid the environmental problems in the meantime? The question deserves deep research. Based on the background, the data from 1998 to 2014, and the goals of the cities' economic and environmental benefits, this paper builds the optimal scale model for the cities, and obtain two conclusions: (1) in a certain period and range, the cities have the optimal scale; (2) for the cities in China, the optimal scale is about 1.78 million people.

  19. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 2: Total Economy Expenditure Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We translate between energetic and economic metrics that characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, we estimate monetary expenditures for the primary energy and net external power ratio (NEPR direct ; NEPR, net external power ratio, a power return ratio of annual energy production divided by annual direct energy inputs within the energy industry. We estimate these on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010. Expressed as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP, f e , GDP , the forty-four country aggregate (composing >90% world GDP worldwide expenditures on energy decreased from a maximum of 10.3% in 1979 to a minimum of 3.0% in 1998 before increasing to a second peak of 8.1% in 2008. While the global f e , GDP fluctuates significantly, global NEPR direct declined from a value of 34 in 1980 to 17 in 1986 before staying in a range between 14 and 16 from 1991 to 2010. In comparing both of these metrics as ratios of power output over power input, one economic ( f e , GDP - 1 and one biophysical (NEPR direct , we see that when the former divided by the latter is below unity, the world was in a low-growth or recessionary state.

  20. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management. PMID:26083862

  1. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  2. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  3. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconciling uncertain costs and benefits in bayes nets for invasive species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, M.A.; Wintle, B.A.; Thompson, C.A.; Moilanen, A.; Runge, M.C.; Ben-Haim, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Bayes nets are used increasingly to characterize environmental systems and formalize probabilistic reasoning to support decision making. These networks treat probabilities as exact quantities. Sensitivity analysis can be used to evaluate the importance of assumptions and parameter estimates. Here, we outline an application of info-gap theory to Bayes nets that evaluates the sensitivity of decisions to possibly large errors in the underlying probability estimates and utilities. We apply it to an example of management and eradication of Red Imported Fire Ants in Southern Queensland, Australia and show how changes in management decisions can be justified when uncertainty is considered. ?? 2009 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Economic Benefits of Green Infrastructure in Lancaster PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document outlines technical assistance for demonstrating how accounting for the multiple benefits of green infrastructure can provide a more complete assessment of infrastructure and community investments.

  7. Costs and benefits of individuals conceived after IVF: a net tax evaluation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, L. M.; Connolly, M.; Huisman, B.; Postma, M. J.; Hompes, P. G. A.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the lifetime future net tax revenues from individuals conceived after IVF relative to those naturally conceived. A model based on the method of generational accounting was developed to evaluate investments in IVF. Calculations were based on average investments paid and received

  8. Costs and benefits of individuals conceived after IVF : a net tax evaluation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, L. M.; Connolly, M.; Huisman, B.; Postma, M. J.; Hompes, P. G. A.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.

    This study evaluated the lifetime future net tax revenues from individuals conceived after IVF relative to those naturally conceived. A model based on the method of generational accounting was developed to evaluate investments in IVF. Calculations were based on average investments paid and received

  9. A comparative assessment of the economic benefits from shale gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, the Econometrix report (published in 2012) provides the only estimate of the economic impacts that may emanate from developing the Karoo's shale gas. The report uses a Keynesian multiplier model to estimate the impacts. The analysis performed in this paper estimates the economic impacts using a Computable ...

  10. Economic benefits of decarbonising the global electricity sector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F; Foley, A; Chewpreecha, U; Pollitt, H; Holden, P B; Edwards, N R

    2013-01-01

    Conventional economic analyses of stringent climate change mitigation have generally concluded that economic austerity would result from carbon austerity. These analyses however rely critically on the assumption of an economic equilibrium, which dismisses established notions on behavioural heterogeneity, path dependence and technology transitions. Here we show that on the contrary, the decarbonisation of the electricity sector globally can lead to improvements in economic performance. By modelling the process of innovation-diffusion and non-equilibrium dynamics, we establish how climate policy instruments for emissions reductions alter economic activity through energy prices, government spending, enhanced investment and tax revenues. While higher electricity prices reduce income and output, this is over-compensated by enhanced employment generated by investments in new technology. We stress that the current dialogue on the impacts of climate policies must be revisited to reflect the real complex dynamics invo...

  11. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  12. Economic benefits generated by protected areas: the case of the Hoge Veluwe forest, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Eliciting the economic benefits provided by protected areas is important in order to ensure that they are properly considered in policy and decision making. There are relatively few studies that provide a comprehensive overview of the economic benefits provided by European forest ecosystems, in

  13. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  14. Incremental Net Benefit of Early Intervention for Preschool-Aged Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L; Dickerson, John F; Saldana, Lisa; Fisher, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Of 1 million cases of child maltreatment identified every year in the United States, one-fifth result in foster care. Many of these children suffer from significant emotional and behavioral conditions. Decision-makers must allocate highly constrained budgets to serve these children. Recent evidence suggests that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers can reduce negative outcomes for these children, but the relative benefits and costs of the program have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess net benefit, over 24 months, of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers compared to regular foster care. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of 117 young children entering a new foster placement. A subsample exhibited placement instability (n = 52). Intervention services including parent training, lasted 9-12 months. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for regular foster care (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; P = .004; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061; P = .045). Incremental average net benefit was positive at all levels of willingness to pay of zero or greater, indicating that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers has significant benefit for preschool children in foster care with emotional and behavioral disorders compared to regular foster care services. At even modest levels of willingness to pay, benefits exceed costs indicating a strong likeliness that this program is an efficient choice for improving outcomes for young children with emotional and behavioral disorders in foster care.

  15. A National Study of the Net Benefits of State Pension Plans for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Bathon, Justin M.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Although benefits can be a sizable part of an educator's total compensation, there has been little scholarly inquiry into the state pension plans for educators. Despite the fact that all defined benefit plans rely on the same basic formula for calculating annual pensions, they vary across states in the multiplier used, the method for calculating…

  16. Expected net benefit of vaccinating rangeland sheep against bluetongue virus using a modified-live versus killed virus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recurring outbreaks of bluetongue virus in large rangeland sheep flocks in the Intermountain West of the United States have prompted questions about the economic benefits and costs of vaccinating individual flocks against bluetongue disease. We use enterprise budgets and stochastic simulation to est...

  17. The economic benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Hans; Koot, Jacqueline; Andres, Ellie

    2017-06-16

    The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of the population that meets or exceeds Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations regarding the number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables (F/V), to assess trends in this proportion between 2000 and 2013, to estimate the annual economic burden attributable to inadequate F/V consumption within the context of other important risk factors, and to estimate the short- and long-term costs that could be avoided if modest improvements were made to F/V consumption in Canada. We used a previously developed methodology based on population-attributable fractions and a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach to estimate the economic burden associated with low F/V consumption. Over three quarters of Canadians are not meeting CFG recommendations regarding the number of daily servings of F/V, leading to an annual economic burden of $4.39 billion. If a 1% relative increase in F/V consumption occurred annually between 2013 and 2036, the cumulative reduction in economic burden over the 23-year period would reach $8.4 billion. Consumption levels of F/V, and the resulting economic burden, varied by sex, age and province. A significant majority of Canadians are not consuming the recommended daily servings of F/V, with important consequences to their health and the Canadian economy. Programs and policies are required to encourage F/V consumption in Canada.

  18. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  19. Reducing nitrogen leaching from fertilizers to surface waters: catchment specific indicators of economic benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Levin, Gregor; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard

    2018-01-01

    Monetization of benefits related to improving water quality is expected for a proportionality test under Article 4 of the EU’s Water Framework Directive (relating to benefits and costs of measures). Our pilot study explores with impact pathway methodology some basic economic benefits of reducing ...

  20. A comparative assessment of the economic benefits from shale gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... coal bed gasification (proposed for the Waterberg coal fields) or further coal mining. If shale gas developments lead to a lower domestic gas price, it will impact on the appeal of both coal bed gasification and coal. The effects of a growing natural resource industry will vary based on the economic setting, the ...

  1. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  2. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  3. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  4. Performance response, carcass evaluation and economic benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance, carcass quality, haematological indices and economics of production of rabbits fed dietary sorghum offal substitute for maize grain. A total of forty (40) weaned rabbits with a mean weight range of 820-850 g were randomly distributed to five treatment ...

  5. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  6. Using the balanced scorecard to characterize benefits of integration in the safety net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Weiner, Bryan

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive framework depicting the potential benefits of integration among health-care providers that serve vulnerable populations. Research teams interviewed participants in 12 integrated functions across seven community health-centre-led networks. Functions included clinical processes; managed care contracting; and administrative services such as human resources, finance, and information systems. Using a Balanced Scorecard framework, benefits were identified across financial, customer, internal business, and learning and growth perspectives. Financial benefits were more frequently cited relative to managed care and administrative functions than relative to clinical functions. Clinical functions were frequently characterized by perceived improvements in patient care quality, while managed-care functions appeared to yield most benefits in access. Administrative functions were most often associated with improvements in internal business operations. There were substantial findings in learning and growth across all three types of integration, in keeping with the early stages of the integrated functions in the study. Findings imply that integration among health-care providers yields a wide range of benefits, but not necessarily quickly or financial in nature.

  7. Valuing Avoided Soil Erosion by Considering Private and Public Net Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Luke E.; Paragahawewa, Upananda Herath; Yao, Richard T.; Turner, James A

    2011-01-01

    The population in New Zealand is expected to increase to over five million by the mid 2020’s from the current level of 4.3 million (Statistics New Zealand, 2009). An increasing demand for primary produce as a result may put pressure on marginal land to be farmed. Understanding the economic value of avoided erosion in New Zealand is therefore an important factor in policy making to optimise the soil related activities in the economy. Establishing a methodology for estimating the economic value...

  8. Society environmental economic benefits of swan-labelled workwear service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Dall, Ole; Thomsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    was funded and published by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2009-2011. The assessment illustrates the problems to find reliable documentation for the environmental performance of eco-labelled versus conventional products. The assessment mainly focuses on the use-phase since this has been proven......This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of textile supply of workwear with and without the Nordic Swan labelling scheme. The study is part of a project for development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison for product groups. The study...... to be the most important part of the lifecycle. For the use-phase a significant difference in environmental performance can be demonstrated between the European average figures and the figures for the Danish company providing the ecolabelled service. By application of the developed methodology this difference...

  9. The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3c4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W Luck

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha-1 when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha-1–$332.50 ha-1 based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25–$275 ha-1 averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision.

  10. Socio-economic, scientific, and political benefits of mycotourism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Latorre, J.; Egli, S.; Martinez-Pena, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2017), č. článku e01870. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * economic crisis * Iberian Peninsula * long-term drying * non-wood forest products * Perigord black truffle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  11. Prioritizing health system and disease burden factors: an evaluation of the net benefit of transferring health technology interventions to different districts in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamu, Shepherd; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Hongoro, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Health-care technologies (HCTs) play an important role in any country's health-care system. Zimbabwe's health-care system uses a lot of HCTs developed in other countries. However, a number of local factors have affected the absorption and use of these technologies. We therefore set out to test the hypothesis that the net benefit regression framework (NBRF) could be a helpful benefit testing model that enables assessment of intra-national variables in HCT transfer. We used an NBRF model to assess the benefits of transferring cost-effective technologies to different jurisdictions. We used the country's 57 administrative districts to proxy different jurisdictions. For the dependent variable, we combined the cost and effectiveness ratios with the districts' per capita health expenditure. The cost and effectiveness ratios were obtained from HIV/AIDS and malaria randomized controlled trials, which did either a prospective or retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. The independent variables were district demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health. The study showed that intra-national variation resulted in different net benefits of the same health technology intervention if implemented in different districts in Zimbabwe. The study showed that population data, health data, infrastructure, demographic and health-seeking behavior had significant effects on the net margin benefit for the different districts. The net benefits also differed in terms of magnitude as a result of the local factors. Net benefit testing using local data is a very useful tool for assessing the transferability and further adoption of HCTs developed elsewhere. However, adopting interventions with a positive net benefit should also not be an end in itself. Information on positive or negative net benefit could also be used to ascertain either the level of future savings that a technology can realize or the level of investment needed for the particular technology to become beneficial.

  12. Economic and medical benefits of ultrasound screenings for gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Chung-Te; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2015-03-21

    To investigate whether screening for gallstone disease was economically feasible and clinically effective. This clinical study was initially conducted in 2002 in Taipei, Taiwan. The study cohort total included 2386 healthy adults who were voluntarily admitted to a regional teaching hospital for a physical check-up. Annual follow-up screening with ultrasound sonography for gallstone disease continued until December 31, 2007. A decision analysis using the Markov Decision Model was constructed to compare different screening regimes for gallstone disease. The economic evaluation included estimates of both the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of screening for gallstone disease. Direct costs included the cost of screening, regular clinical fees, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and hospitalization. Indirect costs represent the loss of productivity attributable to the patient's disease state, and were estimated using the gross domestic product for 2011 in Taiwan. Longer time intervals in screening for gallstone disease were associated with the reduced efficacy and utility of screening and with increased cost. The cost per life-year gained (average cost-effectiveness ratio) for annual screening, biennial screening, 3-year screening, 4-year screening, 5-year screening, and no-screening was new Taiwan dollars (NTD) 39076, NTD 58059, NTD 72168, NTD 104488, NTD 126941, and NTD 197473, respectively (P cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained by annual screening was NTD 40725; biennial screening, NTD 64868; 3-year screening, NTD 84532; 4-year screening, NTD 110962; 5-year screening, NTD 142053; and for the control group, NTD 202979 (P costs in a plausible range. Routine screening regime for gallstone disease is both medically and economically valuable. Annual screening for gallstone disease should be recommended.

  13. Ecological-Economic Fisheries Management Advice—Quantification of Potential Benefits for the Case of the Eastern Baltic COD Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Voss

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishing is a social and economic activity, and consequently socio-economic considerations are important for resource management. While this is acknowledged in the theory of Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM and its sector-specific development Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management (EBFM, currently applied fishery management objectives often ignore economic considerations. Year-to-year management, however, implicitly responds to short-term economic interests, and consequently, regularly resorts to tactical short-term rather than strategic long-term decisions. The aim of this article is to introduce a new way of estimating management advice referred to as an “ecologically-constrained Maximum Economic Yield” (eMEY strategy, which takes into account ecological criteria as well as short- to medium-term economic costs. We further illustrate what net cost reductions per year are possible applying the eMEY strategy compared with the existing way of setting total allowable catches (TACs. The eMEY approach aims at maximizing the economic benefits for the fishery as well as society (consumers, while safeguarding precautionary stock sizes. Using an age-structured optimization model parameterized for the Eastern Baltic cod case study, we find that application of eMEY advice results in more stability in catch advice. Quantification and visualization of the costs of deviating from eMEY advice offers a transparent basis for evaluating decision-making outcomes. The costs of overfishing are mainly borne by the commercial fishery, while fishing less than optimal is particularly costly for the processing industry and consumers. To foster the uptake of our eMEY approach in current advice given by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES and the EU fishery management system, we suggest an easy-to-implement scheme of providing integrated advice, also accounting for economic considerations.

  14. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  15. DC Microgrids Scoping Study. Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swift, Gregory William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chatzivasileiadis, Spyridon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tschudi, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glover, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hammerstrom, Donald [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Microgrid demonstrations and deployments are expanding in US power systems and around the world. Although goals are specific to each site, these microgrids have demonstrated the ability to provide higher reliability and higher power quality than utility power systems and improved energy utilization. The vast majority of these microgrids are based on AC power transfer because this has been the traditionally dominant power delivery scheme. Independently, manufacturers, power system designers and researchers are demonstrating and deploying DC power distribution systems for applications where the end-use loads are natively DC, e.g., computers, solid-state lighting, and building networks. These early DC applications may provide higher efficiency, added flexibility, reduced capital costs over their AC counterparts. Further, when onsite renewable generation, electric vehicles and storage systems are present, DC-based microgrids may offer additional benefits. Early successes from these efforts raises a question - can a combination of microgrid concepts and DC distribution systems provide added benefits beyond what has been achieved individually?

  16. Economic benefits of productivity increases through truck-to-rail mode shift in freight transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Although the study of economic benefits of improving (or not improving) the efficiency of freight movement has been recognized as one of the critical research topic by the decision makers and researchers alike, there remains a dearth of transparent a...

  17. Economic Benefits of a Routine Second Dose of Combined Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rivière

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential economic benefits of a program for a second routine dose of combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine, administered to children in Canada.

  18. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: an assessment of net clinical benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangireddy, Sandeep R; Halperin, Jonathan L; Fuster, Valentin; Reddy, Vivek Y

    2012-11-01

    The PROTECT-AF (WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage System for Embolic Protection in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation) trial found left atrial appendage (LAA) closure an alternative to anticoagulation in selected patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). We aim to estimate the net clinical benefit (NCB) of percutaneous LAA closure. Post hoc analysis of outcomes among 707 adults with AF in the PROTECT-AF trial and 566 in the Continued Access (CAP) registry undergoing LAA closure with the Watchman device compared with sustained anticoagulation. Outcomes were ischaemic stroke, intracranial haemorrhage, major bleeding, pericardial effusion, and death, weighted to reflect the relative impact in terms of death and disability. Net clinical benefit was calculated as the sum of annualized rates of these outcomes after intervention minus rates on warfarin. The NCB of LAA closure during 1623 person-years follow-up in the trial was 1.73%/year (95% CI: -0.54 to 4.39%/year) and during 741 patient-years in the registry was 4.97%/year (95% CI: 3.07-7.15%/year). Among patients with a history of ischaemic stroke, the NCB was greater in the registry (8.68%/year, CI: 2.82-14.92%/year) than the trial (4.30%/year, CI -2.07 to 11.25%/year). In the registry, the NCB of LAA closure increased from 2.22%/year (CI: 0.27-6.01%/year) in patients with CHADS(2) scores = 1 to 6.12%/year (CI: 3.19-8.92%/year) in those with scores ≥2. Combining rates of thrombo-embolism, intracranial haemorrhage, major adverse events, and death allows objective comparison of the benefit and risk of device therapy vs. anticoagulation in patients with AF. The NCB of LAA closure is greatest for patients at a higher risk of stroke.

  19. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  20. Refining cost-effectiveness analyses using the net benefit approach and econometric methods: an example from a trial of anti-depressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Kendricks, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluation analyses can be enhanced by employing regression methods, allowing for the identification of important sub-groups and to adjust for imperfect randomisation in clinical trials or to analyse non-randomised data. To explore the benefits of combining regression techniques and the standard Bayesian approach to refine cost-effectiveness analyses using data from randomised clinical trials. Data from a randomised trial of anti-depressant treatment were analysed and a regression model was used to explore the factors that have an impact on the net benefit (NB) statistic with the aim of using these findings to adjust the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Exploratory sub-samples' analyses were carried out to explore possible differences in cost-effectiveness. Results The analysis found that having suffered a previous similar depression is strongly correlated with a lower NB, independent of the outcome measure or follow-up point. In patients with previous similar depression, adding an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to supportive care for mild-to-moderate depression is probably cost-effective at the level used by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence to make recommendations. This analysis highlights the need for incorporation of econometric methods into cost-effectiveness analyses using the NB approach.

  1. The Economic Phenomena of Net Games and of Bit Coins in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hanlin

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with a special but highly-developing industry in China, net game industry. Due to the significant construction and improvement have been happening at China since 30 years ago, and the influence of traditional culture, population boom or demographic dividend and the invasion of western technologies and cultures, net game industry, which has been only existing for less than 15 years at China, has become one of most profitable industries and changed the living of millions...

  2. Economic values of metro nature health benefits: A life course approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Marcus K. Measells; Stephen C. Grado; Alicia S.T. Robbins

    2015-01-01

    tThe presence of metro nature enables daily environmental interactions, and a substantial body of evi-dence now demonstrates that nature contact generates extensive psychosocial, cognitive, and physicalhealth and well-being benefits. Estimates of the economic values of such benefits have lagged similarvaluation efforts for environmental services (such as improved air...

  3. Environmental and economic benefits of preserving forests within urban areas: air and water quality. Chapter 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jun Wang; Ted Endreny

    2007-01-01

    Forests and trees in urban areas provide many environmental and economic benefits that can lead to improved environmental quality and human health. These benefits include improvements in air and water quality, richer terrestrial and aquatic habitat, cooler air temperatures, and reductions in building energy use, ultraviolet radiation levels, and noise. As urbanization...

  4. Cost-Savings and Economic Benefits due to the Assistive Robotic Manipulator (ARM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry J.A.; Peters, Albér

    2005-01-01

    Besides the social and personal benefits of a rehabilitation robot, the direct cost-savings and other (indirect) economic benefits, or effectiveness, are of major importance to party who pays for (or reimburses) the rehabilitation robot. This paper gives an overview of these cost-savings and, on a

  5. Epidemiology and Economic Benefits of Treating Goat Coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Izhar Ahmad Khan1 and Mansoor Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Eimeria species and to compare the efficacy of Toltrazuril and Amprolium against coccidosis. Of the total 121 fecal samples examined for Eimeria, 67 (55.99% were found infected with four species of Eimeria. Amongst the identified species, E. ninakohlyakimovae was the commonest one (49.25% followed were E. arloingi, E. caprina and E. hirci with prevalence of 44.78, 25.37 and 19.40%, respectively. Kids had significantly (P<0.05 higher prevalence of Eimeria than adults. Higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female goats. Forty five Eimeria positive animals were randomly divided into three equal groups, i.e., groups A to C. Group A was treated with Amprolium (2g/40kg BW and group B was treated with Toltrazuril (15mg/kg BW for three days each while no drug was given to Group C. On day 7 post treatment, all goats of group B stopped shedding oocysts while 8 (53.33% goats of group A stopped shedding oocysts. After the treatment, goats of group B gained 2.2 kg body weight over a period of 15 days compared 1.2 kg weight in group A. The lowest weight gain (0.5 kg was in goats of group C (untreated control. No significant difference in milk yield of the three groups was recorded. It can be concluded that control of goat coccidiosis through single treatment of Toltrazuril is economically beneficial.

  6. Evaluating the Life Cycle Environmental Benefits and Trade-Offs of Water Reuse Systems for Net-Zero Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasik, Vaclav; Anderson, Naomi E; Collinge, William O; Thiel, Cassandra L; Khanna, Vikas; Wirick, Jason; Piacentini, Richard; Landis, Amy E; Bilec, Melissa M

    2017-02-07

    Aging water infrastructure and increased water scarcity have resulted in higher interest in water reuse and decentralization. Rating systems for high-performance buildings implicitly promote the use of building-scale, decentralized water supply and treatment technologies. It is important to recognize the potential benefits and trade-offs of decentralized and centralized water systems in the context of high-performance buildings. For this reason and to fill a gap in the current literature, we completed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the decentralized water system of a high-performance, net-zero energy, net-zero water building (NZB) that received multiple green building certifications and compared the results with two modeled buildings (conventional and water efficient) using centralized water systems. We investigated the NZB's impacts over varying lifetimes, conducted a break-even analysis, and included Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. The results show that, although the NZB performs better in most categories than the conventional building, the water efficient building generally outperforms the NZB. The lifetime of the NZB, septic tank aeration, and use of solar energy have been found to be important factors in the NZB's impacts. While these findings are specific to the case study building, location, and treatment technologies, the framework for comparison of water and wastewater impacts of various buildings can be applied during building design to aid decision making. As we design and operate high-performance buildings, the potential trade-offs of advanced decentralized water treatment systems should be considered.

  7. Effects of Special Use Airspace on Economic Benefits of Direct Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Barrington, Craig; Foster, John D. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of Special Use Airspace (SUA) on direct route flights is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on evaluating operating costs of aircraft and analyzing the different ground-track distances traveled by flights under different air traffic scenarios. Using this methodology the following objectives are evaluated: optimistic bias of studies that assume accessible SUAs the maximum economic benefit of dynamic use of SUAs and the marginal economic benefit of the dynamic use of individual SUAs.

  8. Analisis Pengaruh System Quality, Information Quality, Service Quality Terhadap Net Benefit Pada Sistem KRS-Online UMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asrar Fathoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Implementasi sitem informasi KRS-Online dalam perkuliahan digunakan untuk membantu proses penyusunan KRS oleh setiap mahasiswa Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur dan menguji variabel-variabel serta indikator yang memperngaruhi kesuksesan sistem informasi KRS-Online UMM. Model penelitian ini mengadopsi model penelitian Delone and Mclean IS Success. Satu set kuisoner yang disusun dalam penelitian ini disebarkan kepada 100 responden yang memiliki kualifikasi sebagai mahasiswa pengguna sistem KRS-Online.Uji validitas dan uji reliabilitas dilakukan untuk memperoleh data yang valid dan reliabel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sistem memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan antara terhadap kepuasan pengguna, kualitas informasi memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kepuasan pengguna, kualitas layanan memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kepuasan pengguna dan kepuasan pengguna memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap net benefit. Berdasarkan hasil analisa, kesuksesan sistem informasi KRS-Online UMM memiliki presentase sebesar 70,5% yang artinya kesuksesan sistem informasi KRS-Online UMM berada pada tingkatan “sukses”.

  9. Demographic and employment shifts: implications for benefits and economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzick, M

    1993-08-01

    This Issue Brief examines factors affecting the population's age distribution and composition, such as mortality rates, fertility rates, and immigration. In addition, it examines factors affecting labor force composition, such as immigration, increased labor force participation of women, and retirement trends, and discusses the potential impact of these changes on publicly financed programs: Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and federal employee retirement systems. The discussion also highlights the implications of these population and labor force changes on employers, employees, and retirees. The elderly population--now 31.8 million, representing 12.6 percent of the population--is projected to experience tremendous growth between 2010 and 2030, when the baby boom generation reaches age 65, rising from 39.7 million, or 13.3 percent of the population, to 69.8 million, or 20.2 percent of the population. Growth in the elderly population has implications for retirement and health care systems. Population projections suggest that the traditionally pyramid-shaped work force, with a proportionately greater number of younger workers than older workers, will be replaced with a more even age distribution. Consequently, significant and continued modifications to benefit packages, such as changes in compensation structures in which earnings automatically rise with age, are likely to occur. Women's labor force participation began to accelerate in the mid-1950s, rising 75 percent among women aged 25-44 in 1991, although there is some indication that this growth may be flattening. With women comprising a greater part of the labor force, employers will be encouraged to develop and implement programs to better accommodate their needs. Increased life expectancy, a decreased percentage of entry level workers, changes in Social Security's normal retirement age from 65 to 67, and employer plans to raise the normal age of retirement or provide incentives to delay retirement, could

  10. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  11. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  13. Cost and economic benefit of clinical decision support systems for cardiovascular disease prevention: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Njie, Gibril J; Proia, Krista K; Hopkins, David P; Ross, Murray N; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Clymer, John M

    2017-05-01

    This review evaluates costs and benefits associated with acquiring, implementing, and operating clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods developed for the Community Guide were used to review CDSS literature covering the period from January 1976 to October 2015. Twenty-one studies were identified for inclusion. It was difficult to draw a meaningful estimate for the cost of acquiring and operating CDSSs to prevent CVD from the available studies ( n  = 12) due to considerable heterogeneity. Several studies ( n  = 11) indicated that health care costs were averted by using CDSSs but many were partial assessments that did not consider all components of health care. Four cost-benefit studies reached conflicting conclusions about the net benefit of CDSSs based on incomplete assessments of costs and benefits. Three cost-utility studies indicated inconsistent conclusions regarding cost-effectiveness based on a conservative $50,000 threshold. Intervention costs were not negligible, but specific estimates were not derived because of the heterogeneity of implementation and reporting metrics. Expected economic benefits from averted health care cost could not be determined with confidence because many studies did not fully account for all components of health care. We were unable to conclude whether CDSSs for CVD prevention is either cost-beneficial or cost-effective. Several evidence gaps are identified, most prominently a lack of information about major drivers of cost and benefit, a lack of standard metrics for the cost of CDSSs, and not allowing for useful life of a CDSS that generally extends beyond one accounting period.

  14. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-01-15

    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Risks of thromboembolism and bleeding with thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation: A net clinical benefit analysis using a 'real world' nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    . There was a neutral or positive net clinical benefit (ischaemic stroke vs. intracranial haemorrhage) with VKA alone in patients with a CHADS2 score of = 0, and CHA2DS2-VASc score of = 1. This large cohort study confirms the efficacy of VKA and no effect of ASA treatment on the risk of stroke/thromboembolism. Also......, the risk of bleeding was increased with both VKA and ASA treatment, but the net clinical benefit was clearly positive, in favour of VKA in patients with increased risk of stroke/thromboembolism....

  16. Recreation economic values for estimating outdoor recreation economic benefits from the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Rosenberger; Eric M. White; Jeffrey D. Kline; Claire. Cvitanovich

    2017-01-01

    Natural resource professionals are often tasked with weighing the benefits and costs of changes in ecosystem services associated with land management alternatives and decisions. In many cases, federal regulations even require land managers and planners to account for these values explicitly. Outdoor recreation is a key ecosystem service provided by national forests and...

  17. The economics of social marketing: the case of mosquito nets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikumbih, Nassor; Hanson, Kara; Mills, Anne; Mponda, Hadji; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the role of the private sector in expanding the use of key health interventions. At the policy level, this has raised questions about how public sector resources can best be used to encourage the private sector in order to achieve public health impact. Social marketing has increasingly been used to distribute public health products in developing countries. The Kilombero and Ulanga Insecticide-Treated Net Project (KINET) project used a social marketing approach in two districts of Tanzania to stimulate the development of the market for insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for malaria control. Using evidence from household surveys, focus group discussions and a costing study in the intervention area and a control area, this paper examines two issues: (1) How does social marketing affect the market for ITNs, where this is described in terms of price and coverage levels; and (2) What does the added cost of social marketing "buy" in terms of coverage and equity, compared with an unassisted commercial sector model? It appears that supply improved in both areas, although there was a greater increase in supply in the intervention area. However, the main impact of social marketing on the market for nets was to shift demand in the intervention district, leading to a higher coverage market outcome. While social marketing was more costly per net distributed than the unassisted commercial sector, higher overall levels of coverage were achieved in the social marketing area together with higher coverage of the lowest socioeconomic group, of pregnant women and children under 5 years, and of those living on the periphery of their villages. These findings are interpreted in the context of Tanzania's national plan for scaling up ITNs.

  18. Comparing socio-economic benefits and risks of chemicals using socio-economic analysis in the context of REACH

    OpenAIRE

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    International audience; According to the definition given by the European Chemicals Agency1 , socio-economic analysis (SEA) is a method to evaluate what costs and benefits an action will create for society by comparing what will happen if this action is implemented as compared to the situation where it is not. The analysis typically attempts to include also those effects that are indirect or incompletely reflected by market transactions.

  19. Making long-term economic growth more sustainable. Evaluating the costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sardar M.N.; Clarke, Matthew [Sustainable Economic Growth Program, Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, City Campus, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia); Munasinghe, Mohan [Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND), Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2003-12-01

    Currently, traditional development issues such as economic stagnation, poverty, hunger, and illness as well as newer challenges like environmental degradation and globalisation demand attention. Sustainable development, including its economic, environmental and social elements, is a key goal of decisionmakers. Optimal economic growth has also been a crucial goal of both development theorists and practitioners. This paper examines the conditions under which optimal growth might be sustainable, by assessing the costs and benefits of growth. Key environmental and social aspects are considered. The Ecol-Opt-Growth-1 model analyses economic-ecological interactions, including resource depletion, pollution, irreversibility, other environmental effects, and uncertainty. It addresses some important issues, including savings, investment, technical progress, substitutability of productive factors, intergenerational efficiency, equity, and policies to make economic growth more sustainable-a basic element of the sustainomics framework. The empirical results support growing concerns that costs of growth may outweigh its benefits, resulting in unsustainability. Basically, in a wide range of circumstances, long term economic growth is unsustainable due to increasing environmental damage. Nevertheless, the model has many options that can be explored by policy makers, to make the development path more sustainable, as advocated by sustainomics. One example suggests that government supported abatement programs are needed to move towards sustainable development, since the model runs without abatement were infeasible. The optimal rate of abatement increases over time. Abatement of pollution is necessary to improve ecosystem viability and increase sustainability. Further research is necessary to seek conditions under which alternative economic growth paths are likely to become sustainable.

  20. Economic benefit assignment in environmental cost allocation: toward a suggestion model:

    OpenAIRE

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to suggest a model to reward a ‘dirty product’ which has the potential to offer sales promotion services to other ‘clean products’ in a multiple product firm. The paper suggests a model – economic benefit assignment (EBA) for apportionment of direct waste costs where a polluting product offers a sales promotion benefit to other ‘clean products’ of the same company, which proposes that benefiting products should be assigned a proportion of the direct waste cost of the polluting...

  1. Economic benefits of capital bikeshare : a focus on users and businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates potential economic benefits of bike sharing on the neighborhood level. Using a sample of five Capital Bikeshare (CaBi) stations in Washington, DC, we conducted an intercept survey of 333 bikeshare users at five CaBi stations a...

