WorldWideScience

Sample records for net anthropogenic co2e

  1. Statistical partitioning of a three-year time series of direct urban net CO2 flux measurements into biogenic and anthropogenic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Olaf; McFadden, Joseph P.

    2017-12-01

    Eddy covariance flux measurements are increasingly used to quantify the net carbon dioxide exchange (FC) in urban areas. FC represents the sum of anthropogenic emissions, biogenic carbon release from plant and soil respiration, and carbon uptake by plant photosynthesis. When FC is measured in natural ecosystems, partitioning into respiration and photosynthesis is a well-established procedure. In contrast, few studies have partitioned FC at urban flux tower sites due to the difficulty of accounting for the temporal and spatial variability of the multiple sources and sinks. Here, we partitioned a three-year time series of flux measurements from a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. We segregated FC into one subset that captured fluxes from a residential neighborhood and into another subset that covered a golf course. For both land use types we modeled anthropogenic flux components based on winter data and extrapolated them to the growing season, to estimate gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) at half-hourly, daily, monthly and annual scales. During the growing season, GPP had the largest magnitude (up to - 9.83 g C m-2 d-1) of any component CO2 flux, biogenic or anthropogenic, and both GPP and Reco were more dynamic seasonally than anthropogenic fluxes. Owing to the balancing of Reco against GPP, and the limitations of the growing season in a cold temperate climate zone, the net biogenic flux was only 1.5%-4.5% of the anthropogenic flux in the dominant residential land use type, and between 25%-31% of the anthropogenic flux in highly managed greenspace. Still, the vegetation sink at our site was stronger than net anthropogenic emissions on 16-20 days over the residential area and on 66-91 days over the recreational area. The reported carbon flux sums and dynamics are a critical step toward developing models of urban CO2 fluxes within and across cities that differ in vegetation cover.

  2. Fluvial gravel stabilization by net-spinning Hydropsychid caddisflies: exploring the magnitude and geographic scope of ecosystem engineering effect and evaluating resistance to anthropogenic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M.; Albertson, L.; Sklar, L. S.; Tumolo, B.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the substantial effects that organisms can have on earth surface processes. Known as ecosystem engineers, in streams these organisms maintain, modify, or create physical habitat structure by influencing fluvial processes such as gravel movement, fine sediment deposition and bank erosion. However, the ecology of ecosystem engineers and the magnitude of ecosystem engineering effects in a world increasingly influence by anthropogenically-driven changes is not well understood. Here we present a synthesis of research findings on the potential gravel stabilization effects of Hydropsychid caddisflies, a globally distributed group of net-spinning insects that live in the benthic substrate of most freshwater streams. Hydropsychid caddisflies act as ecosystem engineers because these silk structures can fundamentally alter sediment transport conditions, including sediment stability and flow currents. The silk nets spun by these insects attach gravel grains to one another, increasing the shear stress required to initiate grain entrainment. In a series of independent laboratory experiments, we investigate the gravel size fractions most affected by these silk attachments. We also investigate the role of anthropogenic environmental stresses on ecosystem engineering potential by assessing the impact of two common stressors, high fine sediment loads and stream drying, on silk structures. Finally, an extensive field survey of grain size and Hydropsychid caddisfly population densities informs a watershed-scale network model of Hydropsychid caddisfly gravel stabilizing potential. Our findings provide some of the first evidence that caddisfly silk may be a biological structure that is resilient to various forms of human-mediated stress and that the effects of animal ecosystem engineers are underappreciated as an agent of resistance and recovery for aquatic communities experiencing changes in sediment loads and hydrologic regimes.

  3. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e Guide: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; McGrail, B. Peter; Watson, David J.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2012-04-03

    This STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) guide document describes the theory, use, and application of the STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e operational modes. These operational modes of the STOMP simulator are configured to solve problems involving the sequestration of CO2 in geologic saline reservoirs. STOMP-CO2 is the isothermal version and STOMP-CO2e is the nonisothermal version. These core operational modes solve the governing conservation equations for component flow and transport through geologic media; where, the STOMP-CO2 components are water, CO2 and salt and the STOMP-CO2e operational mode also includes an energy conservation equation. Geochemistry can be included in the problem solution via the ECKEChem (Equilibrium-Conservation-Kinetic-Equation Chemistry) module, and geomechanics via the EPRMech (Elastic-Plastic-Rock Mechanics) module. This addendum is designed to provide the new user with a full guide for the core capabilities of the STOMP-CO2 and -CO2e simulators, and to provide the experienced user with a quick reference on implementing features. Several benchmark problems are provided in this addendum, which serve as starting points for developing inputs for more complex problems and as demonstrations of the simulator’s capabilities.

  4. CO2 supersaturation and net heterotrophy in a tropical estuary (Cochin, India): Influence of anthropogenic effect - Carbon dynamics in tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, G.V.M.; Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Madhu, N.V.; Madeswaran, P.; Nair, S.

    of pCO sub(2) (up to 6000 mu atm) and CO sub(2) effluxes (up to 274 mmolC m sup(-2) d sup(-1)) especially during monsoon. A first-order estimate of the carbon mass balance shows that net production of dissolved inorganic carbon is an order of magnitude...

  5. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  6. Desgaste corrosivo-cavitativo-erosivo de um aço-carbono em meio aquoso com frações de sal (NaCl), CO2 e particulados sólidos (SiO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernando Nunes da

    2012-01-01

    Um lote de oitenta e quatro corpos-de-prova (CP) de aço AISI 1018 foi investigado em laboratório sob solicitações corrosivas, cavitativo-corrosivas (CO2) e erosivocorrosivas (SiO2+CO2) em meio aquoso salino e a duas temperaturas. Foram realizados ensaios de microdureza Vickers a três níveis de subsuperfície (HV0,05, HV0,10, HV0,20). Um fluxo agitado colidiu contra os CPs, em todas as condições de ensaio, sem e com agitação mecânica e borbulhamento de gás, sem e com contamina...

  7. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  8. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  9. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  10. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  11. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  12. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  13. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  14. ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES THREATENING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... anthropogenic activities across the protected areas in the country. ... education and provision of fund to support sustainable livelihood practices. ... wildlife conservation and tourism. ... Fig: 1 Map of Oyo State showing location of Old Oyo National Park and adjoining community. #. #. # .... This was the view of.

  15. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  16. Anthropogenic Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Balogh, A.; Erickson, P. J.; Huba, J. D.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Anthropogenic effects on the space environment started in the late 19th century and reached their peak in the 1960s when high-altitude nuclear explosions were carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union. These explosions created artificial radiation belts near Earth that resulted in major damages to several satellites. Another, unexpected impact of the high-altitude nuclear tests was the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that can have devastating effects over a large geographic area (as large as the continental United States). Other anthropogenic impacts on the space environment include chemical release experiments, high-frequency wave heating of the ionosphere and the interaction of VLF waves with the radiation belts. This paper reviews the fundamental physical process behind these phenomena and discusses the observations of their impacts.

  17. Potential climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueschel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Aerosols act as part of the climate system through their influence on solar and terrestrial radiation. The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the reduction of visibility is explored in this chapter. Elemental carbon has been identified as the most effective visibility-reducing species. Most of the visibility reduction is due to particles with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm. Studies indicate that sulfate is also a very important aerosol species that results in low visibility and high turbidity. Radiative properties such as aerosol single-scattering albedo values and absorption-to-backscatter ratios purported to produce warming or cooling effects of aerosols are discussed. It is concluded that aerosol clouds have a tendency to cool when they are over a low-albedo surface and have a tendency to warm when they are over high-albedo surfaces such as snow. Anthropogenic aerosols have a tendency to warm the earth's atmospheric system, based on calculations and assumed aerosol optical properties. However, this effect is somewhat offset by the absorption and re-emission into space of infrared terrestrial radiation. The net effect depends on the ratio of the absorption coefficients in the visible and infrared and also on the surface albedo. The effects on infrared radiation are documented for two anthropogenic aerosol sources in the United States, the Denver metropolitan area and power plant plumes in New Mexico, through calculations and measurements. Measured cooling rates within an aerosol plume are not sufficient to offset the warming rate due to absorption of short-wave radiation. Research indicates that anthropogenic aerosols can possibly cause local-scale warming of the atmosphere, but global-scale climatic effects remain an open question

  18. Injeção de CO2 e lâminas de irrigação em tomateiro sob estufa CO2 injection and irrigation levels in greenhouse tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cesar Cararo

    2002-09-01

    -se os dados a funções quadráticas, foram de 78,82 t.ha-1 e 86,36 t.ha-1, correspondentes à aplicação de 335,2 mm e 333,6 mm de água para as estufas sem e com aplicação de CO2, respectivamente. Para uma faixa de variação do produto físico marginal de 0 a 1, as lâminas economicamente ótimas variaram de 335,2 mm a 322,4 mm em ausência de CO2 e de 333,6 mm a 323,8 mm com utilização do gás.The application of appropriate amounts of water and the usage of associated techniques improve the yield and quality of tomato fruits, assuring better profits to the farmer. We studied the effect of different water depth applications and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection in the irrigation system of a tomato crop, cv. Débora-Plus. An experiment was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo State (Brazil, under two greenhouses, using 40; 60; 80; 100; 120 and 140% of the water depth needed by the crop and C0 = 0 g of CO2.L-1 of water and C1 = 7.73 g.L-1 of CO2 concentrations were applied through irrigation water during 1999. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. The CO2 treatments were applied in separate greenhouses. The irrigation was accomplished by using a drip irrigation system, based on reduced evaporimeters and tensiometers. The gas application was accomplished using a commercial cylinder and a Venturi type injector during the period necessary to reach the minimum water level. The application of CO2 through irrigation water increased the yield by 8.2%, raised the weight of small size fruits by 13% and the dry matter content of fruits by 8.5%. However, CO2 injection was ineffective in increasing the number and weight of medium sized fruits. The soil solution analysis indicated that CO2 possibly contributes to the improvement of the nutritional conditions of the tomato crop. The gas injection was economically feasible. The water depth did not have any significant effect on the yield, on total number of fruits, medium fruit weight

  19. Possible influence of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds and anthropogenic forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Penner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds have a net warming effect on the atmosphere and cover about 30% of the Earth's area. Aerosol particles initiate ice formation in the upper troposphere through modes of action that include homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, heterogeneous nucleation on solid particles immersed in a solution, and deposition nucleation of vapor onto solid particles. Here, we examine the possible change in ice number concentration from anthropogenic soot originating from surface sources of fossil fuel and biomass burning, from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, and from aircraft that deposit their aerosols directly in the upper troposphere. We use a version of the aerosol model that predicts sulfate number and mass concentrations in 3-modes and includes the formation of sulfate aerosol through homogeneous binary nucleation as well as a version that only predicts sulfate mass. The 3-mode version best represents the Aitken aerosol nuclei number concentrations in the upper troposphere which dominated ice crystal residues in the upper troposphere. Fossil fuel and biomass burning soot aerosols with this version exert a radiative forcing of −0.3 to −0.4 Wm−2 while anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and aircraft aerosols exert a forcing of −0.01 to 0.04 Wm−2 and −0.16 to −0.12 Wm−2, respectively, where the range represents the forcing from two parameterizations for ice nucleation. The sign of the forcing in the mass-only version of the model depends on which ice nucleation parameterization is used and can be either positive or negative. The magnitude of the forcing in cirrus clouds can be comparable to the forcing exerted by anthropogenic aerosols on warm clouds, but this forcing has not been included in past assessments of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate.

  20. Co2 and irrigation in relation to yield and water use of the bell pepper crop Co2 e irrigação na produção e uso da água para cultura do pimentão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Conceição Rezende

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse production of vegetables is widely used throughout the world. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations in these closed environments can increase net photosynthesis and yield. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and water supply on the growth of potted bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. plants, cultivated under controlled environmental conditions. CO2 was applied daily, and its distribution was monitored above plant rows through micro pipes located at 3.0 m height. A drip irrigation system with one dripper per plant was used to irrigate the plants. Different volumes of irrigation water, representing fractions of the water volume (Vet consumed by pot plants growing under no water stress conditions (0.5Vet, 0.65Vet, 1.0Vet, and 1.35Vet with four replications, were evaluated under four different CO2 levels (atmospheric concentration of 367, 600, 800, and 1000 mumol mol-1. Total fresh fruit mass, average number of fruits, and water use efficiency were recorded. For the water deficit treatments, the greatest fresh fruit mass was obtained for the highest CO2 level environment. However, for treatments that received water volumes equal or greater than the evapotranspiration rate, the greatest total fresh fruit mass was observed at the 600 mumol mol-1 of CO2 environment. The yield increase due to CO2 was represented by increase in fruit weight and not in fruit number. Water use efficiency increased in relation to the amount of water applied and it was highest at 600 mumol mol-1 CO2 concentration.O cultivo de hortaliças em ambiente protegido é amplamente utilizado e, nesses ambientes, o enriquecimento da atmosfera com gás carbônico (CO2 pode aumentar a produtividade pois a fotossíntese líquida normalmente aumenta. Este trabalho avalia o efeito do enriquecimento do ambiente com CO2 e do volume de água aplicado em plantas de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., cultivadas em vasos, em ambiente

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  2. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  3. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  4. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  5. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlson, R J; Schwartz, S E; Hales, J M; Cess, R D; Coakley, Jr, J A; Hansen, J E; Hofmann, D J [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA). Inst. for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square metre, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. 73 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, R J; Schwartz, S E; Hales, J M; Cess, R D; Coakley, J A; Hansen, J E; Hofmann, D J

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of shortwavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  7. Estimating animal mortality from anthropogenic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcass searches are a common method for studying the risk of anthropogenic hazards to wildlife, including non-target poisoning and collisions with anthropogenic structures. Typically, numbers of carcasses found must be corrected for scavenging rates and imperfect detection. Para...

  8. Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.

  9. Climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, T. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Anthropogenic production of aerosols is mainly connected with combustion of fossil fuel. Measured by particulate mass, the anthropogenic sulphate production is the dominating source of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. Particles emitted in mechanical processes, fly ash etc. are less important because of their shorter atmospheric residence time. Possible climatological effects of anthropogenic aerosols are usually classified in two groups: direct and indirect. Direct effects are alterations of the radiative heating budget due to the aerosol particles in clear air. Indirect effects involve the interaction between particles and cloud processes. A simplified one-layer radiation model gave cooling in the most polluted mid-latitude areas and heating due to soot absorption in the Arctic. This differential trend in heating rates may have significant effects on atmospheric meridional circulations, which is important for the atmosphere as a thermodynamic system. Recently the description of sulphur chemistry in the hemispheric scale dispersion model has been improved and will be used in a model for Mie scattering and absorption

  10. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  11. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  12. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  14. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  15. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  16. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  17. Estudo comparativo das alterações histológicas imediatas causadas pelo uso do laser de CO2 e do laser de erbium na pele de ratos wistar Comparative study of histopathological abnormalities induced by CO2 and erbium laser on the skin of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Noronha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar, do ponto de vista anatomopatológico, os efeitos térmicos encontrados na pele de ratos wistar após a aplicação do laser de CO2 e do laser erbium. Utilizaram-se oito ratos submetidos a tricotomia em toda a região toracodorsal. Selecionaram-se duas áreas separadas, as quais receberam a aplicação do laser. Na primeira foram realizadas duas passadas do laser de CO2 e na segunda, duas passadas do laser erbium. A área-controle correspondeu àquela imediatamente adjacente à área submetida ao laser. A análise microscópica da lesão causada pelo laser de CO2 revela lesão em forma de U, com ablação completa da epiderme em toda a sua extensão. A derme superficial apresenta degeneração do colágeno, correspondendo ao dano térmico residual, e a transição deste para a derme normal é bem demarcada. Na pele lesada com laser erbium observa-se também extensa área de pele lesada em forma de platô, com algumas pequenas áreas de pele não-lesada. Pode-se observar, ainda, dano do colágeno na derme superficial, porém mais discreto que aquele causado pelo CO2.The aim of this paper is to analyses the histopathology of the termal effects on the skin of Wistar rats after the application of CO2 and erbium laser. Eight rats had their flanks shaved and two areas were selected for the use of the laser. The first area received two applications of CO2 laser, and the second area two applications of the erbium laser. The skin adjacent to the laser application site was used as a control area. The microscopic analysis of the injury caused by CO2 laser revealed a complete ablation of epidermis and an injury that looked like an "U" in shape. The superficial dermis presented a degeneration of the collagen that corresponded to the residual thermal injury, to normal dermis was sharply demarcated. The injury caused by erbium laser was observed as a plateau injured area with a few small normal areas. The collagen

  18. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  19. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  20. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  1. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  2. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  3. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  4. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  5. Quarrying: an anthropogenic geomorphological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    2008-01-01

    The study intends to give an introduction to the significance of quarrying from the point of view of anthropogenic geomorphology, indicating the level of surface forming due to the mining of mineral raw materials. The significance of this topic is supported by the existence of the so-called 'mining landscapes' that emerged since to the 19 th century. Authors focus on the geomorphic impact of quarrying with special emphasis on factors influencing its spatial distribution, as well as on the characteristics and classification of surface features produced by quarrying, providing an overview of the most important excavated and accumulated forms and form components, on the macro, meso and micro scales. Finally, international and Hungarian case studies illustrate some aspects of the opening and after-use of mining sites in order to observe how abandoned quarries can be turned into 'environmental values', and used as possible sites for exhibitions or for regional and tourism development projects. (author)

  6. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  7. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  8. Green Net Value Added as a Sustainability Metric Based on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability measurement in economics involves evaluation of environmental and economic impact in an integrated manner. In this study, system level economic data are combined with environmental impact from a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a common product. We are exploring a costing approach that captures traditional costs but also incorporates externality costs to provide a convenient, easily interpretable metric. Green Net Value Added (GNVA) is a type of full cost accounting that incorporates total revenue, the cost of materials and services, depreciation, and environmental externalities. Two, but not all, of the potential environmental impacts calculated by the standard LCIA method (TRACI) could be converted to externality cost values. We compute externality costs disaggregated by upstream sectors, full cost, and GNVA to evaluate the relative sustainability of Bounty® paper towels manufactured at two production facilities. We found that the longer running, more established line had a higher GNVA than the newer line. The dominant factors contributing to externality costs are calculated to come from the stationary sources in the supply chain: electricity generation (27-35%), refineries (20-21%), pulp and paper making (15-23%). Health related externalities from Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Carbon Dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions appear largely driven by electricity usage and emissions by the facilities, followed by pulp processing and transport. Supply

  9. Rotação de culturas no sistema plantio direto em Tibagi (PR: II - Emissões de CO2 e N2O Crop rotation under no-tillage in Tibagi (Paraná State, Brazil: II - CO2 and N2O emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Siqueira Neto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade agrícola pode alterar a quantidade e qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS, resultando em emissões de dióxido de carbono (CO2 e óxido nitroso (N2O do solo para a atmosfera. O sistema plantio direto (SPD com a utilização de leguminosas em sistemas de rotação é uma estratégia que deve ser considerada tanto para o aumento da quantidade de MOS como para seu efeito na redução das emissões dos gases de efeito estufa. Com o objetivo de determinar os fluxos de gases do efeito estufa (CO2 e N2O do solo, um experimento foi instalado em Tibagi (PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico textura argilosa. Os tratamentos, dispostos em faixas não casualizadas com parcelas subdivididas, foram: sistema plantio direto por 12 anos com sucessões milho/trigo e soja/trigo (PD12 M/T e PD12 S/T, respectivamente e por 22 anos (PD22 M/T e PD22 S/T, respectivamente. As emissões de CO2 do solo foram aproximadamente 20 % mais elevadas no PD22 em relação ao PD12. As emissões de CO2 apresentaram correlação significativa (R² = 0,85; p The agricultural activity can change the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM, resulting in CO2 and N2O emissions from the soil. No-tillage (NT with legume species in crop rotation is a strategy that should be considered not only to increase the SOM quantity, but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to determine the soil-atmosphere gas emissions with greenhouse effect (CO2 and N2O. For this purpose, an experiment was installed in Tibagi (Paraná State, Brazil, on a clayey Oxisol (Typic Hapludox. The treatments were conducted in non-random strips with subdivided plots: no-tillage crop successions corn/wheat and soybean/wheat (NT12 M/T and NT12 S/T, respectively for 12 years and no-tillage (NT22 M/T and NT22 S/T, respectively for 22 years. The CO2 soil emissions were nearly 20 % higher in NT22 than in NT12. The CO2 emissions were significantly correlated (R

  10. Biomassa microbiana e produção de C-CO2 e N mineral de um podzólico vermelho-escuro submetido a diferentes sistemas de manejo: Microbial biomass and C-CO2 and mineral nitrogen production in paleudult soil cultivated under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Vargas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de manejo, com diferenças no revolvimento do solo e na composição dos resíduos vegetais, alteram as propriedades biológicas do solo, com reflexos na qualidade do solo e na produtividade das culturas. Com vistas em medir estas alterações nas propriedades biológicas do solo, a biomassa e a atividade microbiana foram avaliadas em um Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, utilizando diferentes preparos (convencional, reduzido e plantio direto e dois sistemas de sucessões de culturas (aveia preta + vica/milho + caupi e aveia/milho. As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro épocas, durante 12 meses, e em duas profundidades (0-5 e 5-15 cm. O carbono da biomassa microbiana foi analisado pelo método de fumigação-incubação, e a atividade microbiana, pela produção de C-CO2 e N mineral, após 60 dias de incubação. As diferenças na biomassa e na atividade microbiana, entre os sistemas de manejo, foram mais pronunciadas na camada de 0-5 cm. Nesta camada de solo, observaram-se os maiores valores de biomassa e de atividade nos preparos conservacionistas e no sistema aveia + vica/milho + caupi. Dentre as variáveis estudadas, a mineralização de N mostrou-se a mais sensível aos manejos, à profundidade e à época de amostragem.

  11. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  12. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  13. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  14. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of data base of IAEA-MEL (International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory) and other organizations, the distribution and behavior of anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 3 H, are explained. 137 Cs (β - , γ: 30.2 y half life) is the most important pollution source and tracer to make clear mixture and diffusion process in seawater. The concentration of 137 Cs in surface seawater of Northern Hemisphere is larger than that of Southern Hemisphere, because many inner space nuclear tests were carried out in the Northern Hemisphere. Especially, the concentration of Northern-east Ocean and Mediterranean Sea are 21 Bq/m 3 and 13 Bq/m 3 , respectively, ten times as much as the other, because of discharge of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and Chernobyl accident. 2.5 Bq/m 3 137 Cs was observed in North Atlantic Ocean. Behavior of 90 Sr (β - : 29.0 y half life) is the same as 137 Sr in seawater. Secular change of 137 Sr and 90 Sr in seawater in coastal areas of Japan shows decrease of the values from 1964 and reached to 2 to 4 mBq/l and 1 to 3 mBq/l, respectively. 239+240 Pu is the most large load of transuranic elements (TRU) in the earth and originated from nuclear tests. The concentration of 239+240 Pu is 20 to 30 (10 -4 pCi/l, 1968) in the Pacific Ocean and 2.5 to 10.0 μBq/l (1982 to 1993). 241 Am (α: 433 y half life) is generated by decay of 241 Pu. Accordingly, the maximum value is observed after about 100 years. 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu showed less than about 0.3 of fall out, so that emission of 241 Am increases much more than 239+240 Pu. 3 H (β - : 12.3 y half life) has the most short half life in the anthropogenic radionuclides and exists the form as water (HTO) in the sea. The origin of 3 H is hydrogen bomb tests during 1952 and 1975. The concentration of 3 H in sea is average 3.6 TU (1994). The vertical profile of 137 Cs and 90 Sr is similar to each other since both nuclides become ions such

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  16. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  17. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  18. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  20. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  1. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  2. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  3. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on present and future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deandreis, C.

    2008-03-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth radiative budget both through their direct effect (scattering and absorption of solar radiation) and their indirect effect (impacts on cloud microphysics). The role of anthropogenic aerosol in climate change has been recognized to be significant when compared to the one of greenhouse gases. Despite many studies on this topic, the assessments of both anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing and their impacts on meteorological variables are still very uncertain. Major reasons for these uncertainties stem from the insufficient knowledge of the emissions sources and of the processes of formation, transformation and deposition. Models used to study climate are often inadequate to study aerosol processes because of coarse spatial and temporal scales. Uncertainties due to the parameterization of the aerosol are added to the uncertainties in the representation of large scale dynamics and physical processes such as transport, hydrological cycle and radiative budget. To predict, the role of the anthropogenic aerosol impact in the future climate change, I have addressed some of these key uncertainties. In this study, I simulate interactively aerosols processes in a climate model in order to improve the estimation of their direct and indirect effects. I estimate a modification of the top of the atmosphere net flux of 60% for the present period. I also show that, for future projection, the representation of the emissions source is an other important source of error. I assess that aerosols radiative forcing differ by 40% between simulations performed with 2 different emissions inventories. These inventories are representative for a high and a low limit in term of carbonaceous aerosols emissions for the 2050 horizon. (author)

  4. Revised budget for the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Sundquist, E.T.

    1992-01-01

    TRACER-CALIBRATED models of the total uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the world's oceans give estimates of about 2 gigatonnes carbon per year1, significantly larger than a recent estimate2 of 0.3-0.8 Gt C yr-1 for the synoptic air-to-sea CO2 influx. Although both estimates require that the global CO2 budget must be balanced by a large unknown terrestrial sink, the latter estimate implies a much larger terrestrial sink, and challenges the ocean model calculations on which previous CO2 budgets were based. The discrepancy is due in part to the net flux of carbon to the ocean by rivers and rain, which must be added to the synoptic air-to-sea CO2 flux to obtain the total oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Here we estimate the magnitude of this correction and of several other recently proposed adjustments to the synoptic air-sea CO2 exchange. These combined adjustments minimize the apparent inconsistency, and restore estimates of the terrestrial sink to values implied by the modelled oceanic uptake.