  2. Social Work's Response to Poverty: From Benefits Dependence to Economic Self-Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lauren B.; Koza, Jennifer; Akabas, Sheila H.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare reform in the 1990s represented a fundamental policy shift in the United States' response to poverty from supporting benefits dependency to promoting economic self-sufficiency. Social work's capacity to integrate this policy shift into practice is central to meeting its mission to alleviate poverty. This study looked at the preparation of…

  3. Net financial benefits of averting HIV infections among people who inject drugs in Urumqi, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China (2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Mingjian J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To quantify the contribution of locally implemented prevention programmes in contributing to reductions in treatment and care costs by averting HIV infections among those who inject drugs this study calculates net financial benefit of providing harm reduction programmes using information from services being implemented in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China ( between 2005 and 2010. Methods Information was collected to assess cost of providing methadone treatment (MMT and needle and syringe programmes (NSP. HIV incidence was estimated among people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV infections averted were calculated. Net benefit was assessed by estimating costs of providing prevention programmes and comparing these to the costs of providing care. Results An estimated 5678 (range 3982–7599 HIV infections were averted between 2005 and 2010 and the net financial benefit of providing harm reduction programmes compared to treatment and care costs for HIV infections averted was USD 4.383 million during the same time period. Conclusion These results demonstrate the net and accumulating benefit of investing in harm reduction programmes for PWID in Urumqi. The return on investment progressively increased during the time period studied and it is clear that these cost savings will continue to accrue with the continued implementation of HIV prevention interventions in the community that include harm reduction programmes targeted at PWID.

  4. Economic Benefits Generated by Protected Areas: the Case of the Hoge Veluwe Forest, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Hein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Eliciting the economic benefits provided by protected areas is important in order to ensure that they are properly considered in policy and decision making. There are relatively few studies that provide a comprehensive overview of the economic benefits provided by European forest ecosystems, in spite of the large share of forests in the protected area system in most countries. An economic valuation of the ecosystem services supplied by the Hoge Veluwe forest in the Netherlands is presented. The Hoge Veluwe forest is one of the largest and most well-known protected areas in the country. The services included in the study are wood production, supply of game, groundwater recharge, carbon sequestration, air filtration, recreation, and nature conservation. A conservative estimate of the total economic benefits generated by the forest is around 2000 Euro/ha/year, which is more than three times higher than the per hectare-value generated by nearby agricultural land. The study provides an analysis of the economic value of eight ecosystem services, discusses the uncertainties of the value estimates, and examines the implications for financing protected area management.

  5. A net clinical benefit analysis of warfarin and aspirin on stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a nested case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azoulay Laurent

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the management of patients treated with anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs entails balancing coagulation levels, we evaluated the net clinical benefit of warfarin and aspirin on stroke in a large cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. Methods A population-based cohort study of all patients at least 18 years of age with a first-ever diagnosis of chronic AF during the period 1993–2008 was conducted within the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. A nested case–control analysis was conducted to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage associated with the use of warfarin and aspirin. Cases were matched up to 10 controls on age, sex, and date of cohort entry. The adjusted net clinical benefit of warfarin and aspirin (expressed as the number of strokes prevented per 100 persons per year was calculated by subtracting the ischemic stroke rate (prevented by therapy from the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH rate (increased by therapy. Results The cohort included 70,766 patients newly-diagnosed with chronic AF, of whom 5519 experienced an ischemic stroke and 689 an ICH during follow-up. The adjusted net clinical benefit of warfarin was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.73. However, the benefit was not seen for patients below (0.08, 95%: -0.38, 0.54 and above (−0.49, 95% CI: -1.13, 0.15 therapeutic range. The net clinical benefit of warfarin, apparent after 3 months of continuous use, increased as a function of CHADS2 score. The net clinical benefit was not significant with aspirin (−0.07, 95% CI: -0.22, 0.08, though it was seen in certain subgroups. Conclusions Warfarin provides a net clinical benefit in patients with atrial fibrillation, which is maintained with longer duration of use, particularly when used within therapeutic range. A similar net effect is not as clear with aspirin.

  6. Big Numbers about Small Children: Estimating the Economic Benefits of Addressing Undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Puett, Chloe

    2017-02-01

    Different approaches have been used to estimate the economic benefits of reducing undernutrition and to estimate the costs of investing in such programs on a global scale. While many of these studies are ultimately based on evidence from well-designed efficacy trials, all require a number of assumptions to project the impact of such trials to larger populations and to translate the value of the expected improvement in nutritional status into economic terms. This paper provides a short critique of some approaches to estimating the benefits of investments in child nutrition and then presents an alternative set of estimates based on different core data. These new estimates reinforce the basic conclusions of the existing literature: the economic value from reducing undernutrition in undernourished populations is likely to be substantial.

  7. ANALYSIS ON ECONOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF ARTIFICIAL CORAL REEFS PLANTING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilo E.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversion activities of mangrove forest area into plantation area at Damas Beach has caused sedimentational effect on the coral reefs and the increasing ecosystem damages in the coral reefs ecosystem, which in turn will affect on the decreasing yields of fishermen. This condition has caused vulnerability to the decline of fish resources as the ecosystem has been damaged. The alternative through planting the artificial coral reefs is one way to improve the ecosystem of the damaged coral reefs. This study analyzes the economic and ecological benefits of coral reef reforestation. Based on the results of the analysis, it was obtained that the artificial coral reefs of 9 sq. m. with a length of 8.3 m has been assumed to produce direct benefits in the form of ornamental fish production, while the indirect benefits are as living fish habitat, coastal protection and carbon sinks with the total economic value of IDR 4,580,344.18 per year.

  8. Socio-Economic Benefits of Bamboo-Craft Entrepreneurship: The Case of Rinconada Bamboo Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Barandon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available –Bamboo entrepreneurship is one of the key instruments in uplifting the socio-economic status of the poor and under privileged people in Rinconada area. This study evaluated the socioeconomic benefits of bamboo craft making on the entrepreneurs of the district. Using descriptive-survey, data were obtained from 60 purposely chosen bamboo entrepreneurs from a list given by the Department of Trade of Industry. A 12-item researcher-made questionnaire was the main gathering tool supported by interview and observation. Results revealed that the social benefits derived by the bamboo entrepreneurs can able to communicate to more networks, adequate support to education of children is being provided, and television sets, while economic benefits is having their own house with sanitation. The bamboo entrepreneurs can satisfy the hierarchy of needs for shelter, security and social communication.

  9. Health and economic benefits of improved injury prevention and trauma care worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Kotagal

    Full Text Available Injury is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and often disproportionately affects younger, more productive members of society. While many have made the case for improved injury prevention and trauma care, health system development in low- and middle-income countries is often limited by resources. This study aims to determine the economic benefit of improved injury prevention and trauma care in low- and middle-income countries.This study uses existing data on injury mortality worldwide from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate the number of lives that could be saved if injury mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries could be reduced to rates in high-income countries. Using economic modeling--through the human capital approach and the value of a statistical life approach--the study then demonstrates the associated economic benefit of these lives saved.88 percent of injury-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. If injury mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries were reduced to rates in high-income countries, 2,117,500 lives could be saved per year. This would result in between 49 million and 52 million disability adjusted life years averted per year, with discounting and age weighting. Using the human capital approach, the associated economic benefit of reducing mortality rates ranges from $245 to $261 billion with discounting and age weighting. Using the value of a statistical life approach, the benefit is between 758 and 786 billion dollars per year.Reducing injury mortality in low- and middle-income countries could save over 2 million lives per year and provide significant economic benefit globally. Further investments in trauma care and injury prevention are needed.

  10. Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Line; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kargo, Morten

    2015-01-01

    simulates the parity distribution of the dams of heifer calves. The ADAM program estimates genetic merit per year in a herd under different strategies for use of sexed semen and genomic tests. The annual net return per slot was calculated as the sum of operational return and value of genetic lag minus costs......Until now, genomic information has mainly been used to improve the accuracy of genomic breeding values for breeding animals at a population level. However, we hypothesize that the use of information from genotyped females also opens up the possibility of reducing genetic lag in a dairy herd......, especially if genomic tests are used in combination with sexed semen or a high management level for reproductive performance, because both factors provide the opportunity for generating a reproductive surplus in the herd. In this study, sexed semen is used in combination with beef semen to produce high-value...

  11. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  12. Incremental Benefit-Cost of MOMCare: Collaborative Care for Perinatal Depression Among Economically Disadvantaged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Nancy K; Simon, Gregory E; Russo, Joan; Lohr, Mary Jane; Carson, Kathy; Katon, Wayne

    2017-11-01

    Effectiveness of collaborative care for perinatal depression has been demonstrated for MOMCare, from early pregnancy up to 15 months postpartum, for Medicaid enrollees in a public health system. MOMCare had a greater impact on reducing depression and improving functioning for women with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than for those without PTSD. This study estimated the incremental benefit and cost and the net benefit of MOMCare for women with major depression and PTSD. A randomized trial (September 2009 to December 2014) compared the MOMCare collaborative care depression intervention (choice of brief interpersonal psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy or both) with enhanced maternity support services (MSS-Plus) in the public health system of Seattle-King County. Among pregnant women with a probable diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia (N=164), two-thirds (N=106) met criteria for probable PTSD. Blinded assessments at three, six, 12, and 18 months postbaseline included the Symptom Checklist-20 depression scale and the Cornell Services Index. Analyses of covariance estimated gain in depression free days (DFDs) by intervention and PTSD status. When the analysis controlled for baseline depression severity, women with probable depression and PTSD in MOMCare had 68 more depression-free days over 18 months than those in MSS-Plus (p<.05). The additional depression care cost per MOMCare participant with comorbid PTSD was $1,312. The incremental net benefit of MOMCare was positive if a DFD was valued at ≥$20. For women with probable major depression and PTSD, MOMCare had significant clinical benefit over MSS-Plus, with only a moderate increase in health services cost.

  13. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Oliver

    Full Text Available Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a fishery catches and (b village fishery income, such that (c economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months.Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, p<0.0001; CPUE: +87%, p<0.0001; n = 36. Open-access control sites showed no before/after change when they occurred independently of other management ("no ban", n = 17/36. On the other hand, open-access control sites showed modest catch increases when they extended a 6-week seasonal fishery shutdown ("ban", n = 19/36. The seasonal fishery shutdown affects the entire region, so confound all potential control sites.In villages implementing a closure, octopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28. Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events.Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly. Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance.We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  14. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  15. Efficiency and economic benefits of skipjack pole and line (huhate) in central Moluccas, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahainenia, Stevanus M.; Hiariey, Johanis; Baskoro, Mulyono S.; Waeleruny, Wellem

    2017-10-01

    Excess fishing capacity is a crucial problem in marine capture fisheries. This phenomenon needed to be investigated regarding sustainability and development of the fishery. This research was aimed at analyzing technical efficiency (TE) and computing financial aspects of the skipjack pole and line. Primary data were collected from the owners of the fishing units at the different size of gross boat tonnage (GT), while secondary data were gathered from official publications relating to this research. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach was applied to estimate technical efficiency whereas a selected financial analysis was utilized to calculate economic benefits of the skipjack pole and line business. The fishing units with a size of 26-30 GT provided a higher TE value, and also achieved larger economic benefit values than that of the other fishing units. The empirical results indicate that skipjack pole and line in the size of 26-30 GT is a good fishing gear for the business development in central Moluccas.

  16. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  17. Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell

    2007-08-01

    Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may

  18. Economic benefits of combined technologies: Electric vehicles and PV solar power

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen; VAN PASSEL, Steven; Lizin, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    To counter global warming, people combine renewable technologies to obtain an integrated unit that is environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on identifying economic benefits of combined technologies by answering the research question: Given an initial investment capital I0 to invest in N several clean technologies, would it be most profitable to invest the entire amount in one separate technology or in the combination? Based on a comprehensive case study -electric vehicles combined...

  19. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A. [Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA (United States); Schoenung, S.M. [Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to supplying pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supplying distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking needs to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs.

  20. The recent and projected public health and economic benefits of cigarette taxation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Vardavas, Constantine I; Chaloupka, Frank J; Vozikis, Athanassios; Athanasakis, Konstantinos; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis; Bertic, Monique; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-09-01

    Greece is in an economic crisis compounded by the costs caused by smoking. The present investigation estimates the economic and public health benefits ensuing from the recent cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 and projects the potential benefits from an additional €2.00 per pack cigarette tax increase. The effects of the recent cigarette excise tax increase were calculated on outcome measures: total price per pack, including specific excise, ad valorem tax, and value-added tax consumption; tax revenue; and per capita consumption of cigarettes. Additionally, smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses were estimated. Projected effects of an additional €2.00 per pack tax increase on consumption and tax revenue were also assessed. The cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 created €558 million in new tax revenue. Cigarette consumption reached a recent low of 24.9 billion sticks sold or 2197 sticks per person in 2011, indicating a 16% decrease in per capita cigarette consumption from the previous year. An additional €2.00 per pack increase in Greek cigarette taxes is projected to result in reduced cigarette sales by an additional 20% and lead to an increase in total cigarette tax revenues by nearly €1.2 billion and the prevention of 192,000 premature deaths. Nations such as Greece, should employ taxation as a crucial measure to promote public health and economic development in such dire times. International economic organisations should aggressively pursue programmes and policies that champion the economic benefits of tobacco taxation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Prefrontal connections express individual differences in intrinsic resistance to trading off honesty values against economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Azade; Morishima, Yosuke; Heise, Felix; Tanner, Carmen; Gibson, Rajna; Wagner, Alexander F; Tobler, Philippe N

    2016-09-20

    Individuals differ profoundly when they decide whether to tell the truth or to be dishonest, particularly in situations where moral motives clash with economic motives, i.e., when truthfulness comes at a monetary cost. These differences should be expressed in the decision network, particularly in prefrontal cortex. However, the interactions between the core players of the decision network during honesty-related decisions involving trade-offs with economic costs remain poorly understood. To investigate brain connectivity patterns associated with individual differences in responding to economic costs of truthfulness, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and measured brain activations, while participants made decisions concerning honesty. We found that in participants who valued honesty highly, dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of prefrontal cortex were more tightly coupled with the inferior frontal cortex when economic costs were high compared to when they were low. Finer-grained analysis revealed that information flow from the inferior frontal cortex to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bidirectional information flow between the inferior frontal cortex and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was associated with a reduced tendency to trade off honesty for economic benefits. Our findings provide a novel account of the neural circuitry that underlies honest decisions in the face of economic temptations.

  2. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S. J.; Yoo, S. H.; Han, S. Y.; Do, G. W.; Lee, J. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  4. Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L

    2005-11-15

    Economic research on biodiversity conservation has focused on the costs of conservation reserves and the benefits of intact ecosystems; however, no study has simultaneously considered the costs and benefits of species diversity, a fundamental component of biodiversity. We quantified the costs and benefits of avian biodiversity at a rainforest reserve in Uganda through a combination of economic surveys of tourists, spatial land-use analyses, and species-area relationships. Our results show that revising entrance fees and redistributing ecotourism revenues would protect 114 of 143 forest bird species (80%) under current market conditions. This total would increase to 131 species (approximately 90%) if entrance fees were optimized to capture the tourist's willingness to pay for forest visits and the chance of seeing increased numbers of bird species. In contrast, the cost of purchasing agricultural land for ecological rehabilitation of the avian habitat would be economically prohibitive. These results suggest that local biodiversity markets could play a positive role in tropical conservation strategies if the appropriate institutions for redistribution can be developed.

  5. Effects of initial aquifer conditions on economic benefits from groundwater conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozović, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, there is growing recognition of the need to reduce agricultural groundwater use in response to rapid rates of aquifer depletion. To date, however, few studies have evaluated how benefits of conservation vary along an aquifer's depletion pathway. To address this question, we develop an integrated modeling framework that couples an agro-economic model of farmers' field-level irrigation decision-making with a borehole-scale groundwater flow model. Unique to this framework is the explicit consideration of the dynamic reductions in well yields that occur as an aquifer is depleted, and how these changes in intraseasonal groundwater supply affect farmers' ability to manage production risks caused by climate variability and, in particular, drought. For an illustrative case study in the High Plains region of the U.S., we apply our model to analyze the value of groundwater conservation activities for different initial aquifer conditions. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of initial conditions for which reducing pumping will have long-term economic benefits for farmers by slowing reductions in well yields and prolonging the usable lifetime of an aquifer for high-value irrigated agriculture. In contrast, restrictions on pumping that are applied too early or too late will provide limited welfare benefits. We suggest, therefore, that there are "windows of opportunity" to implement groundwater conservation, which will depend on complex feedbacks between local hydrology, climate, crop growth, and economics.

  6. Further limiting bisphenol a in food uses could provide health and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and the linings of aluminum cans, may have adverse health consequences. The Food and Drug Administration has banned BPA from baby bottles and sippy cups but has deferred further action on other food uses-that is, uses in metal-based food and beverage containers. This article quantifies the potential social costs of childhood obesity and adult coronary heart disease attributable to BPA exposure in the United States in 2008 and models the potential health and economic benefits associated with replacing BPA in all food uses. BPA exposure was estimated to be associated with 12,404 cases of childhood obesity and 33,863 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease, with estimated social costs of $2.98 billion in 2008. Removing BPA from food uses might prevent 6,236 cases of childhood obesity and 22,350 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease per year, with potential annual economic benefits of $1.74 billion (sensitivity analysis: $889 million-$13.8 billion per year). Although more data are needed, these potentially large health and economic benefits could outweigh the costs of using a safer substitute for BPA.

  7. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Ke, Jing; Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-12-02

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as “economic savings potential”. So far, the Indian market has responded favorably to government efficiency initiatives, with Indian manufacturers producing a higher fraction of high-efficiency equipment than before program implementation. This study highlights both the financial benefit and the scope of potential impact for adopting this equipment, all of which is already readily available on the market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short-term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The Business Case concentrates on technologies for which cost-effectiveness can be clearly demonstrated.

  8. Effects of tillage practices and straw returning methods on greenhouse gas emissions and net ecosystem economic budget in rice-wheat cropping systems in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Guo, L. J.; Liu, T. Q.; Li, C. F.; Cao, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted to assess the effects of conservation tillage (no-tillage [NT] and straw returning) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and net economic budget in crop growing seasons. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effects conservation tillage on the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB) in a rice-wheat cropping system. Therefore, a split-plot field experiment was performed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of tillage practices (i.e., conventional intensive tillage [CT] and NT) and straw returning methods (i.e., straw returning or removal of preceding crop) on the soil total organic carbon (TOC), GHG emissions, GWP, GHGI, and NEEB of sandy loam soil in a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Conservation tillage did not affect rice and wheat grain yields. Compared with CT and straw removal, NT and straw returning significantly increased the TOC of 0-5 cm soil layer by 2.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the TOC of 0-20 cm soil layer was not affected by tillage practices and straw returning methods. NT did not also affect the N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons; NT significantly decreased the annual CH4 emissions by 7.5% and the annual GWP by 7.8% compared with CT. Consequently, GHGI under NT was reduced by 8.1%. Similar to NT, straw returning did not affect N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons. Compared with straw removal, straw returning significantly increased annual CH4 emissions by 35.0%, annual GWP by 32.0%, and annual GHGI by 31.1%. Straw returning did not also affect NEEB; by contrast, NT significantly increased NEEB by 15.6%. NT without straw returning resulted in the lowest GWP, the lowest GHGI, and the highest NEEB among all treatments. This finding suggested that NT without straw returning may be applied as a sustainable technology to increase economic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, environmentally straw

  9. Application of System Dynamics to Evaluate the Social and Economic Benefits of Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiep Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA is often employed to inform decision makers about the desirability of transport infrastructure investment options. One of the main limitations of traditional CBA approaches is that they do not provide a dynamic view that explicitly illustrates the cost and benefit relationships between component entities over time. This paper addresses this issue by describing a System Dynamics (SD approach that can perform transport infrastructure CBA through the application of systems thinking to develop a causal-loop model that can subsequently be operationalised into an executable stock-and-flow model. Execution of this model readily enables sensitivity analysis of infrastructure investment options and visualisation of the cost-benefit behaviour of each variant over time. The utility of the approach is illustrated through a case study, the Co Chien Bridge project in Vietnam, using a model that incorporates conventional economic metrics and factors that measure indirect project benefits, such as impact on gross domestic product, unemployment rate, and total taxes gained from affected economic sectors.

  10. Assessing the economic benefits of vaccines based on the health investment life course framework: a review of a broader approach to evaluate malaria vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna

    2015-03-24

    Economic evaluations have routinely understated the net benefits of vaccination by not including the full range of economic benefits that accrue over the lifetime of a vaccinated person. Broader approaches for evaluating benefits of vaccination can be used to more accurately calculate the value of vaccination. This paper reflects on the methodology of one such approach - the health investment life course approach - that looks at the impact of vaccine investment on lifetime returns. The role of this approach on vaccine decision-making will be assessed using the malaria health investment life course model example. We describe a framework that measures the impact of a health policy decision on government accounts over many generations. The methodological issues emerging from this approach are illustrated with an example from a recently completed health investment life course analysis of malaria vaccination in Ghana. Beyond the results, various conceptual and practical challenges of applying this framework to Ghana are discussed in this paper. The current framework seeks to understand how disease and available technologies can impact a range of economic parameters such as labour force participation, education, healthcare consumption, productivity, wages or economic growth, and taxation following their introduction. The framework is unique amongst previous economic models in malaria because it considers future tax revenue for governments. The framework is complementary to cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis. The intent of this paper is to stimulate discussion on how existing and new methodology can add to knowledge regarding the benefits from investing in new and underutilized vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of benefit and economic value between two sound therapy tinnitus management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Craig W; Sandridge, Sharon A

    2012-02-01

    Sound therapy coupled with appropriate counseling has gained widespread acceptance in the audiological management of tinnitus. For many years, ear level sound generators (SGs) have been used to provide masking relief and to promote tinnitus habituation. More recently, an alternative treatment device was introduced, the Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment (NTT), which employs spectrally-modified music in an acoustic desensitization approach in order to help patients overcome the disturbing consequences of tinnitus. It is unknown, however, if one treatment plan is more efficacious and cost-effective in comparison to the other. In today's economic climate, it has become critical that clinicians justify the value of tinnitus treatment devices in relation to observed benefit. To determine perceived benefit from, and economic value associated with, two forms of sound therapy, namely, SGs and NTT. Retrospective between-subject clinical study. A sample of convenience comprised of 56 patients drawn from the Tinnitus Management Clinic at the Cleveland Clinic participated. Twenty-three patients selected SGs, and 33 patients selected NTT as their preferred sound therapy treatment option. Sound therapy benefit was quantified using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). The questionnaire was administered before and 6 mo after initiation of tinnitus treatment. Prior to device fitting, all patients participated in a 1.5 hr group education session about tinnitus and its management. Economic value comparisons between sound therapy options were made using a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA). THI scores indicated a significant improvement (p 0.05) between the treatment alternatives at baseline or 6 mo postfitting. The magnitude of improvement for both SGs and NTT was dependent on initial perceived tinnitus handicap. Based on the CEA and CUA economic analyses alone, it appears that the SGs may be the more cost-effective alternative; however, the magnitude of

  12. Applying the net-benefit framework for analyzing and presenting cost-effectiveness analysis of a maternal and newborn health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounton, Sennen; Newlands, David

    2012-01-01

    Coverage of maternal and newborn health (MNH) interventions is often influenced by important determinants and decision makers are often concerned with equity issues. The net-benefit framework developed and applied alongside clinical trials and in pharmacoeconomics offers the potential for exploring how cost-effectiveness of MNH interventions varies at the margin by important covariates as well as for handling uncertainties around the ICER estimate. We applied the net-benefit framework to analyze cost-effectiveness of the Skilled Care Initiative and assessed relative advantages over a standard computation of incremental cost effectiveness ratios. Household and facility surveys were carried out from January to July 2006 in Ouargaye district (where the Skilled Care Initiative was implemented) and Diapaga (comparison site) district in Burkina Faso. Pregnancy-related and perinatal mortality were retrospectively assessed and data were collected on place of delivery, education, asset ownership, place, and distance to health facilities, costs borne by households for institutional delivery, and cost of standard provision of maternal care. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. There was a 30% increase in institutional births in the intervention district compared to 10% increase in comparison district, and a significant reduction of perinatal mortality rates (OR 0.75, CI 0.70-0.80) in intervention district. The incremental cost for achieving one additional institutional delivery in Ouargaye district compared to Diapaga district was estimated to be 170 international dollars and varied significantly by covariates. However, the joint probability distribution (net-benefit framework) of the effectiveness measure (institutional delivery), the cost data and covariates indicated distance to health facilities as the single most important determinant of the cost-effectiveness analysis with implications for policy making. The net-benefit framework, the application of which

  13. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  14. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica: Ecosystem services identification and economic evaluation of goods and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Carole Sylvie; Salles, Jean-Michel; Boissery, Pierre; Deter, Julie

    2015-08-15

    Posidonia oceanica is a marine angiosperm endemic from the Mediterranean. Despite their protection, its meadows are regressing. The economic valuation of ecosystem services (ES) assesses the contribution of ecosystems to human well-being and may provide local policy makers help in territorial development. To estimate the economic value of P. oceanica seagrass and the meadows that it forms to better account its presence in coastal development, identification and assessment of ES provided are first performed. Then goods and benefits (GB) and their economical values are estimated. In total, 25ES are identified and 7GB are economically evaluated. The economic value of GB provided by P. oceanica ranges between 25.3 million and 45.9 million€/year which means 283-513€/ha/year. Because of the lack of existing available data, only 7GB linked to 11/25ES have been estimated. Despite this overall undervaluation, this study offers a value for coastal development policies to take into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health and Economic Benefits of Reducing the Number of Students per Classroom in US Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Woolf, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the costs associated with reducing class sizes in kindergarten through grade 3 as well as the effects of small class sizes on selected outcomes such as quality-adjusted life-years and future earnings. Methods. We used multiple data sets to predict changes in the outcomes assessed according to level of educational attainment. We then used a Markov model to estimate future costs and benefits incurred and quality-adjusted life-years gained per additional high school graduate produced over time. Results. From a societal perspective (incorporating earnings and health outcomes), class-size reductions would generate a net cost savings of approximately $168 000 and a net gain of 1.7 quality-adjusted life-years for each high school graduate produced by small classes. When targeted to low-income students, the estimated savings would increase to $196 000 per additional graduate. From a governmental perspective (incorporating public expenditures and revenues), the results of reducing class sizes ranged from savings in costs to an additional cost of $15000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Conclusions. Reducing class sizes may be more cost-effective than most public health and medical interventions. PMID:17901430

  16. Estimate of technical and economic benefits of a new space composite structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasii Grygorii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a problem of excessive laboriousness and materials consumption resulting from irrational using of materials in construction. This situation is caused by inconsistencies existing structural concepts to modern requirements of construction industry. It has a direct impact on the overall implementation cost of the project. That is why there is a need for a new structure, which makes it possible to save materials and reduce a construction complexity. Such structure is the new space composite structure. There is summary information about the estimate of technical and economic benefits of a new space composite structure in the paper. Task of paper is arrangement information about estimate of technical and economic benefits of a new space composite structure. Based on the previous research results, there is the optimum ratio for the structure in the paper; also, a relationship between the depth of the module and the span for the new space composite structure were defined. The estimate of both the technical-economic parameters and the advantages of the new space composite structure were described. The estimation results show the effectiveness of the new space composite structure to 10%-37% compared to traditional reinforced concrete structures.

  17. Measuring the patient health, societal and economic benefits of US pediatric therapeutics legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Shortenhaus, Scott H; Mayer, Mark H; Allen, Albert J; Golec, Joseph H

    2012-10-01

    Through at least the mid-1990s, children were often referred to as 'therapeutic orphans' for whom many treatments were administered without the benefit of appropriate studies to guide drug labeling for dosing and other critical therapeutic decisions. At that time, there were no incentives for manufacturers to pursue such work, nor regulatory requirements to compel these studies. Congress addressed this by including an important provision titled the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) in the 1997 Food and Drug Administration Modernization and Accountability Act. This was complemented by another key piece of legislation, the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) in 2003. The former Act and its successors created an incentive for firms to study on-patent drugs in pediatric populations by extending the market exclusivity of a medicine by 6 months. The latter was a requirement that provided the US FDA with the authority to require studies of drugs in children if an adult indication also occurs in children. In the current paper, we consider the effects of both pieces of legislation in terms of the health, societal, and economic benefits they have likely imparted and will continue to provide in the future. We conclude that the gains have been substantial - both in terms of safer and more effective use of medicines in children and in terms of new research that has been incentivized by the BPCA exclusivity provision. We estimate the gross economic benefits from the latter alone to be approximately $US360 billion.

  18. Macro-economic benefit analysis of large scale building energy efficiency programs in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Krarti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the economic, environmental, and social benefits of large-scale energy efficiency programs for new and existing buildings in Qatar. Using data obtained from detailed energy audits, several proven energy efficiency measures have been analyzed through optimized based analysis to assess their impact on the energy performance for both new and existing buildings in Qatar. Moreover, a bottom-up analysis approach is considered to quantify the multiple benefits for implementing large-scale building energy efficiency programs for the building stock in Qatar. In particular, a more stringent energy efficiency code for the new constructions and three energy retrofit levels for the existing buildings are considered in the analysis. A novel macro-economic analysis using the concept of energy productivity is used to assess the cost-benefit of large-scale energy efficiency programs in Qatar. It is determined that the implementation of a government funded large-scale energy retrofit program for the existing building stock is highly cost-effective in Qatar. In particular, it is found that a large-scale energy efficiency retrofit program of existing buildings can provide a reduction of 11,000 GWh in annual electricity consumption and 2500 MW in peak demand as well as over 5400 kilo-ton per year in carbon emissions. In addition, over 4000 jobs per year can be created when this large-scale energy retrofit program is implemented over 10-year period.

  19. Net clinical benefit of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Victoria; Banerjee, Amitava; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Patel, Riyaz; Denaxas, Spiros; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Hemingway, Harry

    2017-02-01

    To investigate net clinical benefit (NCB) of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care. We conducted a linked electronic health record cohort study of 70 206 individuals with initial record of diagnosis of AF in primary (n=29 568) or secondary care (n=40 638) in England (1998-2010). We defined stroke risk according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score, and followed individuals over a median 2.2 years for 7005 ischaemic strokes (IS) and for 906 haemorrhagic strokes (HS). We calculated incidence rates (IRs) and 95% CIs per 100 person-years (PYs) (IR (95% CI)/100 PY) of IS and HS, with and without use of warfarin, and the NCB (ie, number of IS avoided) per 100 PYs of warfarin use (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY). Compared with individuals with initial record of diagnosis in secondary care, those in primary care had lower scores of IS risk (CHA2DS2-VASc≤2: 30.8% vs 20.6%), and lower overall incidence of IS (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 2.3 (2.2 to 2.4) vs 4.3 (4.2 to 4.4), p value=0.00); however among individuals with CHA2DS2-VASc=0, 1 or 2 there were no differences in IS rate between those with initial record of diagnosis in primary care or secondary care (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) vs 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5), p value=0.16), (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.6 (0.4 to 0.7) vs 0.7 (0.6 to 0.9), p value=0.08) and (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 1.1 (1.00 to 1.3) vs 1.4 (1.2 to 1.6), p value=0.05), respectively. For CHA2DS2-VASc=0, 1 and 2, IRs of IS with versus without warfarin were (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.4 (0.2 to 0.8) vs 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3), p value=0.16), (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.4 (0.3 to 0.7) vs 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8), p value=0.03) and (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.8 (0.7 to 1.0) vs 1.4 (1.3 to 1.6), p value=0.00), respectively. We found a significant positive NCB of warfarin from CHA2DS2-VASc≥2 in men (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.5 (0.1 to 0.9)) and from CHA2DS2-VASc≥3 in women (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY: 1.5 (1.1 to 1.9)). CHA2DS2-VASc

  20. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  1. The household-level economics of using permethrin-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in children less than five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltzer, Martin I.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Odhacha, Amos; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Vulule, John M.; Alaii, Jane A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hawley, William A.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.

    2003-01-01

    We measured the two-week household-level economic impact of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) used to prevent malaria among children less than five years of age in Asembo, Kenya. The ITNs induced a two-week reduction of 15 Kenyan shillings (KSH) (0.25 U.S. dollars; P < 0.0001) in

  2. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  3. Enhancing identified circular economic benefits related to the deployment off Solrød biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    This paper investigates how experiences from the deployment of Solrød biogas plant in Denmark - a large scale centralized biogas plant - can assist future biogas technologies in achieving Circular Economic benefits. Departing from a theoretical understanding of Circular Economy provided by Ellen...... MacArthur Foundation, the paper analysis three areas being; 1) Biogas production, 2) Nitrogen, Phosphor & GHG, 3) Re-cycle/cascade materials, and consequently elaborate on the environmental benefits obtained, as far as CO2 emission reductions from biogas production substituting fossil fuels, improved...... Biogas, this paper further proposes to include the following activities when planning for future biogas plants: Waste-stream identification and coupling in the local community; Measuring the value of digestate as fertilizer; Short distance to farmers delivering manure; and Plant design according to local...