  5. Net carbon flux of dead wood in forests of the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; S. Fraver; G.M. Domke

    2015-01-01

    Downed dead wood (DDW) in forest ecosystems is a C pool whose net flux is governed by a complex of natural and anthropogenic processes and is critical to the management of the entire forest C pool. As empirical examination of DDW C net flux has rarely been conducted across large scales, the goal of this study was to use a remeasured inventory of DDW C and ancillary...

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  7. Anthropogenic disturbance on the vegetation in makurunge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    landscape in Tanzania that has been severely affected by anthropogenic disturbance ... Fragmentation of habitats formed patches that have reduced plant species population sizes, and ... by the movement of the Inter-Tropical ..... of pollinators.

  8. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1700

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1700 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  9. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1900

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1900 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  10. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1800

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1800 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  11. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 2000 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  12. Modelling of anthropogenic and natural climate changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H; Mikolajewicz, U; Bakan, S [Max Planck Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)

    1993-06-01

    The delay of anthropogenic climate change caused by oceans and other slowly reacting climate system components forces us to numerical modeling as the basis of decisions. For three three-dimensional numerical examples, namely transient coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the additional greenhouse effect, internal ocean-atmosphere variability, and disturbance by soot particles from burning oil wells, the present-day status is described. From all anthropogenic impacts on the radiative balance, the contribution from trace gases is the most important.

  13. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  14. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  15. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  16. Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    Heightened awareness of global change issues within both science and political communities has increased interest in using the global network of eddy covariance flux towers to more fully understand the impacts of natural and anthropogenic phenomena on the global carbon balance. Comparisons of net

  17. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  18. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  19. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  20. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  1. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  2. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  3. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enriquecimento intermitente de CO2 e análise do acúmulo de massa seca e da partição de fotoassimilados em tomateiro Intermittent CO2 enrichment and analysis of dry matter accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Ricardo Brunele Caliman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o acúmulo de massa seca (MS e a partição de fotoassimilados em tomateiro cultivado sob diferentes concentrações de CO2, foi conduzido um experimento no delineamento em blocos casualizados com 12 repetições e as cultivares (cv. híbridas de tomateiro Andrea e Alambra. O enriquecimento com CO2 foi intermitente (não havendo enriquecimento no período das 10 h 30 min às 16 h pela utilização de pilha de compostagem como fonte do gás, cuja concentração variou de 600 µl/lt a 750 µl/lt durante o período matinal. O enriquecimento com CO2 alterou somente a partição e o acúmulo de MS de caule na cv. Alambra, permanecendo as demais variáveis, em ambas as cultivares, insensíveis ao tratamento. Houve maior acúmulo de MS nas plantas cultivadas nos ambientes protegidos comparadas às do campo. A cv Andrea acumulou 786.39 g/planta de MS no ambiente protegido + CO2 (AP + CO2, e 815.49 g/planta no ambiente protegido normal (AP normal e 637.41 g/planta no campo. A cv. Alambra acumulou 766.68 g/planta de MS no AP + CO2, 824.35 g/planta no AP normal e 592.44 g/planta no campo. O maior dreno de fotoassimilados foram os frutos, que acumularam 59%, 63% e 72% da MS das plantas nos AP + CO2, AP normal e campo, respectivamente.Intermittent CO2 enrichment and analysis of the dry matter accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomato submitted to grown in protected environment and field conditions. To assess dry matter (DM accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomatoes growth under different CO2 concentrations an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 12 repetitions and two tomato hybrid cultivars cultivar (cv. Andrea and Alambra. CO2 intermittent enrichment (no enrichment during 10:30a.m. to 4:00p.m. was provide by compost pile, and gas concentration range from 600 to 750 µl l-1. The CO2 enrichment only changed DM partition and accumulation of the stem in the cv. Alambra, leaving the other

  5. Armazenamento da maçã cv. golden delicious em atmosfera controlada com altas concentrações de CO2 e ultra-baixas de O2 Controlled atmosphere storage of golden delicious apples with high CO2 and ulo concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de altas concentrações de CO2, e ultra-baixas de O2, sobre as qualidades fisico-químicas, distúrbios fisiológicos e podridões durante o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC de maçãs da cv. 'Golden Delicious'. Os frutos foram armazenados nas temperaturas de -0,5°C e +0,5°C e umidade relativa do ar de 97%. As condições de AC foram 1.0% de O2, e 6.0% de CO2; 1,5% de O2, e 6,0% de CO2; 1,0% de O2, e 4,0% de CO2, 2.0% de O2, e 4.0% de CO2; 3,0% de O2, e 4,0% de CO2, Os parâmetros avaliados foram: firmeza da polpa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, escaldadura, degenerescência interna e podridões. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois momentos: na abertura das câmaras (8,5 meses de armazenamento e após 14 dias (7 dias em armazenamento refrigerado e 7 dias em temperatura ambiente a 23°C. Em concentrações ultra-baixa de O2, (1% combinado com 4% de CO2, a maçã 'Golden Delicious' apresentou uma melhor manutenção das qualidades fisico-químicas após longo período de armazenamento sem apresentar sintomas de fermentação. Concentrações de 6% de CO2, com baixas de O2 na temperatura de +0,5°C, não causou danos aos frutos, porém na temperatura de -0,5"C houve degenerescência interna e escaldadura superficial, sendo a temperatura de +0,5°C mais indicada para a cv. Golden Delicious'.The experiment was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effects of the high CO2, and ultra-low O2, (ULO concentrations on the fruit quality and incidence of physiological disorders and rots during controlled atmosphere (CA storage of 'Golden Delicious'. Fruits were stored at-0.5°C and +0.5°C, with 97% relative humidity. The CA conditions were: 1.0% of O2, and 6.0% of CO2,.1.5% of O2, and 6.0% of CO2; 1.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,; 2.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,; 3.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,. After 8.5 months of storage and 14 days after chamber opening (seven days of

  6. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Anthropogenic Heat Flux Estimation from Space: Results of the second phase of the URBANFLUXES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-04-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model is employed to improve the estimation of the net all-wave radiation balance, whereas the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM), adjusted to satellite observations is used to improve the estimation the estimation of the net change in heat storage. Furthermore the estimation of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes is based on the Aerodynamic Resistance Method (ARM). Based on these outcomes, QF is estimated by regressing the sum of the turbulent heat fluxes versus the available energy. In-situ flux measurements are used to evaluate URBANFLUXES outcomes, whereas uncertainties are specified and analyzed. URBANFLUXES is expected to prepare the ground for further innovative exploitation of EO in scientific activities (climate variability studies at local and regional scales) and future and emerging applications (sustainable urban planning, mitigation technologies) to benefit climate change mitigation/adaptation. This study presents the results of the second phase of the project and detailed information on URBANFLUXES is available at: http://urbanfluxes.eu

  8. Anthropogenic infrastructure as a component of urbogeosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Chuiev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the definition of the concept of "anthropogenic infrastructure" and attempts to find its place in the structure of urbogeosystems. The concept itself can not be called new, as many foreign authors have already used it, but the final definition never happened. The reasons why city studies are becoming more relevant in the face of ever-accelerating urbanization are briefly presented. Prerequisites for the emergence of the urban environment and approaches to its study are given. A special attention is paid to the consideration of urbosystems and their component structure. The main four components are described, which include the technosphere, biosphere, population and abiotic nature. The causes of the appearance of urban ecosystems and their specific features are analyzed. Based on the deficiencies of the "Urbosphere", "Urbosystem" and "Urboecosystem", the notion of "Urbogeosystem" is formed once again. Since architectural and construction objects are key components of such systems, their integration into anthropogenic infrastructure allows us to operate with a more general concept. Functional zones of the city, which are part of the anthropogenic infrastructure, are described. These include residential, industrial, forest and park areas. Examples of the use and functioning of each of the zones are given. An attempt has been made to estimate the boundaries of urbogeosystems. The existing approaches to the classification of anthropogenic infrastructure are analyzed. For one of them, it is advisable to allocate separately "hard" and "soft" infrastructure by the nature of the tasks of society, which they are called upon to satisfy. An alternative approach is to divide the anthropogenic infrastructure into "human" and "physical" ones. If the first satisfies the socio-cultural needs of people, the second is used for production, development, establishment of communications, transportation. It is proved why it is expedient to

  9. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  10. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  11. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  12. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  13. Climate impact of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, J.; Zhou, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cirrus clouds have a net warming effect on the atmosphere and cover about 30% of the Earth's area. Aerosol particles initiate ice formation in the upper troposphere through modes of action that include homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, heterogeneous nucleation on solid particles immersed in a solution, and deposition nucleation of vapor onto solid particles. However, the efficacy with which particles act to form cirrus particles in a model depends on the representation of updrafts. Here, we use a representation of updrafts based on observations of gravity waves, and follow ice formation/evaporation during both updrafts and downdrafts. We examine the possible change in ice number concentration from anthropogenic soot originating from surface sources of fossil fuel and biomass burning and from aircraft particles that have previously formed ice in contrails. Results show that fossil fuel and biomass burning soot aerosols with this version exert a radiative forcing of -0.15±0.02 Wm-2 while aircraft aerosols that have been pre-activated within contrails exert a forcing of -0.20±0.06 Wm-2, but it is possible to decrease these estimates of forcing if a larger fraction of dust particles act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. In addition aircraft aerosols may warm the climate if a large fraction of these particles act as ice nuclei. The magnitude of the forcing in cirrus clouds can be comparable to the forcing exerted by anthropogenic aerosols on warm clouds. This assessment could therefore support climate models with high sensitivity to greenhouse gas forcing, while still allowing the models to fit the overall historical temperature change.

  14. The influence of vegetation dynamics on anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Port

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vegetation–climate and vegetation–carbon cycle interactions during anthropogenic climate change are assessed by using the Earth System Model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI ESM that includes vegetation dynamics and an interactive carbon cycle. We assume anthropogenic CO2 emissions according to the RCP 8.5 scenario in the time period from 1850 to 2120. For the time after 2120, we assume zero emissions to evaluate the response of the stabilising Earth System by 2300.

    Our results suggest that vegetation dynamics have a considerable influence on the changing global and regional climate. In the simulations, global mean tree cover extends by 2300 due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and global warming. Thus, land carbon uptake is higher and atmospheric CO2 concentration is lower by about 40 ppm when considering dynamic vegetation compared to the static pre-industrial vegetation cover. The reduced atmospheric CO2 concentration is equivalent to a lower global mean temperature. Moreover, biogeophysical effects of vegetation cover shifts influence the climate on a regional scale. Expanded tree cover in the northern high latitudes results in a reduced albedo and additional warming. In the Amazon region, declined tree cover causes a regional warming due to reduced evapotranspiration. As a net effect, vegetation dynamics have a slight attenuating effect on global climate change as the global climate cools by 0.22 K due to natural vegetation cover shifts in 2300.

  15. Analysis of climate and anthropogenic impacts on runoff in the Lower Pra River Basin of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwi, Alfred; Anornu, Geophrey Kwame; Quaye-Ballard, Jonathan; Annor, Thompson; Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Pra River Basin (LPRB), located in the forest zone of southern Ghana has experienced changes due to variability in precipitation and diverse anthropogenic activities. Therefore, to maintain the functions of the ecosystem for water resources management, planning and sustainable development, it is important to differentiate the impacts of precipitation variability and anthropogenic activities on stream flow changes. We investigated the variability in runoff and quantified the contributions of precipitation and anthropogenic activities on runoff at the LPRB. Analysis of the precipitation-runoff for the period 1970-2010 revealed breakpoints in 1986, 2000, 2004 and 2010 in the LPRB. The periods influenced by anthropogenic activities were categorized into three periods 1987-2000, 2001-2004 and 2005-2010, revealing a decrease in runoff during 1987-2000 and an increase in runoff during 2001-2004 and 2005-2010. Assessment of monthly, seasonal and annual runoff depicted a significant increasing trend in the runoff time series during the dry season. Generally, runoff increased at a rate of 9.98 × 10 7 m 3 yr -1 , with precipitation variability and human activities contributing 17.4% and 82.3% respectively. The dominant small scale alluvial gold mining activity significantly contributes to the net runoff variability in LPRB.

  16. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1degrees x 1degrees latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg

  17. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts

  18. ANthropogenic heat FLUX estimation from Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmong, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mi, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the

  19. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  20. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  1. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  2. Benthic Nutrient Fluxes from Mangrove Sediments of an Anthropogenically Impacted Estuary in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach in the Nanliu River Estuary, southern China: Pore water profiles and sediment incubations revealed benthic early diagenesis as well as sediment–water exchange of dissolved nutrients and oxygen, while tidal sampling of estuarine and mangrove water identified source and sink functions of the entire mangrove forest. Fluxes of oxygen during incubations were always directed into the sediment, indicating heterotrophy of the system. There was a net uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly caused by nitrate influx, while ammonium and nitrite showed variable flux direction. Despite high pore water concentrations, phosphate and silica showed net uptake. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon were generally low except for high efflux in the dark following a storm event. Due to the combination of small forest area and strong anthropogenic nutrient input, the net sink function for dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus provides no significant buffer against the eutrophication of coastal waters.

  3. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  4. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  5. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  6. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  7. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  8. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  9. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Anthropogenic Radionuglides in Marine Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Elis

    The polar regions are important for the understanding of long range water and atmospheric transport of anthropogenic substances. Investigations show that atmospheric transport of anthropogenic radionuclides is the most important route of transport to the Antarctic while water transport plays a greater role for the Arctic. Fallout from nuclear detonation tests is the major source in the Antarctic while in the Arctic other sources, especially European reprocessing facilities, dominate for conservatively behaving rdionuclides such as 137Cs . The flux of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the Antarctic is about 1/10 of that for the Arctic and the resulting concentrations in surface sea-water show the same ratio for the two areas. In the Antarctic concentration factors for 137Cs are higher than in the Arctic for similar species

  11. Heavy metals anthropogenic pollutants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    Several heavy metals from anthropogenic sources are emitted in the atmosphere damaging the air quality and the human health, besides they accumulate on the soil and lately are transmitted into the human food chain. Therefore at international level there is a concern to reduce them. Austrian heavy metals emissions (cadmium, mercury and lead) during 1990-2002 are given including an analysis of causes and sources. Lead is the main pollutant and the main sector responsible is the industry. 5 figs. (nevyjel)

  12. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R. Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (hout) and inflow (hin). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to e...

  13. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  14. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  15. Simulated anthropogenic CO2 storage and acidification of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Palmiéri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Constraints on the Mediterranean Sea's storage of anthropogenic CO2 are limited, coming only from data-based approaches that disagree by more than a factor of two. Here we simulate this marginal sea's anthropogenic carbon storage by applying a perturbation approach in a high-resolution regional model. Our model simulates that, between 1800 and 2001, basin-wide CO2 storage by the Mediterranean Sea has increased by 1.0 Pg C, a lower limit based on the model's weak deep-water ventilation, as revealed by evaluation with CFC-12. Furthermore, by testing a data-based approach (transit time distribution in our model, comparing simulated anthropogenic CO2 to values computed from simulated CFC-12 and physical variables, we conclude that the associated basin-wide storage of 1.7 Pg, published previously, must be an upper bound. Out of the total simulated storage of 1.0 Pg C, 75% comes from the air–sea flux into the Mediterranean Sea and 25% comes from net transport from the Atlantic across the Strait of Gibraltar. Sensitivity tests indicate that the Mediterranean Sea's higher total alkalinity, relative to the global-ocean mean, enhances the Mediterranean's total inventory of anthropogenic carbon by 10%. Yet the corresponding average anthropogenic change in surface pH does not differ significantly from the global-ocean average, despite higher total alkalinity. In Mediterranean deep waters, the pH change is estimated to be between −0.005 and −0.06 pH units.

  16. Anthropogenic features and hillslope processes interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Topography emerges as a result of natural driving forces, but some human activities (such as mining, agricultural practices and the construction of road networks) directly or indirectly move large quantities of soil, which leave clear topographic signatures embedded on the Earth's morphology. These signatures can cause drastic changes to the geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes (Tarolli and Sofia, 2016). To this point, the present research investigates few case studies highlighting the influences of anthropogenic topographic signatures on hillslope processes, and it shows the effectiveness of High-Resolution Topography (HRT) derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, satellite, structure from motion photogrammetry), to better understand this interaction. The first example is related to agricultural terraces. In recent times, terraced areas acquired a new relevance to modern concerns about erosion and land instability, being the agricultural land mostly threatened by abandonment or intensification and specialization of agriculture, resulting in more landslide-prone bench terraces, or heavy land levelling with increased erosion. The second case study discusses about the role of agricultural and forest roads on surface erosion and landslides. The third case study investigates geomorphic processes in an open pit mine. In all case studies, HRT served as the basis for the development of new methodologies able to recognize and analyze changes on Earth surface processes along hillslopes. The results show how anthropogenic elements have crucial effects on sediment production and sediment delivery, also influencing the landscape connectivity. The availability of HRT can improve our ability to actually model anthropogenic morphologies, quantify them, and analyse the links between anthropogenic elements and geomorphic processes. The results presented here, and the creation and dissemination of

  17. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  18. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  19. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  20. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  1. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  2. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  3. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  4. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  5. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  6. Past and Future of the Anthropogenic Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    Human populations and their use of land have now transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes). As anthromes have emerged as the dominant global forms of ecological pattern and process, human interactions with terrestrial ecosystems have become a key earth system process, determining the structure and functioning of the biosphere. This presentation explores Ester Boserup’s land use intensification theories as models for understanding the emergence and dynamics of anthromes and their ecological processes, including their biogeochemistry and community structure, from the mostly wild biosphere of the Holocene to the primarily anthropogenic biosphere of the present and future. Existing global models and data for human population growth and land use over the Holocene differ in their portrayal of the global transition to a mostly anthropogenic biosphere. Yet there is little doubt that human populations have continued to grow over the long term and that anthromes have been increasingly important global ecological systems for millennia. This is conclusive evidence that human interactions with ecosystems can be sustained over the long-term, albeit under conditions that may no longer be realizable by either Earth or human systems. The classic Malthusian paradigm, in which human population growth outstrips natural resources leading to population collapse is unsupported by historical observations at global scale. Boserupian intensification is the better model, providing a robust theoretical foundation in which socio-ecological systems evolve as human populations increase, towards increasingly efficient use of limiting natural resources and enhanced production of anthropogenic ecological services such as food. This is not a story of technical advance, but rather of the forced adoption of ever more energy-intensive technical solutions in support of ever increasing population demands. And it does explain historical changes in the biosphere

  7. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  8. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-01-01

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes

  9. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-10-10

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (h out ) and inflow (h in ). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to evaluate the current aquifer regime. We subsequently present two scenarios of changes in human water withdrawals and return flow to the system (individually and combined). Results show that approximately one-third of the selected aquifers in the USA, and half of the selected aquifers in Iran are dominated by human activities, while the selected aquifers in Germany are natural flow-dominated. The scenario analysis results also show that reduced human withdrawals could help with regime change in some aquifers. For instance, in two of the selected USA aquifers, a decrease in anthropogenic influences by ~20% may change the condition of depleted regime to natural flow-dominated regime. We specifically highlight a trending threat to the sustainability of groundwater in northwest Iran and California, and the need for more careful assessment and monitoring practices as well as strict regulations to mitigate the negative impacts of groundwater overexploitation.

  10. Evaluation of anthropogenic urban soils. Final report; Bewertung anthropogener Stadtboeden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, H.P.; Schleuss, U. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The research project `Evaluation of Anthropogenic Urban Soils` was subsidized by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology and adviced by the working group `Stadtboeden` of the German Society of Soil Science. It was realized as a cooperation between the universities of Berlin (TU), Halle-Wittenberg, Hohenheim, Kiel and Rostock and had three objectives: - to characterize soils developed from anthropogenic substratums (`urban soils`), - to figure out distribution patterns of such soils and - to verify whether urban soils could be evaluated according to their filtering and habitat function in the same way as soils developed from natural parent material. Evaluation methods based on easily obtainable field data had to be adapted to `urban soils` respectively developed anew. For that reason some typical soils of anthropogenic lithogenesis had to be examined between 1993 and 1996 both on their importance as habitats for plants and soil organisms and on their filtering, buffering and transforming capacities for organic and inorganic pollutants. Accordingly representative `urban soils` were gathered in the towns of Berlin, Eckernfoerde, Essen, Halle, Kiel, Rostock and Stuttgart; these soils had developed from technogenic substratums (brick and mortar debris, municipal waste, ashes, slag, sludge) and redeposited alkaline resp. acidic natural substratums (mud, coal mine and coking plant deposits). Some of the soils were influenced by ground water, and all soils developed from the same kind of parent material belonged to different stages of development. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Ziele des vom BMBF gefoerderten und vom Arbeitskreis Stadtboeden der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft beratenen Verbundprojektes `Bewertung anthropogener Stadtboeden` waren die Charakterisierung von Boeden anthropogener Substrate, die exemplarische Ermittlung des Verteilungsmusters derartiger Boeden und die Pruefung, inwieweit sie sich aehnlich den Boeden natuerlicher

  11. Net atmospheric mercury deposition to Svalbard: Estimates from lacustrine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevnick, Paul E.; Yang, Handong; Lamborg, Carl H.; Rose, Neil L.

    2012-11-01

    In this study we used lake sediments, which faithfully record Hg inputs, to derive estimates of net atmospheric Hg deposition to Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic. With the exception of one site affected by local pollution, the study lakes show twofold to fivefold increases in sedimentary Hg accumulation since 1850, likely due to long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of anthropogenic Hg. Sedimentary Hg accumulation in these lakes is a linear function of the ratio of catchment area to lake area, and we used this relationship to model net atmospheric Hg flux: preindustrial and modern estimates are 2.5 ± 3.3 μg m-2 y-1 and 7.0 ± 3.0 μg m-2 y-1, respectively. The modern estimate, by comparison with data for Hg wet deposition, indicates that atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) or other dry deposition processes contribute approximately half (range 0-70%) of the net flux. Hg from AMDEs may be moving in significant quantities into aquatic ecosystems, where it is a concern because of contamination of aquatic food webs.

  12. Who decides who has won the bet? Total and Anthropogenic Warming Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K.; Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Schmidt, A.; Frame, D. J.; Forster, P.; Matthews, D.

    2016-12-01

    An extension of the idea of betting markets as a means of revealing opinions about future climate are climate policies indexed to geophysical indicators: for example, to ensure net zero global carbon dioxide emissions by the time anthropogenic warming reaches 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial, given about 1 degree of warming already, emissions must fall, on average, by 20% of their current value for every tenth of a degree of anthropogenic warming from now on. In principle, policies conditioned on some measure of attributable warming are robust to uncertainty in the global climate response: the risk of a higher or lower response than expected is borne by those affected by climate change mitigation policy rather than those affected by climate change impacts, as is the case with emission targets for specific years based on "current understanding" of the response. To implement any indexed policy, or to agree payout terms for any bet on future climate, requires consensus on the definition of the index: how is it calculated, and who is responsible for releasing it? The global mean surface temperature of the current decade relative to pre-industrial may vary by 0.1 degree or more depending on precisely what is measured, what is defined as pre-industrial, and the treatment of regions with sparse data coverage in earlier years. Indices defined using different conventions, however, are all expected to evolve very similarly over the coming decades, so agreeing on a conservative, traceable index such as HadCRUT is more important than debating the "true" global temperature. A more important question is whether indexed policies and betting markets should focus on total warming, including natural and anthropogenic drivers and internal variability, or an Anthropogenic Warming Index (AWI) representing an unbiased estimate of warming attributable to human influence to date. We propose a simple AWI based solely on observed temperatures and global natural and anthropogenic forcing

  13. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  14. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  15. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  16. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  17. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Sokratov; Yu. G. Seliverstov; A. L. Shnyparkov; K. P. Koltermann

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoida...