  4. Framework for economic pluvial flood risk assessment considering climate change effects and adaptation benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the water cycle by influencing the precipitation patterns. It is important to integrate the anticipated changes into the design of urban drainage in response to the increased risk level in cities. This paper presents a pluvial flood risk assessment framework...... to identify and assess adaptation options in the urban context. An integrated approach is adopted by incorporating climate change impact assessment, flood inundation modeling, economic tool, and risk assessment, hereby developing a step-by-step process for cost-benefit assessment of climate change adaptation...

  5. Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

  6. Cost Benefit Analyses of Developing a Legislation to Attract Non-Resident High Net Worth Individuals to Use Estonian Private Foundation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Kaarlep

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global level, the high net worth population is expanding, and the wealth of high net worth individuals (HNWI is increasing rapidly. For various reasons, high net worth families and individuals are searching for vehicles to assist them in safeguarding and conveniently managing their wealth. Private foundations represent one useful avenue for achieving this end, and the use of private foundations has become increasingly popular in recent years, particularly in European countries. Many countries have laws which regulate private foundations and several are looking for adjusting or introducing legislation. In this article, authors analysing benefits for a country like Estonia in case the country increases the attractiveness of its jurisdiction for non-residents who are looking for establishment of a private foundation. The article comes to the conclusion that to be competitive, a country cannot collect tax revenues from private foundations established by non-residents except from income originated in the very same country. However, the country can earn benefits from revenues received by companies rendering services to non-residents and their private foundations. The article demonstrates that service fees a country earns and taxes collected from these fees would be substantial enough to make necessary changes to legislation beneficial for a country.

  7. The Economic Implications of a Reusable Flexible Digital Ureteroscope: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher J; McAdams, Sean B; Abdul-Muhsin, Haidar; Lim, Victoria M; Nunez-Nateras, Rafael; Tyson, Mark D; Humphreys, Mitchell R

    2017-03-01

    Questions remain regarding the durability and longevity of flexible ureteroscopes. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential economic benefits of single use, flexible digital ureteroscopes compared to our recent experience with reusable flexible digital ureteroscopes using cost-benefit analysis. Ureteroscopic procedures were prospectively recorded over the 12-month period of February 2014 to February 2015. All flexible ureteroscopies were performed using Flex X(C) digital ureteroscopes (Karl Storz Endoscopy-America, El Segundo, California). Cost assessment was based on the original purchasing cost and repair-exchange fees divided by the number of cases. An algorithm was created to include per case reprocessing costs and calculate the benefit-to-cost ratio. This cost was compared to potential costs of the LithoVue™, a single use digital ureteroscope. In 160 cases a flexible reusable ureteroscope was used. There was damage to 11 ureteroscopes during this time with an average of 12.5 cases to failure. Excluding original purchasing costs, the cost analysis revealed an amortized cost of $848.10 per use. After 99 ureteroscope cases the cost-benefit analysis favored reusable ureteroscopes compared to disposable ureteroscopes. Digital ureteroscopes are the latest trend in the evolution of endourology. It appears that a disposable ureteroscope may be cost beneficial at centers with a lower case volume per year. However, institutions with a high volume of cases may find reusable ureteroscopes cost beneficial. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Bonnet Acosta, Marisol [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Mobley, Miles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  9. Is There a Limit to Growth? Comparing the Environmental Cost of an Airport’s Operations with Its Economic Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the growing global awareness of the requirement for sustainable development, economic development is no longer the sole objective of business activities. The need to find a balance between environmental impacts and economic benefits is especially the case for airport operations in or around cities. This study measured the environmental costs and economic benefits and of an airport for a period of 10 years, using Taipei Songshan Airport for the empirical analysis, to examine whether the environmental costs could outweigh the economic benefits. Of all the environmental negative side effects, aircraft engine emissions and noise nuisance are considered the main sources of environmental impacts. The dose-response method and the hedonic price method, respectively, were used for estimating the social costs of these. Income generation from both direct and secondary employment is measured as economic benefits by applying the Garin-Lowry model, originally developed in 1966, for estimation of the employment multiplier. The results show that, in general, the operation of Taipei Songshan Airport brought more economic benefits than environmental costs. The sensitivity analysis of emissions and noise social cost parameters shows that the environmental costs might have exceeded the economic benefits in 2008 and 2009 in certain high emissions and noise social cost cases.

  10. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, M A; Wang, Y

    2008-03-01

    Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP) and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQI(j,k)), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQI(j,k) through PBFP and PBDQ. Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994-96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4356 US adults aged 20-65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQI(j,k) were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ and DQI(j,k) varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQI(j) indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion >10%), but not PBDQ. SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQI(j,k) may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating.

  11. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  12. Assessment of economic benefits and costs of marine managed areas in Hawaii, 1998 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  13. Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in Hawaii 1998-2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  14. Report: EPA Needs to Assess Environmental and Economic Benefits of Completed Clean Water State Revolving Fund Green Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0162, May 2, 2016. The EPA needs to collect and evaluate data on the environmental and economic benefits of over $3.24 billion in public funds invested in green projects from 2009 through 2014.

  15. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  16. Economic valuation of the mortality benefits of a regulation on SO2 in 20 European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Henschel, Susann; Goodman, Patrick G; Analitis, Antonis; Atkinson, Richard W; Le Tertre, Alain; Zeka, Ariana; Medina, Sylvia

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1970s, legislation has led to progress in tackling several air pollutants. We quantify the annual monetary benefits resulting from reductions in mortality from the year 2000 onwards following the implementation of three European Commission regulations to reduce the sulphur content in liquid fuels for vehicles. We first compute premature deaths attributable to these implementations for 20 European cities in the Aphekom project by using a two-stage health impact assessment method. We then justify our choice to only consider mortality effects as short-term effects. We rely on European studies when selecting the central value of a life-year estimate (€ 2005 86 600) used to compute the monetary benefits for each of the cities. We also conduct an independent sensitivity analysis as well as an integrated uncertainty analysis that simultaneously accounts for uncertainties concerning epidemiology and economic valuation. The implementation of these regulations is estimated to have postponed 2212 (95% confidence interval: 772-3663) deaths per year attributable to reductions in sulphur dioxide for the 20 European cities, from the year 2000 onwards. We obtained annual mortality benefits related to the implementation of the European regulation on sulphur dioxide of € 2005 191.6 million (95% confidence interval: € 2005 66.9-€ 2005 317.2). Our approach is conservative in restricting to mortality effects and to short-term benefits only, thus only providing the lower-bound estimate. Our findings underline the health and monetary benefits to be obtained from implementing effective European policies on air pollution and ensuring compliance with them over time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Survey of Residents' Perceptions of the Effect of Large-Scale Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Anthony; Geller, Ruth; Bazaco, Michael; Bear, Todd M; Foulds, Abigail L; Duell, Jessica; Sharma, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents' perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  19. The economic benefits of parks and open space : how land conservation helps communities grow smart and protect the bottom line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Open space is an investment that produces important economic benefits. It does not have to be an expense. This document relates examples and data that can help concerned citizens and leaders make the economic case for open space and parks conservatio...

  20. Potential economic benefits from changes in management via information technology applications on Dutch dairy farms : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Jalvingh, A.W.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Economic benefits of information technologies were assessed at farm level by means of a dynamic probabilistic simulation model. The model included biological performances with respect to oestrus detection and concentrate feeding. In this way, main benefits of activity meters, automated concentrate

  1. The economic benefits to agriculture of a reduction of low-level ozone pollution in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, O.J.; Helming, J.F.M.; Dorland, C.; Spaninks, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Low-level ozone pollution affects crop yields adversely. Reduction of ozone pollution would therefore increase crop yields and provide economic benefits to producers and consumers of farm products. This paper assesses the potential magnitude of these benefits for the Netherlands. Exposure-response

  2. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  3. Effect of Dietary Types on Feed Intakes, Growth Performance and Economic Benefit in Tibetan sheep and Yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during Cold Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianwei; Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Li; Liu, Hongjin; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-01-01

    Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment. Daily dry matter intake was determined; all animals were weighed at the beginning and every 15 days of the 135-day experiment. Then, the total live-weight gain, average daily live-weight gain, gain rate, feed efficiency and net economic benefit were calculated. Results indicated that feed and nutrient intakes (DMI, DMI/kg LW, DMI/kg LW0.75 and CPI) of TMR, OH and OS were higher than TG (P 0.05). Results indicated that TMR was a reasonable diet in promoting feed intakes, animal performance, feed efficiency and economic returns in domestic livestock, which should be considered by local herdsmen to increase their breeding profit during cold season.

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Sensorimotor Networks in Effort-Based Cost-Benefit Valuation: Early Emergence and Late Net Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alison; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-07-06

    Although physical effort can impose significant costs on decision-making, when and how effort cost information is incorporated into choice remains contested, reflecting a larger debate over the role of sensorimotor networks in specifying behavior. Serial information processing models, in which motor circuits simply implement the output of cognitive systems, hypothesize that effort cost factors into decisions relatively late, via integration with stimulus values into net (combined) value signals in dorsomedial frontal cortex (dmFC). In contrast, ethology-inspired approaches suggest a more active role for the dorsal sensorimotor stream, with effort cost signals emerging rapidly after stimulus onset. Here we investigated the time course of effort cost integration using event-related potentials in hungry human subjects while they made decisions about expending physical effort for appetitive foods. Consistent with the ethological perspective, we found that effort cost was represented from as early as 100-250 ms after stimulus onset, localized to dorsal sensorimotor regions including middle cingulate, somatosensory, and motor/premotor cortices. However, examining the same data time-locked to motor output revealed net value signals combining stimulus value and effort cost approximately -400 ms before response, originating from sensorimotor areas including dmFC, precuneus, and posterior parietal cortex. Granger causal connectivity analysis of the motor effector signal in the time leading to response showed interactions between these sensorimotor regions and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a structure associated with adjusting behavior-response mappings. These results suggest that rapid activation of sensorimotor regions interacts with cognitive valuation systems, producing a net value signal reflecting both physical effort and reward contingencies. Although physical effort imposes a cost on choice, when and how effort cost influences neural correlates of decision

  5. New evidence on the economic benefits of controlling salinity in domestic water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Guy E.; Young, Robert A.; Makela, Carole J.

    2000-04-01

    To study the economic benefits of controlling salinity in residential water supplies, we surveyed households and appliance repair shops along the Arkansas River Basin in Colorado, where salinity ranges from 100 to 3600 mg/L. To avoid a downward bias on estimated appliance lives, we obtained and used data on both ages of in-service appliances and ages at failure of failed appliances. We adapted the accelerated testing method to model the effect of salinity on appliance lives. Dishwashers, water heaters, garbage disposers, water softeners, and evaporative coolers showed statistically significant reductions in service life with increasing salinity. In comparison with the most cited previous study, we found no statistically significant effects for some appliances; for appliances common to both studies our estimates of salinity damages are one third or less as high. These differences may originate from inclusion of in-service appliances or reduced damage due to technological improvements.

  6. Holes in the safety net? Assessing the effects of targeted benefits upon the health care utilization of poor New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J. Ross; Coyle, Philip; Kearns, Robin A.

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the issue of targeting primary health-care benefits in favour of low-income recipients and other high users of health care. Specifically we examine the New Zealand case where, despite the introduction of such benefits in 1992, financial barriers appear to remain a significant determinant of utilization. We address this issue through a case study conducted in the city of Christchurch. Through a survey-based research design, we seek to determine the extent to which price barriers remain important by comparing patient utilization of a free community health clinic (n = 202) with a low-income control sample of patients who continue to use conventional (for New Zealand) fee-for-service providers (n = 148). We found that a large proportion of respondents delayed seeking care because of cost. Further, for respondents using the fee-for-service providers, levels of use were not related to need, whereas at the free clinic there was an inverse relationship between income and consultation rates. We conclude that if a universality of benefits is not possible, then there is a need for better targeting of primary care benefits. We believe there is a danger in such initiatives being evaluated primarily in terms of their validity as funding mechanisms, rather than in terms of their success in meeting the health-care needs of the disdavantaged.

  7. Space Weather - A Socio-Economic Impact and Forecast Benefit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M.; Burnett, C. M.; Bisi, M. M.; Hapgood, M. A.; Biffis, E.; Eastwood, J. P.; McKinnell, L. A.; Green, L.; Bentley, R.; Trichas, M.; Wicks, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    Space Weather is getting increasing attention from governments and major industry sectors around the world. Increasingly they look to science to better understand the potential impacts of severe events and to operational forecast centres to help them mitigate the risk posed. However in comparison to terrestrial weather forecasting, space weather forecasting and the science that underpins it relies on a relatively small number of ground and space based observations. To overcome this limitation there is an increasing need for economic assessment to allow evidence based judgements for these organisations to decide upon investment decisions between mitigation for space weather instead of other more traditional risks such as flooding. A major study, funded by the UK Space Agency has sought to address these issues by mapping the socio-economic costs to different scales of space weather event and assessing the benefit forecasting might provide given the current and improved level of observations or how that might deteriorate if existing satellite data was missing. The results of the study increase the available body of evidence needed for future investment in space weather mitigation, whether that be improved observation, scientific understanding or services covering both extreme events and also `background' space weather variability.

  8. Economic impact of a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis: cost-benefit of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Sockett, P N; Gill, O N

    1989-05-06

    The recognition and investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning in 1982 due to chocolate contaminated with Salmonella napoli enabled the food that carried the salmonella to be identified and four fifths of the implicated consignment of chocolate to be withdrawn. The economic benefits of prompt intervention in the outbreak have been assessed. The cost of the outbreak was over 0.5 pounds m. It is estimated that five deaths were prevented by the intervention and that 185 admissions to hospital and 29,000 cases of S napoli enteritis were avoided. This successful investigation yielded a 3.5-fold rate of return to the public sector and a 23.3-fold return to society on an investment in public health surveillance. A methodology is described that can be used to estimate the benefits of early intervention in outbreaks of foodborne illness and topics for further research are suggested. It is concluded that public health authorities and industry have much to gain by collaborating in the research into the design of cost effective programmes to prevent foodborne infections.

  9. Net clinical benefit of new oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) versus no treatment in a 'real world' atrial fibrillation population: a modelling analysis based on a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amitava; Lane, Deirdre A; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2012-03-01

    The concept of net clinical benefit has been used to quantify the balance between risk of ischaemic stroke (IS) and risk of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) with the use oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC) in the setting of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), and has shown that patients at highest risk of stroke and thromboembolism gain the greatest benefit from OAC with warfarin. There are no data for the new OACs, that is, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, as yet. We calculated the net clinical benefit balancing IS against ICH using data from the Danish National Patient Registry on patients with non-valvular AF between 1997-2008, for dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban on the basis of recent clinical trial outcome data for these new OACs. In patients with CHADS(2)=0 but at high bleeding risk, apixaban and dabigatran 110 mg bid had a positive net clinical benefit. At CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc=1, apixaban and both doses of dabigatran (110 mg and 150 mg bid) had a positive net clinical benefit. In patients with CHADS(2) score≥1 or CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc≥2, the three new OACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) appear superior to warfarin for net clinical benefit, regardless of risk of bleeding. When risk of bleeding and stroke are both high, all three new drugs appear to have a greater net clinical benefit than warfarin. In the absence of head-to-head trials for these new OACs, our analysis may help inform decision making processes when all these new OACs become available to clinicians for stroke prevention in AF. Using 'real world' data, our modelling analysis has shown that when the risk of bleeding and stroke are both high, all three new drugs appear to have a greater net clinical benefit compared to warfarin.

  10. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  11. Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  12. Switching from monoculture to polyculture farming benefits birds in oil palm production landscapes: Evidence from mist netting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Muhammad S; Syafiq, Muhamad; Ashton-Butt, Adham; Ghazali, Amal; Asmah, Siti; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Monoculture farming is pervasive in industrial oil palm agriculture, including those RSPO plantations certified as sustainably managed. This farming practice does not promote the maintenance of farmland biodiversity. However, little scientific attention has been given to polyculture farming in oil palm production landscapes. Polyculture farming is likely to increase the floristic diversity and stand structural complexity that underpins biodiversity. Mist nets were used to sample birds at 120 smallholdings in Peninsular Malaysia. At each site, 12 vegetation structure characteristics were measured. We compared bird species richness, abundance, and composition between monoculture and polyculture smallholdings and used predictive models to examine the effects of habitat quality on avian biodiversity. Bird species richness was significantly greater in polyculture than that of monoculture smallholdings. The number of fallen and standing, dead oil palms were also important positive predictors of species richness. Bird abundance was also strongly increased by standing and dead oil palms and decreased with oil palm stand height. Our results indicate that polyculture farming can improve bird species richness in oil palm production landscapes. In addition, key habitat variables that are closely associated with farming practices, such as the removal of dead trees, should and can be managed by oil palm growers in order to promote biodiversity. To increase the sustainability of oil palm agriculture, it is imperative that stakeholders modify the way oil palms are currently planted and managed. Our findings can guide policy makers and certification bodies to promote oil palm production landscapes that will function more sustainably and increase existing biodiversity of oil palm landscapes.

  13. Specialist medication review does not benefit short-term outcomes and net costs in continuing-care patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pope, George

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVES: to evaluate specialist geriatric input and medication review in patients in high-dependency continuing care. DESIGN: prospective, randomised, controlled trial. SETTING: two residential continuing care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: two hundred and twenty-five permanent patients. INTERVENTION: patients were randomised to either specialist geriatric input or regular input. The specialist group had a medical assessment by a geriatrician and medication review by a multidisciplinary expert panel. Regular input consisted of review as required by a medical officer attached to each ward. Reassessment occurred after 6 months. RESULTS: one hundred and ten patients were randomised to specialist input and 115 to regular input. These were comparable for age, gender, dependency levels and cognition. After 6 months, the total number of medications per patient per day fell from 11.64 to 11.09 in the specialist group (P = 0.0364) and increased from 11.07 to 11.5 in the regular group (P = 0.094). There was no significant difference in mortality or frequency of acute hospital transfers (11 versus 6 in the specialist versus regular group, P = 0.213). CONCLUSION: specialist geriatric assessment and medication review in hospital continuing care resulted in a reduction in medication use, but at a significant cost. No benefits in hard clinical outcomes were demonstrated. However, qualitative benefits and lower costs may become evident over longer periods.

  14. [Economic benefits of overlapping induction: investigation using a computer simulation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, S; Baumgart, A; Denz, C; Schüpfer, G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential economic benefit of overlapping anaesthesia induction given that all patient diagnosis-related groups (AP DRG) are used as the model for hospital reimbursement. A computer simulation model was used for this purpose. Due to the resource-intensive production process, the operating room (OR) environment is the most expensive part of the supply chain for surgical disciplines. The economical benefit of a parallel production process (additional personnel, adaptation of the process) as compared to a conventional serial layout was assessed. A computer-based simulation method was used with commercially available simulation software. Assumptions for revenues were made by reimbursement based on AP DRG. Based on a system analysis a model for the computer simulation was designed on a step-by-step abstraction process. In the model two operating rooms were used for parallel processing and two operating rooms for a serial production process. Six different types of surgical procedures based on historical case durations were investigated. The contribution margin was calculated based on the increased revenues minus the cost for the additional anaesthesia personnel. Over a period of 5 weeks 41 additional surgical cases were operated under the assumption of duration of surgery of 89+/-4 min (mean+/-SD). The additional contribution margin was CHF 104,588. In the case of longer surgical procedures with 103+/-25 min duration (mean+/-SD), an increase of 36 cases was possible in the same time period and the contribution margin was increased by CHF 384,836. When surgical cases with a mean procedural time of 243+/-55 min were simulated, 15 additional cases were possible. Therefore, the additional contribution margin was CHF 321,278. Although costs increased in this simulation when a serial production process was changed to a parallel system layout due to more personnel, an increase of the contribution margin was possible, especially with

  15. Economic benefits of the Mediterranean-style diet consumption in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Jones, Jason P H; Jones, Peter J H

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) is an established healthy-eating behavior that has consistently been shown to favorably impact cardiovascular health, thus likely improving quality of life and reducing costs associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data on the economic benefits of MedDiet intakes are, however, scarce. The objective of this study was to estimate the annual healthcare and societal cost savings that would accrue to the Canadian and American public, independently, as a result of a reduction in the incidence of CVD following adherence to a MedDiet. A variation in cost-of-illness analysis entailing three stages of estimations was developed to 1) identify the proportion of individuals who are likely to adopt a MedDiet in North America, 2) assess the impact of the MedDiet intake on CVD incidence reduction, and 3) impute the potential savings in costs associated with healthcare and productivity following the estimated CVD reduction. To account for the uncertainty factor, a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios, including ideal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very-pessimistic assumptions, was implemented within each of these stages. Significant improvements in CVD-related costs were evident with varying MedDiet adoption and CVD reduction rates. Specifically, CAD $41.9 million to 2.5 billion in Canada and US $1.0-62.8 billion in the United States were estimated to accrue as total annual savings in economic costs, given the 'very-pessimistic' through 'ideal' scenarios. Closer adherence to dietary behaviors that are consistent with the principles of the MedDiet is expected to contribute to a reduction in the monetary burdens of CVD in Canada, the United States, and possibly other parts of the world.

  16. Economic benefits of the Mediterranean-style diet consumption in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M.H. Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet is an established healthy-eating behavior that has consistently been shown to favorably impact cardiovascular health, thus likely improving quality of life and reducing costs associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Data on the economic benefits of MedDiet intakes are, however, scarce. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the annual healthcare and societal cost savings that would accrue to the Canadian and American public, independently, as a result of a reduction in the incidence of CVD following adherence to a MedDiet. Design: A variation in cost-of-illness analysis entailing three stages of estimations was developed to 1 identify the proportion of individuals who are likely to adopt a MedDiet in North America, 2 assess the impact of the MedDiet intake on CVD incidence reduction, and 3 impute the potential savings in costs associated with healthcare and productivity following the estimated CVD reduction. To account for the uncertainty factor, a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios, including ideal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very-pessimistic assumptions, was implemented within each of these stages. Results: Significant improvements in CVD-related costs were evident with varying MedDiet adoption and CVD reduction rates. Specifically, CAD $41.9 million to 2.5 billion in Canada and US $1.0–62.8 billion in the United States were estimated to accrue as total annual savings in economic costs, given the ‘very-pessimistic’ through ‘ideal’ scenarios. Conclusions: Closer adherence to dietary behaviors that are consistent with the principles of the MedDiet is expected to contribute to a reduction in the monetary burdens of CVD in Canada, the United States, and possibly other parts of the world.

  17. Assessing the production and economic benefits from preventing cows grazing on wet soils in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenson, Seth; Houlbrooke, David J; Beukes, Pierre C

    2016-10-01

    Intensive grazing by cattle on wet pasture can have a negative effect on soil physical quality and future pasture production. On a North Otago dairy farm in New Zealand, experimental plots were monitored for four years to assess whether preventing cow grazing of wet pastures during the milking season would improve soil structure and pasture production compared with unrestricted access to pastures. The DairyNZ Whole Farm Model was used to scale up results to a farm system level and ascertain the cost benefit of deferred grazing management. Soils under deferred grazing management had significantly higher total porosity, yet no significant improvement in macroporosity (values ranging between 0.112 and 0.146 m(3)  m(-3) ). Annual pasture production did not differ between the control and deferred grazing treatments, averaging 17.0 ± 3.8 and 17.9 ± 4.1 t DM ha(-1) year(-1) respectively (P > 0.05). Furthermore, whole farm modelling indicated that farm operating profit was reduced by NZ$1683 ha(-1) year(-1) (four-year average) under deferred grazing management. Deferring dairy cow grazing from wet Pallic soils in North Otago was effective in improving soil structure (measured as total soil porosity), yet did not lead to a significant increase in pasture production. Whole farm modelling indicated no economic benefit of removing cows from wet soils during the milking season. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Tax incidence and net benefits in the market for employment-related health insurance: sensitivity of estimates to the incidence of employer costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Thomas M; Bernard, Didem M

    2004-06-01

    The market for employment-related coverage contains public transfers through the tax system and private transfers across workers with predictably different risks. We examine both transfers across a wide range of employee characteristics, including age, race, ethnicity, family size, poverty level, and health risk. To resolve longstanding questions regarding the incidence of employer contributions, we simulate a range of alternative incidence scenarios in which (i) all employees offered coverage in a firm share equally in the employer's costs, (ii) burdens are narrowly targeted according to employee-specific health risks, and (iii) intermediate cases with burdens targeted by job characteristics, age, sex, race, ethnicity, and family size. Our results provide evidence regarding the distribution of tax subsidies and net benefits under a range of scenarios that we believe bound the true incidence of employer premium contributions.

  19. Prepartum antibiotic treatment of heifers: milk production, milk quality and economic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Lewis, M J; Gillespie, B E; Dowlen, H H; Jaenicke, E C; Roberts, R K

    2003-04-01

    Prepartum intramammary antibiotic infusion of heifer mammary glands at 7 or 14 d before expected parturition is an effective procedure for eliminating many infections in heifers during late gestation and for reducing the prevalence of mastitis in heifers during early lactation and throughout lactation. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 76% of samples obtained from untreated control quarters 7 d before expected calving, from 47% of samples obtained 3 d after calving, and from 29% of samples obtained 10 d postpartum. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from about 30% of control quarters through 240 d of lactation. A similar percentage of samples (70%) was positive for mastitis pathogens at C-7 before antibiotic treatment. However, only 8% of samples obtained at 3 d after calving and 4% of samples obtained at 10 d postpartum from quarters of antibiotic-treated heifers contained mastitis pathogens. Throughout the remainder of lactation, mastitis pathogens were isolated from an average of about 11% of quarters. The percentage of samples with mastitis pathogens was higher in untreated controls than in antibiotic-treated quarters at all sampling intervals during lactation. A similar response was observed in heifers that were treated with antibiotics at 14 d before expected parturition. Prepartum antibiotic-treated heifers produced significantly more milk than control heifers and had significantly lower somatic cell count scores than untreated control heifers. These observations are likely associated with or due to the lower prevalence of mastitis pathogen isolation in prepartum antibiotic-treated heifers throughout lactation. Prepartum antibiotic-treated heifers produced 531 kg more milk than heifers in the untreated control group. Multiplying this increase by a milk price of 0.407 dollars/kg yielded a 216.24 dollars per-heifer increase in gross revenue. The cost of treatment, including the cost of testing for antibiotic residues, was estimated at 15.60 dollars for a net

  20. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  1. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  2. Tillage and vegetative barrier effects on soil conservation and short-term economic benefits in the Central Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guto, S.N.; Pypers, P.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Minimum tillage and vegetative barriers can conserve soil and water resources in the steep-sloping highlands of East Africa but there has been little adoption by smallholder farmers. Soil conservation efficiency and short-term economic benefits provided by tillage and vegetative barriers were

  3. Economic feasibility of second generation ethanol with and without indirect greenhouse gas reduction benefits : a simulation for Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagares Tavora, F.; Bakker, R.R.; Stojanovic, M.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the economic feasibility of second generation ethanol from sugar cane, whereby traditional ethanol production is combined with the use of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. By applying cost-benefit analysis, this study evaluated the viability of the

  4. Eliminating Electricity Deficit through Energy Efficiency in India: An Evaluation of Aggregate Economic and Carbon Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Gupta, Arjun

    2010-04-30

    Electricity demand has consistently exceeded available supply in India. While the electricity deficit varies across states, nationally it was estimated to be of the order of 12percent on peak and 11percent for electricity during 2008-09. This paper explores a demand-side focused potential for energy efficiency improvement to eliminate the electricity deficit compared to a business as usual (BAU) supply-side focused scenario. The limited availability of finance and other legal and administrative barriers have constrained the construction of new power plant capacity in India. As a result, under the BAU scenario, India continues to face an electricity deficit beyond the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. The demand-side cost-effective potential achieved through replacement of new electricity-using products, however, is large enough to eliminate the deficit as early as 2013 and subsequently reduce the future construction of power plants and thus reduce air pollutant emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency improvements cost a fraction of the cost for new supply and can lead to a substantial increase in India's economic output or gross domestic product (GDP). Eliminating the deficit permits businesses that have experienced electricity cutbacks to restore production. We estimate the size of the cumulative production increase in terms of the contribution to GDP at a $505 billion between 2009 and 2017, the end of India's Twelfth Five Year Plan, which may be compared with India's 2007-08 GDP of $911 billion. The economic output is influenced by the size of the electricity savings and rate of penetration of energy efficient technologies, and that of self-generation equipment and inverters used by businesses faced with electricity cuts. Generation and inverters are estimated to service 23percent of these customers in 2009, which increase to 48percent by 2020. The reduction in the construction and operation of new power plants reduces the cumulative CO2 emissions

  5. The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Chu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 2000-2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine to all at-risk for 4-6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations.To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour OrganizationAn estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion.MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of

  6. Public health impact and economic benefits of quadrivalent influenza vaccine in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamotte, Aurélien; Clay, Emilie; Macabeo, Bérengère; Caicedo, Andrès; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bricks, Lucia; Romero Prada, Martín; Marrugo, Rubén; Alfonso, Pamela; Moreno Arévalo, Brechla; Franco, Danilo; Garcia Diaz, Lourdes; Isaza de Molto, Yadira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) containing 2 A strains and one B lineage have been recommended for the prevention of influenza in most of Latin American countries. However, the circulation of 2 B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) and difficulties in predicting the predominating lineage have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV), including both B lineages. Thus, the objective was to estimate the public health impact and influenza-related costs if QIV would have been used instead of TIV in 3 Latin American countries. We used a static model over the seasons 2010–2014 in Brazil, 2007–2014 in Colombia and 2006–2014 in Panama, focusing on population groups targeted by local vaccination recommendations: young children, adults with risk factors and the elderly. In Brazil, between 2010 and 2014, using QIV instead of TIV would have avoided US$ 6,200 per 100,000 person-years in societal costs, based on 168 influenza cases, 89 consultations, 3.2 hospitalizations and 0.38 deaths per 100,000 person-years. In Colombia and Panama, these would have ranged from US$ 1,000 to 12,700 (based on 34 cases, 13–25 consultations, 0.6–8.9 hospitalizations and 0.04–1.74 deaths) and from US$ 3,000 to 33,700 (based on 113 cases, 55–82 consultations, 0.5–27.8 hospitalizations and 0.08–6.87 deaths) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Overall, the broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the influenza humanistic and economic burden in the 3 countries. Despite the lack of local data leading to several extrapolations, this study is the first to give quantitative estimates of the potential benefits of QIV in Latin America. PMID:28118092

  7. Does robotic assistance confer an economic benefit during laparoscopic radical nephrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, David Y; Monn, M Francesca; Bahler, Clinton D; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2014-09-01

    While robotic assisted radical nephrectomy is safe with outcomes and complication rates comparable to those of the pure laparoscopic approach, there is little evidence of an economic or clinical benefit. From the 2009 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database we identified patients 18 years old or older who underwent radical nephrectomy for primary renal malignancy. Robotic assisted and laparoscopic techniques were noted. Patients treated with the open technique and those with evidence of metastatic disease were excluded from analysis. Descriptive statistics were performed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, and the Student t-test. Multiple linear regression was done to examine factors associated with increased hospital costs and charges. We identified 24,312 radical nephrectomy cases for study inclusion, of which 7,787 (32%) were performed robotically. There was no demographic difference between robotic assisted and pure laparoscopic radical nephrectomy cases. Median total charges were $47,036 vs $38,068 for robotic assisted vs laparoscopic surgery (p robotic assisted surgery were $15,149 compared to $11,735 for laparoscopic surgery (p robotic assistance conferred an estimated $4,565 and $11,267 increase in hospital costs and charges, respectively, when adjusted for adapted Charlson comorbidity index score, perioperative complications and length of stay (p Robotic assisted radical nephrectomy results in increased medical expense without improving patient morbidity. Assuming surgeon proficiency with pure laparoscopy, robotic technology should be reserved primarily for complex surgeries requiring reconstruction. Traditional laparoscopic techniques should continue to be used for routine radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Public health impact and economic benefits of quadrivalent influenza vaccine in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamotte, Aurélien; Clay, Emilie; Macabeo, Bérengère; Caicedo, Andrès; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bricks, Lucia; Romero Prada, Martín; Marrugo, Rubén; Alfonso, Pamela; Moreno Arévalo, Brechla; Franco, Danilo; Garcia Diaz, Lourdes; Isaza de Molto, Yadira

    2017-04-03

    Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) containing 2 A strains and one B lineage have been recommended for the prevention of influenza in most of Latin American countries. However, the circulation of 2 B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) and difficulties in predicting the predominating lineage have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV), including both B lineages. Thus, the objective was to estimate the public health impact and influenza-related costs if QIV would have been used instead of TIV in 3 Latin American countries. We used a static model over the seasons 2010-2014 in Brazil, 2007-2014 in Colombia and 2006-2014 in Panama, focusing on population groups targeted by local vaccination recommendations: young children, adults with risk factors and the elderly. In Brazil, between 2010 and 2014, using QIV instead of TIV would have avoided US$ 6,200 per 100,000 person-years in societal costs, based on 168 influenza cases, 89 consultations, 3.2 hospitalizations and 0.38 deaths per 100,000 person-years. In Colombia and Panama, these would have ranged from US$ 1,000 to 12,700 (based on 34 cases, 13-25 consultations, 0.6-8.9 hospitalizations and 0.04-1.74 deaths) and from US$ 3,000 to 33,700 (based on 113 cases, 55-82 consultations, 0.5-27.8 hospitalizations and 0.08-6.87 deaths) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Overall, the broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the influenza humanistic and economic burden in the 3 countries. Despite the lack of local data leading to several extrapolations, this study is the first to give quantitative estimates of the potential benefits of QIV in Latin America.