  18. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  19. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1°×1° latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg emissions and its three main chemical species: elemental gaseous Hg, divalent gaseous Hg, and particle-associated Hg are presented. The main emissions occur in southeast Asia (particularly in China), South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Eastern United States. These are the regions where coal combustion is the main source of electricity and heat production. Waste incineration adds to these emissions in the Eastern United States. Emissions of total Hg and its three species are quite similar in terms of their (global) spatial distributions. They reflect the worldwide distribution of coal consumption in large power plants, industrial burners, and small combustion units, such as residential and commercial furnaces.

  20. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  1. Modeling Fallout of Anthropogenic I-129

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Edvard; Aldahan, Als; Possnert, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 1291, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era at the early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 1291 concentrations in sediment......, a numerical model approach was used taking into account the emission rates/estimated fallout, transport pathways, and the sediment system. The model outcomes suggest a relatively dominating marine source of 1291 to north Europe compared to direct gaseous releases. A transfer rate of 1291 from sea...... to atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y(-1)....

  2. Exploring Multiple Constraints of Anthropogenic Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, A. F., Jr.; Tang, W.; Silva, S. J.; Raman, A.

    2017-12-01

    It is imperative that we provide more accurate and consistent analysis of anthropogenic pollution emissions at scales that is relevant to air quality, energy, and environmental policy. Here, we present three proof-of-concept studies that explore observational constraints from ground, aircraft, and satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric composition on bulk characteristics of anthropogenic combustion in megacities and fire regions. We focus on jointly analyzing co-emitted combustion products such as CO2, NO2, CO, SO2, and aerosols from GOSAT, OCO-2, OMI, MOPITT, and MODIS retrievals, in conjunction with USEPA AQS and NASA field campaigns. Each of these constituents exhibit distinct atmospheric signatures that depend on fuel type, combustion technology, process, practices and regulatory policies. Our results show that distinguishable patterns and relationships between the increases in concentrations across the megacity (or enhancements) due to emissions of these constituents enable us to: a) identify trends in combustion activity and efficiency, and b) reconcile discrepancies between state- to country-based emission inventories and modeled concentrations of these constituents. For example, the trends in enhancement ratios of these species reveal combustion emission pathways for China and United States that are not captured by current emission inventories and chemical reanalysis. Analysis of their joint distributions has considerable potential utility in current and future integrated constituent data assimilation and inverse modeling activities for monitoring, verifying, and reporting emissions, particularly for regions with few observations and limited information on local combustion processes. This work also motivates the need for continuous and preferably collocated satellite measurements of atmospheric composition, including CH4 and CO2, and studies related to improving the applicability and integration of these observations with ground- and aircraft- based

  3. Anthropogenic Carbon Pump in an Urbanized Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Yoon, T. K.; Jin, H.; Begum, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of estuaries as a carbon source has been increasingly recognized over the recent decades. However, constraining sources of CO2 evasion from urbanized estuaries remains incomplete, particularly in densely populated river systems receiving high loads of organic carbon from anthropogenic sources. To account for major factors regulating carbon fluxes the tidal reach of the Han River estuary along the metropolitan Seoul, characterization of organic carbon in the main stem and major urban tributaries were combined with continuous, submersible sensor measurements of pCO2 at a mid-channel location over a year and continuous underway measurements using a submersible sensor and two equilibrator sytems across the estuarine section receiving urban streams. Single-site continuous measurements exhibited large seasonal and diurnal variations in pCO2, ranging from sub-ambient air levels to exceptionally high values approaching 10,000 ppm. Diurnal variations of pCO2 were pronounced in summer and had an inverse relationship with dissolved oxygen, pointing to a potential role of day-time algal consumption of CO2. Cruise measurements displayed sharp pCO2 pulses along the confluences of urban streams as compared with relatively low values along the upper estuary receiving low-CO2 outflows from upstream dams. Large downstream increases in pCO2, concurrent with increases in DOC concentrations and fluorescence intensities indicative of microbially processed organic components, imply a translocation and subsequent dilution of CO2 carried by urban streams and/or fast transformations of labile C during transit along downstream reaches. The unique combination of spatial and temporal continuous measurements of pCO2 provide insights on estuarine CO2 pulses that might have resulted from the interplay between high loads of CO2 and organic C of anthropogenic origin and their priming effects on estuarine microbial processing of terrigenous and algal organic matter.

  4. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release as much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  5. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W; Safford, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.

  6. Estimated anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the land surface of the conterminous United States--1992, 1997, and 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to each county in the conterminous United States and to the watersheds of 495 surface-water sites studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program were quantified for the years 1992, 1997, and 2002. Estimates of inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus from biological fixation by crops (for nitrogen only), human consumption, crop production for human consumption, animal production for human consumption, animal consumption, and crop production for animal consumption for each county are provided in a tabular dataset. These county-level estimates were allocated to the watersheds of the surface-water sites to estimate watershed-level inputs from the same sources; these estimates also are provided in a tabular dataset, together with calculated estimates of net import of food and net import of feed and previously published estimates of inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, and recoverable manure. The previously published inputs are provided for each watershed so that final estimates of total anthropogenic nutrient inputs could be calculated. Estimates of total anthropogenic inputs are presented together with previously published estimates of riverine loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus for reference.

  7. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  8. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  9. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  10. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  11. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  12. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  13. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  14. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  15. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  16. Top-down model estimates, bottom-up inventories, and future projections of global natural and anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Kanter, D.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most abundantly emitted greenhouse gas and the largest remaining emitted ozone depleting substance. It is a product of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in soils, sediments and water bodies. Humans began to disrupt the N cycle in the preindustrial era as they expanded agricultural land, used fire for land clearing and management, and cultivated leguminous crops that carry out biological N fixation. This disruption accelerated after the industrial revolution, especially as the use of synthetic N fertilizers became common after 1950. Here we present findings from a new United Nations Environment Programme report, in which we constrain estimates of the anthropogenic and natural emissions of N2O and consider scenarios for future emissions. Inventory-based estimates of natural emissions from terrestrial, marine and atmospheric sources range from 10 to 12 Tg N2O-N/yr. Similar values can be derived for global N2O emissions that were predominantly natural before the industrial revolution. While there was inter-decadal variability, there was little or no consistent trend in atmospheric N2O concentrations between 1730 and 1850, allowing us to assume near steady state. Assuming an atmospheric lifetime of 120 years, the 'top-down' estimate of pre-industrial emissions of 11 Tg N2O-N/yr is consistent with the bottom-up inventories for natural emissions, although the former includes some modest pre-industrial anthropogenic effects (probably business-as-usual scenarios over the period 2013-2050 is ~102 Tg N2O-N; equivalent to ~48 Gt CO2e or ~2730 kt ozone depleting potential. The impact of growing demand for biofuels is highly uncertain, ranging from trivial to the most significant N2O source to date, depending on the types of plants, their nutrient management, the amount of land used for their cultivation, and the fates of their waste products.

  17. .net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  18. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  19. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  20. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  1. Coral reefs will transition to net dissolving before end of century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Bradley D.; Cyronak, Tyler; Drupp, Patrick; De Carlo, Eric Heinen; Sachs, Julian P.; Andersson, Andreas J.

    2018-02-01

    Ocean acidification refers to the lowering of the ocean’s pH due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. Coral reef calcification is expected to decrease as the oceans become more acidic. Dissolving calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sands could greatly exacerbate reef loss associated with reduced calcification but is presently poorly constrained. Here we show that CaCO3 dissolution in reef sediments across five globally distributed sites is negatively correlated with the aragonite saturation state (Ωar) of overlying seawater and that CaCO3 sediment dissolution is 10-fold more sensitive to ocean acidification than coral calcification. Consequently, reef sediments globally will transition from net precipitation to net dissolution when seawater Ωar reaches 2.92 ± 0.16 (expected circa 2050 CE). Notably, some reefs are already experiencing net sediment dissolution.

  2. Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... of Aba River, southeast Nigeria was studied in four stations from November 2014 to August 2015 to identify the major anthropogenic activities and their impact on the water quality.

  3. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruíz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of both anthropogenic and natural inorganic carbon between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea through Strait of Gibraltar was studied for a period of two years under the frame of the CARBOOCEAN project. A comprehensive sampling program was conducted, which was design to collect samples at eight fixed stations located in the Strait in successive cruises periodically distributed through the year in order to ensure a good spatial and temporal coverage. As a result of this monitoring, a time series namely GIFT (GIbraltar Fixed Time series has been established, allowing the generation of an extensive data set of the carbon system parameters in the area. Data acquired during the development of nine campaigns were analyzed in this work. Total inorganic carbon concentration (CT was calculated from alkalinity-pHT pairs and appropriate thermodynamic relationships, with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT being also computed using two methods, the ΔC* and the TrOCA approach. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange through the Strait and using a value of −0.85 Sv for the average transport of the outflowing Mediterranean water recorded in situ during the considered period, a net export of inorganic carbon from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic was obtained, which amounted to 25±0.6 Tg C yr−1. A net alkalinity output of 16±0.6 Tg C yr−1 was also observed to occur through the Strait. In contrast, the Atlantic water was found to contain a higher concentration of anthropogenic carbon than the Mediterranean water, resulting in a net flux of CANT towards the Mediterranean basin of 4.20±0.04 Tg C yr−1 by using the ΔC* method, which constituted the most adequate approach for this environment. A carbon balance in the Mediterranean was assessed and fluxes through the Strait are discussed in relation to the highly diverse estimates available in the literature for the area and the different approaches

  4. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  5. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  6. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  7. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  8. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  9. Recent changes in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronache, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    Significant anthropogenic perturbations of the nitrogen cycle are the result of rapid population growth, with mounting need for food and energy production. The increase of reactive nitrogen compounds (such as NOx, HNO3, NH3, and N2O) has a significant impact on human health, environment, and climate. NOx emissions contribute to O3 chemistry, aerosol formation and acidic precipitation. Ammonia is a notable atmospheric pollutant that may deteriorate ecosystems and contribute to respiratory problems. It reacts with acidic gases to form aerosols or is deposited back to ecosystems. The application of fertilizers accounts for most of the N2O production, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. We analyze the change of some reactive nitrogen compounds based on observations, in eastern United States. Results show that the control of NOx and SO2 emissions over the last decades caused a significant decrease of acidic deposition. The nitrate deposition is highest in eastern US, while the ammonium ion concentration is highest in central US regions. Overall, the inorganic nitrogen wet deposition from nitrate and ammonium is enhanced in central, and eastern US. Research shows that sensitive ecosystems in northeastern regions exhibit a slow recovery from the accumulated effects of acidic deposition. Given the growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, we discuss possible pathways to reduce the impact of excess reactive nitrogen on the environment.

  10. Anthropogenic warming exacerbates European soil moisture droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.; Wanders, N.; Rakovec, O.; Pan, M.; Zink, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Marx, A.

    2018-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is anticipated to increase soil moisture drought in the future. However, projections are accompanied by large uncertainty due to varying estimates of future warming. Here, using an ensemble of hydrological and land-surface models, forced with bias-corrected downscaled general circulation model output, we estimate the impacts of 1-3 K global mean temperature increases on soil moisture droughts in Europe. Compared to the 1.5 K Paris target, an increase of 3 K—which represents current projected temperature change—is found to increase drought area by 40% (±24%), affecting up to 42% (±22%) more of the population. Furthermore, an event similar to the 2003 drought is shown to become twice as frequent; thus, due to their increased occurrence, events of this magnitude will no longer be classified as extreme. In the absence of effective mitigation, Europe will therefore face unprecedented increases in soil moisture drought, presenting new challenges for adaptation across the continent.

  11. Whole Atmosphere Simulation of Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Stanley C.; Liu, Han-Li; Marsh, Daniel R.; McInerney, Joseph M.; Qian, Liying; Vitt, Francis M.

    2018-02-01

    We simulated anthropogenic global change through the entire atmosphere, including the thermosphere and ionosphere, using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model-eXtended. The basic result was that even as the lower atmosphere gradually warms, the upper atmosphere rapidly cools. The simulations employed constant low solar activity conditions, to remove the effects of variable solar and geomagnetic activity. Global mean annual mean temperature increased at a rate of +0.2 K/decade at the surface and +0.4 K/decade in the upper troposphere but decreased by about -1 K/decade in the stratosphere-mesosphere and -2.8 K/decade in the thermosphere. Near the mesopause, temperature decreases were small compared to the interannual variation, so trends in that region are uncertain. Results were similar to previous modeling confined to specific atmospheric levels and compared favorably with available measurements. These simulations demonstrate the ability of a single comprehensive numerical model to characterize global change throughout the atmosphere.

  12. Anthropogenic mercury deposition to arctic lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.H. [Westchester University, Westchester, PA (United States). Dept. of Health

    1998-01-01

    The history of atmospheric mercury inputs to remote arctic regions can be measured in lake sediment cores using lead-210 chronology. In the investigation, total mercury deposition is measured in sediments from Imitavik and Annak Lakes on the Belcher Islands in southeastern Hudson Bay, an area in the southern Canadian Arctic with no history of local industrial or agricultural sources of contamination. Both lakes received background and atmospheric inputs of mercury while Annak also received mercury from raw domestic sewage from the Hamlet of Sanikiluaq, a growing Inuit community of about 550 established in the late 1960s. Results from Imitavik show that anthropogenic mercury inputs, apparently transported through the atmosphere, began to appear in the mid-eighteenth century, and continued to the 1990s. Annak had a similar mercury history until the late 1960s when disposal of domestic sewage led to increased sediment and contaminant accumulation. The high input of mercury to Annak confirms that Sanikiluaq residents are exposed to mercury through native food sources. 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Natural versus anthropogenic subsidence of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luigi; Teatini, Pietro; Strozzi, Tazio

    2013-09-26

    We detected land displacements of Venice by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry using ERS and ENVISAT C-band and TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed X-band acquisitions over the periods 1992-2010 and 2008-2011, respectively. By reason of the larger observation period, the C-band sensors was used to quantify the long-term movements, i.e. the subsidence component primarily ascribed to natural processes. The high resolution X-band satellites reveal a high effectiveness to monitor short-time movements as those induced by human activities. Interpolation of the two datasets and removal of the C-band from the X-band map allows discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic components of the subsidence. A certain variability characterizes the natural subsidence (0.9 ± 0.7 mm/yr), mainly because of the heterogeneous nature and age of the lagoon subsoil. The 2008 displacements show that man interventions are responsible for movements ranging from -10 to 2 mm/yr. These displacements are generally local and distributed along the margins of the city islands.

  14. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  15. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  16. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  17. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  18. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  19. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  20. Satellite Earth observation data to identify climate and anthropogenic pressures on Bucharest periurban forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan [National Institute of R& D for Optoelectronics, MG5 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Romania (Romania); Dida, Adrian [University Transylvania of Brasov, Brasov (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    Satellite Earth observation data in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths represent a useful source of information for forest systems monitoring through derived biogeophysical parameters (vegetation index, leaf area index, canopy cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll content, net primary production, canopy water stress, etc.). Use of satellite remote sensing data to assess forest spatio-temporal changes due to climatic or anthropogenic stressors is an excellent example of the value of multispectral and multitemporal observations. Fusion technique was applied to time-series multispectral and multitemporal satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua, Landsat ETM and IKONOS satellite data) for periurban forest areas Cernica-Branesti, placed in the neighboring of Bucharest town, Romania, over 2002-2014 period.

  1. Satellite Earth observation data to identify climate and anthropogenic pressures on Bucharest periurban forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Dida, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Satellite Earth observation data in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths represent a useful source of information for forest systems monitoring through derived biogeophysical parameters (vegetation index, leaf area index, canopy cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll content, net primary production, canopy water stress, etc.). Use of satellite remote sensing data to assess forest spatio-temporal changes due to climatic or anthropogenic stressors is an excellent example of the value of multispectral and multitemporal observations. Fusion technique was applied to time-series multispectral and multitemporal satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua, Landsat ETM and IKONOS satellite data) for periurban forest areas Cernica-Branesti, placed in the neighboring of Bucharest town, Romania, over 2002-2014 period.

  2. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu, E-mail: f-akamt55@pwri.go.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Toda, Hideshige [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider {delta}{sup 15}N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: > {delta}{sup 15}N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. > {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. > The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  3. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Toda, Hideshige

    2011-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ 15 N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ 15 N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ 15 N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ 15 N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ 15 N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  4. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  5. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  6. Anthropogenic Pu distribution in Tropical East Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sumi, Takahiro; Takimoto, Kiyotaka; Nagaoka, Mika; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the anthropogenic radionuclides 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu in the Tropical East Pacific in 2003 was studied from the viewpoint of material migration. We measured the contents of Pu isotopes in seawater and in sediment from the sea bottom. The distributions of Pu isotopes, together with those of coexisting nitrate and phosphate species and dissolved oxygen, are discussed in relation to the potential temperature and potential density (sigma-θ). The Pu contents in sediment samples were compared with those in the seawater. Horizontal migration across the Equator from north to south was investigated at depths down to ∼ 800 m in the eastern Pacific. The Pu distribution at 0-400 m correlated well with the distribution of potential temperature. Maximum Pu levels were observed in the subsurface layer at 600-800 m, corresponding to the depth where sigma-θ ∼ 27.0. It is suggested that the Pu distribution depends on the structure of the water mass and the particular temperature and salinity. The water column/sediment column inventory ratio and the vertical distribution of Pu may reflect the efficiency of scavenging in the relevant water areas. Research Highlights: → Geographical distributions of Pu isotopes were investigated from viewpoint of material migration. → Horizontal migration from north to south was found at depths down to ∼800 m in the eastern Pacific. → Pu distribution at 0-400 m was correlated with water temperature. → The distribution at 600-800 m correlated with water mass structure. → Pu in seawater and sediment gave information about efficiency of scavenging.

  7. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paasonen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa, coke production (Russia and China, and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol–cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response

  8. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  9. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  10. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  11. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  12. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  13. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  14. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  15. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  16. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  17. Anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans estimated using transit time distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, D.W.; McNeil, B.I.

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of anthropogenic carbon (Cant) in the oceans is estimated using the transit time distribution (TTD) method applied to global measurements of chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC12). Unlike most other inference methods, the TTD method does not assume a single ventilation time and avoids the large uncertainty incurred by attempts to correct for the large natural carbon background in dissolved inorganic carbon measurements. The highest concentrations and deepest penetration of anthropogenic carbon are found in the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The estimated total inventory in 1994 is 134 Pg-C. To evaluate uncertainties the TTD method is applied to output from an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) and compared the results to the directly simulated Cant. Outside of the Southern Ocean the predicted Cant closely matches the directly simulated distribution, but in the Southern Ocean the TTD concentrations are biased high due to the assumption of 'constant disequilibrium'. The net result is a TTD overestimate of the global inventory by about 20%. Accounting for this bias and other centred uncertainties, an inventory range of 94-121 Pg-C is obtained. This agrees with the inventory of Sabine et al., who applied the DeltaC* method to the same data. There are, however, significant differences in the spatial distributions: The TTD estimates are smaller than DeltaC* in the upper ocean and larger at depth, consistent with biases expected in DeltaC* given its assumption of a single parcel ventilation time

  18. The deforestation story: testing for anthropogenic origins of Africa's flammable grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, William; Zaloumis, Nicholas P

    2016-06-05

    Africa has the most extensive C4 grassy biomes of any continent. They are highly flammable accounting for greater than 70% of the world's burnt area. Much of Africa's savannas and grasslands occur in climates warm enough and wet enough to support closed forests. The combination of open grassy systems and the frequent fires they support have long been interpreted as anthropogenic artefacts caused by humans igniting frequent fires. True grasslands, it was believed, would be restricted to climates too dry or too cold to support closed woody vegetation. The idea that higher-rainfall savannas are anthropogenic and that fires are of human origin has led to initiatives to 'reforest' Africa's open grassy systems paid for by carbon credits under the assumption that the net effect of converting these system to forests would sequester carbon, reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate global warming. This paper reviews evidence for the antiquity of African grassy ecosystems and for the fires that they sustain. Africa's grassy biomes and the fires that maintain them are ancient and there is no support for the idea that humans caused large-scale deforestation. Indicators of old-growth grasslands are described. These can help distinguish secondary grasslands suitable for reforestation from ancient grasslands that should not be afforested.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Are seagrass beds indicators of anthropogenic nutrient stress in the rocky intertidal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, Susanna E.; Mahoney, Brenna; Glanz, Jess S.; Hughes, Brent B.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that anthropogenic nutrient inputs harm estuarine seagrasses, but the influence of nutrients in rocky intertidal ecosystems is less clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of anthropogenic nutrient loading on Phyllospadix spp., a rocky intertidal seagrass, at local and regional scales. At sites along California, Washington, and Oregon, we demonstrated a significant, negative correlation of urban development and Phyllospadix bed thickness. These results were echoed locally along an urban gradient on the central California coast, where Phyllospadix shoot δ 15 N was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness, and experimentally, where nutrient additions in mesocosms reduced Phyllospadix shoot formation and increased epiphytic cover on Phyllospadix shoots. These findings provide evidence that coastal development can threaten rocky intertidal seagrasses through increased epiphytism. Considering that seagrasses provide vital ecosystem services, mitigating eutrophication and other factors associated with development in the rocky intertidal coastal zone should be a management priority. - Highlights: • The effect of nutrient loading on rocky intertidal seagrasses is not well studied. • Regionally, development was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness. • Locally, shoot δ 15 N was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness. • Mesocosms with added nutrients had a net loss in shoots and increased epiphytes. • Nutrient loading may have a negative effect on intertidal seagrass bed health.

  20. Drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions in anthropogenic neotropical landscapes at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Jacqueline; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Amador-Hernández, Sergio; Oyama, Ken; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel

    2018-05-21

    The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat-parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest. In general, the variation in fly communities largely mirrored the variation in bat communities as a result of the high level of specialization characterizing host-bat fly interaction networks. Nevertheless, we observed that: (1) bats roosting dynamics can shape bat-streblid interactions, modulating parasite prevalence and the intensity of infestation; (2) a degraded matrix could favor crowding and consequently the exchange of ectoparasites among bat species, lessening the level of specialization of the interaction networks and promoting novel interactions; and (3) bat-fly interaction can also be shaped by the dilution effect, as a decrease in bat diversity could be associated with a potential increase in the dissemination and prevalence of streblids.

  1. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoidable changes of the natural environment as the result of a construction and of use of the constructed infrastructure to be account for in corresponding planning of the protection measures.

  2. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    2005-01-01

    At Yucca Mountain, NV, future changes in climatic conditions will probably alter net infiltration, drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile, or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a semiempirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analog meteorological stations, for interglacial(present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region; and (2) corroborate the computed net infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. This study approached calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation effectiveness indices using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate, following a power law relationship between net infiltration and precipitation. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties associated with selecting climate analog sites, using relatively short analog meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and run-on on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenically induced climate changes

  3. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  4. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  5. 443 ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON CORAL REEFS AND THEIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Data collection methodology included household questionnaire survey, key informant interviews, participant .... Anthropogenic Impacts on Coral Reefs and Their Effect on Fishery ................Mbije & ... common along Kilwa coastline, away of large markets ... questionnaire whereas content analysis was used for analyzing ...

  6. Screening of anthropogenic compounds in polluted sediments and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Leer, E.W.B. de; Schuyl, P.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of flash evaporation and pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry as a fast screening procedure for anthropogenic substances In environmental samples is demonstrated by the analysis of polluted soil and sediment samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, haloorganics,

  7. EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

  8. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M D; Werne, J P; Hecky, R E; Johnson, T C; Katsev, S; Reavie, E D

    2017-06-09

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  9. Modeling Agassiz's Desert Tortoise Population Response to Anthropogenic Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojave Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations are exposed to a variety of anthropogenic threats, which vary in nature, severity, and frequency. Tortoise management in conservation areas can be compromised when the relative importance of these threats is not well underst...

  10. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, G; Stone, D

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Impacts of recent regional changes in climate on natural and human systems are documented across the globe, yet studies explicitly linking these observations to anthropogenic forcing of the climate are scarce. Here we provide a systematic assessment of the role of anthropogenic climate change for the range of impacts of regional climate trends reported in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report. We find that almost two-thirds of the impacts...

  12. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    OpenAIRE

    Bunkley, Jessie P.; McClure, Christopher J.W.; Kleist, Nathan J.; Francis, Clinton D.; Barber, Jesse R.

    2015-01-01

    Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband nois...

  13. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  14. Anthropogenic combustion iron as a complex climate forcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hitoshi; Mahowald, Natalie M; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Hamilton, Douglas S; Ohata, Sho; Yoshida, Atsushi; Koike, Makoto; Scanza, Rachel A; Flanner, Mark G

    2018-04-23

    Atmospheric iron affects the global carbon cycle by modulating ocean biogeochemistry through the deposition of soluble iron to the ocean. Iron emitted by anthropogenic (fossil fuel) combustion is a source of soluble iron that is currently considered less important than other soluble iron sources, such as mineral dust and biomass burning. Here we show that the atmospheric burden of anthropogenic combustion iron is 8 times greater than previous estimates by incorporating recent measurements of anthropogenic magnetite into a global aerosol model. This new estimation increases the total deposition flux of soluble iron to southern oceans (30-90 °S) by 52%, with a larger contribution of anthropogenic combustion iron than dust and biomass burning sources. The direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic magnetite is estimated to be 0.021 W m -2 globally and 0.22 W m -2 over East Asia. Our results demonstrate that anthropogenic combustion iron is a larger and more complex climate forcer than previously thought, and therefore plays a key role in the Earth system.