  9. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    Global changes are expected to exacerbate water scarcity issues in the Mediterranean region in the next decades. In this work, we investigate the impacts of reservoirs operation rules based on an economic criterion. We examine whether can they help reduce the costs of water scarcity, and whether they become more relevant under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We develop an original hydroeconomic model able to compare future water supply and demand on a large scale, while representing river basin heterogeneity. On the demand side, we focus on the two main sectors of water use: the irrigation and domestic sectors. Demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. Irrigation requirements are computed for 12 types of crops, at the 0.5° spatial resolution, under future climatic conditions (A1B scenario). The computation of the economic benefits of irrigation water is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The economic value of domestic water is defined as the economic surplus. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water inflows to the reservoirs. Operating rules of the reservoirs are set up using a parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach. The objective is to maximise water benefits. We introduce prudential parametric rules in order to take into account spatial and temporal trade-offs. The methodology is applied to Algeria at the 2050 horizon. Overall, our results show that the supply-demand imbalance and its costs will increase in most basins under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that the benefits of operating rules based on economic criteria are not unequivocally increased with global changes: in some basins the positive impact of economic prioritisation is higher under future conditions

  10. Who Benefits from Student Aid? The Economic Incidence of Tax-Based Federal Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…

  11. Quantifying the net benefit impacts of the Troy Waste Water Treatment Plant on Steelhead Habitat in the West Fork Little Bear Creek drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.

    2010-12-01

    Discharge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) typically is viewed to result in water quality impairment. However, WWTPs can also be a source of nutrients to enhance the salmonid food web as well as an efficient way to maintain acceptable water temperature regimes and flow conditions during summer. We observed this paradox in West Fork Little Bear Creek (WFLB) in the City of Troy, Idaho. Despite the nutrient load, the WFLB had the highest Steelhead trout density in the watershed, with a mean density of 13.2 fish/100 m2. The objective of this project was to utilize a water quality model, QUAL2kw, and an ecology assessment to examine how the nutrient load from the WWTP affects: a) habitat conditions for steelhead juveniles, and b) physic-chemical parameters. Four monitoring stations were installed from May through November in 2009 and 2010. An undisturbed creek was used as a control site in 2010. Dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity, temperature, and discharge were measured continuously at each monitoring station. Weekly samples were collected at each monitoring station and analyzed for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorous, and orthophosphates. In 2010, Chlorophyll a was analyzed weekly, while bottom algae biomass was determined monthly. Results show that during summer months, the WWTP provides the majority of the flow (0.1 cfs) in the creek. Water samples and DO measurements taken 200 m downstream of the plant during late summer months indicate that nitrification process leads to low DO level well below the state standard of 6 mg/L for cold water biota. However dissolved oxygen levels recover within 1 km downstream. Discharge data suggest that without the flow from the treatment most of the creek would dry during late summer months. Abundance of macroinverbrates, high primary productivity, and sustained flow during summer suggests that the effluent from the WWTP is a net benefit to the Steelhead habitat in the basin

  12. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM(10) for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM(10) exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50microg/m(3)) to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20microg/m(3)) were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months), 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM(10) to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40microg/m(3)) would yield approximately one third of these benefits. This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.

  13. Benefit Evaluation of Wind Turbine Generators in Wind Farms Using Capacity-Factor Analysis and Economic-Cost Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, L.; Yeh, T-H.

    2009-01-01

    (PP) of WTGs using Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions. Five commercial WFs in Taiwan are used as sample systems for comparative analyses. This paper combines Weibull function, cubic mean wind speed, and four existing economic-analysis methods to study different values of capacity and hub...... generators (WTGs). To fully capture wind energy, different wind farms (WFs) should select adequate capacity of WTGs to effectively harvest wind energy and maximize their economic benefit. To establish selection criterion, this paper first derives the equations for capacity factor (CF) and pairing performance...... height for WTGs that have been installed in Taiwan. Important outcomes affecting wind cost of energy in comparison with economic results using the proposed economic-analysis methods for different WFs are also presented....

  14. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

  15. Economic Benefits of Studying Economics in Canada: A Comparison of Wages of Economics Majors with Wages in Other Fields of Study, Circa 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ather H.; Aydede, Yigit

    2015-01-01

    We compared the wages of economics degree holders with of those in 49 other fields of study using data from the 2006 Canadian population census. At the undergraduate level, economics majors earned the sixth highest average wage in 2005. When demographic controls were applied, they ranked ninth on the salary scale. When we compared the wages in 15…

  16. Economic and utilitarian benefits of monetary versus non-monetary in-store sales promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    2014-01-01

    While prior research has examined the issue of sales promotion proneness, very little has examined proneness to non-monetary promotions, such as contests and premiums discovered in store. This study draws on a promotions benefits framework to examine the influence of shoppers’ desired benefits on...... are that many monetary sales promotion-prone shoppers may be attracted by the benefits provided by non-monetary promotions. The increased use by managers of non-monetary promotions instead of monetary promotions may result in improved category value and brand equity benefits.......While prior research has examined the issue of sales promotion proneness, very little has examined proneness to non-monetary promotions, such as contests and premiums discovered in store. This study draws on a promotions benefits framework to examine the influence of shoppers’ desired benefits...

  17. Training as a Social Purpose: Are Economic and Social Benefits Delivered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Allan; Lobley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports original research which measures the social and economic impact of training and skills development on individuals who participated in training provided by social purpose, nonprofit organizations. An implicit policy assumption is that such organizations contribute to social and economic regeneration. Examining the costs and…

  18. Net clinical benefit of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a subgroup analysis of J-ROCKET AF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Tanahashi, Norio; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Goto, Shinya; Izumi, Tohru; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kajikawa, Mariko; Kato, Masaharu; Ueda, Hitoshi; Iekushi, Kazuma; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Tajiri, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors that have been identified for bleeding events with rivaroxaban are predominantly the same as those predicting thromboembolic ones in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Our aim was to determine the net clinical benefit (NCB) from the results of the J-ROCKET AF trial, in which rivaroxaban was compared with warfarin in Japanese patients with AF. Two strategies were adopted to quantify the NCB. First, the NCB was calculated as the number of ischemic strokes avoided with anticoagulation minus the number of excess intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with a weight of 1.5. Second, the composite end point of major bleeding events and secondary efficacy end points (stroke, noncentral nervous system systemic embolism, myocardial infarction and death) to ascertain the NCB were established. Subgroup analysis by CHADS2 score or creatinine clearance was also performed. The adjusted NCB, which was given a weight of 1.5 for ICH, was nominally significant in favor of rivaroxaban therapy (difference in incidence rate -2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -.26 to -3.99). Furthermore, the event rate of the composite end point tended to be lower in patients treated with rivaroxaban than in those treated with warfarin (rivaroxaban: 4.97% per year, warfarin: 6.11% per year; difference in incidence rate: -1.14; 95% CI: -3.40 to 1.12). The event rate of the composite end point tended to be consistently low in patients treated with rivaroxaban in the subanalysis by CHADS2 score and renal function. Analysis of the NCB supports that rivaroxaban therapy provides clinical benefit for Japanese patients with AF. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Net clinical benefit of dabigatran vs. warfarin in venous thromboembolism: analyses from RE-COVER(®), RE-COVER™ II, and RE-MEDY™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuring, Martin; Schulman, Sam; Eriksson, Henry; Kakkar, Ajay J; Schellong, Sebastian; Hantel, Stefan; Schueler, Elke; Kreuzer, Jörg; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2017-05-01

    The direct oral anticoagulants, e.g., dabigatran etexilate (DE), are effective and well tolerated treatments for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Net clinical benefit (NCB) is a useful concept in weighing potential benefits against potential harm of comparator drugs. The NCB of DE vs. warfarin in VTE treatment was compared. Post-hoc analyses were performed on pooled data from the 6-month RE-COVER® and RE-COVER™ II trials, and data from the RE-MEDY™ trial (up to 36 months), to compare the NCB of DE (150 mg twice daily) and warfarin [target international normalized ratio (INR) 2.0-3.0]. Patients (≥18 years old) had symptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. NCB was the composite of cardiovascular endpoints (non-fatal events of recurrent VTE, myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism), all-cause death, and bleeding outcomes, all weighted equally. A broad definition of NCB included major bleeding events (MBE) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding events as bleeding outcomes, while a narrow definition included just MBE. The pooled dataset totalled 5107 patients from RE-COVER/RE-COVER II and 2856 patients from RE-MEDY. When NCB was narrowly defined, NCB was similar between DE and warfarin. When broadly defined, NCB was superior with DE vs. warfarin [RE-COVER/RE-COVER II, hazard ratio (HR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.95 and RE-MEDY, HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59-0.91]. These findings were unaffected by warfarin time in therapeutic range. The NCB of DE was similar or superior to warfarin, depending on the NCB definition used, regardless of the quality of INR control.

  20. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  1. Measuring the Social Recreation Per-Day Net Benefit of the Wildlife Amenities of a National Park: A Count-Data Travel-Cost Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Isabel; Proença, Isabel

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we apply count-data travel-cost methods to a truncated sample of visitors to estimate the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP) average consumer surplus (CS) for each day of visit. The measurement of recreation demand is highly specific because it is calculated by number of days of stay per visit. We therefore propose the application of altered truncated count-data models or truncated count-data models on grouped data to estimate a single, on-site individual recreation demand function, with the price (cost) of each recreation day per trip equal to out-of-pocket and time travel plus out-of-pocket and on-site time costs. We further check the sensitivity of coefficient estimations to alternative models and analyse the welfare measure precision by using the delta and simulation methods by Creel and Loomis. With simulated limits, CS is estimated to be €194 (range €116 to €448). This information is of use in the quest to improve government policy and PNPG management and conservation as well as promote nature-based tourism. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the average recreation net benefits of each day of stay generated by a national park by using truncated altered and truncated grouped count-data travel-cost models based on observing the individual number of days of stay.

  2. Measuring the social recreation per-day net benefit of the wildlife amenities of a national park: a count-data travel-cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Isabel; Proença, Isabel

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we apply count-data travel-cost methods to a truncated sample of visitors to estimate the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP) average consumer surplus (CS) for each day of visit. The measurement of recreation demand is highly specific because it is calculated by number of days of stay per visit. We therefore propose the application of altered truncated count-data models or truncated count-data models on grouped data to estimate a single, on-site individual recreation demand function, with the price (cost) of each recreation day per trip equal to out-of-pocket and time travel plus out-of-pocket and on-site time costs. We further check the sensitivity of coefficient estimations to alternative models and analyse the welfare measure precision by using the delta and simulation methods by Creel and Loomis. With simulated limits, CS is estimated to be 194 (range 116 to 448). This information is of use in the quest to improve government policy and PNPG management and conservation as well as promote nature-based tourism. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the average recreation net benefits of each day of stay generated by a national park by using truncated altered and truncated grouped count-data travel-cost models based on observing the individual number of days of stay.

  3. Economic benefits of using a dose dispensing system at hospital units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ofelia-Uc Coyoc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the potential economic benefits at The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in spanish according to the drug expenditure of using drug dispensing system, based on literature information. Materials and methods. A systematic review was performed to identify savings from drugs and reduction of medication errors. The total and mean health expenditure by level of medical attention was calculated using the dispensed collective prescriptions at IMSS during 2009. Three savings scenarios were applied. Results. The total drug savings were in a range of 870.49 Mexican million pesos to 4050.05 Mexican million pesos. Reductions of medication errors can contribute with additional savings up to 3455.56 Mexican million pesos. Conclusion. The drug dispensing system unit generates savings opportunities at the second and third level of attention. The maximum economic benefit was observed in the last level.

  4. Enhancing the Economic Value of Large Investments in Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS through Inclusion of Ecosystems Services Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Urrestarazu Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS are used in cities across the world as effective flood adaptation responses, their economic viability has frequently been questioned. Inclusion of the monetary value of ecosystem services (ES provided by SuDS can increase the rate of return on investments made. Hence, this paper aims at reviewing the enhancement of the economic value of large-scale investments in SuDS through inclusion of ecosystem services. This study focuses on the flood reduction capacity and the ES benefits of green roofs and rain barrels in the combined sewerage network of Montevideo Municipality in Uruguay. The methodology comprises a cost–benefit analysis—with and without monetised ES provided by SuDS—of two drainage network configurations comprising: (i SuDS; and (ii SuDS and detention storage. The optimal drainage design for both these drainage configurations have been determined using SWMM-EA, a tool which uses multi-objective optimisation based evolutionary algorithm (EA and the storm water management model (SWMM. In both design configurations, total benefits comprising both flood reduction and ES benefits are always higher than their costs. The use of storage along with SuDS provides greater benefits with a larger reduction in flooding, and thus is more cost-effective than using SuDS alone. The results show that, for both of the drainage configurations, the larger investments are not beneficial unless ES benefits are taken into account. Hence, it can be concluded that the inclusion of ES benefits is necessary to justify large-scale investments in SuDS.

  5. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and

  6. Economic Benefit and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of A Family-Scale Cowdung Anaerobic Biogas Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate economic benefit and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction potential of a family-scale anaerobic cowdung biogas digester. Research was conducted at two villages in Lampung Province, namely Marga Lestari, District of South Lampung and Pesawaran Indah, District of Pesawaran. Economic benefit and GHG emission reduction potential were evaluated from LPG saving due to biogas utilisation for cooking and fertilizer substitution by slurry digestate. Results showed that a family-scale anaerobic cowdung biogas digester demonstrated a good potential to reduce GHG emission, but not in economic. A digester with 4 heads of cow produced biogas at a rate of 1582 L/day. With average methane content of 53.6%, energy value of the biogas was equivalent to 167 kg LPG and able to substitute 52 bottles LPG annually. A family-scale biogas contributed 108.1 USD/year and potentially reduced GHG emission by 5292.5 kg CO2e/year resulted from biomethane potential, LPG, and fertilizer savings. Keywords: biogas; cowdung; greenhouse gas; economy; benefit Article History: Received November 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 16th 2017; Accepted February 2nd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Haryanto, A., Cahyani, D., Triyono, S., Murdapa, F., and Haryono, D. (2 Economic Benefit and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of A Family-Scale Cowdung Anaerobic Biogas Digester. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development 6(1, 29-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.29-36

  7. Economic feasibility of second generation ethanol with and without indirect greenhouse gas reduction benefits : a simulation for Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lagares Tavora, F.; Bakker, R.R.; Stojanovic, M.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the economic feasibility of second generation ethanol from sugar cane, whereby traditional ethanol production is combined with the use of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. By applying cost-benefit analysis, this study evaluated the viability of the second generation ethanol technology as an alternative to conventional sugarcaneto- ethanol, both in terms of processing technology, and of land use impacts. Furthermore, an attempt is made to ana...

  8. The economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Xie, Gaodi; Zhang, Canqiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-06-15

    Urbanization involves the replacement of vegetated surfaces with impervious built surfaces, and it often results in an increase in the rate and volume of rainwater surface runoff. Urban green spaces play a positive role in rainwater-runoff reduction. However, few studies have explored the benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces. Based on inventory data of urban green spaces in Beijing, the paper evaluated the economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces, using the rainwater-runoff-coefficient method as well as the economic valuation methods. The results showed that, 2494 cubic meters of potential runoff was reduced per hectare of green area and a total volume of 154 million cubic meters rainwater was stored in these urban green spaces, which almost corresponds to the annual water needs of the urban ecological landscape in Beijing. The total economic benefit was 1.34 billion RMB in 2009 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1=RMB6.83), which is equivalent to three-quarters of the maintenance cost of Beijing's green spaces; the value of rainwater-runoff reduction was 21.77 thousand RMB per hectare. In addition, the benefits in different districts and counties were ranked in the same order as urban green areas, and the average benefits per hectare of green space showed different trends, which may be related to the impervious surface index in different regions. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role that Beijing's green spaces play in rainwater regulation and in the creation and scientific management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Why financial incentives can destroy economically valuable biodiversity in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatzweiler, F.; Reichhuber, A.; Hein, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Ethiopian montane rainforests are economically valuable repositories of biodiversity, especially of wild Coffea arabica populations, and they are vanishing at accelerating rates. Our research results confirm theory which explains biodiversity loss by diverging private and social net benefits from

  10. 78 FR 15355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pilot Project Assessing Economic Benefits of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... valuation approach (a random utility travel cost model) to assess benefits associated with marine debris... County, California households in order to gather beach trip data required to estimate the model. The...

  11. On the Economics of Space Colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. J.

    An economic model of the future colonisation of Mars is developed, which, for simplicity, is assumed to be a one-off transplantation of capital and population to Mars. The model demonstrates that compound growth of output and population, and diminishing natural resources on Earth eventually create sufficiently intense economic pressures that the colonisation of Mars (and by implication of space generally) confers a net economic benefit on humanity. The model illustrates that the colonisation of space is likely to occur because economic forces will ultimately compel it to occur. The model is highly counter-intuitive because it has traditionally been believed by many that the colonisation of space could only be done at a net economic cost to humanity and would not result in a net economic benefit to mankind.

  12. Multifunctional benefits of SuDS: techno-economic evaluation of decentralised solutions for urban water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, Ana; Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Smith, Karl M.

    2016-04-01

    The increased frequency of extreme weather events associated with climate change poses a significant threat to the integrity and function of critical urban infrastructure - rail, road, telecommunications, power and water supply/sewerage networks. A key threat within the United Kingdom (UK) is the increased risk of pluvial flooding; the conventional approach of channeling runoff to an outfall has proven to be unsustainable during severe storm events. Green infrastructure, in the form of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS), has been proposed as a means of minimising the risk of pluvial flooding. However, despite their technical performance, SuDS uptake in the UK has not reached its full capacity yet, mostly due to reasons that go beyong the engineering realm. This work investigated the strategic role of SuDS retrofit in managing environmental risks to urban infrastructure in London at a catchment level, through an economic appraisal of multifunctional benefits. It was found that by including the multifunctional benefits of SuDS, the economic feasibility of the project improves considerably. The case study has also shown a mechanism towards achieving wider-scale SuDS retrofit, whereby the investments are split amongst multiple stakeholder groups by highlighting the additional benefits each group derives. Groups include water utilities and their users, local government and critical infrastructure owners. Finally, limitations to the existing cost-benefit methdology in the UK were identified, and recommendations made regarding incentives and governmental regulations to enhance the uptake of SuDS in London. The proposed methodology provides compelling and robust, cost-benefit based evidence of SUDS' effectiveness within the flood risk management planning framework, but also with regard to the additional benefits of Nature Based Solutions in urban environments.

  13. The Economic Impact of Productive Safety Net Program on Poverty: Microeconometrics Analysis, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the impact of productive safety net program on poverty using primary data from randomly selected 600 households in central zone of Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke were used to evaluate impact of the program and poverty, respectively. The paper revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on consumption, livestock holdings, and productive assets. Moreover, impact of the program on total consumption expenditure per adult equivalent was found to be positive and significant. Using total poverty line, poverty rate was lowest among program participants (30.33% than non-participants (31.1%. Highest poverty rate was found among households headed by women (38.42% while households headed by men (23.1%. The study also revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on poverty reduction and protecting productive assets. Finally, it was recommended that female headed program participants based programs should be provided to help boost their agricultural output and reduce endemic poverty.

  14. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  15. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, A.L.; Dhiman, R.C.; Kitron, U.; Scott, T.W.; Berg, van den H.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated

  16. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost...... and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against...

  17. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  18. The Potential Economic Benefits of Education of Migrants in the EU. EENEE Analytical Report No. 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Holger

    2017-01-01

    While international mobility has developed into a major driver of population change in the European Union, people with immigrant background in the Member States continue to be placed in disadvantaged socio-economic positions. They are often hampered by a lack of host country specific skills and knowledge. Many native-born children of…

  19. The economic benefits and costs of entrepreneurship: A review of the research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, C.M.; Versloot, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies in the entrepreneurship literature are motivated by the statement that entrepreneurship has important economic value, for instance, in terms of productivity and growth, employment generation or, innovation. This claim is often substantiated by a reference to (at most) one or two studies

  20. Economics of forest fire management: Spatial accounting of costs and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    José J. Sánchez; Ken Baerenklau; Armando González-Cabán; Kurt Schwabe

    2013-01-01

    To better evaluate the potential impacts of wildland fire in the San Bernardino National Forest, we developed a geographic information system (GIS) data layer containing nonmarket economic values for the San Jacinto Ranger District. Each pixel in the data layer contains an estimate of the most prominent nonmarket values at that location. This information can be used by...

  1. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  2. The Role of Finance in Economic Development : Benefits, Risks, and Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Theoretical and empirical research has shown that a sound and effective financial system is critical for economic development and growth. The financial system, however, is also subject to boom and bust cycles and fragility, with negative repercussions for the real economy. Further, the

  3. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, M; Reif, R; Garrido-Baserba, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Omil, F; Poch, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are -73.73; -34.95; -42.20; -10.98; and -8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping the economic benefits to livestock keepers from intervening against bovine trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A P M; Cecchi, G; Wint, G R W; Mattioli, R C; Robinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Endemic animal diseases such as tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis are a constant drain on the financial resources of African livestock keepers and on the productivity of their livestock. Knowing where the potential benefits of removing animal trypanosomosis are distributed geographically would provide crucial evidence for prioritising and targeting cost-effective interventions as well as a powerful tool for advocacy. To this end, a study was conducted on six tsetse-infested countries in Eastern Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. First, a map of cattle production systems was generated, with particular attention to the presence of draught and dairy animals. Second, herd models for each production system were developed for two scenarios: with or without trypanosomosis. The herd models were based on publications and reports on cattle productivity (fertility, mortality, yields, sales), from which the income from, and growth of cattle populations were estimated over a twenty-year period. Third, a step-wise spatial expansion model was used to estimate how cattle populations might migrate to new areas when maximum stocking rates are exceeded. Last, differences in income between the two scenarios were mapped, thus providing a measure of the maximum benefits that could be obtained from intervening against tsetse and trypanosomosis. For this information to be readily mappable, benefits were calculated per bovine and converted to US$ per square kilometre. Results indicate that the potential benefits from dealing with trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa are both very high and geographically highly variable. The estimated total maximum benefit to livestock keepers for the whole of the study area amounts to nearly US$ 2.5 billion, discounted at 10% over twenty years--an average of approximately US$ 3300 per square kilometre of tsetse-infested area--but with great regional variation from less than US$ 500 per square kilometre to well over US$ 10,000. The

  5. Ecosystem services provided by the Baltic salmon: a regional perspective to the socio-economic benefits associated with a keystone species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, Soile; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Karjalainen, Timo P.

    2013-01-01

    . Todaysalmon is still of great cultural importanceasshownfor exampleby estimates of public spending forhabitat restorationandWTP by angler.Estimates suggest that the cultural services of salmon are greater than the economic value of commercial salmon landingswith a net present value rangingfrom 6 million EUR...

  6. Research on the technology and economic calculation model of power transmission line considering environmental benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yiqun; Sun, Chenjun; Zeng, Ming

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of the modern energy supply system, power grid has a very important influence on the regional energy system, especially in the context of large-scale development of new energy sources, cross transmission line planning is the key to optimize the energy supply system. First of all, this paper starts from the typical regional energy problem analysis, proposes the thought of relying on cross transmission to solve the problems of energy supply; Secondly, this paper analyzes the external environment and the effect of cross transmission, establishes the technical and economic model of transmission planning based on cost effectiveness; Finally, according to the example of China's energy system in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei region, to carry out technical and economic analysis of transmission line technology, and give the relevant recommendations.

  7. POLAND IN AND OUTSIDE THE EURO ZONE – RISKS AND BENEFITS IN THE LIGHT OF NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dobrowolski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the benefits and risks of Poland adopting the euro in the light of current political and economic conditions. For this purpose, the following research methods were used: literature research, intuitive method and descriptive statistics. Poland has fulfilled the criteria for nominal convergence for two years, apart from participating in the ERM II mechanism, but the political situation in the country precludes the adoption of measures leading to the euro zone. The future shape of this zone is yet unknown, as its closer integration is planned. Theoretical analysis indicates that the process of globalization makes it difficult for medium-sized, open-economy countries to pursue autonomous monetary and exchange rate policy, so the loss of these instruments after the adoption of the euro should not jeopardize long-term economic growth, even in the case of asymmetric shocks. The market mechanisms of restoring the balance and fiscal policy may then be used. The economy will also benefit from the elimination of transaction costs and exchange rate risks in the euro zone. The analysis shows that it is possible to use the opportunity for faster GDP growth associated with the adoption of the common currency if the right economic policy is pursued. Adopting the euro may also incur costs. For banks it can be the loss of foreign exchange earnings and commissions on FX hedge transactions. For the economy it can be the possibility of speculative bubbles, as a result of excessive consumption growth, caused by possibly too low interest rates. Expected benefits should, however, outweigh any losses.

  8. Evaluating ecological and economic benefits of a low-carbon industrial park based on millennium ecosystem assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; He, Guoxuan; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Jieru; Su, Meirong; Qi, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework was modified with a special focus on ecosystem service values. A case study of a typical low-carbon industrial park in Beijing was conducted to assess the ecological and economic benefits. The total economic value of this industrial park per year is estimated to be 1.37 × 10(8) RMB yuan, where the accommodating and social cultural services are the largest two contributors. Due to the construction of small grasslands or green roofs, considerable environmental regulation services are also provided by the park. However, compared with an ecoindustrial park, carbon mitigation is the most prominent service for the low-carbon industrial park. It can be concluded that low-carbon industrial park construction is an efficacious way to achieve coordinated development of society, economy, and environment, and a promising approach to achieving energy saving and carbon reduction.

  9. The Economics of Information, Studiously Ignored in the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Henry Vogel et. al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economics of information has been studiously ignored in the ten Conferences of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nevertheless, an academic literature exists which recognises genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as natural and artificial information. Its unambiguous prescriptions would widen the scope of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS and resolve almost all of the contentious issues identified by Kamau et al. One begins with retroactivity: because biological resources exhibit tangible and intangible aspects, the latter can be conceptualised as a set of natural information where value currently added in a patent is access to a subset not previously accessed. The economics quickly leads to a justification for a biodiversity cartel among countries of origin, wholly analogous to monopoly intellectual property rights. To achieve such a sea change in policymaking, the justification must be accompanied by a narrative that can penetrate the social sphere, much as Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights achieved through the World Intellectual Property Organisation. Several examples of bio-discoveries drawn from a popular medium are analysed in terms of the contentious issues of the Protocol and the distinct ABS that would eventuate under cartelisation. History also offers an analogy. The Parties’ eighteen years of resistance (1993-2011 to applying the economics of information to genetic resources is reminiscent to the twenty-seven years that the British Parliament rebuffed David Ricardo’s economic analysis of the Corn Laws (1815-1842.

  10. Enhancing identified Circular Economic benefits related to the deployment of the Solrød biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how experiences from the deployment of the Solrød biogas plant in Denmark - a large scale centralized biogas plant - can assist future biogas technologies in achieving circular economic benefits. Departing from a theoretical understanding of a circular economy provided...... by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the paper analyzes three areas: 1) biogas production, 2) nitrogen, phosphorous & green house gas (GHG) emissions, and 3) re-cycle/cascade materials. It consequently elaborates on the environmental benefits obtained, in terms of CO2 emission from biogas production substituted...... from Solrød Biogas, this paper further proposes to include the following activities when planning for future biogas plants: waste-stream identification and coupling in the local community, measuring the value of digestate as a fertilizer, short distance to farmers delivering manure, and plant design...

  11. Economic Costs and Benefits of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwaggon, Eileen; Sawers, Larry; Rout, Jonathan; Addiss, David; Fox, LeAnne

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis afflicts 68 million people in 73 countries, including 17 million persons living with chronic lymphedema. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to stop new infections and to provide care for persons already affected, but morbidity management programs have been initiated in only 24 endemic countries. We examine the economic costs and benefits of alleviating chronic lymphedema and its effects through a simple limb-care program. For Khurda District, Odisha State, India, we estimated lifetime medical costs and earnings losses due to chronic lymphedema and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) with and without a community-based limb-care program. The program would reduce economic costs of lymphedema and ADLA over 60 years by 55%. Savings of US$1,648 for each affected person in the workforce are equivalent to 1,258 days of labor. Per-person savings are more than 130 times the per-person cost of the program. Chronic lymphedema and ADLA impose a substantial physical and economic burden on the population in filariasis-endemic areas. Low-cost programs for lymphedema management based on limb washing and topical medication for infection are effective in reducing the number of ADLA episodes and stopping progression of disabling and disfiguring lymphedema. With reduced disability, people are able to work longer hours, more days per year, and in more strenuous, higher-paying jobs, resulting in an important economic benefit to themselves, their families, and their communities. Mitigating the severity of lymphedema and ADLA also reduces out-of-pocket medical expense. PMID:27573626

  12. Economic Impact of Net Carbon Payments and Bioenergy Production in Fertilized and Non-Fertilized Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prativa Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sequestering carbon in forest stands and using woody bioenergy are two potential ways to utilize forests in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Such forestry related strategies are, however, greatly influenced by carbon and bioenergy markets. This study investigates the impact of both carbon and woody bioenergy markets on land expectation value (LEV and rotation age of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. forests in the southeastern United States for two scenarios—one with thinning and no fertilization and the other with thinning and fertilization. Economic analysis was conducted using a modified Hartman model. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted during various activities such as management of stands, harvesting, and product decay was included in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with a range of carbon offset, wood for bioenergy, and forest product prices. The results showed that LEV increased in both management scenarios as the price of carbon and wood for bioenergy increased. However, the results indicated that the management scenario without fertilizer was optimal at low carbon prices and the management scenario with fertilizer was optimal at higher carbon prices for medium and low forest product prices. Carbon payments had a greater impact on LEV than prices for wood utilized for bioenergy. Also, increase in the carbon price increased the optimal rotation age, whereas, wood prices for bioenergy had little impact. The management scenario without fertilizer was found to have longer optimal rotation ages.

  13. Potential health and economic benefits of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria: implications for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayomadewa Mercy Olatunya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and lack of economic sustainability are major problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the nutrients‘ contents of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria (local groundnut, Kampala groundnut and breadnut and highlight their health and economic potentials. Proximate analysis, chemical properties, minerals and fatty acids composition of the nuts were determined. The highest protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents were found in Kampala groundnut, local groundnut and breadnut respectively. Their sodium-potassium ratios were all less than 1.0 and their oils have mainly unsaturated fatty acids. Their acid values ranged between (2.41–6.34 mgKOH/g while the iodine values were between 36.0 and 93.0 I2 g/100 g. Analysis of the nuts and their oils indicated that they could help in solving malnutrition problem and also boost nations’ economy. Encouraging their large scale production can enhance adequate nutrition and sustain industrial growth in developing countries. Keywords: Nutrition, Food analysis, Food science

  14. Health and economic benefits of physical activity for patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E; Herbert, William G

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized. Collectively, about 363,000 patients with SCI, or 65% of the entire spinal cord injured population in the US, engages in insufficient physical activity and represents a target population that could derive considerable health benefits from even modest physical activity levels. Currently, the annual direct costs related to SCI exceed US$45 billion in the US. Rehabilitation protocols and technologies aimed to improve functional mobility have potential to significantly reduce the risk of medical complications and cost associated with SCI. Patients who commence routine physical activity in the first post-injury year and experience typical motor function improvements would realize US$290,000 to US$435,000 in lifetime cost savings, primarily due to fewer hospitalizations and less reliance on assistive care. New assistive technologies that allow patients with SCI to safely engage in routine physical activity are desperately needed.

  15. Estimated Pollution Reduction from Wind Farms in Oklahoma and Associated Economic and Human Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Greene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been a recognition of the growing need for different forms of energy outside of fossil fuels. Since the latter half of the twentieth century individuals, corporations, and governments have become increasingly aware of the effects of the emissions of carbon and other harmful pollutants on the environment. With this greater concern has come increasing activity to combat these harmful emissions by using alternative fuel sources to power homes, businesses, and cities. As can be seen from recent trends in their installed capacity, it is clear that renewable energy resources will continue to be more commonly used in the future. As renewable energy increases, a decrease in a range of harmful pollutants from the energy sector will also occur. This paper provides a case study to estimate the potential environmental and health benefits of an increased shift from fossil fuels to renewable fuels for electrical production in Oklahoma. Results illustrate and quantify the specific reduction that wind energy can and will have on air quality, as well as provide a quantification of the associated potential health benefits.

  16. Valuing geospatial information: Using the contingent valuation method to estimate the economic benefits of Landsat satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John; Koontz, Steve; Miller, Holly; Richardson, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    While the U.S. government does not charge for downloading Landsat images, the images have value to users. This paper demonstrates a method that can value Landsat and other imagery to users. A survey of downloaders of Landsat images found: (a) established US users have a mean value of $912 USD per scene; (b) new US users and users returning when imagery became free have a mean value of $367 USD per scene. Total US user benefits for the 2.38 million scenes downloaded is $1.8 billion USD. While these benefits indicate a high willingness-to-pay among many Landsat downloaders, it would be economically inefficient for the US government to charge for Landsat imagery. Charging a price of $100 USD a scene would result in an efficiency loss of $37.5 million a year. This economic information should be useful to policy-makers who must decide about the future of this and similar remote sensing programs.