  15. The role of anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction in achieving the Paris Agreement's objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienola, Anca; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; O'Donnell, Declan; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Korhonen, Hannele; Laaksonen, Ari

    2017-04-01

    The Paris agreement reached in December 2015 under the auspices of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims at holding the global temperature increase to well below 2◦C above preindustrial levels and "to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5◦C above preindustrial levels". Limiting warming to any level implies that the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) - the dominant driver of long-term temperatures - that can ever be emitted into the atmosphere is finite. Essentially, this means that global CO2 emissions need to become net zero. CO2 is not the only pollutant causing warming, although it is the most persistent. Short-lived, non-CO2 climate forcers also must also be considered. Whereas much effort has been put into defining a threshold for temperature increase and zero net carbon emissions, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the non-CO2 climate forcers, including not just the non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons etc.) but also the anthropogenic aerosols like black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulfate. This study investigates the possibility of limiting the temperature increase to 1.5◦C by the end of the century under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions simulated with the very simplistic MAGICC climate carbon cycle model as well as with ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA + UVic ESCM. The simulations include two different CO2 scenarios- RCP3PD as control and a CO2 reduction leading to 1.5◦C (which translates into reaching the net zero CO2 emissions by mid 2040s followed by negative emissions by the end of the century); each CO2 scenario includes also two aerosol pollution control cases denoted with CLE (current legislation) and MFR (maximum feasible reduction). The main result of the above scenarios is that the stronger the anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction is, the more significant the temperature increase by 2100 relative to pre

  16. Research and Development in the Anthropogenic Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.; Luthe, T.; Hohenwallne, D.

    2009-04-01

    fauna, modification of local hydrological cycle and modification of local climate and atmospheric pollution. Research in mountains should balance the needs of scientists and stakeholders alike, but this requires re-orientation of mountain research into multi-disciplinary projects next to basic science. Unlike the polar regions (with exceptions like Longyearbyen, Spitzbergen), seasonal population pressure in mountains is intense, causing local problems such as water scarcity. Research in these areas therefore requires close collaboration with stakeholders. Large-scale events such as Winter Olympics that have benefited from the classical mountain cryosphere in the past are now increasingly becoming internationally competitive and independent of the natural cryospheric conditions. New ski areas are developed world-wide in zones that do not offer natural climatological conditions for maintaining ski runs. Sub-zero temperatures are used as a basis for snow-making even in those regions that do not benefit from sufficient natural snow-fall. Large-scale landscape modification results in motorway like ski runs, large snow water reservoirs and extensive housing projects on vulnerable slopes. Due to steep and remote topography, transport is often dominated by cars and increases CO2 emissions intensively at local hot spots. In future, mountain slopes that have been heavily modified for winter tourism, may rapidly become neglected zones due to rapid snowline retreat. As the summer season extends, the modifications to the cryosphere will become more and more evident. Even with positive temperatures and snow-free ground, the vegetation season will not be extensive enough to enable rapid recovery, especially at altitudes above 2000 m a.s.l and north-facing aspects. Several decades of anthropogenic modification may require several centuries of recovery to provide new economical benefits.

  17. Chernozems microbial community under anthropogenic impact (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Sushko, Sofia; Vasenev, Viacheslav

    2017-04-01

    .8 g CO2-C m-2 d-1, respectively, it was on average 2 times higher urban. The Cmic profile pool (1.5 m) in steppe was amounted to 372 g C m-2, and it was essentially higher those in bare fallow and urban (138 and 140 g C m-2, respectively). The BR profile pool (1.5 m) was also decreased along ecosystems row: steppe> fallow>urban, and it was on average 13.0, 8.0 and 5.6 g CO2-C m-2 d-1, respectively. Thus, we found a significant decreasing soil microbial biomass content, its portion in soil Corg, fungi content, and the Cmic and BR profile pools along Chernozems' ecosystems gradient from natural (virgin steppe) to anthropogenically transformed (bare fallow, urban). It might be illustrated some deterioration of soil microbial community functioning under plowing and urbanization. This research was supported by RFBR grants Nos. 15-04-00915 and 16-34-00398

  18. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M; Canadell, Josep G; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R; Wofsy, Steven C

    2016-03-10

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.

  19. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  20. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  1. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  2. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  3. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  4. Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mahowald

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Coupled-carbon-climate simulations are an essential tool for predicting the impact of human activity onto the climate and biogeochemistry. Here we incorporate prognostic desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the CCSM3.1 coupled carbon-climate model and explore the resulting interactions with climate and biogeochemical dynamics through a series of transient anthropogenic simulations (20th and 21st centuries and sensitivity studies. The inclusion of prognostic aerosols into this model has a small net global cooling effect on climate but does not significantly impact the globally averaged carbon cycle; we argue that this is likely to be because the CCSM3.1 model has a small climate feedback onto the carbon cycle. We propose a mechanism for including desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into a simple carbon-climate feedback analysis to explain the results of our and previous studies. Inclusion of aerosols has statistically significant impacts on regional climate and biogeochemistry, in particular through the effects on the ocean nitrogen cycle and primary productivity of altered iron inputs from desert dust deposition.

  5. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  6. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  7. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  8. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  9. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  10. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  11. Discriminating background from anthropogenic lead by isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.K.; O'Brien, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this pilot project was to evaluate the practicality of using natural variations in the isotopic composition of lead to test for the presence of anthropogenic lead in soil, surface water and ground water. Complex chemical reactions in the environment may cause measured lead concentrations to be ambiguous indicators of anthropogenic lead component. The lead isotope tracer technique has the potential to identify both the presence and proportion of anthropogenic lead in the environment. The tested the lead isotope technique at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, on sources of suspected fuel contamination. Although the results are specific to this base, the general technique of using lead isotopes to trace the movement of anthropogenic lead is applicable to other CERCLA sites. The study had four objectives: (1) characterize the natural lead isotope composition of bedrock, stream sediment and soils; (2) characterize the isotopic composition of the contaminant lead derived from fuel; (3) evaluate the sensitivity of the isotopic method to distinguishing between anthropogenic and natural lead in soil and water samples and (4) evaluate the analytical feasibility and accuracy of the method at the Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory at the University of Washington

  12. Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, G.C.; Storch, H. von; Hasselmann, K.; Santer, B.D.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a general fingerprint strategy to detect anthropogenic climate change and present application to near surface temperature trends. An expected time-space-variable pattern of anthropogenic climate change (the 'signal') is identified through application of an appropriate optimally matched space-time filter (the 'fingerprint') to the observations. The signal and the fingerprint are represented in a space with sufficient observed and simulated data. The signal pattern is derived from a model-generated prediction of anthropogenic climate change. Application of the fingerprint filter to the data yields a scalar detection variable. The statistically optimal fingerprint is obtained by weighting the model-predicted pattern towards low-noise directions. A combination of model output and observations is used to estimate the noise characteristics of the detection variable, arising from the natural variability of climate in the absence of external forcing. We test then the null hypothesis that the observed climate change is part of natural climate variability. We conclude that a statistically significant externally induced warming has been observed, with the caveat of a possibly inadequate estimate of the internal climate variability. In order to attribute this warming uniquely to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, more information on the climate's response to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in solar radiation, volcanic or anthropogenic aerosols) and their interaction is needed. (orig./KW)

  13. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  14. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  15. Finding even more anthropogenic indicators in mildly prepared sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    2016-01-01

    be worth the effort to prepare the NPP samples with as mild a preparation method as possible. We have mildly prepared NPP samples from a small forest hollow, Tårup Lund, Denmark. From the recovered NPP assemblages we attempt identifying anthropogenic indicators by comparing to the environmental information......NPPs in anthropogenic soils and archaeological samples are often numerous in types as well as in abundance. Preparing these soil samples with methods based on acid digestion holds the potential of severe bias leaving the NPP assemblages devoid of acid vulnerable NPPs. In many cases it might...... derived from sediment, pollen and macrofossil analyses. The sediment from the forest hollow encompasses environmental information from the last 6000 years, including a period of locally intense pastoral and/or agricultural activity during the Iron Age. Keywords: NPP diversity, forest hollow, anthropogenic...

  16. Environmental and anthropogenic determinants of vegetation distribution across Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Lykke, Anne Mette; Overgaard, Anne Blach

    2011-01-01

    Aim  To assess the influence of natural environmental factors and historic and current anthropogenic processes as determinants of vegetation distributions at a continental scale. Location  Africa. Methods  Boosted regression trees (BRTs) were used to model the distribution of African vegetation...... types, represented by remote-sensing-based land-cover (LC) types, as a function of environmental factors. The contribution of each predictor variable to the best models and the accuracy of all models were assessed. Subsequently, to test for anthropogenic vegetation transformation, the relationship...... between the number of BRT false presences per grid cell and human impact was evaluated using hurdle models. Finally, the relative contributions of environmental, current and historic anthropogenic factors on vegetation distribution were assessed using regression-based variation partitioning. Results...

  17. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Robert K; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L; Stock, James H

    2011-07-19

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects.

  18. Climate Impacts From a Removal of Anthropogenic Aerosol Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Sand, M.; Smith, C. J.; Bauer, S. E.; Forster, P. M.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Osprey, S.; Schleussner, C.-F.

    2018-01-01

    Limiting global warming to 1.5 or 2.0°C requires strong mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Concurrently, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols will decline, due to coemission with GHG, and measures to improve air quality. However, the combined climate effect of GHG and aerosol emissions over the industrial era is poorly constrained. Here we show the climate impacts from removing present-day anthropogenic aerosol emissions and compare them to the impacts from moderate GHG-dominated global warming. Removing aerosols induces a global mean surface heating of 0.5-1.1°C, and precipitation increase of 2.0-4.6%. Extreme weather indices also increase. We find a higher sensitivity of extreme events to aerosol reductions, per degree of surface warming, in particular over the major aerosol emission regions. Under near-term warming, we find that regional climate change will depend strongly on the balance between aerosol and GHG forcing.

  19. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  20. Carbon budget of oligotrophic mires in the Southern Taiga of Western Siberia under anthropogenic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatskaya, Eugenia; Dyukarev, Egor

    2010-05-01

    Role of peatlands in the global greenhouse gases budget is highly relevant. According to present estimates peatlands in undisturbed conditions act as a sink for the atmospheric carbon. Anthropogenic impact on peatlands (melioration, changes in land use, influence of underground water catchments) results in water table lowering, changing in vegetation cover, and degradation of peat deposit. Peatlands could provide a significant positive feedback for climate changes if warming and peatlands drying stimulates bulk soil organic matter decomposition which enhances CO2 release to the atmosphere. Western Siberian peatlands usually represented big bog massifs. Big peatlands have higher stability to external influence. Small peatlands have all signs of big bogs but react on changes in environmental variables more quickly. The present study is devoted to investigation of primary carbon fluxes (CO2 emission and net primary productivity) and carbon balance at oligotrophic bogs in native condition (key area "Bakchar") and under anthropogenic impact (key area "Ob'-Tom'"). The key area "Bakchar" is located between the Iksa and Bakchar rivers (56o58`N 82o36`E) at the Bakcharskoe bog (area 1400 km2). The key area "Ob'-Tom'"is located in the northern part of Ob' and Tom' interfluve (56o21`N 82o31`E). The "Bakchar" key area includes the following ecosystems: pine- shrub-sphagnum community, a similar community with stunted (low) pine trees, and sedge-sphagnum fen. Two small peatlands were studied at Ob' and Tom' interfluve. Kirsanovskoe bog includes pine- shrub-sphagnum community and sedge fen. Timiryazevskoe bog was represented by pine- shrub-sphagnum (TPSS) community and sedge fen. An infrared gas analyzer OPTOGAS 500.4 (OPTEC Corp., St.-Petersburg, Russia) attached to a static opaque plastic been used for carbon dioxide emission measurements. The net primary productivity was measured by clipping method (Golovatskaya and Dyukarev, Plant Soil 2009). Peatlands at "Ob'-Tom'" key area

  1. Isotopic fingerprints of anthropogenic molybdenum in lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W; Gordon, Gwyneth W; Anbar, Ariel D

    2012-10-16

    We measured the molybdenum isotope compositions (δ(98)Mo) of well-dated sediment cores from two lakes in eastern Canada in an effort to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic contributions to these freshwater aquatic systems. Previously, Chappaz et al. (1) ascribed pronounced 20th-century Mo concentration enrichments in these lakes to anthropogenic inputs. δ(98)Mo values in the deeper sediments (reflecting predominantly natural Mo sources) differ dramatically between the two lakes: -0.32 ± 0.17‰ for oxic Lake Tantare and +0.64 ± 0.09‰ for anoxic Lake Vose. Sediment layers previously identified as enriched in anthropogenic Mo, however, reveal significant δ(98)Mo shifts of ± 0.3‰, resulting in isotopically heavier values of +0.05 ± 0.18‰ in Lake Tantare and lighter values of +0.31 ± 0.03‰ in Lake Vose. We argue that anthropogenic Mo modifies the isotopic composition of the recent sediments, and we determine δ(98)Mo(anthropogenic) values of 0.1 ± 0.1‰ (Lake Vose) and 0.2 ± 0.2‰ (Lake Tantare). These calculated inputs are consistent with the δ(98)Mo of molybdenite (MoS(2)) likely delivered to the lakes via smelting of porphyry copper deposits (Lake Vose) or through combustion of coal and oil also containing Mo (Lake Tantare). Our results confirm the utility of Mo isotopes as a promising fingerprint of human impacts and perhaps the specific sources of contamination. Importantly, the magnitudes of the anthropogenic inputs are large enough, relative to the natural Mo cycles in each lake, to have an impact on the microbiological communities.