  17. The economic benefits of fertility control: a critical analysis of the investment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari, V S

    1977-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing rapid population growth, which hinders development of economic planning. There are 2 ways to determine the gain to the economy resulting from preventing a birth: a macro-economic growth approach, which establishes a comparison of the income per capita of a country with and without fertility control, and the investment approach which weighs the advantages and disadvantages of additional births in terms of the anticipated future production and consumption of these births, compared with the gain of preventing them. If decrease of population growth helps development planning, it makes sense to establish incentive payments for preventing a birth. Arguments against the investment approach are: the amount spent for bonuses could be higher than the amount saved; it could be used for new investment. In the discounting procedure, consumption has been exagerated while reducing the value of production. Leibenstein's contention is that family programs are followed more by middle class families, whose children won't become marginal workers. These critics have been refuted. Enke, main contributor to this approach, states that the incentive payment should not exceede the value of preventing a birth. Also, to avoid the cost of resources the bonus could be given in services and productive goods. The discounting procedure has been considered valid in those cases in which present consumption is more relevant than future consumption and investible funds, in which case discounting is unavoidable. On the other hand, if incentives are offered, more participation of the poorer classes can be expected. Based on the investment approach, some economists, like Enke and Badari, analized the worth of an averted birth in India and agreed that the gains were substantial. This indicated that the investment approach is a useful guide for developing countries.

  18. Global trends and local realities: Lessons about economic benefits, selves and identity from a Swiss context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virág Csillagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the unexpected results of a standardized questionnaire survey of Swiss university students’ motivation and attitudes toward English, the paper discusses the influence of global and local contexts on language learners’ motivation and identity. As a result of the unprecedented spread of English as a foreign language (Crystal, 2003; Graddol, 2006, and, more importantly, the underlying social and economic issues that it reflects, elements of the global context intermingle with local realities to create new learning experiences, unaccounted for by traditional research paradigms. Individuals find themselves at the convergence of multiple contexts that affect and are in turn affected by their language attitudes and identity as well as sense of self. The intricate relationships between contexts and individuals continue to gain emphasis in current approaches to language learning motivation (cf. Dörnyei, MacIntyre, & Henry, 2015, which position L2 learnin in a new light, questioning the power and relevance of different motivational categories and also these of a generalizable theoretical model. The quantitative study presented in this paper explores interrelationships among key elements of the L2 motivational self system (Dörnyei, 2009 and a number of motivational factors on the one hand, contrasting them against the economic and social background of the Swiss context on the other. The findings of the project reveal that such repositioning of the participants in the multicultural, plurilingual environment of Geneva and its socioeconomic reality was indeed essential to the interpretation of the results since the extraordinary strength of external and societal factors in participants’ motivational profile gained meaning only in the light of the particularities of the local context. Therefore, the paper showcases the potential of a broader perspective on L2 motivation and the importance of learner-context relationships.

  19. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  20. Fuzzy net present value for engineering analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazeri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cash flow analysis is one of the most popular methods for investigating the outcome of an economical project. The costs and benefits of a construction project are often involved with uncertainty and it is not possible to find a precise value for a particular project. In this paper, we present a simple method to calculate the net present value of a cash flow when both costs and benefits are given as triangular numbers. The proposed model of this paper uses Delphi method to figure out the fair values of all costs and revenues and then using fizzy programming techniques, it calculates the fuzzy net present value. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated using a simple example.

  1. Health and economic benefits of physical activity for patients with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller LE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Larry E Miller,1 William G Herbert1,2 1Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 2Department of Human Nutrition, Foods & Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized. Collectively, about 363,000 patients with SCI, or 65% of the entire spinal cord injured population in the US, engages in insufficient physical activity and represents a target population that could derive considerable health benefits from even modest physical activity levels. Currently, the annual direct costs related to SCI exceed US$45 billion in the US. Rehabilitation protocols and technologies aimed to improve functional mobility have potential to significantly reduce the risk of medical complications and cost associated with SCI. Patients who commence routine physical activity in the first post-injury year and experience typical motor function improvements would realize US$290,000 to US$435,000 in lifetime cost savings, primarily due to fewer hospitalizations and less reliance on assistive care. New assistive technologies that allow patients with SCI to safely engage in routine physical activity are desperately needed. Keywords: ambulation, cost, exercise, exoskeleton, paraplegia, physical activity, spinal cord injury

  2. Consortium Purchases: Case Study for a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigliano, Marisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library cooperation and academic library consortia and presents a case study of a Canadian consortia that conducted a cost-benefit analysis for purchasing an electronic resource. Reports on member library subscription costs, external economic factors, value of patron time saved, costs and benefits for patrons, and net savings. (LRW)

  3. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  4. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources; Costi e benefici economici delle fonti rinnovabili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leo, G. A. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Rizzi, L. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica; Caizzi, A. [Cesi Spa, Business Unit Ambiente, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants. [Italian] Viene analizzata la capacita' di penetrazione delle fonti di energia rinnovabile e della cogenerazione nel mercato italiano sulla base dello stato di maturazione delle varie tecnologie e gli impatti ambientali ad esse associate. L'articolo mostra che il rispetto del vincolo di Kyoto comporterebbe in ultima analisi non un aggravio dei costi per la collettivita', ma addirittura un risparmio di 11 lire per ogni kWh prodotto, ovvero oltre il 10% rispetto ai costi totali.

  5. The economic valuation of the recreational benefits of Dichato Beach (tome-Chlie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alonso Orrego

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones naturales y la infraestructura de servicios existente en la playa de Dichato (VIII Región-Chile, posibilitan la presencia de un considerable número de familias durante las temporadas de verano. Mediante la adecuada aplicación del método del costo de viaje, es posible estimar la demanda recreacional de la playa y sus beneficios económicos. El documento privilegia la modelación del número de viajes efectuados durante un período de tiempo determinado, y en este sentido presenta los resultados econométricos de los siguientes modelos estadísticos: estimación por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios de una forma funcional lineal (OLSL, y de una forma semi-log (OLSS; estimación por máxima verosimilitud de una forma funcional lineal (MLEL, de una semi-log (MLES, de una distribución Poisson tanto general (POIS como truncada (TPOIS, y de una distribución de una Binomial Negativa también general (BNEG como truncada (TBNEG. En total son ocho (8 modelos, de los cuales OLSL, OLSS, MLEL y MLES se caracterizan por generar estimadores basados en distribuciones de probabilidades continuas. Los restantes modelos POIS, TPOIS, BNEG y TBNEG, corresponden a distribuciones discretas.

  6. Economic consequences of workplace injuries and illnesses: lost earnings and benefit adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, L I; Galizzi, M

    1999-11-01

    This is the first study based on individual data to estimate earnings lost from virtually all reported workplace injuries and illnesses in a state. We estimated lost earnings from workplace injuries and illnesses occurring in Wisconsin in 1989-90, using workers' compensation data and 6 years of unemployment insurance wage data. We used regression techniques to estimate losses relative to a comparison group. The average present value of losses projected 10 years past the observed period is over $8,000 per injury. Women lose a greater proportion of their preinjury earnings than do men. Replacement of after-tax projected losses averages 64% for men and 50% for women. Overall, workers with compensated injuries and illnesses experienced discounted pre-tax losses projected to total over $530,000,000 (1994 dollars), with about 60% of after-tax losses replaced by workers' compensation. Generally, groups losing over eight weeks' work received workers' compensation benefits covering less than 40% of their losses. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Valuation of the economic benefits of human papillomavirus vaccine in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chih-Hsien; Liu, Jin-Tan; Pwu, Raoh-Fang; You, San-Lin; Chow, Ines; Tang, Chao-Hsiun

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to apply the contingent valuation method to elicit the willingness-to-pay (WTP), and measure the value of a statistic life (VSL), for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in Taiwan. A total of 512 questionnaires were completed on women aged 20 to 55 years with at least one daughter, during March through May 2007. The respondents' WTP for the vaccines was elicited by double-bounded binary-choice questions under two scenarios: one was to protect themselves from cervical cancer (CC) and the other was for their daughter(s). The WTP was modeled as a function of the respondents' knowledge score, attitudes toward CC and HPV vaccine, the vaccination outcome scenarios, and individual characteristics. A log-normal survival model was constructed and the maximum-likelihood method was used for estimation. The median regression-adjusted WTP was estimated at US$1098 to US$1233 (US$913-1004) for vaccinating the daughter (mother); and the VSL was estimated at approximately US$0.65 to US$4.09 (US$0.56-3.16) million for vaccinating the daughter (mother). The study results provided important evidences on the monetary value women placed on a HPV vaccine, and the differential benefits between vaccinating the women and their daughters.

  8. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the public health and economic benefits of achieving a 'tobacco-free' UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel; Knuchel-Takano, André; Jaccard, Abbygail; Bhimjiyani, Arti; Retat, Lise; Selvarajah, Chit; Brown, Katrina; Webber, Laura L; Brown, Martin

    2017-05-11

    Smoking is still the most preventable cause of cancer, and a leading cause of premature mortality and health inequalities in the UK. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of achieving a 'tobacco-free' ambition (TFA) where, by 2035, less than 5% of the population smoke tobacco across all socioeconomic groups. A non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data to create projections to 2035. These projections were used to predict the future incidence and costs of 17 smoking-related diseases using a microsimulation approach. The health and economic impacts of achieving a TFA were evaluated against a predicted baseline scenario, where current smoking trends continue. If trends continue, the prevalence of smoking in the UK was projected to be 10% by 2035-well above a TFA. If this ambition were achieved by 2035, it could mean 97 300 +/- 5 300 new cases of smoking-related diseases are avoided by 2035 (tobacco-related cancers: 35 900+/- 4 100; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 29 000 +/- 2 700; stroke: 24 900 +/- 2 700; coronary heart disease: 7600 +/- 2 700), including around 12 350 diseases avoided in 2035 alone. The consequence of this health improvement is predicted to avoid £67 +/- 8 million in direct National Health Service and social care costs, and £548 million in non-health costs, in 2035 alone. These findings strengthen the case to set bold targets on long-term declines in smoking prevalence to achieve a tobacco 'endgame'. Results demonstrate the health and economic benefits that meeting a TFA can achieve over just 20 years. Effective ambitions and policy interventions are needed to reduce the disease and economic burden of smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

  10. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; E. Letschert, Virginie; E. McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption in the most cost-effective way. A major difference between the current study and some others is that we focus on individual equipment types that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products however, indicating that delay of implementation postpones impacts such as net economic savings and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.

  11. Are hospital staff aware of the economic benefits of employing people with disabilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata M. Machaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : One of the regulations governing employment on the open labour market is the Act for vocational and social rehabilitation and employment of people with disabilities, which defines disability in the context that it impacts upon a person’s ability to work. Aim of the research : To evaluate the level of hospital staff awareness of the financial impacts of employing people with disabilities at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior in Warsaw. Material and methods: The sample and control groups consisted of people working at the hospital, comprising 247 individuals, including 194 women and 53 men, aged between 25 and 60 years. The sample group consisted of people with disabilities. The control group consisted of colleagues with disabilities, of both sexes, and of the same age range. There was also a separate sample group comprising 60 people from middle management and senior management. The sample and control groups were provided with a questionnaire about issues relating to the economic aspects of employing people with disabilities. The results were compared with data from the questionnaire for management and from hospital statistics. The methodology of mathematical statistics was used. Results : Discrepancies were found between sample and control groups, and hospital statistics pertaining to people with disabilities as employees in terms of the burden placed on the business, such as sick leave, breaks from work in the general sense, additional leave, accessing specialist tests during working hours, and earnings, in particular reimbursement of the cost of workplace equipment and funding for salaries. Conclusions: There is a significant degree of divergence between managers’ and employees’ notions of privileges for disabled workers and their actual scale. There is misunderstanding and lack of knowledge of the applicable provisions of the Act for the Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of

  12. Economic benefits or drivers of a ‘One Health’ approach: Why should anyone invest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Rushton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One Health concepts and ideas are some of the oldest in the health discipline, yet they have not become main stream. Recent discussions of the need for One Health approaches require some reflection on how to present a case for greater investments. The paper approaches this problem from the perspective of the control and management of resources for health in general. It poses the following questions, (1 where do we need extra resources for One Health, (2 where can we save resources through a One Health approach and (3 who has control of the resources that do exist for One Health? In answering these questions three broad areas are explored, (1 The management and resources allocated for diseases, (2 The isolation of parts of the society that require human and animal health services and (3 The use of resources and skills that are easily transferable between human and animal health.The paper concludes that One Health approaches are applicable in many scenarios. However, the costs of getting people from different disciplines to work together in order to achieve a true One Health approach can be large. To generate tangible benefits requires careful management of specialist skills, knowledge and equipment, which can only be achieved by a greater openness of the human and animal health disciplines. Without this openness, policy makers will continue to doubt the real value of One Health. In summary the future success of One Health is about people working in the research, education and provision of health systems around the world embracing and managing change more effectively.

  13. Economic benefits or drivers of a 'One Health' approach: why should anyone invest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara; De Haan, Nicoline; Rushton, Ruth

    2012-06-20

    One Health concepts and ideas are some of the oldest in the health discipline, yet they have not become main stream. Recent discussions of the need for One Health approaches require some reflection on how to present a case for greater investments. The paper approaches this problem from the perspective of the control and management of resources for health in general. It poses the following questions, (1) where do we need extra resources for One Health, (2) where can we save resources through a One Health approach and (3) who has control of the resources that do exist for One Health? In answering these questions three broad areas are explored, (1) The management and resources allocated for diseases, (2) The isolation of parts of the society that require human and animal health services and (3) The use of resources and skills that are easily transferable between human and animal health.The paper concludes that One Health approaches are applicable in many scenarios. However, the costs of getting people from different disciplines to work together in order to achieve a true One Health approach can be large. To generate tangible benefits requires careful management of specialist skills, knowledge and equipment, which can only be achieved by a greater openness of the human and animal health disciplines. Without this openness, policy makers will continue to doubt the real value of One Health. In summary the future success of One Health is about people working in the research, education and provision of health systems around the world embracing and managing change more effectively.

  14. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Kirkby

    Full Text Available Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism could be as large as US$ 210×10(12, providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges: US$ 1,158 ha(-1, which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  15. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Christopher A; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W

    2010-09-29

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×10(12), providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha(-1), which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  16. Analysis of economic and environmental benefits of a new heat pump air conditioning system with a heat recovery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, lingxue

    2017-08-01

    The paper designs a new wind-water cooling and heating water conditioner system, connects cooling tower with heat recovery device, which uses cooling water to completely remove the heat that does not need heat recollection, in order to ensure that the system can work efficiently with higher performance coefficient. After the test actual engineering operation, the system’s maximum cooling coefficient of performance can reach 3.5. Its maximum comprehensive coefficient of performance can reach 6.5. After the analysis of its economic and environmental, we conclude that the new system can save 89822 kw per year. It reflects energy-saving and environmental benefits of the cold and hot water air conditioning system.

  17. Economic evaluation of the differential benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Chau, June; Law, Antony Kwan Pui; Tam, Stanley Ku Fu; McGhee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    home visits and telephone calls are two often used approaches in transitional care, but their differential economic effects are unknown. to examine the differential economic benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support. cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). patients discharged from medical units randomly assigned to control (control, N = 210), home visits with calls (home, N = 196) and calls only (call, N = 204). cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted from the societal perspective comparing monetary benefits and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. the home arm was less costly but less effective at 28 days and was dominating (less costly and more effective) at 84 days. The call arm was dominating at both 28 and 84 days. The incremental QALY for the home arm was -0.0002/0.0008 (28/84 days), and the call arm was 0.0022/0.0104 (28/84 days). When the three groups were compared, the call arm had a higher probability being cost-effective at 84 days but not at 28 days (home: 53%, call: 35% (28 days) versus home: 22%, call: 73% (84 days)) measuring against the NICE threshold of £20,000. the original RCT showed that the bundled intervention involving home visits and calls was more effective than calls only in the reduction of hospital readmissions. This study adds a cost perspective to inform policymakers that both home visits and calls only are cost-effective for transitional care support, but calls only have a higher chance of being cost-effective for a sustained period after intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  18. Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units: economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, F O; Lazarus, D D; Spencer, B T; Makinde, A A; Bastos, A D S

    2012-06-01

    African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of effective biosecurity against African swine fever. The outcomes suggest that pig production is a profitable venture that can generate a profit of approximately US$109,637.40 per annum and that an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has the potential to cause losses of up to US$910,836.70 in a single year. The implementation of biosecurity and its effective monitoring can prevent losses owing to ASF and is calculated to give a benefit-cost ratio of 29. A full implementation of biosecurity will result in a 9.70% reduction in total annual profit, but is justified in view of the substantial costs incurred in the event of an ASF outbreak. Biosecurity implementation is robust and capable of withstanding changes in input costs including moderate feed price increases, higher management costs and marginal reductions in total outputs. It is concluded that biosecurity is a key to successful pig production in an endemic situation. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Legislations and policies to expand mental health and substance abuse benefits in health insurance plans: a community guide systematic economic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A; Goetzel, Ron Z; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B

    2015-03-01

    Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expanded MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when long-term MH/SA patient-level data becomes available to researchers. A

  20. [Does telemonitoring lead to health and economic benefits in patients with chronic heart failure? - a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, U; Henschke, C

    2012-12-01

    Chronic heart failure is a severe and common disease combined with high costs for the German health care system. Deficiencies in standard therapy and limited financial capacities of the German health care system necessitate new approaches in the care of chronic heart failure patients.The present study aims to analyse the scientific level of knowledge of clinical, economic and other outcomes of telemonitoring compared with standard therapy for patients with chronic heart failure. Results should provide an evidence base for health-care decision makers.To determine the outcomes, a systematic review was carried out by using the database MEDLINE. In accordance with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 randomized controlled trials remained. Furthermore, 4 studies of a hand research and the recently published results of one of the largest national studies were included.As a result of the systematic review, there is currently no evidence for the benefits of telemonitoring compared with standard therapy. National studies identified significant improvements or a tendency for improvements in terms of quality of life and costs/cost-effectiveness as well as partly in mortality, hospital duration and medication adherence. International studies diverged in their results. The comparability and validity of the investigated studies are limited due to a low number of national studies, different settings of the telemonitoring programmes, the inclusion of different NYHA classes, the heterogeneity of study endpoints and endpoint-related causes, short observation periods of some studies as well as questionable transferability of international cost-results to the German health care system. Furthermore, differences in standard therapy between national and international studies were identified. None of the international studies performed a comparison between clinical and economic outcomes.With regard to the future prospects of telemonitoring in Germany there is still a need for

  1. [Impact of Phosphogypsum Wastes on the Wheat Growth and CO2 Emissions and Evaluation of Economic-environmental Benefit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Shang, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Pei-hui; Yin, Jin; Kakpa, Didier; Ren, Qian-qi; Faustin, Ogou Katchele; Chen, Su-yun; Xu, Ya; Yao, Tong-yan; Ji, Wei; Qian, Jing-shan; Ma, Shi-jie

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum is a phosphorus chemical waste which has not been managed and reused well, resultantly, causing environmental pollution and land-occupation. Phosphogypsum wastes were used as a soil amendment to assess the effect on wheat growth, yield and CO2 emissions from winter wheat fields. Its economic and environmental benefits were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that wheat yield was increased by 37.71% in the treatment of phosphogypsum of 2 100 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control treatment, throughout the wheat growing season, CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 3% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 1050 kg x hm(-2), while reduced by 8% , 10% , and 6% during the jointing stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively; while CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 7% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 2 100 kg x hm(-2) throughout the wheat growing season, as reduced by 11% , 4% , and 12% during the reviving wintering stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively. It was better for CO2 emission reduction in the treatment of a larger amount of phosphogypsum waste. In the case of application of phosphogypsum waste residue within a certain range, the emission intensity of CO2 ( CO2 emissions of per unit of fresh weight or CO2 emissions of per unit of yield) , spike length, fresh weight and yield showed a significantly negative correlation--the longer the ear length, the greater fresh weight and yield and the lower the CO2 emissions intensity. As to the carbon trading, phosphogypsum utilization was of high economic and environmental benefits. Compared with the control, the ratio of input to output changed from 1: 8.3 to 1: 10.7, which in the same situation of investment the output could be increased by 28.92% ; phosphogypsum as a greenhouse gas reducing agent in the wheat field, it could decrease the cost and increase the environmental benefit totally about 290 yuan per unit of ton. The

  2. User-tailored seasonal forecasts for agriculture - creating socio-economic benefit through climate services in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ventura, Sara; Avalos, Grinia; Rossa, Andrea; Flubacher, Moritz; Gubler, Stefanie; Sedlmeier, Katrin; Dapozzo, Marlene; Garcia, Teresa; Quevedo, Karim; Liniger, Mark; Spirig, Christoph; Rosas, Gabriela; Schwierz, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    The project Climandes is a twinning project between the Peruvian National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI) and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology of Switzerland (MeteoSwiss) aiming at improving climate services for the Andean Region. It was launched in 2012 as a pilot project of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of WMO. In 2016 a second phase of the project has started. Until now, Peru as all the Andean countries has had only a limited access to climate services, and the few instruments already in place have mostly not been developed in concordance with the user needs. Due to this mismatch, the opportunity to achieve veritable socio-economic benefits (SEB) has been overlooked so far. An additional difficulty is the lack of trained and experienced climatology and meteorology professionals able to develop and provide high quality climate services. Furthermore, the importance of climate information and its far-reaching benefits has not yet been fully acknowledged and embraced by the political decision-makers. The overall goals of the Climandes project are the following:. • Provision of user-tailored climate services for the Andean Region to improve socio- economic benefits for the agricultural sector and for society at large. • Improvement of the capacities of the meteorological service of Peru to generate user-tailored climate services in the agricultural sector. These goals are elaborated within three mutually dependent modules: The first one comprises user-tailored climate products for the agricultural sector in the Peruvian Andes. This includes drought and precipitation monitoring as well as the development of a prototype seasonal prediction system for the region including indices tailored to the agricultural sector. The second module focuses on capacity building, enabling climatology-related professionals and students to develop high-quality climate services for Peru and the Andean Region. Training courses as

  3. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  4. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  5. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  6. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  7. Using the net benefit regression framework to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves: an example using data from a trial of external loop recorders versus Holter monitoring for ambulatory monitoring of "community acquired" syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockx Marie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs describe the probability that a new treatment or intervention is cost-effective. The net benefit regression framework (NBRF allows cost-effectiveness analysis to be done in a simple regression framework. The objective of the paper is to illustrate how net benefit regression can be used to construct a CEAC. Methods One hundred patients referred for ambulatory monitoring with syncope or presyncope were randomized to a one-month external loop recorder (n = 49 or 48-hour Holter monitor (n = 51. The primary endpoint was symptom-rhythm correlation during monitoring. Direct costs were calculated based on the 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP fee schedule combined with hospital case costing of labour, materials, service and overhead costs for diagnostic testing and related equipment. Results In the loop recorder group, 63.27% of patients (31/49 had symptom recurrence and successful activation, compared to 23.53% in the Holter group (12/51. The cost in US dollars for loop recording was $648.50 and $212.92 for Holter monitoring. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the loop recorder was $1,096 per extra successful diagnosis. The probability that the loop recorder was cost-effective compared to the Holter monitor was estimated using net benefit regression and plotted on a CEAC. In a sensitivity analysis, bootstrapping was used to examine the effect of distributional assumptions. Conclusion The NBRF is straightforward to use and interpret. The resulting uncertainty surrounding the regression coefficient relates to the CEAC. When the link from the regression's p-value to the probability of cost-effectiveness is tentative, bootstrapping may be used.

  8. Shared Cared for Stable Glaucoma Patients: Economic Benefits and Patient-centered Outcomes of a Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, David; de Korne, Dirk F; Ho, Henrietta; Mathur, Ranjana; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Van Hai, Nguyen; Wai, Charity; Perera, Shamira; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the quality of care and economic benefits of a shared care model managing patients with stable glaucoma in a primary eye care (PEC) clinic compared with a tertiary specialist outpatient clinic (SOC) in Singapore. A randomized equivalence feasibility trial was preformed comparing the PEC with SOC models. Participants recruited from the SOC had no visual field progression or change in management for at least 3 years, were on a maximum of a single glaucoma medication, had no previous tube-shunt implant and were at least 3-year posttrabeculectomy surgery.Primary outcomes were clinical assessment and management, economic benefits, and patient satisfaction. Differences were analyzed using equivalence testing and generalized odds ratios. The trial included 233 patients, consisting of 42.1% glaucoma disc suspects (PEC: 47.4%; SOC: 36.8%), 27.5% primary angle closure suspects (PEC: 25.0%; SOC: 29.9%), 13.7% with ocular hypertension (PEC: 13.8%; SOC: 13.7%), 3.9% with primary angle closure glaucoma (PEC: 4.3%; SOC: 3.4%), and 3.0% with primary open angle glaucoma (PEC: 1.7%; SOC: 4.3%). Glaucoma clinical care for patients at PEC was as good as SOC [rate difference, 6.83%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.84-11.12) and management (rate difference, 7.69%; 95% CI, 3.21-12.17). In 23 cases (9.9%), 5.2% at PEC and 14.5% at SOC, there was disconcordance with the gold standard of senior consultant. Patient satisfaction at the PEC was equally high when compared with SOC (generalized odds ratio, 1.43; CI, 0.50-2.00). Direct costs per patient visit were 43% lower at PEC compared with SOC. Managing stable glaucoma patients at a primary care setting is a cost saving, safe, and effective shared care while enhancing professional collaboration between hospital and community settings.

  9. Economic benefits and treatment progress as determinants of the sustainability of Vietnamese voluntary co-located patients clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the past 15 years or so, in Vietnam, a phenomenon has steadily grown more and more widespread: the forming of co-located patients communities. Poor patients choose to live together, seeking/lending supports from/to one another. Despite the undeniable existence of these communities, little is researched or known about how co-located patients perceive the value of what they receive as cluster members, or how they assess their future connection to the communities they are living in. Materials and Methods. The study employs multiple logistic regressions method to investigate relationships between factors such as perceived satisfaction from community-provided financial means, reported health improvements, along with patients’ shortand longer-term commitments to these communities. Results. The results suggest meaningful empirical relationships: 1 between, on one hand, gender, perceived values and sustainability of patients communities, financial stress faced by patients and the financial benefits they received from the community, and, on the other hand, their propensity to stay connected to it; and 2 between economic conditions, length of stay with a community, general level of satisfaction, health improvements on one hand and long-term commitment to these communities on the other hand. Conclusions. Patients who choose to stick to co-location clusters do so for an economic reason: finding means to fight their financial hardship. This may suggest a degree of complication higher than one would have thought in dealing with poor patients from a social point of view. Concretely, the majority of the public only focuses on charity programs and in-king donations, while ignoring the more sustainable – and, at the same time, more complicated – alternative which is to create suitable income-generating jobs for patient. In addition, patients are not only those who seek to ask for supports but can potentially be the donors contributing to

  10. Economic Benefits and Treatment Progress as Determinants of the Sustainability of Vietnamese Voluntary Co-Located Patients Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2017-04-13

    Over the past 15 years or so, in Vietnam, a phenomenon has steadily grown more and more widespread: the forming of co-located patients communities. Poor patients choose to live together, seeking/lending supports from/to one another. Despite the undeniable existence of these communities, little is researched or known about how co-located patients perceive the value of what they receive as cluster members, or how they assess their future connection to the communities they are living in. The study employs multiple logistic regressions method to investigate relationships between factors such as perceived satisfaction from community-provided financial means, reported health improvements, along with patients' short-and longer-term commitments to these communities. The results suggest meaningful empirical relationships: 1) between, on one hand, gender, perceived values and sustainability of patients communities, financial stress faced by patients and the financial benefits they received from the community, and, on the other hand, their propensity to stay connected to it; and 2) between economic conditions, length of stay with a community, general level of satisfaction, health improvements on one hand and long-term commitment to these communities on the other hand. Patients who choose to stick to co-location clusters do so for an economic reason: finding means to fight their financial hardship. This may suggest a degree of complication higher than one would have thought in dealing with poor patients from a social point of view. Concretely, the majority of the public only focuses on charity programs and in-king donations, while ignoring the more sustainable - and, at the same time, more complicated - alternative which is to create suitable income-generating jobs for patient. In addition, patients are not only those who seek to ask for supports but can potentially be the donors contributing to the sustainability of those voluntary communities.

  11. Viabilidade econômica do uso da tela antigranizo em pomares de pêra-japonesa Economic evaluation of the use of hail protection net in japonese pear orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS LEOMAR KREUZ

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o uso da tela de proteção ao granizo sob a perspectiva de um investimento na cultura da pêra-japonesa nas condições do Sul do Brasil. Os resultados evidenciam que, dado um risco médio de ocorrência de granizo de 10% ao ano, o seu uso se justifica para produtores que possuem disponibilidade de capital, bem como para aqueles que buscam uma constância no atendimento ao mercado.This study was carried out to analyse the economic viability of the use of a hail protection net in Japanese pear orchards in Southern Brazil. The hail has a chance of 10% to occur yearly. The use of the hail net protection did not improve the economic return. It is suggested the use when capital is not a limiting production factor, and in order to constantly supply the market.

  12. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  13. Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System to enhance the societal, scientific and economic benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Karstensen, Johannes; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic Ocean observing by establishing an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the EU Horizon 2020 project AtlantOS with its 62 partners from 18 countries (European and international) and several members will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit by supporting the full cycle of the integrated ocean observation value chain from requirements via data gathering and observation, product generation, information, prediction, dissemination and stakeholder dialogue towards information and product provision. The benefits will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality

  14. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fenix deliverable 3.3. Financial and socio-economic impacts of embracing the Fenix concept. Assessment of costs and benefits of FENIX. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Welle, A.J.; Kolokathis, C.; Jansen, J.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Madina, C.; Diaz, A. [Labein-Tecnalia, C/Geldo, Derio (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The key results of cost-benefit analyses of FENIX (Flexibel Electricity Network to integrate the eXpected energy evolution) applications in the FENIX Southern and Northern Demonstration projects are presented and discussed. The net benefits of FENIX flexibility applications under present-day and future baseline circumstances with a year 2020 time horizon are compared with FENIX operational practices at the system level as defined and delineated by the Southern and Northern Demonstrations. The report focuses on selected promising applications for flexible distributed generators. Results of cost-benefit analysis are considered from the perspectives of key stakeholders and society. The report demonstrates that the FENIX flexibility concept has great potential to create additional value to distributed energy resources and their business partners, network system operators and society at large in a variety of applications.

  16. A Model for Assessing the Clinical and Economic Benefits of Bone-forming Agents for Reducing Fractures in Postmenopausal Women at High, Near-term Risk of Osteoporotic Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Claire E; Parthan, Anju; Kruse, Morgan; Cartier, Shannon; Stollenwerk, Bjorn; Jiang, Yawen; Caloyeras, John P; Crittenden, Daria B; Barron, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to assess and compare the potential clinical and economic value of emerging bone-forming agents using the only currently available agent, teriparatide, as a reference case in patients at high, near-term (imminent, 1- to 2-year) risk of osteoporotic fractures, extending to a lifetime horizon with sequenced antiresorptive agents for maintenance treatment. Analyses were performed by using a Markov cohort model accounting for time-specific fracture protection effects of bone-forming agents followed by antiresorptive treatment with denosumab. The alternative bone-forming agent profiles were defined by using assumptions regarding the onset and total magnitude of protection against fractures with teriparatide. The model cohort comprised 70-year-old female patients with T scores below -2.5 and a previous vertebral fracture. Outcomes included clinical fractures, direct costs, and quality-adjusted life years. The simulated treatment strategies were compared by calculating their incremental "value" (net monetary benefit). Improvements in the onset and magnitude of fracture protection (vs the teriparatide reference case) produced a net monetary benefit of $17,000,000 per 10,000 treated patients during the (1.5-year) bone-forming agent treatment period and $80,000,000 over a lifetime horizon that included 3.5 years of maintenance treatment with denosumab. Incorporating time-specific fracture effects in the Markov cohort model allowed for estimation of a range of cost savings, quality-adjusted life years gained, and clinical fractures avoided at different levels of fracture protection onset and magnitude. Results provide a first estimate of the potential "value" new bone-forming agents (romosozumab and abaloparatide) may confer relative to teriparatide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating the clinical and economic benefit associated with incremental improvements in sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil McEwan

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the principle causes of chronic liver disease. Successful treatment significantly decreases the risk of hepatic morbidity and mortality. Current standard of care achieves sustained virologic response (SVR rates of 40-80%; however, the HCV therapy landscape is rapidly evolving. The objective of this study was to quantify the clinical and economic benefit associated with increasing levels of SVR.A published Markov model (MONARCH that simulates the natural history of hepatitis C over a lifetime horizon was used. Discounted and non-discounted life-years (LYs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs and cost of complication management were estimated for various plausible SVR rates. To demonstrate the robustness of projections obtained, the model was validated to ten UK-specific HCV studies.QALY estimates ranged from 18.0 years for those treated successfully in fibrosis stage F0 to 7.5 years (discounted for patients in fibrosis stage F4 who remain untreated. Predicted QALY gains per 10% improvement in SVR ranged from 0.23 (F0 to 0.64 (F4 and 0.58 (F0 to 1.35 (F4 in 40 year old patients (discounted and non-discounted results respectively. In those aged 40, projected discounted HCV-related costs are minimised with successful treatment in F0/F1 (at approximately £ 300, increasing to £ 49,300 in F4 patients who remain untreated. Validation of the model to published UK cost-effectiveness studies produce R2 goodness of fit statistics of 0.988, 0.978 and of 0.973 for total costs, QALYs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios, respectively.Projecting the long-term clinical and economic consequences associated with chronic hepatitis C is a necessary requirement for the evaluation of new treatments. The principle analysis demonstrates the significant impact on expected costs, LYs and QALYs associated with increasing SVR. A validation analysis demonstrated the robustness of the results reported.

  18. Economic Cost of Ovine Johne’s Disease in Clinically Affected New Zealand Flocks and Benefit-Cost of Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Gautam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to estimate the on-fam economic cost of ovine Johne’s disease (OJD based on collected incidence and mortality data, and the benefit-cost of OJD vaccination in typical OJD affected flocks in New Zealand after having vaccinated for a number of years. Owners of 20 sheep breeding and finishing farms known to be clinically affected by ovine Johne’s disease in New Zealand participated in the study and were monitored for up to two years. Farms were categorized as fine-wool (Merino, Half-Bred, Corriedale, n = 15, and other breeds (Romney, composite breeds, n = 5. Ovine JD was confirmed by gross- and histo-pathology in 358 ewes culled due to chronic progressive wasting. An additional 228 ewes with low body condition score (BCS, but not targeted for culling, were tested with ELISA to estimate the proportion of OJD in ewes in the lower 5% BCS of the flock. Calculations were done separately for fine-wool and other breeds. Based on the data, mortality due to OJD, its associated cost and the benefit-cost of vaccination were evaluated for a hypothetical farm with 2000 ewes by stochastic simulation. Total ewe mortality was similar in fine-wool and other breeds, but the estimated mortality due to OJD was 2.7 times as high in fine-wool (median 1.8%, interquartile range IQR 1.2–2.7% than other breeds (median 0.69%, IQR 0.3–1.2%, but with large variation between farms. ELISA results demonstrated fine-wool sheep had a higher seroprevalence than other breeds (39%, 95% CI 18–61% vs. 9%, 95% CI 0–22%. Stochastic modelling indicated that the average annual cost of mortality due to OJD in a flock of 2000 ewes was NZD 13,100 (IQR 8900–18,600 in fine-wool and NZD 4300 (IQR 2200–7600 in other breeds. Vaccinating replacement lambs against OJD may be cost-effective in most flocks when the pre-vaccination annual ewe mortality due to OJD is >1%. To make the best-informed decision about vaccination it is therefore essential for farmers

  19. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  20. Health and economic benefits of scaling up a home-based neonatal care package in rural India: a modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arindam; Colson, Abigail R; Verma, Amit; Megiddo, Itamar; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 900 000 newborn children die every year in India, accounting for 28% of neonatal deaths globally. In 2011, India introduced a home-based newborn care (HBNC) package to be delivered by community health workers across rural areas. We estimate the disease and economic burden that could be averted by scaling up the HBNC in rural India using IndiaSim, an agent-based simulation model, to examine two interventions. In the first intervention, the existing community health worker network begins providing HBNC for rural households without access to home- or facility-based newborn care, as introduced by India's recent programme. In the second intervention, we consider increased coverage of HBNC across India so that total coverage of neonatal care (HBNC or otherwise) in the rural areas of each state reaches at least 90%. We find that compared with a baseline of no coverage, providing the care package through the existing network of community health workers could avert 48 [95% uncertainty range (UR) 34-63] incident cases of severe neonatal morbidity and 5 (95% UR 4-7) related deaths, save $4411 (95% UR $3088-$5735) in out-of-pocket treatment costs, and provide $285 (95% UR $200-$371) in value of insurance per 1000 live births in rural India. Increasing the coverage of HBNC to 90% will avert an additional 9 (95% UR 7-12) incident cases, 1 death (95% UR 0.72-1.33), and $613 (95% UR $430-$797) in out-of-pocket expenditures, and provide $55 (95% UR $39-$72) in incremental value of insurance per 1000 live births. Intervention benefits are greater for lower socioeconomic groups and in the poorer states of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Planning water supply under uncertainty - benefits and limitations of RDM, Info-Gap, economic optimization and many-objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, E.; Padula, S.; Huskova, I.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    companies and generates the least-economic cost annual plan. The RDM application uses stochastic simulation under a weekly time-step and regret analysis to choose a candidate strategy. We then use a statistical cluster algorithm to identify future states of the world under which the strategy is vulnerable. The method explicitly considers the effects of uncertainty in supply, demands and energy price on multiple performance criteria. The Info-gap approach produces robustness and opportuneness plots that show the performance of different plans under the most dire and favorable sets of future conditions. The same simulator, supply and demand options and uncertainties are considered as in the RDM application. The MOEO application considers many more combinations of supply and demand options while still employing a simulator that enables a more realistic representation of the physical system and operating rules. A computer cluster is employed to ease the computational burden. Visualization software allows decision makers to interactively view tradeoffs in many dimensions. Benefits and limitations of each framework are discussed and recommendations for future planning in the basin are provided.

  2. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a

  3. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  4. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  5. Economics and lighting level recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-04-01

    The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America develops light level recommendations for tasks where visual performance is important. The 1959 and 1972 recommendations for illumination levels were based on the principle of delivering a fixed level of performance as predicted by the visual performance models of the time. This same principle is being considered for future revisions to the recommendations. There is currently no explicit method for determining whether a given fixed performance level is in any sense optimal or best. Visual performance increases with lighting levels, but so do economic and environmental costs. These costs lessen the economic benefits of the improved visual performance. A formal method for including these factors in light level recommendations is to restate the problem in terms of net benefits (benefits minus costs). The resulting equations have well defined optima versus light level, and thus give an explicit estimate of what the best lighting levels are in terms of current visual performance models, and current economic conditions. A simple net-benefit procedure is described, and sample calculations are shown for two current visual performance models. Fixed performance levels do not provide economically optimal recommendations with either model. There are also differences between models, but they are less significant than the large differences between the principles of fixed performance levels and economic optimization.

  6. [Health and economic benefits of reducing 10 µm particulate matter (PM₁₀) in Metropolitan Area of Concepción, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, Cristian; Saavedra, Andrés; Jiménez, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Several international studies show the effects of PM10 pollution on health but specific analyses for many cities in Chile are lacking. To relate PM10 concentrations to effects with population health and quantify the economic benefits of its reduction in Concepción Metropolitan Area. Poisson regression and generalized additive models were used to analyze the short-term effects of PM10 on mortality and morbidity, controlling for lags, seasonal, trend and weather variables. The damage function method to determine the economic impact of pollution reduction was used. The selected concentration-response (C-R) coefficients showed that PM10 concentrations had effects on hospital admissions with a two days lag for respiratory diseases in children under 15 years of age and with a one day lag for asthma in patients over 64 years. The effects on premature mortality had a six days lag. The decrease in 1 µg/m³ of PM10 concentration would generate benefits ranging from 1,025.8 to 32,490.9 million of Chilean pesos per year, with a confidence level of 95%, according the estimation based on concentration-response coefficients and their economic cost. Reduction of PM10 would have important health and economic benefits.

  7. Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia creeper rail trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; Joshua Gill

    2007-01-01

    Many communities are interested in developing and maintaining recreational trails to benefit trail users and as tourist attractions to stimulate economic growth. In this paper, a study is described which estimates the net economic value to trail users and the local economic impacts of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail in south-western Virginia, USA. The monetary...

  8. Economic Benefits of Improved Information on Worldwide Crop Production: An Optimal Decision Model of Production and Distribution with Application to Wheat, Corn, and Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision model of crop production, trade, and storage was developed for use in estimating the economic consequences of improved forecasts and estimates of worldwide crop production. The model extends earlier distribution benefits models to include production effects as well. Application to improved information systems meeting the goals set in the large area crop inventory experiment (LACIE) indicates annual benefits to the United States of $200 to $250 million for wheat, $50 to $100 million for corn, and $6 to $11 million for soybeans, using conservative assumptions on expected LANDSAT system performance.

  9. Economic evaluation of climate risk adaptation strategies: Cost-benefit analysis of flood protection in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer, T.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge; Cusell, Carline; Ward, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Economic losses as a result of natural hazards have been rising over the past few decades due to socio-economic development and perhaps climate change. This upwards trend is projected to continue, highlighting the need for adequate adaptation strategies. This raises the question of how to determine

  10. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  11. The economic benefits of increasing kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding in neonatal units: analysis of a pragmatic intervention in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowson, Karin; Offer, Clare; Watson, Julie; McGuire, Bill; Renfrew, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    A number of significant recent research studies have used techniques of economic modelling to demonstrate the potential benefits of increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK overall, and specifically in neonatal care. This paper complements this growing body of evidence by presenting an economic analysis of data from an actual intervention, the 'Getting It Right From the Start' programme, which took place in the north of the UK during 2011-12, with the aim of increasing breastfeeding and kangaroo skin-to-skin care rates in neonatal units. 'Getting It Right from the Start' was a pragmatic, multifaceted programme of change delivered under the auspices of the regional Health Innovation and Education Cluster, of which 17 were established in the UK in 2010. It engaged with 18 neonatal units in two Neonatal Networks with the aim of increasing kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding rates. As part of the evaluation of the programme, we conducted an economic study comparing the overall costs and benefits of the intervention. Overall, the economic analysis demonstrated that for every £1 invested in the intervention to increase kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding rates, between £4.00 and £13.82 of benefit was generated. This was spread across different healthcare settings and the timescale for the realisation of benefits will vary. The increases in kangaroo skin-to-skin care generated the greatest cost savings, with potential cost savings ranging between £668,000 (minimum cost assumptions) to more than £2 m (maximum cost assumptions). Increases in breastfeeding associated with the project generated between £68,486 and £582,432. The majority of the cost savings generated were associated with reductions in cases of gastroenteritis and necrotising enterocolitis. This was one of the first economic evaluations of an actual intervention to increase breastfeeding and kangaroo skin-to-skin care in neonatal units. It complements the existing economic models by

  12. Economics of access versus ownership the costs and benefits of access to scholarly articles via interlibrary loan and journal subscriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Kingma, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The Economics of Access Versus Ownership offers library professionals a model economic analysis of providing access to journal articles through interlibrary loan as compared to library subscriptions to the journals. This model enables library directors to do an economic analysis of interlibrary loan and collection development in their own libraries and to then make cost-efficient decisions about the use of these services.This practical book's analysis and conclusions are based on 1994/95 academic year research conducted by the State University of New York libraries at Albany, Binghamton, Buffa

  13. Assessing the tangible and intangible benefits of tourism: perceptions of economic, social, and cultural impacts in Labrador’s Battle Harbour Historic District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Ramos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Literature on rural and small island tourism critically questions the commodification of culture and landscapes, showing that replacing rural resource based industries with tourism often leads to a mummification of culture and questionable economic payoffs. Using original survey and qualitative data from three communities in Labrador’s Battle Harbour Historic District, this paper explores how rural and island communities perceive the benefits of tourism and interactions with tourists. The paper finds that residents value the cultural showcasing of their communities and history, but are ambiguous about the economic rewards of tourism. We conclude by questioning whether the cultural rewards of tourism, around meaning making, outweigh other rewards around promoting economically and socially viable communities.

  14. Demonstrating the Environmental & Economic Cost-Benefits of Reusing DoD’s Pre-World War II Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Output Emission Rates • Scope 3: (1) Athena Institute EcoCalculator for Assemblies, Low Rise Structures; and (2) EIO- LCA : Economic Input-Output Life...kBtu 1,000 British thermal units kWh Kilowatt hour LCA Life Cycle Assessment LCCA Life Cycle Cost Analysis LEED Leadership in Energy and...Model (EIO- LCA ) EIO- LCA : Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO- LCA ), US 2002 Purchaser Price Model Scope 3: Transportation for

  15. Investment in Social Marketing Campaign to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Associated with Mental Illness Yields Positive Economic Benefits to California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, J Scott; Briscombe, Brian; Collins, Rebecca L; Wong, Eunice C; Eberhart, Nicole K; Cerully, Jennifer; May, Libby; Roth, Beth; Burnam, M Audrey

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the potential impact of the California Mental Health Services Authority's stigma and discrimination reduction social marketing campaign on the use of adult behavioral health services, and it estimates the benefit-cost ratios.

  16. Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  17. Using Ocean Color Satellite Data to Estimate Economics Benefits Associated with Monitoring and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes preliminary work that is underway that will illustrate the use of ocean land colour instrument data (Sentinel-3 & Landsat) to detect and monitor harmful algal blooms (HABS) in freshwater lakes for two types of economic analyses. This project is a j...

  18. The Hidden Costs of California's Harsh School Discipline: And the Localized Economic Benefits from Suspending Fewer High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.; Losen, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    This California study focuses on the economic impact of school suspensions at the district level. Every 10th grade student in California was tracked for three years to determine the degree to which suspensions predicted lower graduation rates at the state and district level. This estimated impact on graduation was then used to calculate the…

  19. Forecasting the Socio-Economic Impact of the Large Hadron Collider: a Cost-Benefit Analysis to 2025 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a cost-benefit analysis of a major research infrastructure, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by estimating their welfare effects on different types of agents. Four classes of direct benefits are identified, according to the main social groups involved: (a) scientists; (b) students and young researchers; (c) firms in the procurement chain and other organizations; (d) the general public, including onsite and website visitors and other media users. These benefits are respectively related to the knowledge output of scientists; human capital formation; technological spillovers; and direct cultural effects for the general public. Welfare effects for taxpayers can also be estimated by the contingent valuation of the willingness to pay for a pure public good for which there is no specific direct use (i.e., as non-use value). Using a Monte Carlo approach, w...

  20. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  1. The potential social, economic and environmental benefits of MOOCs: operational and historical comparisons with a massive ‘closed online’ course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs have recently become a much discussed development within higher education. Much of this debate focuses on the philosophical and operational similarities and differences between the types of MOOCs that have emerged to date, the learner completion rates and how they can be sustained. In contrast there has been much less discussion about how such courses do, or do not, fit in with existing higher education policy and practice in terms of the social, economic and environmental benefits. This paper begins to address this issue by comparing and contrasting current MOOCs with one large population ICT-enhanced, mostly online Open University UK course presented a decade earlier and how they have both served, or might serve, broader social, economic or environmental objectives. The paper concludes that while MOOCs are forcing a re-conceptualisation of higher education study, much can also be learned from previous and existing large population mainly online courses from open universities.

  2. Economic and clinical benefits of radiofrequency ablation versus hysterectomy in patients suffering from menorrhagia: a retrospective analysis with German health claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Sebastian; Hucke, Juergen; Goergen, Christoph; Soeder, Ruediger; Roemer, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    To assess clinical and economic benefits of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) compared to hysterectomy when treating patients suffering from menorrhagia. Based on German health claims data, a retrospective, longitudinal, observational analysis was performed. Patients having continuously statutory health insurance coverage during the study and being coded for menorrhagia and a relevant treatment option were included in the analysis. The control group was created using propensity score matching. We discovered that using RFA generates cost savings of €1844 during the quarter of performance. As direct costs during a 2-year follow-up show similar levels in both groups, these initial savings can be preserved. This is partly because even if more patients in the RFA group were re-coded for menorrhagia after initial therapy, just a small proportion of these patients required another surgical intervention. RFA should more often be considered a relevant treatment option both from an economic and a medical point of view.

  3. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  4. Economic gains and health benefits from a new cigarette tax scheme in Taiwan: a simulation using the CGE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the impact of an increase in cigarette tax in Taiwan in terms of the effects it has on the overall economy and the health benefits that it brings. Methods The multisector computable general equilibrium (CGE model was used to simulate the impact of reduced cigarette consumption resulting from a new tax scheme on the entire economy gains and on health benefits. Results The results predict that because of the new tax scheme, there should be a marked reduction in cigarette consumption but a notable increase in health benefits that include saving between 28,125 and 56,250 lives. This could save NT$1.222~2.445 billion (where US$1 = NT$34.6 annually in life-threatening, cigarette-related health insurance expenses which exceeds the projected decrease of NT$1.275 billion in Gross Domestic Product (GDP because of reduced consumption and therefore tax revenue. Conclusion Overall, the increased cigarette excise tax will be beneficial in terms of both the health of the general public and the economy as a whole.

  5. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario. Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.

  6. Economic and Environmental Benefits of Optimized Hybrid Renewable Energy Generation Systems at Jeju National University, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to minimize the social and environmental concerns arising from the use of traditional energy resources such as fossil fuels and nuclear energy, the South Korean government has attempted to develop alternative energy resources. In particular, the large educational institutes and islands in South Korea—which have the motivation and potential to provide electrical services—are required to install renewable electricity generation facilities to reduce the burden on the local grid systems. With this trend, the current study investigates potential configurations of renewable electricity generation systems to supply the electrical demand of Jeju National University, located on the largest island in South Korea. The potential configurations suggested by the simulation results are evaluated by renewable fraction, cost of energy (COE, and total net present cost (NPC. The suggested configurations show a renewable fraction of 1.00 with COE of $0.356–$0.402 per kWh and NPC of $54,620,352–$51,795,040. Based on the results, both implications and limitations are examined.

  7. Economic terms and beyond how researchers in specialised varieties of English can benefit from focusing on terms

    CERN Document Server

    Resche, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This book, which is aimed at researchers in specialised varieties of English, provides an illustration of how linguists can use terms, i.e. the expression of concepts in specialised fields, as entry points to explore any specialised domain, whether academic or professional, and to get acquainted with its history, its culture, and the evolution of the ideas that have nurtured it. Choosing the field of economics as an example, the author approaches terms from a diachronic, descriptive and contextual perspective, focusing on neonyms, metaphorical, ambiguous or indeterminate terms, as well as inte

  8. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of Jatropha Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from Jatropha curcas has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of Jatropha biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing Jatropha. Our results show that: (1 Jatropha biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during Jatropha tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of Jatropha biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during Jatropha plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of Jatropha and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase Jatropha production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for Jatropha plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for Jatropha biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  9. Do Health Benefits Outweigh the Costs of Mass Recreational Programs? An Economic Analysis of Four Ciclovía Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Felipe; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Zarama, Roberto; Pratt, Michael; Wang, Guijing; Jacoby, Enrique; Schmid, Thomas L.; Ramos, Mauricio; Ruiz, Oscar; Vargas, Olga; Michel, Gabriel; Zieff, Susan G.; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Cavill, Nick; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    One promising public health intervention for promoting physical activity is the Ciclovía program. The Ciclovía is a regular multisectorial community-based program in which streets are temporarily closed for motorized transport, allowing exclusive access to individuals for recreational activities and physical activity. The objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the cost–benefit ratios of physical activity of the Ciclovía programs of Bogotá and Medellín in Colombia, Guadalajara i...

  10. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. This paper looks at the benefits of, and access barriers to, clean water and sanitation for people with disabilities.

  11. [Effects of different tillage methods on photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter production and economic benefit of double cropping soybean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiang-hua; Su, Li-li; Li, Ya-jie; Xu, Wen-xiu; Peng, Jiang-long

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore suitable mode of high yield cultivation of double cropping soybean after wheat under drip irrigation in northern Xinjiang, field trials were set in 2013-2014 to investigate physiological indices and agronomic traits of double cropping soybean under different tillage methods under drip irrigation. The results showed that leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) during the determination period under different tillage methods were in the order of tillage plus film covering (TP)> tillage (T)> rotary tillage (RT) > no-tillage (NT) , and the concentration of intercellular CO₂(Ci) was the opposite. LAI, SPAD, Pn, Tr, and g(s) of TP were higher than that with NT by 55.0%, 9.1%, 41.8%, 37.5% and 56.4%, respectively, and Ci was decreased by 22.1%. TP enhanced the photosynthetic efficiency of soybean and improved the ability of CO₂assimilation, consequently leading to the increase of soybean yield under TP compared to NT. The plant dry matter accumulation of TP treatment was improved greatly, with the pod number and seeds number per plant, 100-seed mass and yield of quadric sowing soybean being increased by 50.3%, 48.1%, 11.8% and 20.8% compared with that under NT, and the differences were significant. Therefore, the plastic film mulching combined with tillage under drip irrigation technology was suitable for double cropping soybean after wheat in northern Xinjiang under this experimental condition.

  12. Yield, irrigation production efficiency and economic returns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gross return, net return and benefit-cost ratio exhibited quadratic relationship which can be used for optimising economic return of broccoli under variable irrigation and lateral spacing. The results revealed that drip irrigation system is profitable for broccoli production inspite of high initial investment. Journal of Science and ...

  13. Relative economic benefits of tactical anthelmintic treatment and urea-molasses block supplementation of Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions at Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Krecek, R C; Pearson, R A; Smith, M F; Stenson, M O; Van Wijk, E F; Harrison, L J S

    2008-09-01

    The potential economic benefits of combining tactical anthelmintic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes and nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks were examined in Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions in the summer rainfall area of South Africa. Eight groups of nine goats were monitored over a 12-month period from 1 October 2002 to 9 October 2003. Ad libitum nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks was provided when the goats were housed at night, during the summer (wet season--December 2002 to February 2003), and/or the winter (dry season--June 2003 to August 2003). All the goats were treated symptomatically for Haemonchus contortus infection when deemed necessary by clinical examination of the conjunctiva for anaemia using the FAMACHA system. Half the groups were tactically treated for gastrointestinal nematodes in mid-summer (28 January 2003). Under the symptomatic treatment, climatic and extensive grazing conditions encountered during the trial, feed supplementation in the winter dry season had the greatest economic benefit and is therefore recommended. Tactical anthelmintic treatment afforded no additional advantage, but the nematode challenge was low.

  14. Relative economic benefits of tactical anthelmintic treatment and urea-molasses block supplementation of Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions at Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential economic benefits of combining tactical anthelmintic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes and nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks were examined in Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions in the summer rainfall area of South Africa. Eight groups of nine goats were monitored over a 12-month period from 1 October 2002 to 9 October 2003. Ad libitum nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks was provided when the goats were housed at night, during the summer (wet season -December 2002 to February 2003, and / or the winter (dry season -June 2003 to August 2003. All the goats were treated symptomatically for Haemonchus contortus infection when deemed necessary by clinical examination of the conjunctiva for anaemia using the FAMACHA© system. Half the groups were tactically treated for gastrointestinal nematodes in mid-summer (28 January 2003. Under the symptomatic treatment, climatic and extensive grazing conditions encountered during the trial, feed supplementation in the winter dry season had the greatest economic benefit and is therefore recommended. Tactical anthelmintic treatment afforded no additional advantage, but the nematode challenge was lo

  15. A planning tool for tree species selection and planting schedule in forestation projects considering environmental and socio-economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollan, Catherine Denise; Li, Richard; San Juan, Jayne Lois; Dizon, Liezel; Ong, Karl Benedict

    2017-10-30

    Species selection is a crucial step in the planning phase of forestation programs given its impact on the results and on stakeholder interactions. This study develops a planning tool for forestation programs that incorporates the selection of tree species and the scheduling of planting and harvesting, while balancing the maximization of the carbon sequestered and income realized, into the forestation decision-making and planning process. The validation of the goal programming model formulated demonstrates that the characteristics of natural tree species along with the behavior of growth and timing of yield are significant factors in achieving the environmental and socio-economic aspirations. The proposed model is therefore useful in gauging species behavior and performance over time. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted where the behavior of the income generated and carbon sequestered with respect to the external factors such as carbon market prices, percentage area allocated for protection and discount factor was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Net clinical benefit analysis of radiation therapy oncology group 0525: a phase III trial comparing conventional adjuvant temozolomide with dose-intensive temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Terri S; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Wang, Meihua; Gilbert, Mark R; Won, Minhee; Bottomley, Andrew; Mendoza, Tito R; Coens, Corneel; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Brachman, David G; Choucair, Ali K; Mehta, Minesh

    2013-11-10

    Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 0525 tested whether dose-intensifying temozolomide versus standard chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Tests of neurocognitive function (NCF) and symptoms (using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Brain Tumor module; MDASI-BT) and of quality of life (European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC QLQ] -C30/BN20) examined the net clinical benefit (NCB) of therapy. NCF tests (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Trail Making Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association), MDASI-BT, and EORTC QLQ-C30/BN20 were completed in a subset of patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression modeling determined the prognostic value of baseline and early change from baseline to cycle 1 for OS and PFS. Two-sample proportional test statistic was used to evaluate differences between treatments (dose-dense v standard-dose) on NCB measures from baseline to cycle 4 in stable patients. Overall, 182 patients participated in the study. Baseline NCF tests and the physical functioning quality of life scale were associated with OS and PFS. Baseline to cycle 1 in all NCB components were associated with OS and PFS. There was greater deterioration in the dose-dense arm from baseline to cycle 4 in the Global Health and Motor Function subscales (EORTC QLQ-C30/BN20) as well as in overall symptom burden, overall symptom interference, and activity-related symptom interference subscales (MDASI-BT). There were no between-arm differences in NCF. Longitudinal collection of NCB measures is feasible in cooperative group studies and provides an added dimension to standard outcome measures. Greater adverse symptom burden and functional interference, as well as decreased global health and motor function were observed in patients randomly assigned to the dose-dense arm. Baseline and early change in NCB measures were associated with

  17. Non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with none or one additional risk factor of the CHA2DS2-VASc score. A comprehensive net clinical benefit analysis for warfarin, aspirin, or no therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Skjøth, Flemming; Nielsen, Peter B; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2015-10-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent stroke has to be balanced against the potential harm of serious bleeding, especially intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). We determined the net clinical benefit (NCB) balancing effectiveness and safety of no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin and warfarin in AF patients with none or one stroke risk factor. Using Danish registries, we determined NCB using various definitions intrinsic to our cohort (Danish weights at 1 and 5 year follow-up), with risk weights which were derived from the hazard ratio (HR) of death following an event, relative to HR of death after ischaemic stroke. When aspirin was compared to no treatment, NCB was neutral or negative for both risk strata. For warfarin vs no treatment, NCB using Danish weights was neutral where no risk factors were present and using five years follow-up. For one stroke risk factor, NCB was positive for warfarin vs no treatment, for one year and five year follow-up. For warfarin vs aspirin use in patients with no risk factors, NCB was positive with one year follow-up, but neutral with five year follow-up. With one risk factor, NCB was generally positive for warfarin vs aspirin. In conclusion, we show a positive overall advantage (i.e. positive NCB) of effective stroke prevention with OAC, compared to no therapy or aspirin with one additional stroke risk factor, using Danish weights. 'Low risk' AF patients with no additional stroke risk factors (i.e.CHA2DS2-VASc 0 in males, 1 in females) do not derive any advantage (neutral or negative NCB) with aspirin, nor with warfarin therapy in the long run.

  18. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO PALM OIL MILLS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Loan Liew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the palm oil industry has managed some challen ging environmental concerns regarding land transformation and degradation, increas e in eutrophication, changing habitats of wildlife, pesticides runoff into inland wa tercourses, and probable climate change. Countries producing palm oil desire to do so in a more sustainable way that will leave the environment evergreen. Therefore this paper aims to encourage sustainable management of agro-industrial waste and its potenti al in making financial returns from the same waste. Hence, the study was conducted with the participation of seven local palm oil mills having different capacities and oper ation age. Attention was given to milling waste as they could cause serious environmenta l menace if unattended to properly. Milling waste includ es lignocellulosic palm biomas s namely the empty fruit bunches (EFB, oil palm shell (OPS, mesocarp fibres, pal m oil mill effluent (POME, and palm oil mill sludge (POMS, as well as solid waste generated from the further processing of these biomass into the palm oil fuel ashe s (POFA and palm oil clinkers (POC. The opportunities available to the Malaysian pa lm oil industry and the financial benefits which may accr ue from waste generated during palm oil production process cannot be over emphasized.

  19. Using diatom assemblages and sulphur in sediments to uncover the effects of historical mining on Lake Arnoux (Quebec, Canada: A retrospective of economic benefits versus environmental debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brian Hamilton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in environmental conditions is increasingly important as the Canadian economic infrastructure ramps up exploration and mining development in the more inaccessible northern regions of Canada. Governments are concurrently assessing effects from past mining activities and absorbing the economic cost to society with on-going remediation and monitoring initiatives. The abandoned Aldermac mine in northwestern Quebec, mined from 1932–1943, is an excellent case study for assessing the state of environmental and economic effects of past mining operations. A paleolimnological approach, using diatoms as environmental proxies, was used to evaluate the spatial and temporal impacts on aquatic receiving environments. Based on the inferences drawn from diatom assemblages in Lake Arnoux, prior to mining activity, lake water pH was similar to that of surrounding lakes (circumneutral to weakly acidic. After mining operations terminated, changes in pH and alkalinity in Lake Arnoux coincided with distinct increases in sediment sulphur content. Across a 30- to 40-year span (circa 1940 to 1970s a significant decline in phytoplankton flora coincided with lake acidification and increased clarity of the water column. This resulted in an increase in the benthic diatom population (>90%, replacing the planktonic diatoms. Observed shifts in environmental proxies are concurrent with one, and possibly two, reported tailings pond breaches at the abandoned mine site. Adverse effects of the abandoned Aldermac mine on nearby ecosystems, combined with pressure from local citizens and environmental groups, forced responsible accountability for site restoration led by the Quebec government. Based on the historical period of economic growth, the financial benefits of the Aldermac mine were significant and justify the current pay-it-backward costs for environmental remediation. However, it has now been documented that the pay-it-backward model is not sustainable in

  20. A business case evaluation of workplace engineering noise control: a net-cost model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Supriya; Low, Colleen; Barry, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a convenient tool for companies to determine the costs and benefits of alternative interventions to prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Contextualized for Singapore and in collaboration with Singapore's Ministry of Manpower, the Net-Cost model evaluates costs of intervention for equipment and labor, avoided costs of productivity losses and medical care, and productivity gains from the employer's economic perspective. To pilot this approach, four case studies are presented, with varying degrees of economic benefits to the employer, including one in which multifactor productivity is the main driver. Although compliance agencies may not require economic analysis of NIHL, given scarce resources in a market-driven economy, this tool enables stakeholders to understand and compare the costs and benefits of NIHL interventions comprehensively and helps in determining risk management strategies.

  1. Clinical and economic benefits of integrated pump/CGM technology therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ana Maria; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Orozco, John Jairo; Lynch, Peter Matthew; Prieto, Diana; Saunders, Rhodri; Roze, Stephane; Valencia, Juan Esteban

    2016-11-01

    To assess the long-term clinical and economic impact of integrated pump/CGM technology therapy as compared to multiple daily injections (MDI), for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Colombia. The CORE Diabetes Model was used to simulate a hypothetical cohort of patients with T1D. Mean baseline characteristics were taken from a clinical study conducted in Colombia and a healthcare payer perspective was adopted, with a 5% annual discount rate applied to both costs and outcomes. The integrated pump/CGM improved mean life expectancy by 3.51 years compared with MDI. A similar increase occurred in mean quality-adjusted life expectancy with an additional 3.81 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Onset of diabetes-related complications was also delayed as compared to MDI, and mean survival time free of complication increased by 1.74 years with integrated pump/CGM. Although this increased treatment costs of diabetes as compared to MDI, savings were achieved thanks to reduced expenditure on diabetes-related complications. The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for SAP was Colombian Pesos (COP) 44,893,950 (approximately USD$23,200) per QALY gained. Improved blood glucose control associated to integrated pump/CGM results in a decreased incidence of diabetes-related complications and improves life expectancy as compared to MDI. Using recommended thresholds from the World Health Organization and previous coverage decisions about health technologies in Colombia, it is a cost-effective alternative to MDI for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Notes on the economic use of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G. Engelbrecht

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available In an economic analysis the present use of the most important national park in South Africa, (Kruger National Park is compared with the use of the same land for agricultural purposes. The present use of the Kruger National Park creates substantially more net social benefits to society than agricultural use. The question remains whether these benefits are equitably distributed at various levels of the South African society.

  3. Costs and benefits of Nitrogen for Europe and implications for mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Grinsven, Hans J.M.; Holland, Mike; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis can be used to provide guidance for emerging policy priorities in reducing nitrogen (N) pollution. This paper provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of costs and benefits of the various flows of N on human health, ecosystems and climate stability in order to identify...... health than for ecosystems or climate stability. Air pollution by nitrogen also generates social benefits for climate by present cooling effects of N containing aerosol and C-sequestration driven by N deposition, amounting to an estimated net benefit of about €5 billion/yr. The economic benefit of N...

  4. Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali; Ali, Ahmad; de Boer, Hugo J

    2014-10-10

    Poverty is pervasive in the Swat Valley, Pakistan. Most of the people survive by farming small landholdings. Many earn additional income by collecting and selling plant material for use in herbal medicine. This material is collected from wild populations but the people involved have little appreciation of the potential value of the plant material they collect and the long term impact their collecting has on local plant populations. In 2012, existing practices in collecting and trading high value minor crops from Swat District, Pakistan, were analyzed. The focus of the study was on the collection pattern of medicinal plants as an economic activity within Swat District and the likely destinations of these products in national or international markets. Local collectors/farmers and dealers were surveyed about their collection efforts, quantities collected, prices received, and resulting incomes. Herbal markets in major cities of Pakistan were surveyed for current market trends, domestic sources of supply, imports and exports of herbal material, price patterns, and market product-quality requirements. It was observed that wild collection is almost the only source of medicinal plant raw material in the country, with virtually no cultivation. Gathering is mostly done by women and children of nomadic Middle Hill tribes who earn supplementary income through this activity, with the plants then brought into the market by collectors who are usually local farmers. The individuals involved in gathering and collecting are largely untrained regarding the pre-harvest and post-harvest treatment of collected material. Most of the collected material is sold to local middlemen. After that, the trade pattern is complex and heterogeneous, involving many players. Pakistan exports of high value plants generate over US$10.5 million annually in 2012, with a substantial percentage of the supply coming from Swat District, but its market share has been declining. Reasons for the decline were

  5. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  6. Longer term clinical and economic benefits of offering acupuncture care to patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K J; MacPherson, H; Ratcliffe, J; Thorpe, L; Brazier, J; Campbell, M; Fitter, M; Roman, M; Walters, S; Nicholl, J P

    2005-08-01

    than usual care at 24-month follow-up. No benefits relating to function or disability were identified. GP referral to a service providing traditional acupuncture care offers a cost-effective intervention for reducing low back pain over a 2-year period. Further research is needed to examine many aspects of this treatment including its impact compared with other possible short-term packages of care (such as massage, chiropractic or physiotherapy), various aspects of cost-effectiveness, value to patients and implementation protocols.

  7. Benefit Transfer for Water Management along the Han River in South Korea Using Meta-Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hio-Jung Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the magnitude of economic benefits that are justified in transfer from downstream users to upstream users for the use of the Han River in South Korea in terms of foregone economic benefits by regulations. Based on the existing non-market valuation studies associated with water management issues in South Korea from 1997 to 2014, a meta-regression analysis was performed to provide alternatives for regional benefit sharing of water resource use. The benefits from the use of water resource along the Han River are estimated on average to be KRW 7,728 (US $7.7 per household per month. The total net benefits are estimated to be about KRW 449 billion (US $449 million per year. Following the principle regarding equal distribution of benefits, the stakeholders who received more net benefits than others should return their extra net benefits to other stakeholders through a policy tool such as tradable development rights. The results of our study provide economic indicators useful for the establishment of common resource policy and to consider stakeholders’ rights within the framework of regional benefits. This study also provides practical solutions that could be used as a valid policy instrument to mediate the conflicts and disputes associated with water resource use.

  8. Estimating community benefits from tourism: The case of Carpentaria Shire

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Romy; Stoeckl, Natalie; Schweigert, Roman

    2004-01-01

    The small rural communities in Australia's tropical savanna landscapes depend upon the region's natural resources for income and employment. Historically primary industries - including mining, grazing and, in the case of coastal communities, fishing - have been the pillars of economic activity in those regions. More recently, tourism has emerged as an additional nature-based industry, which offers new development and employment opportunities for populations in remote regions. Net benefits fro...

  9. Beneficios económicos del implante coclear para la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda Economic benefits of the cochlear implant for treating profound sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Peñaranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-beneficio (CB, costo-utilidad (CU y costo-efectividad (CE de la implantación coclear, comparándola con el uso de audífonos en niños con hipoacusia sensorineural profunda bilateral. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la técnica no paramétrica Propensity Score Matching (PSM para realizar la evaluación de impacto económico del implante y así llevar a cabo los análisis CB, CU y CE. Se utilizó información primaria, tomada aleatoriamente a 100 pacientes: 62 intervenidos quirúrgicamente con el implante coclear (grupo de tratamiento y 38 pertenecientes al grupo de control o usuarios de audífono para tratar la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda. RESULTADOS: Se halló un diferencial de costos económicos -en beneficio del implante coclear- cercano a US$ 204 000 entre el implante y el uso de audífonos durante la esperanza de vida de los pacientes analizados. Dicha cifra indica los mayores gastos que deben cubrir los pacientes con audífono. Con este valor descontado, el indicador costo-beneficio señala que por cada dólar invertido en el implante coclear, para tratar al paciente, el retorno de la inversión es US$ 2,07. CONCLUSIONES: El implante coclear genera beneficios económicos para el paciente. También produce utilidades en salud dado que se encontró una relación positiva de CU (ganancia en decibeles y CE (ganancia en discriminación del lenguaje.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation, comparing it to the use of hearing aids in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: The nonparametric propensity score matching method was used to carry out an economic and impact assessment of the cochlear implant and then perform cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness analyses. Primary information was used, taken randomly from 100 patients: 62 who received cochlear implants (treatment group and 38 belonging to the control group who used

  10. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  11. Economic valuation of Mangroves for comparison with commercial aquaculture in south Sulawesi, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Fensholt, Rasmus; Mertz, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Sulawesi) was in the range of 4370 thousands USD (kUSD) to 10,597 kUSD or 4 kUSD to 8 kUSD per hectare (the highest value contribution derived from the indirect use value (94%)), whereas commercial aquaculture had a net benefit value of 228 kUSD or 3 kUSD per hectare. In addition, the comparison of Net...... Present Value (NPV) between the benefit value of mangroves and that of commercial aquaculture revealed that conversion of mangroves into commercial aquaculture was not economically beneficial when the analysis was expanded to cover the costs of environmental and forest rehabilitation....... and decreased mainly due to conversion to aquaculture. Currently, little is known about the economic benefits of commercialization of aquaculture as compared to those derived from mangroves in the form of products and services. Here, we estimate the Total Economic Value (TEV) of mangrove benefits in order...

  12. A Value Chain Analysis of ghost nets in the Arafura Sea: identifying trans-boundary stakeholders, intervention points and livelihood trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R A; Gunn, R; Berry, H L; Wagey, G A; Hardesty, B D; Wilcox, C

    2013-07-15

    Lost or discarded fishing nets are a significant component of marine debris which has trans-boundary impacts in large marine ecosystems. Such 'ghost nets' cause the by-catch of marine fauna and require retrieval from coastlines where they wash up. Identifying the causes of discarded nets and feasible intervention points requires analysis of a complex value chain and the stakeholders within it, yet no studies have attempted this. In this paper we combine Value Chain Analysis, commonly applied to understand value-adding for a commodity, with elements of Life Cycle Assessment and social network analysis to examine the drivers, stakeholders, economic, environmental and social costs and benefits in the life of a trawl net. We use the Arafura Sea as a case study, which is shared by Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, and is the focus of a Trans-boundary Diagnostic Assessment (TDA) within the Arafura-Timor Seas Ecosystem Action program (ATSEA). We follow a trawl net through four sub-systems: manufacture of webbing in South Korea, fishing and loss by an Indonesian vessel, retrieval as ghost net on the northern Australian coastline by Indigenous rangers, and disposal or re-cycling as 'GhostNet Art' by Indigenous artists. Primary stakeholders along the value chain incur economic and social benefits, and economic and environmental costs. There is an anomaly in the chain between Indonesian fishermen and Indigenous rangers, artists and communities due to the lack of market linkages between these primary stakeholders. The first 'nexus of influence' where reductions in net losses and environmental costs can be achieved is through interactions between GhostNets Australia, the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Australian Government, which can influence Indonesian fishery management institutions and fishing crews. The second nexus is via the international art market which by publicising GhostNet Art can raise awareness amongst fish consumers about the impacts of ghost nets

  13. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  14. Association mapping utilizing diverse barley lines reveals net form net blotch seedling resistance/susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrenophora teres f. teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of the economically important foliar disease net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley. The deployment of effective and durable resistance against P. teres f. teres has been hindered by the complexity of quantitative resist...

  15. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  16. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  17. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  18. Salmonellosis Control: Estimated Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Tanya

    1987-01-01

    Salmonellosis, a common human intestinal disorder primarily caused by contaminated meats and poultry, attacks an estimated two million Americans annually. Using a cost of illness approach, the medical costs and productivity losses alone were estimated to cost around one billion dollars in 1987. If pain and suffering, lost leisure time, and chronic disease costs could be quantified, the estimate would increase significantly. Other procedures for calculating the value of life could either raise...

  19. Obesity-related costs and the economic impact of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures: benefits in the Texas Employees Retirement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, M Ray; Gleghorn, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To assess the return on investment (ROI) and economic impact of providing insurance coverage for the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) procedure in classes II and III obese members of the Texas Employees Retirement System (ERS) and their dependents from payer, employer, and societal perspectives. Classes II and III obese employee members and their adult dependents were identified in a Texas ERS database using self-reported health risk assessment (HRA) data. Direct health costs and related absenteeism and mortality losses were estimated using data from previous research. A dynamic input-output model was then used to calculate overall economic effects by incorporating direct, indirect, and induced impacts. Direct health costs were inflation-adjusted to 2008 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index for Medical Care and other spending categories were similarly adjusted using relevant consumer and industrial indices. The future cost savings and other monetary benefits were discounted to present value using a real rate of 4.00%. From the payer perspective (ERS), the payback period for direct health costs associated with the LAGB procedure was 23-24 months and the annual return (over 5 years) was 28.8%. From the employer perspective (State of Texas), the costs associated with the LAGB procedure were recouped within 17-19 months (in terms of direct, indirect, and induced gains as they translated into State revenue) and the annual return (over 5 years) was 45.5%. From a societal perspective, the impact on total business activity for Texas (over 5 years) included gains of $195.3 million in total expenditures, $93.8 million in gross product, and 1354 person-years of employment. The analysis was limited by the following: reliance on other studies for methodology and use of a control sample; restriction of cost savings to 2.5 years which required out-of-sample forecasting; conservative assumptions related to the cost of the procedure; exclusion of presenteeism

  20. Linking net entry to regional economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.F.G. Dejardin (Marcus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRegional growth differentials could be explained by how intensively and dynamically new firms of a particular region enter expanding industries. Although the direct contribution of new firms to value creation and growth may be regarded as tautological, the aggregate impacts are largely

  1. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  2. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  3. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG) 36 refs.

  4. Economic benefits and costs of human milk feedings: a strategy to reduce the risk of prematurity-related morbidities in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tricia J; Patel, Aloka L; Bigger, Harold R; Engstrom, Janet L; Meier, Paula P

    2014-03-01

    Infants born at very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight consequences. The incremental cost of these morbidities during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization is high, ranging from $10,055 (in 2009 US$) for late-onset sepsis to $31,565 for BPD. Human milk has been shown to reduce both the incidence and severity of some of these morbidities and, therefore, has an indirect impact on the cost of the NICU hospitalization. Furthermore, human milk may also directly reduce NICU hospitalization costs, independent of the indirect impact on the incidence and/or severity of these morbidities. Although there is an economic cost to both the mother and institution for providing human milk during the NICU hospitalization, these costs are relatively low. This review describes the total cost of the initial NICU hospitalization, the incremental cost associated with these prematurity-related morbidities, and the incremental benefits and costs of human milk feedings during critical periods of the NICU hospitalization as a strategy to reduce the incidence and severity of these morbidities.

  5. Economic Benefits and Costs of Human Milk Feedings: A Strategy to Reduce the Risk of Prematurity-Related Morbidities in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tricia J.; Patel, Aloka L.; Bigger, Harold R.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Meier, Paula P.

    2014-01-01

    Infants born at very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight consequences. The incremental cost of these morbidities during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization is high, ranging from $10,055 (in 2009 US$) for late-onset sepsis to $31,565 for BPD. Human milk has been shown to reduce both the incidence and severity of some of these morbidities and, therefore, has an indirect impact on the cost of the NICU hospitalization. Furthermore, human milk may also directly reduce NICU hospitalization costs, independent of the indirect impact on the incidence and/or severity of these morbidities. Although there is an economic cost to both the mother and institution for providing human milk during the NICU hospitalization, these costs are relatively low. This review describes the total cost of the initial NICU hospitalization, the incremental cost associated with these prematurity-related morbidities, and the incremental benefits and costs of human milk feedings during critical periods of the NICU hospitalization as a strategy to reduce the incidence and severity of these morbidities. PMID:24618763

  6. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...... audits to be a net burden. Furthermore, based on DeAngelo's (1981) initial audit pricing model and legislators' claim that joint audits are an unnecessary economic burden to the companies we predict and find discounts (of around 25%) in audit fees in companies that change to single audits. The primary...

  7. Nonparametric Forecasting for Biochar Utilization in Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Shiuh Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the least profitable industry in China. However, even with large financial subsidies from the government, farmers’ living standards have had no significant impact so far due to the historical, geographical, climatic factors. The study examines and quantifies the net economic and environmental benefits by utilizing biochar as a soil amendment in eleven counties in the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone. A nonparametric kernel regression model is employed to estimate the relation between the scaled environmental and economic factors, which are determined as regression variables. In addition, the partial linear and single index regression models are used for comparison. In terms of evaluations of mean squared errors, the kernel estimator, exceeding the other estimators, is employed to forecast benefits of using biochar under various scenarios. The results indicate that biochar utilization can potentially increase farmers’ income if rice is planted and the net economic benefits can be achieved up to ¥114,900. The net economic benefits are higher when the pyrolysis plant is built in the south of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone than when it is built in the north as the southern land is relatively barren, and biochar can save more costs on irrigation and fertilizer use.

  8. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  9. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  10. A multi-criteria decision analysis perspective on the health economic evaluation of medical interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, Douwe; Tervonen, Tommi; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Hillege, Hans L.; Buskens, Erik

    A standard practice in health economic evaluation is to monetize health effects by assuming a certain societal willingness-to-pay per unit of health gain. Although the resulting net monetary benefit (NMB) is easy to compute, the use of a single willingness-to-pay threshold assumes expressibility of

  11. Modeling and performance analysis of a closed-loop supply chain using first-order hybrid Petri nets

    OpenAIRE

    Imane Outmal; Ali Kamrani; Abouel Nasr, Emad S.; Mohammed Alkahtani

    2016-01-01

    Green or closed-loop supply chain had been the focus of many manufacturers during the last decade. The application of closed-loop supply chain in today’s manufacturing is not only due to growing environmental concerns and the recognition of its benefits in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, and meeting a more strict environmental regulations but it also offers economic competitive advantages if appropriately managed. First-order hybrid Petri nets represent a powerful graph...

  12. Toward full economic valuation of forest fuels-reduction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Hsun; Finkral, Alex; Sorensen, Christopher; Kolb, Thomas

    2013-11-30

    Our goal was to move toward full economic valuation of fuels-reduction treatments applied to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. For each of five fuels-reduction projects in northern Arizona, we calculated the economic value of carbon storage and carbon releases over one century produced by two fuels-reduction treatments of thinning following by prescribed burning every one (Rx10) or two (Rx20) decades and for no treatment followed by intense wildfire once in the first 50 years (HF50) or once in the first 100 years (HF100). Our estimates include two uses of harvested wood, the current use as pallets, and multiproduct use as paper, pallets, and construction materials. Additionally, we included the economic value of damage and loss from wildfire. Results indicate that treatments increase carbon stock in live trees over time; however, the inclusion of carbon emissions from treatments reduces net carbon storage and thereby carbon credits and revenue. The economic valuation shows that the highest net benefit of $5029.74 ha(-1) occurs for the Rx20 treatment with the HF50 baseline and the high estimated treatment benefits of avoided losses, regional economic benefits, and community value of fire risk reduction. The lowest net benefit of -$3458.02 ha(-1) occurs for the Rx10 treatment with the HF100 baseline and the low estimated treatment benefits. We conclude that current nonmarket values such as avoided wildfire damage should be included with values of traditional wood products and emerging values of carbon storage to more appropriately estimate long-term benefits and costs of forest fuels-reduction treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple mid-Atlantic field experiments show no economic benefit to fungicide application when fungal disease is absent in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Randy; Cowger, Christina; Ambrose, Gaylon; Gardner, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Strobilurin fungicides produce intensified greening and delayed senescence in plants, and have been claimed to enhance yields of field crops in the absence of disease. To help evaluate this claim, available publicly sponsored tests of fungicides on soft red winter wheat in Virginia and North Carolina (n = 42) were analyzed for the period 1994 to 2010. All tests were replicated and had a randomized complete block, split-plot, or split-block design. Each test included 1 to 32 cultivars and one to five fungicides (two strobilurins, one triazole, and two strobilurin-triazole mixtures). There was a total of 311 test-cultivar-fungicide treatment comparisons, where a comparison was the reported yield difference between sprayed and unsprayed treatments of a given cultivar in a given test. Parameters used to calculate the economic benefit or loss associated with fungicide application included a grain price range of $73.49 to 257.21 Mg(-1) ($2 to 7 bu(-1)), a total fungicide application cost of $24.71 to 74.13 ha(-1) ($10 to 30 acre(-1)), and a 0.14 to 0.21 Mg ha(-1) (2.3 to 3.4 bu acre(-1)) loss in yield from driving over wheat during application (with a sprayer 27.4 or 18.3 m [90 or 60 feet] wide, respectively). The yield increase needed to pay for a fungicide application at each combination of cost and price was calculated, and the cumulative probability function for the fungicide yield-response data was modeled. The model was used to predict the probability of achieving a break-even yield, and the probabilities were graphed against each cost-price combination. Tests were categorized as "no-disease" or "diseased" based on reports of the researchers rating the tests. Subsets of the data were analyzed to assess the profitability of the triazole fungicide and the strobilurin-containing fungicides separately in no-disease versus diseased experiments. From the results, it was concluded that, with routine fungicide application based solely on wheat growth stage, total fungicide

  14. Economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation compared with other ablation techniques in women with menorrhagia: a retrospective analysis with German health claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischoff-Everding C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Bischoff-Everding,1 Ruediger Soeder,2 Benno Neukirch3 1HGC GesundheitsConsult GmbH, Duesseldorf, Germany; 2Gynecological Joint Practice, Mainz, Germany; 3Faculty of Health Care, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Sciences, Krefeld, Germany Objective: To evaluate the economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA compared with other ablation techniques for the treatment of menorrhagia.Methods: Using German health claims data, women meeting defined inclusion criteria for the intervention group (RFA were selected. A comparable control group (other endometrial ablations was established using propensity score matching. These two groups were compared during the quarter of treatment (QoT and a follow-up of 2 years for the following outcomes: costs during QoT and during follow-up, repeated menorrhagia diagnoses during follow-up and necessary retreatments during follow-up. Results: After performing propensity score matching, 50 cases could be allocated to the intervention group, while 38 were identified as control cases. Patients in the RFA group had 5% fewer repeat menorrhagia diagnoses (40% vs 45%; not significant and 5% fewer treatments associated with recurrent menorrhagia (6% vs 11%; not significant than cases in the control group. During the QoT, the RFA group incurred €578 additional costs (€2,068 vs €1,490; ns. However, during follow-up, the control group incurred €1,254 additional costs (€4,561 vs €5,815; ns, with medication, outpatient physician consultations, and hospitals costs being the main cost drivers. However, none of the results were statistically significant. Conclusion: Although RFA was more cost-intensive in the QoT compared with other endometrial ablation techniques, an average total savings of €676 was generated during the follow-up period. While having evidence that RFA is clinically equivalent to other endometrial ablation procedures, we generated indications that

  15. Nonenergy Benefits from the Weatherization Assistance Program: A Summary of Findings from the Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    2002-04-25

    The purpose of this project is to summarize findings reported in the recent literature on nonenergy benefits attributable to the weatherizing of low income homes. This study is a follow-up to the seminal research conducted on the nonenergy benefits attributable to the Department of Energy's national Weatherization Assistance Program by Brown et al. (1993). For this review, nonenergy benefits were broken into three major categories: (1) ratepayer benefits; (2) household benefits; and (3) societal benefits. The ratepayer benefits can be divided into two main subcategories: payment-related benefits and service provision benefits. Similarly, there are two key types of household benefits: those associated with affordable housing and those related to safety, health, and comfort. Societal benefits can be classified as either environmental, social, or economic. Fig. E.S. 1 presents point estimates of the average lifetime monetary value per weatherized home resulting from low income weatherization programs for the key benefit types listed above. These benefits represent net present value estimates (i.e., estimates of the current worth of all benefits expected over the lifetime of the weatherization measures), assuming a 20-year lifetime for installed energy efficiency measures and a 3.2% discount rate. Overall, societal benefits are estimated to be substantially larger than ratepayer and household benefits. Ranges for the societal benefits are also much greater than for the other two categories of nonenergy benefits. The total monetized value for all nonenergy benefit categories associated with weatherizing a home is estimated to be $3346, in 2001 dollars. This represents a national average which, like any point estimate, has considerable uncertainty associated with it. This figure is substantially higher than the total value of nonenergy benefits presented a decade ago in the national weatherization evaluation (Brown et al. 1993) because the current study quantified a

  16. Health and economic benefits of early vaccination and nonpharmaceutical interventions for a human influenza A (H7N9) pandemic: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazeni, Nayer; Hutton, David W; Collins, Cassandra I F; Garber, Alan M; Owens, Douglas K

    2014-05-20

    Vaccination for the 2009 pandemic did not occur until late in the outbreak, which limited its benefits. Influenza A (H7N9) is causing increasing morbidity and mortality in China, and researchers have modified the A (H5N1) virus to transmit via aerosol, which again heightens concerns about pandemic influenza preparedness. To determine how quickly vaccination should be completed to reduce infections, deaths, and health care costs in a pandemic with characteristics similar to influenza A (H7N9) and A (H5N1). Dynamic transmission model to estimate health and economic consequences of a severe influenza pandemic in a large metropolitan city. Literature and expert opinion. Residents of a U.S. metropolitan city with characteristics similar to New York City. Lifetime. Societal. Vaccination of 30% of the population at 4 or 6 months. Infections and deaths averted and cost-effectiveness. In 12 months, 48 254 persons would die. Vaccinating at 9 months would avert 2365 of these deaths. Vaccinating at 6 months would save 5775 additional lives and $51 million at a city level. Accelerating delivery to 4 months would save an additional 5633 lives and $50 million. If vaccination were delayed for 9 months, reducing contacts by 8% through nonpharmaceutical interventions would yield a similar reduction in infections and deaths as vaccination at 4 months. The model is not designed to evaluate programs targeting specific populations, such as children or persons with comorbid conditions. Vaccination in an influenza A (H7N9) pandemic would need to be completed much faster than in 2009 to substantially reduce morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Maximizing non-pharmaceutical interventions can substantially mitigate the pandemic until a matched vaccine becomes available. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institutes of Health, and Department of Veterans Affairs.

  17. Assessing the clinical or pharmaco-economical benefit of target controlled desflurane delivery in surgical patients using the Zeus anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortat-Jacob, B; Billard, V; Buschke, W; Servin, F

    2009-11-01

    The Zeus anaesthesia machine includes an auto-control mode which allows targeting of end-tidal volatile and inspired oxygen concentrations. We assessed the clinical benefits and economic impact of this target-controlled anaesthesia compared with conventional manually controlled anaesthesia. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive desflurane either with a fresh gas flow set by the anaesthetist or in auto-control mode. Drug delivery was adjusted to maintain bispectral index between 40-60 units and systolic arterial pressure under 15 mmHg above its pre-induction value (upper limit) and over 90 mmHg (lower limit). Blood pressure was maintained in the desired range for 89% and 91% of the maintenance period for auto-control and manual control respectively (p = 0.49). Bispectral index was in the desired range for 82% and 79% of the maintenance period, for auto-control and manual control respectively (p = 0.46). Oxygen consumption was more than halved by the use of auto-control mode, and mean (SD) desflurane consumption during surgery was 0.07 (0.04) vs 0.2 (0.07) ml.min(-1) in auto-control and manual control respectively (p < 0.0001). The number of drug delivery adjustments per hour was significantly lower in auto-control mode (mean (SD) 7 (2) vs 15 (12); p < 0.0001). Thus, the auto-control mode provided similar haemodynamic stability and bispectral control as did conventional manually controlled anaesthesia, but led to a reduction in gas and vapour consumption with a more clinically acceptable workload.

  18. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    In order to stem the rising fertility and growth rates in China, new theories and measures are needed. The author suggests new insights into the relationships between reproductive behavior and economic interests, regulation of individual reproductive behavior by such economic interests, and governmental performance with these interests in mind. Topics are devoted to the benefit theory about the costs of children, trends in Chinese children's costs and benefits, and family planning (FP) based on children's costs and benefits. Natural biological law governed people's reproductive behavior and the number of offspring until there was control over human reproduction. Factors which determine the desired number of children can be economic, cultural, political, historical, or geographical. In modern times and with the commercialism of society, children have been sometimes viewed as commodities and Western economists (Becker and Leibenstein) have theorized the cost benefit ratio to parents. Expected positive benefits are support, labor force contribution, and family happiness. Negative benefits are the direct and indirect costs in time and money raising children. Children are produced where benefits are positive, and where benefits and costs are equal, circumstances will determine the result. No children will be produced when costs exceed benefits. The concept of net costs is described. Chinese trends indicate a direction toward a market oriented economy. Instead of following Western theory, as economic development has advanced rapidly the value of children has grown. The reasons are explained as marginal children may still bring benefits in a market where the function of regulation of a labor market is limited, children still render better support for their parents without a developed social security system, and boys are expected to secure their families fortunes during the changing economic conditions. The author recognizes that other conditions such as the number of

  19. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  20. Economic Valuation of Air Force Environmental Resources: A Contingent Valuation Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Empirical Measures of Welfare Change: A Comparison of Non-market Techniques," Land Economics: 156-175 (Vol. 61, No. 2, 1985). Sen , Amartya K...maximize social welfare by maximizing the net benefit from federal environmental spending. The method used in measuring the value of environmental resources...sample of citizens and the government, though theoretically simple, is confounded by complex social , economic, and political issues. One such

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  2. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  3. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  4. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  5. EuroEco (European Health Economic Trial on Home Monitoring in ICD Patients): a provider perspective in five European countries on costs and net financial impact of follow-up with or without remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Hindricks, Gerd; Broadhurst, Paul; Van Erven, Lieselot; Fernandez-Lozano, Ignacio; Rivero-Ayerza, Maximo; Malinowski, Klaus; Marek, Andrea; Romero Garrido, Rafael F; Löscher, Steffen; Beeton, Ian; Garcia, Enrique; Cross, Stephen; Vijgen, Johan; Koivisto, Ulla-Maija; Peinado, Rafael; Smala, Antje; Annemans, Lieven

    2015-01-14

    Remote follow-up (FU) of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) allows for fewer in-office visits in combination with earlier detection of relevant findings. Its implementation requires investment and reorganization of care. Providers (physicians or hospitals) are unsure about the financial impact. The primary end-point of this randomized prospective multicentre health economic trial was the total FU-related cost for providers, comparing Home Monitoring facilitated FU (HM ON) to regular in-office FU (HM OFF) during the first 2 years after ICD implantation. Also the net financial impact on providers (taking national reimbursement into account) and costs from a healthcare payer perspective were evaluated. A total of 312 patients with VVI- or DDD-ICD implants from 17 centres in six EU countries were randomised to HM ON or OFF, of which 303 were eligible for data analysis. For all contacts (in-office, calendar- or alert-triggered web-based review, discussions, calls) time-expenditure was tracked. Country-specific cost parameters were used to convert resource use into monetary values. Remote FU equipment itself was not included in the cost calculations. Given only two patients from Finland (one in each group) a monetary valuation analysis was not performed for Finland. Average age was 62.4 ± 13.1 years, 81% were male, 39% received a DDD system, and 51% had a prophylactic ICD. Resource use with HM ON was clearly different: less FU visits (3.79 ± 1.67 vs. 5.53 ± 2.32; P financial impact on providers [profit of €408 (327-489) vs. €400 (345-455); range for difference (€-104 to 88), NS], but there was heterogeneity among countries, with less profit for providers in the absence of specific remote FU reimbursement (Belgium, Spain, and the Netherlands) and maintained or increased profit in cases where such reimbursement exists (Germany and UK). Quality of life (SF-36) was not different. For all the patients as a whole, FU-related costs for providers are not

  6. CULTIVOS TRANSGÉNICOS:: ENTRE LOS RIESGOS BIOLÓGICOS Y LOS BENEFICIOS AMBIENTALES Y ECONÓMICOS Gm Crops:: Between Biological Risk and Environmental and Economics Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CHAPARRO GIRALDO

    and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides, and the economic benefits from the reduction in losses due to insect and weed competition to reduction of production costs.

  7. Economic analysis of the global polio eradication initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Cochi, Stephen L; Wassilak, Steven G F; Linkins, Jennifer; Sutter, Roland W; Aylward, R Bruce; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2010-12-16

    The global polio eradication initiative (GPEI), which started in 1988, represents the single largest, internationally coordinated public health project to date. Completion remains within reach, with type 2 wild polioviruses apparently eradicated since 1999 and fewer than 2000 annual paralytic poliomyelitis cases of wild types 1 and 3 reported since then. This economic analysis of the GPEI reflects the status of the program as of February 2010, including full consideration of post-eradication policies. For the GPEI intervention, we consider the actual pre-eradication experience to date followed by two distinct potential future post-eradication vaccination policies. We estimate GPEI costs based on actual and projected expenditures and poliomyelitis incidence using reported numbers corrected for underreporting and model projections. For the comparator, which assumes only routine vaccination for polio historically and into the future (i.e., no GPEI), we estimate poliomyelitis incidence using a dynamic infection transmission model and costs based on numbers of vaccinated children. Cost-effectiveness ratios for the GPEI vs. only routine vaccination qualify as highly cost-effective based on standard criteria. We estimate incremental net benefits of the GPEI between 1988 and 2035 of approximately 40-50 billion dollars (2008 US dollars; 1988 net present values). Despite the high costs of achieving eradication in low-income countries, low-income countries account for approximately 85% of the total net benefits generated by the GPEI in the base case analysis. The total economic costs saved per prevented paralytic poliomyelitis case drive the incremental net benefits, which become positive even if we estimate the loss in productivity as a result of disability as below the recommended value of one year in average per-capita gross national income per disability-adjusted life year saved. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the finding of positive net benefits of the GPEI remains

  8. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  9. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  10. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  11. Socio-economic impacts of future electricity generation scenarios in Europe : Potential costs and benefits of using CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelbl, B.S.; Wood, Richard; van den Broek, M.A.; Sanders, M.W.J.L.; Faaij, A.P.C.; van Vuuren, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a potential key-technology to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as its use can lead to lower mitigation cost. However, research on other economic impacts of using CCS is scarce. In this paper, we look into economic upstream impacts of CCS use in terms of

  12. The development of a public optometry system in Mozambique: a Cost Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen; Naidoo, Kovin; Harris, Geoff; Bilotto, Luigi; Ferrão, Jorge; Loughman, James

    2014-09-23

    The economic burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) is thought to be high in Mozambique, largely as a consequence of the lack of resources and systems to tackle this largely avoidable problem. The Mozambique Eyecare Project (MEP) has established the first optometry training and human resource deployment initiative to address the burden of URE in Lusophone Africa. The nature of the MEP programme provides the opportunity to determine, using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), whether investing in the establishment and delivery of a comprehensive system for optometry human resource development and public sector deployment is economically justifiable for Lusophone Africa. A CBA methodology was applied across the period 2009-2049. Costs associated with establishing and operating a school of optometry, and a programme to address uncorrected refractive error, were included. Benefits were calculated using a human capital approach to valuing sight. Disability weightings from the Global Burden of Disease study were applied. Costs were subtracted from benefits to provide the net societal benefit, which was discounted to provide the net present value using a 3% discount rate. Using the most recently published disability weightings, the potential exists, through the correction of URE in 24.3 million potentially economically productive persons, to achieve a net present value societal benefit of up to $1.1 billion by 2049, at a Benefit-Cost ratio of 14:1. When CBA assumptions are varied as part of the sensitivity analysis, the results suggest the societal benefit could lie in the range of $649 million to $9.6 billion by 2049. This study demonstrates that a programme designed to address the burden of refractive error in Mozambique is economically justifiable in terms of the increased productivity that would result due to its implementation.

  13. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-07

    The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  14. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  15. Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic benefits of antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.; Rooijendijk, J.G.A.; Zadoks, R.N.; Hogeveen, H.

    2005-01-01

    The economic effect of lactational antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical intramammary infections due to Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae was explored by means of partial budgeting. Effects at cow level and herd level were modelled, including prevention of clinical mastitis

  16. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  17. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  18. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  19. Medicaid Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy and Program Topics Alternative Benefit Plan Coverage Autism Services Behavioral Health Services Dental Care Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment Hospice Benefits List of Medicaid Benefits ...

  20. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  1. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  2. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  3. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation using an economic pluvial flood risk framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    It is anticipated that climate change is likely to lead to an increasing risk level of flooding in cities in northern Europe. One challenging question is how to best address the increasing flood risk and assess the costs and benefits of adapting to such changes. We established an integrated...... uncertainty bounds propagated through the evaluation and identify the relative contribution of inherent uncertainties in the assessment. The case study is a small urban catchment located in Skibhus, Odense where no significant city development is anticipated. Two adaptation scenarios, namely pipe enlargement...... adaptation option on a basis of assessed economic indicators, e.g. net benefits (NPV), cost-recovery period (Y) and the difference in calculated net benefits (ΔNPV) when comparing two adaptation alternatives. Pipe enlargement turned out to be more economically beneficial in comparison to local infiltration...

  4. Technical and economical evaluation of tape drip and drip line irrigation systems in a strawberry greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra HOSSEINIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in a strawberry greenhouse to examine the technical and the economical evaluation of two drip irrigation systems including the tape and the drip line in the northern part of Iran. The result showed that all of the technical indices with tape were higher than drip line, and due to statistical analysis reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05. Yield and water productivity (WP with tape were higher than drip line (P < 0.05. Benefit per drop (BPD and net benefit per drop (NBPD with tape were higher than drip line. Net present value, internal rate of capital return and benefit to cost ratio in drip line were higher than tape. In general, regarding technical evaluation tape was better than drip line, besides according to the economical evaluation the drip ­lines were better than tape.

  5. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about...... beneficiaries of cross-border welfare. We present results from an original large-scale survey experiment (N=2525) among Swedish voters, randomizing exposure to cues about recipients' country of origin and family size. Consistent with a model emphasizing the role of stereotypes, respondents react to cues about...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  6. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  7. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  8. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  9. 29 CFR 4062.5 - Net worth record date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth record date. 4062.5 Section 4062.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION LIABILITY LIABILITY FOR... to or abuse of the plan termination insurance system, may establish as the net worth record date an...

  10. Divisia decomposition method and its application to changes of net oil import intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Liao; Zhao-Yi; Ce Wang

    2013-01-01

    The existing oil import dependence index cannot exactly measure the economic cost or scales, and it is difficult to describe the economical aspect of oil security. To measure the foreign dependence of one country's economy and reflect its oil economic security, this paper defines the net oil import intensity as the ratio of net import cost to GDP. By using Divisia Index Decomposition, the change of net oil import intensity in five industrialized countries and five newly industrialized countri...

  11. Economic feasibility analysis of water-harvesting techniques for mined-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Marti, M.H.

    1981-07-01

    A water harvesting, agricultural production system, field tested as a means of reclaiming strip-mined land is described. Though the technical feasibility of the system is becoming increasingly apparent, economic feasibility and legal issues may determine its potential application. The purpose of this study is to explore the economic feasibility of the system and to provide information for use in assessing whether further investigation of water harvesting reclamation techniques is warranted. The economic feasibility of the PNL reclamation system hinges on whether its net benefits exceed those of conventional reclamation. This preliminary feasibility study assesses the net private benefits of each system using data for the Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on the Black Mesa in Arizona. To compare the alternative reclamation systems, the present value of direct net benefits (income minus production and reclamation costs) is calculated for grazing (conventional reclamation) or for cropping (PNL reclamation). Three of the PNL system slope treatments have lower estimated total costs than conventional reclamation. The difference is $3895/acre for compacted slope, $3025/acre for salt-compacted slope and $2310/acre for crop-on-slope. These differences constitute a substantial cost advantage for the system on the basis of the present value of land reclamation and maintenance costs. The system also has advantages based on the estimated value of agricultural production capacity. Even the lowest yield levels considered for alfalfa, corn, and pinto beans had higher net present values than grazing.

  12. Environmental benefits and value chain economics at biogas production, phase II. Food waste and manure; Miljoenytte og verdikjedeoekonomi ved biogassproduksjon, fase II. Matavfall og husdyrgjoedsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Hanne; Arnoey, Silje; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Morken, John; Briseid, Tormod; Hanssen, Ole Joergen; Soerby, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective has been to develop an environmental model and an economic model for the entire value chain for the production of biogas and digestate processing. The results will contribute to better decision making in the planning of new biogas plants in Norway. Shortened version.(eb)

  13. TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstration project: Environmental and economic benefits by environmental management in freight transportation. Main report; TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstrationsprojekt: Miljoemaessige og oekonomiske benefits ved miljoestyring i godstransport. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the transECO{sub 2} project has was to carry out cooperation projects between companies in order to demonstrate an effect for the environment and for the economy of the companies (earnings and costs) of environmental management related to transportation of goods. 10 demonstration projects were carried thorugh in cooperation with 14 companies. 8 subjects were analysed through the transECO{sub 2} project: 1. Environmental data; 2. Benefits from the environmental management work; 3. Use of new technology; 4. Cooperation; 5. Environment and logistics; 6. Education and competence; 7. Environment and business strategy; 8. Environmental statement/tagging. (EHS)

  14. Economic Valuation of Mangroves for Comparison with Commercial Aquaculture in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are recognized as a provider of a variety of products and essential ecosystem services that contribute significantly to the livelihood of local communities. However, over the past decades, mangroves in many tropical areas including the Takalar district, South Sulawesi have degraded and decreased mainly due to conversion to aquaculture. Currently, little is known about the economic benefits of commercialization of aquaculture as compared to those derived from mangroves in the form of products and services. Here, we estimate the Total Economic Value (TEV of mangrove benefits in order to compare it with the benefit value of commercial aquaculture. Market prices, replacement costs, benefit transfer value and Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA have been used for value determination and comparison. The results show that the per year TEV of mangroves in the study area (Takalar district, South Sulawesi was in the range of 4370 thousands USD (kUSD to 10,597 kUSD or 4 kUSD to 8 kUSD per hectare (the highest value contribution derived from the indirect use value (94%, whereas commercial aquaculture had a net benefit value of 228 kUSD or 3 kUSD per hectare. In addition, the comparison of Net Present Value (NPV between the benefit value of mangroves and that of commercial aquaculture revealed that conversion of mangroves into commercial aquaculture was not economically beneficial when the analysis was expanded to cover the costs of environmental and forest rehabilitation.

  15. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  16. A cost-utility analysis of risk model-guided versus physician's choice antiemetic prophylaxis in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer: a net benefit regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorn, Kednapa; Coyle, Doug; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Vandermeer, Lisa; Mazzarello, Sasha; Wang, Zhou; Dranitsaris, George; Fergusson, Dean; Clemons, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of a risk model-guided (RMG) antiemetic prophylaxis strategy compared with the physician's choice (PC) strategy in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. We conducted a cost-utility analysis based on a published randomized controlled trial of 324 patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy at two Canadian cancer centers. Patients were randomized to receive their antiemetic treatments according to either predefined risk scores or the treating physician's preference. Effectiveness was measured as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Cost and utility data were obtained from the Canadian published literature. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) over a range of willingness-to-pay values. The lower and upper bounds of the 95% CIs were used to characterize the statistical uncertainty for the cost-effectiveness estimates and construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. From the health care system's perspective, the RMG strategy was associated with greater QALYs gained (0.0016, 95% CI 0.0009, 0.0022) and higher cost ($49.19, 95% CI $24.87, $73.08) than the PC strategy, resulting in an ICER of $30,864.28 (95% CI $14,718.98, $62,789.04). At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that RMG prophylaxis is cost-effective was >94%; this probability increased with greater willingness-to-pay values. The risk-guided antiemetic prophylaxis is an economically attractive option for patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. This information supports the implementation of risk prediction models to guide chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in clinical practices.

  17. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  18. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  19. Economic assessment of use values of near-natural forestry compared with rotational forestry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsalu, Dareskedar Workie; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , recreation provision, and groundwater recharge. The study answers the major research question of how large the welfare economic values of recreation and groundwater benefits of the conversion are as compared with timber benefits. The net present values (NPV) of the benefits were calculated for an infinite......The present study is a cost-benefit analysis of converting the current rotational forestry (RF) of Norway spruce stand into near-natural forestry (NNF) of beech, based on two representative soil conditions and visitors popular case areas in Denmark, considering welfare economic values of timber...... time horizon at a 3 % discount rate. The results reveal that converting into NNF would result in a NPV of at least 6,832 € ha−1 from use values of recreation and water benefit on a site with good soil and a high visitor frequency, as is typical in the eastern part of Denmark. On a site in the west...

  20. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  1. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  3. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  5. Economic feasibility evaluation of microfiltration of milk prior to cheesemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatos, A; Neocleous, M; Berger, A M; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    A nonlinear programming optimization model was used to evaluate the net revenues and potential profit-ability of microfiltration (MF) prior to cheesemaking in the 3-year period 1998 to 2000, using monthly milk price and composition data. The model identifies the optimal mix of milk resources and determines if MF cheesemaking produces a higher net revenue than conventional cheesemaking that uses NDM and condensed milk for fortification. This study demonstrates the potential of this model to evaluate new technologies in cheese manufacture and improve decision making in the cheese industry. The use of MF produced higher net revenues in 30 out of the 36 mo for both Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim mozzarella, leading to an appreciable increase in net revenue (vs. conventional cheesemaking) for both cheeses. The benefit from MF in net revenue was greater when the cream price was high. The use of 3X MF yielded the same net revenue as 2X MF. An estimate of manufacturing costs of MF vs. conventional cheesemaking was also made. To this end, the yields of products were calculated by the optimization model, while the production cost of each product was estimated from data of two economic engineering studies and a MF cheesemaking trial. The manufacturing cost of MF Cheddar was slightly higher than the manufacturing cost of conventional Cheddar. However, the benefit in net revenue from the use of MF was estimated to be higher than the difference in manufacturing costs. Moreover, some advantages in the new coproducts of MF Cheddar could outweigh its higher manufacturing cost. The relationships between prices and recoveries of coproducts required to render MF profitable were identified.

  6. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  7. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  8. EU-PolarNet: Connecting Science with Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebow, N.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid changes occurring in the Polar Regions are significantly influencing global climate with consequences for global society. European and international polar research has contributed critical knowledge to identifying the processes behind these rapid changes but datasets from the Polar Regions are still insufficient to fully understand and more effectively predict the effects of change on our climate and society. This situation can only be improved by a more holistic integrated scientific approach, a higher degree of coordination of polar research and closer cooperation with all relevant actors on an international level. The objectives of EU-PolarNet are to establish an on-going dialogue between policy-makers, business and industry leaders, local communities and scientists to increase mutual understanding and identify new ways of working that will deliver economic and societal benefits. The results of this dialogue will be brought together in an Integrated European Research Programme that will be co-designed with all relevant stakeholders and coordinated with the activities of polar research nations beyond Europe. This programme will be accompanied by a feasible implementation plan to provide the Polar community with the capability to define the nature of environmental risks so that governments can design policy measures to mitigate them and businesses and other stakeholders benefit from the opportunities that are opening up in the Polar Regions.

  9. Energy-environmental benefits and economic feasibility of anaerobic codigestion of Iberian pig slaughterhouse and tomato industry wastes in Extremadura (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-González, A; Cuadros, F; Ruiz-Celma, A; López-Rodríguez, F

    2013-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of Iberian pig slaughterhouse and tomato industry wastes, as well as codigestion operations from such residues, are reported to achieve 54-80% reduction in Chemical Oxygen Demand and 6-19 N m(3)/m(3) substrate methane production. Furthermore, 0.79-0.88 m(3)water/m(3) substrate is seen to be recovered after the above mentioned operations, which might be used as irrigation water, and 0.12-0.21 m(3)agricultural amendment/m(3) substrate with 91-98% moisture content. The present paper also reports on the economic feasibility of both an anaerobic codigestion plant operating with 60% slaughterhouse wastes/40% tomato industry wastes (optimal ratio obtained in previous laboratory-scaled experiments), and an anaerobic digestion plant for Iberian pig slaughterhouse waste. Payback times are reported as 14.86 and 3.73 years, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  11. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  12. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  13. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  14. Values in the Net Neutrality Debate: Applying Content Analysis to Testimonies from Public Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, An-Shou

    2012-01-01

    The Net neutrality debate is an important telecommunications policy issue that closely tied to technological innovation, economic development, and information access. Existing studies on Net neutrality have focused primarily on technological requirements, economic analysis, and regulatory justifications. Since values, technology, and policy are…

  15. Estimating economic losses to tourism in Africa from the illegal killing of elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Fisher, Brendan; Manica, Andrea; Balmford, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Recent surveys suggest tens of thousands of elephants are being poached annually across Africa, putting the two species at risk across much of their range. Although the financial motivations for ivory poaching are clear, the economic benefits of elephant conservation are poorly understood. We use Bayesian statistical modelling of tourist visits to protected areas, to quantify the lost economic benefits that poached elephants would have delivered to African countries via tourism. Our results show these figures are substantial (~USD $25 million annually), and that the lost benefits exceed the anti-poaching costs necessary to stop elephant declines across the continent's savannah areas, although not currently in the forests of central Africa. Furthermore, elephant conservation in savannah protected areas has net positive economic returns comparable to investments in sectors such as education and infrastructure. Even from a tourism perspective alone, increased elephant conservation is therefore a wise investment by governments in these regions.

  16. International Fisheries Management and Recreational Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oinonen, Soile; Grønbæk, Lone; Laukkanen, Marita

    2016-01-01

    scenarios. In the first scenario, countries take their participation decision for the IFA based only on the net present value of profits from commercial fisheries. In the second scenario, the net present value of the recreational benefits from angling is also considered. The results show that accounting...

  17. WheelchairNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collaboration with Joseph Kenchi and the Socio Economic Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (SEEPD) Program, facilitated a ... Department of Rehabilitation Science and Technology in the School of Rehabilitation Science and Technology at the University ...

  18. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  19. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  20. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  1. Pyrolysis and co-composting of municipal organic waste in Bangladesh: A quantitative estimate of recyclable nutrients, greenhouse gas emissions, and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Shamim; Uddin, Md Ektear; Kader, Md Abdul; Ahsan, Amimul; Mannan, M A; Hossain, Mohammad Monjur; Solaiman, Zakaria M

    2018-02-10

    Waste causes environmental pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when it is not managed sustainably. In Bangladesh, municipal organic waste (MOW) is partially collected and landfilled. Thus, it causes deterioration of the environment urging a recycle-oriented waste management system. In this study, we propose a waste management system through pyrolysis of selective MOW for biochar production and composting of the remainder with biochar as an additive. We estimated the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) recycling potentials in the new techniques of waste management. Waste generation of a city was calculated using population density and per capita waste generation rate (PWGR). Two indicators of economic development, i.e., gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita gross national income (GNI) were used to adopt PWGR with a projected contribution of 5-20% to waste generation. The projected PWGR was then validated with a survey. The waste generation from urban areas of Bangladesh in 2016 was estimated between 15,507 and 15,888 t day -1 with a large share (∼75%) of organic waste. Adoption of the proposed system could produce 3936 t day -1 biochar blended compost with an annual return of US $210 million in 2016 while it could reduce GHG emission substantially (-503 CO 2 e t -1 municipal waste). Moreover, the proposed system would able to recover ∼46%, 54%, 54% and 61% of total C, N, P and K content in the initial waste, respectively. We also provide a projection of waste generation and nutrient recycling potentials for the year 2035. The proposed method could be a self-sustaining policy option for waste management as it would generate ∼US$51 from each tonne of waste. Moreover, a significant amount of nutrients can be recycled to agriculture while contributing to the reduction in environmental pollution and GHG emission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the benefits of increasing the UK tobacco duty escalator to public health and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuchel-Takano, Andre; Hunt, Daniel; Jaccard, Abbygail; Bhimjiyani, Arti; Brown, Martin; Retat, Lise; Brown, Katrina; Hinde, Sebastian; Selvarajah, Chit; Bauld, Linda; Webber, Laura

    2017-12-06

    Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035. Second, these projections were used to predict the future incidence, prevalence and cost of 17 smoking-related diseases using a Monte Carlo microsimulation approach. A sustained increase in the duty escalator was evaluated against a baseline of continuing historical smoking trends and the existing duty escalator. A sustained increase in the TDE is projected to reduce adult smoking prevalence to 6% in 2035, from 10% in a baseline scenario. After increasing the TDE, only 65% of female and 60% of male would-be smokers would actually be smoking in 2035. The intervention is projected to avoid around 75 200 new cases of smoking-related diseases between 2015 and 2035. In 2035 alone, £49 m in National Health Service and social care costs and £192 m in societal premature mortality and morbidity costs are projected to be avoided. Increasing the UK TDE to 5% above inflation could effectively reduce smoking prevalence, prevent diseases and avoid healthcare costs. It would deliver substantial progress towards a tobacco-free society and should be implemented by the UK Government with urgency. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Benefit incidence analysis of free insecticide treated nets distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... Student's t-test and Chi-square were used for comparison where appropriate. Significant values were taken as P value. Value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The respondents' mean monthly expenditures on food utilities and anti-malarials in the rural area and urban areas were ...

  4. Benefit incidence analysis of free insecticide treated nets distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student's t‑test and Chi‑square were used for comparison where appropriate. Significant values were taken as P value. Value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The respondents' mean monthly expenditures on food utilities and anti‑malarials in the rural area and urban areas were N266.1 (74.02), range ...

  5. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Thompson, John D; Ding, Yao; Glass, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis. Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence-based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state-mandated newborn screening panel. Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost-benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule-making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer-reviewed literature. The MCAD model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 4.0-5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%-4% and a plausible range of 1-2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. The Washington State cost-benefit models of newborn screening were broadly consistent with peer

  6. Core benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    This SPEC Kit explores the core employment benefits of retirement, and life, health, and other insurance -benefits that are typically decided by the parent institution and often have significant governmental regulation...

  7. Benefit Analysis of Emergency Standby System Promoted to Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Wen Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benefit analysis of emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller promoted to cogeneration system is introduced. Economic evaluations of such upgraded projects play a major part in the decisions made by investors. Time-of-use rate structure, fuel cost and system constraints are taken into account in the evaluation. Therefore, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer programming problem. Using two-stage methodology and modified mixed-integer programming technique, a novel algorithm is developed and introduced here to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The net present value (NPV method is used to evaluate the annual benefits and years of payback for the cogeneration system. The results indicate that upgrading standby generators to cogeneration systems is profitable and should be encouraged, especially for those utilities with insufficient spinning reserves, and moreover, for those having difficulty constructing new power plants.

  8. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  9. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  10. Cost and benefit estimates of partially-automated vehicle collision avoidance technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Corey D; Hendrickson, Chris T; Samaras, Constantine

    2016-10-01

    Many light-duty vehicle crashes occur due to human error and distracted driving. Partially-automated crash avoidance features offer the potential to reduce the frequency and severity of vehicle crashes that occur due to distracted driving and/or human error by assisting in maintaining control of the vehicle or issuing alerts if a potentially dangerous situation is detected. This paper evaluates the benefits and costs of fleet-wide deployment of blind spot monitoring, lane departure warning, and forward collision warning crash avoidance systems within the US light-duty vehicle fleet. The three crash avoidance technologies could collectively prevent or reduce the severity of as many as 1.3 million U.S. crashes a year including 133,000 injury crashes and 10,100 fatal crashes. For this paper we made two estimates of potential benefits in the United States: (1) the upper bound fleet-wide technology diffusion benefits by assuming all relevant crashes are avoided and (2) the lower bound fleet-wide benefits of the three technologies based on observed insurance data. The latter represents a lower bound as technology is improved over time and cost reduced with scale economies and technology improvement. All three technologies could collectively provide a lower bound annual benefit of about $18 billion if equipped on all light-duty vehicles. With 2015 pricing of safety options, the total annual costs to equip all light-duty vehicles with the three technologies would be about $13 billion, resulting in an annual net benefit of about $4 billion or a $20 per vehicle net benefit. By assuming all relevant crashes are avoided, the total upper bound annual net benefit from all three technologies combined is about $202 billion or an $861 per vehicle net benefit, at current technology costs. The technologies we are exploring in this paper represent an early form of vehicle automation and a positive net benefit suggests the fleet-wide adoption of these technologies would be beneficial

  11. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher Aryc W

    2011-04-01

    modifiable factors affecting use of nets that were consistent across both surveys. While net replacement remains important, the findings suggest that: more education about use and care of nets; making nets more resistant to damage; and encouraging net mending are likely to maximize the huge investment in scale up of net ownership by ensuring they are used. Without this step, the widespread benefits of LLIN cannot be realized.

  12. The Benefits of Latin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  13. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  14. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  15. The Economic Impact of Adaptive Responses to Future Scenarios of Socio-Economic and Ecological Change in the Tonle Sap Ecosystem, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, L.; Bond, N.; KC, K. B.; Fraser, E. D. G.; Seng, R.; Sumaila, R.

    2016-12-01

    The livelihoods of people dependent on the Tonle Sap floodplain ecosystem in Cambodia are expected to be affected by future socio-economic, policy, ecological, and climate change. To investigate the economic impact of these changes on fishing dependent communities, we compare the net income from individuals' current livelihoods to that derived from reallocating their livelihood activities under 4 different scenarios depicting future change. Under current conditions, we find that the group of individuals who do not participate in fishing had the lowest net income. In contrast, individuals who participated in fishing only had comparatively higher average net income than those with multiple livelihoods, suggesting that there may be current gains from livelihood specialisation. When presented with scenarios of future ecological and socio-economic change, the majority of respondents chose to retain their current livelihood strategy under all future scenarios. Of those who did change their livelihood allocation, less than 10% actually experienced a gain in economic benefits. Overall, a loss in net income was expected under all future scenarios, with those engaged in single livelihoods being the most vulnerable because they were likely to experience the largest losses (7 - 29% loss vs. 1 - 17% for multi-livelihoods) across all 4 scenarios while having the least capacity to adapt. Respondents' choices generated the best economic outcome under the scenario depicting the status quo, indicating that they were capable of coping with current conditions, but were unlikely to make appropriate decisions when faced with future scenarios that they were unfamiliar with. By quantifying the consequences of low adaptive capacity in terms of income loss, this study provides an economic argument for addressing the social and economic factors that currently inhibit the capacity of Tonle Sap inhabitants to adapt to future change. It also emphasises the need for sustainable management of

  16. EnviroNET: Space environment for Strategic Defense Initiative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1989-01-01

    EnviroNET is an operational system available to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) experimenters who have access to a terminal or dial-up port. It is a tail node on Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) accessible directly or through the national networks via NPSS. Some of the benefits to using EnviroNET include: validated NASA environmental information and interactive space models; facilitating the payload integration process; easy access to expert assistance; and potential for time and cost savings.

  17. Sequential File Programming Patterns and Performance with .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Kukol, Peter; Gray, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Programming patterns for sequential file access in the .NET Framework are described and the performance is measured. The default behavior provides excellent performance on a single disk - 50 MBps both reading and writing. Using large request sizes and doing file pre-allocation when possible have quantifiable benefits. When one considers disk arrays, .NET unbuffered IO delivers 800 MBps on a 16-disk array, but buffered IO delivers about 12% of that performance. Consequently, high-performance f...

  18. Qualifications of Petri nets for modeling of logistical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jedlička

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation and optimization is one of the most popular approaches to improve the use of simulation models as a tool to obtain the best system configuration. Petri nets have proved to be useful for examining the performance of different system configurations and/or alternative operating procedures for various systems. Based on their precise semantics and easy-to-understand graphical representation, Petri nets are appropriate to model logistic systems together with their quantitative and qualitative properties. In this paper, potential benefits of usage of object-oriented Petri nets for optimization of logistical systems are discussed.

  19. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  20. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  1. Without a Safety Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Gørlich, Anne; Grytnes, Regine

    2017-01-01

    ‘Precarisation’ is one of the concepts that has become important in efforts to explain how neoliberal politics and changed economic conditions produce new forms of marginalization and increased insecurity. The aim of this article is to examine how subjectivity is produced among young Danish emplo...

  2. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-01-01

    .... Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk...

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  4. Selectivity of penaeid trap nets used in south eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt K. Broadhurst

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were done to estimate the selectivity of commercial and modified trap-net configurations in New South Wales (NSW, southeastern Australia. In the first experiment, a commercial trap net made entirely from 25 mm mesh and designed for use in shallow water was alternatively fished with a fine-meshed (9.5 mm netting trap net (used as a control. In the second experiment, two trap-net configurations designed for use in deeper water and comprising the same anterior section (made from 25 mm mesh, but with different bunts made from (i the conventional 25 mm mesh and (ii 31 mm mesh were alternately fished against the control. Both of the conventional trap nets (comprising 25 mm mesh throughout had low amounts of bycatch and similarly selected eastern king Penaeus plebejus, greasyback Metapenaeus bennettae and school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi across narrow selection ranges (< 3.4 mm and at 50% retention lengths (between 18.53 and 21.50 mm that were larger than the average commercially-accepted sizes (15-17 mm CL. Analyses of the selectivities and relative efficiencies of the trap-net configurations comprising the 25 and 31 mm bunts showed no benefit, in terms of maintaining prawn catches and reducing unwanted bycatch, associated with increasing mesh size in these gears. The utility of trap nets for selectively harvesting penaeids is discussed. We conclude that this type of fishing gear appears to have few deleterious impacts.

  5. The economic effects of international migration: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillen, M J

    1982-03-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to present empirical evidence on the national economic effects of international migratory flows involving member countries of the European Communities (EC). Although these countries as a group constituted an area of net immigration in the post war period, some member states have been important sources of emigration (Greece, Italy, Ireland) as have been the two applicant countries (Portugal, Spain)." The benefits and costs of this migration are examined for both sending and receiving countries, and some conclusions are drawn in the final section. excerpt

  6. The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK Greenhouse Gas emission reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R; Smith, Richard D; Chalabi, Zaid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Mike; Edwards, Phil; Garnett, Tara; Givoni, Moshe; Griffiths, Ulla; Hamilton, Ian; Jarrett, James; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Haines, Andy

    We employ a single-country dynamically-recursive Computable General Equilibrium model to make health-focussed macroeconomic assessments of three contingent UK Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation strategies, designed to achieve 2030 emission targets as suggested by the UK Committee on Climate Change. In contrast to previous assessment studies, our main focus is on health co-benefits additional to those from reduced local air pollution. We employ a conservative cost-effectiveness methodology with a zero net cost threshold. Our urban transport strategy (with cleaner vehicles and increased active travel) brings important health co-benefits and is likely to be strongly cost-effective; our food and agriculture strategy (based on abatement technologies and reduction in livestock production) brings worthwhile health co-benefits, but is unlikely to eliminate net costs unless new technological measures are included; our household energy efficiency strategy is likely to breakeven only over the long term after the investment programme has ceased (beyond our 20 year time horizon). We conclude that UK policy makers will, most likely, have to adopt elements which involve initial net societal costs in order to achieve future emission targets and longer-term benefits from GHG reduction. Cost-effectiveness of GHG strategies is likely to require technological mitigation interventions and/or demand-constraining interventions with important health co-benefits and other efficiency-enhancing policies that promote internalization of externalities. Health co-benefits can play a crucial role in bringing down net costs, but our results also suggest the need for adopting holistic assessment methodologies which give proper consideration to welfare-improving health co-benefits with potentially negative economic repercussions (such as increased longevity).

  7. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Barry T. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-02-02

    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focused on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed

  8. Economic analysis of strengthening the governance of pesticide management in Uganda’s agriculture sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eseza Kateregga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we seek to compare the benefits and costs of strengthening the regulatory framework for pesticide management in the agriculture sector. Strengthening of chemical use in the country is in line with the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management. The costs of the actions proposed to improve pesticide use in the agriculture sector are weighed against the expected benefits. The net present values and benefit cost ratios are computed for a period spanning 15 years. Results showed that strengthening the governance of pesticide management has potentially huge economic, social, human health and environmental quality benefits. This is highlighted by the huge difference between estimated monetized social and environmental benefits and the costs of investments proposed for sound management of chemical in the sector.

  9. Comparing multiple competing interventions in the absence of randomized trials using clinical risk-benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazo-Langner Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the use of risk-benefit analysis for comparing multiple competing interventions in the absence of randomized trials, we applied this approach to the evaluation of five anticoagulants to prevent thrombosis in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Methods Using a cost-effectiveness approach from a clinical perspective (i.e. risk benefit analysis we compared thromboprophylaxis with warfarin, low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, fondaparinux or ximelagatran in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, with sub-analyses according to surgery type. Proportions and variances of events defining risk (major bleeding and benefit (thrombosis averted were obtained through a meta-analysis and used to define beta distributions. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted and used to calculate incremental risks, benefits, and risk-benefit ratios. Finally, net clinical benefit was calculated for all replications across a range of risk-benefit acceptability thresholds, with a reference range obtained by estimating the case fatality rate - ratio of thrombosis to bleeding. Results The analysis showed that compared to placebo ximelagatran was superior to other options but final results were influenced by type of surgery, since ximelagatran was superior in total knee replacement but not in total hip replacement. Conclusions Using simulation and economic techniques we demonstrate a method that allows comparing multiple competing interventions in the absence of randomized trials with multiple arms by determining the option with the best risk-benefit profile. It can be helpful in clinical decision making since it incorporates risk, benefit, and personal risk acceptance.

  10. The benefits of transportation investment in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report highlights the benefits and return on investment of transportation funding in Texas. In total, over : the next decade, Texans will invest $131 billion in statewide infrastructure with a total economic benefit of : an estimated $373 billio...

  11. Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost-benefit analysis of lead hazard control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lead exposure remains a public health concern due to its serious adverse effects, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment: children younger than six years of age being the most vulnerable population. In Europe, the lead-related economic impacts have not been examined in detail. We estimate the annual costs in France due to childhood exposure and, through a cost benefit analysis (CBA), aim to assess the expected social and economic benefits of exposure abatement. Methods Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs. We used results from a 2008 survey on blood-lead (B-Pb) concentrations in French children aged one to six years old. Given the absence of a threshold concentration being established, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different hypothetical threshold values for toxicity above 15 μg/L, 24 μg/L and 100 μg/L. Adverse health outcomes of lead exposure were translated into social burden and economic costs based on literature data from literature. Direct health benefits, social benefits and intangible avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regard to homes lead-based paint decontamination, investments aiming at reducing industrial lead emissions and removal of all lead drinking water pipes. Results The following overall annual benefits for the three hypothetical thresholds values in 2008 are: €22.72 billion, €10.72 billion and €0.44 billion, respectively. Costs from abatement ranged from €0.9 billion to 2.95 billion/year. Finally, from a partial CBA of lead control in soils and dust the estimates of total net benefits were € 3.78 billion, € 1.88 billion and €0.25 billion respectively for the three hypothesized B-Pb effect values. Conclusions Prevention of childhood lead exposure has a high social benefit, due to reduction of B-Pb concentrations to levels below 15 μg/L or 24 μg/L, respectively. Reducing only exposures above 100 μg/L B-Pb has

  12. Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost-benefit analysis of lead hazard control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zmirou-Navier Denis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead exposure remains a public health concern due to its serious adverse effects, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment: children younger than six years of age being the most vulnerable population. In Europe, the lead-related economic impacts have not been examined in detail. We estimate the annual costs in France due to childhood exposure and, through a cost benefit analysis (CBA, aim to assess the expected social and economic benefits of exposure abatement. Methods Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs. We used results from a 2008 survey on blood-lead (B-Pb concentrations in French children aged one to six years old. Given the absence of a threshold concentration being established, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different hypothetical threshold values for toxicity above 15 μg/L, 24 μg/L and 100 μg/L. Adverse health outcomes of lead exposure were translated into social burden and economic costs based on literature data from literature. Direct health benefits, social benefits and intangible avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regard to homes lead-based paint decontamination, investments aiming at reducing industrial lead emissions and removal of all lead drinking water pipes. Results The following overall annual benefits for the three hypothetical thresholds values in 2008 are: €22.72 billion, €10.72 billion and €0.44 billion, respectively. Costs from abatement ranged from €0.9 billion to 2.95 billion/year. Finally, from a partial CBA of lead control in soils and dust the estimates of total net benefits were € 3.78 billion, € 1.88 billion and €0.25 billion respectively for the three hypothesized B-Pb effect values. Conclusions Prevention of childhood lead exposure has a high social benefit, due to reduction of B-Pb concentrations to levels below 15 μg/L or 24 μg/L, respectively. Reducing only exposures

  13. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  14. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.S.; Blignaut, J.; Ploeg, van der S.; Aronson, J.; Elmqvist, T.; Farley, J.

    2013-01-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies)

  15. How economics shapes science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephan, Paula E

    2012-01-01

    .... At a time when science is seen as an engine of economic growth, Paula Stephan brings a keen understanding of the ongoing cost-benefit calculations made by individuals and institutions as they compete...

  16. Modeling PPP Economic Benefits for Lunar ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, B.

    2017-10-01

    A new tool is needed for selecting the PPP strategy that could maximize the rate of lunar commercialization by attracting private capital into the development of critical infrastructure and robust capability. A PPP model under development for NASA-ESO will be described.

  17. The Economic Benefits of Predicting Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Estim ated A ttrition Effects ....................................................... 3-41 4. Estimated Recruiting Costs...Assumptions .............................. 3-39 3.15 Logistic Regression Coefficient Estimates Used to Predict A ttrition E ffects...linearly with ever-increasing increments of high aptitude employees : the law of diminishing returns eventually applies. For example, if there are too many

  18. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  19. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  20. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development