  2. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2009-01-01

    The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use a delayed response statistical model to attribute the past 1000 years of sea level variability to various natural (volcanic and solar radiative) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcings. We show...... that until 1800 the main drivers of sea level change are volcanic and solar radiative forcings. For the past 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25% of total sea level rise) during the 20th century is attributed to natural forcings, the remaining 14 ± 1...

  3. On Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference and Climate Change Risk (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commits signatory nations (which includes all major nations including the United States) to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at levels short of Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference (“ DAI”) with the climate. To properly define DAI, one must take into account issues that are not only scientific, but, economic, political, and ethical in nature. Defining DAI is furthermore complicated by the inter-generational and regionally-disaggregated nature of the risks associated with climate change. In this talk, I will explore the nature of anthropogenic climate change risks and the notion of DAI.

  4. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  5. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  6. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  7. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  8. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  9. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  10. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  11. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  12. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  13. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  14. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  15. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  16. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net...

  17. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  18. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  19. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  20. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  1. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotty, R.M.; Perry, A.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of net energy from nuclear power plants is dependent on a large number of variables and assumptions. The energy requirements as they relate to reactor type, concentration of uranium in the ore, enrichment tails assays, and possible recycle of uranium and plutonium were examined. Specifically, four reactor types were considered: pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and heavy water reactor (CANDU). The energy requirements of systems employing both conventional (current) ores with uranium concentration of 0.176 percent and Chattanooga Shales with uranium concentration of 0.006 percent were determined. Data were given for no recycle, uranium recycle only, and uranium plus plutonium recycle. Starting with the energy requirements in the mining process and continuing through fuel reprocessing and waste storage, an evaluation of both electrical energy requirements and thermal energy requirements of each process was made. All of the energy, direct and indirect, required by the processing of uranium in order to produce electrical power was obtained by adding the quantities for the individual processes. The energy inputs required for the operation of a nuclear power system for an assumed life of approximately 30 years are tabulated for nine example cases. The input requirements were based on the production of 197,100,000 MWH(e), i.e., the operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant for 30 years with an average plant factor of 0.75. Both electrical requirements and thermal energy requirements are tabulated, and it should be emphasized that both quantities are needed. It was found that the electricity generated far exceeded the energy input requirements for all the cases considered

  2. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  3. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting freshwater lenses in coastal dunes of the Adriatic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Davide; Greggio, Nicolas; Antonellini, Marco; Giambastiani, Beatrice Maria Sole

    2017-08-01

    This study characterizes the near-shore portion of the shallow coastal aquifer included in the Ravenna area (Northern Italy) with special attention to the roles of coastal dunes as freshwater reservoirs and their buffer on groundwater salinity. The paper focuses on the presence and evolution of freshwater lenses below coastal dunes and highlights the existing differences between preserved natural dunes and dunes strongly affected by human intervention. The influence that multiple natural and anthropogenic factors, such as land cover, local drainage network, and beach erosion have on the presence, size and evolution of the freshwater lenses in the aquifer is quantified and discussed. The methodology includes multiple seasonal monitoring and sampling campaigns of physical (water level, salinity, and temperature) and chemical (major cations and anions) groundwater parameters. Results indicate that freshwater lenses, where existing, are limited in thickness (about 1-2 m). Proximity to drainage ditches as well as limited dune elevation and size do not allow the formation and permanent storage of large freshwater lenses in the aquifer below the dunes. The pine forest land cover, that replaced the typical bush or sand cover, intensifies evapotranspiration reducing net infiltration and freshwater storage. The cation species distribution in the water shows that a freshening process is ongoing in preserved natural sites with stable or advancing beaches, whereas a salinization process is ongoing in anthropogenic-impacted areas with strongly-fragmented dune systems. Currently, the thin freshwater lenses in the shallow Ravenna coastal aquifer are limited in space and have no relevance for irrigation or any other human activity. The dune-beach system, however, is the recharge zone of the coastal aquifer and its protection is important to reduce water and soil salinization, which in turn control the health of the whole coastal ecosystem.

  4. Testing For The Linearity of Responses To Multiple Anthropogenic Climate Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, C. E.; Stone, P. H.; Sokolov, A. P.

    To test whether climate forcings are additive, we compare climate model simulations in which anthropogenic forcings are applied individually and in combination. Tests are performed with different values for climate system properties (climate sensitivity and rate of heat uptake by the deep ocean) as well as for different strengths of the net aerosol forcing, thereby testing for the dependence of linearity on these properties. The MIT 2D Land-Ocean Climate Model used in this study consists of a zonally aver- aged statistical-dynamical atmospheric model coupled to a mixed-layer Q-flux ocean model, with heat anomalies diffused into the deep ocean. Following our previous stud- ies, the anthropogenic forcings are the changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases (1860-1995), sulfate aerosol (1860-1995), and stratospheric and tropospheric ozone (1979-1995). The sulfate aerosol forcing is applied as a surface albedo change. For an aerosol forcing of -1.0 W/m2 and an effective ocean diffusitivity of 2.5 cm2/s, the nonlinearity of the response of global-mean surface temperatures to the combined forcing shows a strong dependence on climate sensitivity. The fractional change in decadal averages ([(TG + TS + TO) - TGSO]/TGSO) for the 1986-1995 period compared to pre-industrial times are 0.43, 0.90, and 1.08 with climate sensitiv- ities of 3.0, 4.5, and 6.2 C, respectively. The values of TGSO for these three cases o are 0.52, 0.62, and 0.76 C. The dependence of linearity on climate system properties, o the role of climate system feedbacks, and the implications for the detection of climate system's response to individual forcings will be presented. Details of the model and forcings can be found at http://web.mit.edu/globalchange/www/.

  5. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  6. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  7. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  8. Anthropogenic desertification by high-albedo pollution Observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Rosenberg, N. W.; Rosenberg, E.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 MSS albedo data of Western Negev, Sinai and the Gaza strip are presented. A sharp contrast in albedo exists across the Negev-Sinai and Negev-Gaza strip borders. Anthropogenic desertification has occurred on the Arab side due to overgrazing and Bedouin agriculture, whereas natural vegetation grows much more abundantly on the Israeli side.

  9. Anthropogenic signatures of lead in the Northeast Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusiecka, D.; Gledhill, M.; Milne, A.; Achterberg, E.P.; Annett, A.L.; Atkinson, S.; Birchill, A.; Karstensen, J.; Lohan, M.; Mariez, C.; Middag, R.; Rolison, J.M.; Tanhua, T.; Ussher, S.; Connelly, D.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in enhanced lead (Pb) emissions to the environment over the past century, mainly through the combustion of leaded gasoline. Here we present the first combined dissolved (DPb), labile (LpPb), and particulate (PPb) Pb data set from the Northeast Atlantic (Celtic

  10. Radiological environmental study in area to future anthropogenic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinnan, T.; MIller, C.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the existent relationship is identified between the data radioecologics and the geological formations to the north area Holguin with the objective to study the possible incidence that this can have in the rate environmental dose in the event of transformations anthropogenic the place

  11. Anthropogenic climate change affects meteorological drought risk in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmundsson, L; Seneviratne, S I

    2016-01-01

    Drought constitutes a significant natural hazard in Europe, impacting societies and ecosystems across the continent. Climate model simulations with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations project increased drought risk in southern Europe, and on the other hand decreased drought risk in the north. Observed changes in water balance components and drought indicators resemble the projected pattern. However, assessments of possible causes of the reported regional changes have so far been inconclusive. Here we investigate whether anthropogenic emissions have altered past and present meteorological (precipitation) drought risk. For doing so we first estimate the magnitude of 20 year return period drought years that would occur without anthropogenic effects on the climate. Subsequently we quantify to which degree the occurrence probability, i.e. the risk, of these years has changed if anthropogenic climate change is accounted for. Both an observational and a climate model-based assessment suggest that it is >95% likely that human emissions have increased the probability of drought years in the Mediterranean, whereas it is >95% likely that the probability of dry years has decreased in northern Europe. In central Europe the evidence is inconclusive. The results highlight that anthropogenic climate change has already increased drought risk in southern Europe, stressing the need to develop efficient mitigation measures. (letter)

  12. Rapid Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts of Exposed Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a rapid assessment methodology to estimate the degree of human impact of exposed sandy beaches in Ghana using ghost crabs as ecological indicators. The use of size ranges of ghost crab burrows and their population density as ecological indicators to assess extent of anthropogenic impacts on beaches ...

  13. Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    Gerrit Hansen

    Global climate change is unequivocal, and greenhouse gas emissions continue rising despite international mitigation efforts. Hence whether and to what extent the impacts of human induced

  14. Impacts of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen on the open ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duce, R.A.; LaRoche, J.; Altieri, K.; Arrigo, K.R.; Baker, A.R.; Capone, D.G.; Cornell, S.; Dentener, F.; Galloway, J.; Ganeshram, R.S.; Geider, R.J.; Jickells, T.; Kuypers, M.M.; Langlois, R.; Liss, P.S.; Liu, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; Moore, C.M.; Nickovic, S.; Oschlies, A.; Pedersen, T.; Prospero, J.; Schlitzer, R.; Seitzinger, S.; Sorensen, L.L.; Uematsu, M.; Ulloa, O.; Voss, M.; Ward, B.; Zamora, L.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about a third of the ocean's external (nonrecycled) nitrogen supply and up to 3% of the annual new marine biological production, 0.3 petagram of carbon per year. This input could account

  15. Assessment of global industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengxiang X; Su, Yi; Monts, David L; Plodinec, M John; Banin, Amos; Triplett, Glover E

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic, a carcinogenic trace element, threatens not only the health of millions of humans and other living organisms, but also global sustainability. We present here, for the first time, the global industrial-age cumulative anthropogenic arsenic production and its potential accumulation and risks in the environment. In 2000, the world cumulative industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic production was 4.53 million tonnes. The world-wide coal and petroleum industries accounted for 46% of global annual gross arsenic production, and their overall contribution to industrial-age gross arsenic production was 27% in 2000. Global industrial-age anthropogenic As sources (as As cumulative production) follow the order: As mining production>As generated from coal>As generated from petroleum. The potential industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic input in world arable surface in 2000 was 2.18 mg arsenic kg(-1), which is 1.2 times that in the lithosphere. The development of substitute materials for arsenic applications in the agricultural and forestry industries and controls of arsenic emissions from the coal industry may be possible strategies to significantly decrease arsenic pollution sources and dissipation rates into the environment.

  16. Environmental challenges of anthropogenic metals flows and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Voet, Ester; Salminen, Reijo; Eckelman, Matthew

    This report from the UNEP-hosted International Resource Panel, Environmental Risk and Challenges of Anthropogenic Metals Flows and Cycles, gives a clear picture of the potential environmental impacts of metals at different stages of the life-cycle while linking with other areas of resource use...

  17. Diversity of medicinal plants and anthropogenic threats in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of medicinal plants and anthropogenic threats in the Samburu Central Sub-County of Kenya. ... Biodiversity of medicinal plants and effects of human activities on availability of traditional ... There is, therefore need to adopt management strategies that enhance the conservation of these valuable natural resources.

  18. Global gridded anthropogenic emissions inventory of carbonyl sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumkehr, Andrew; Hilton, Tim W.; Whelan, Mary; Smith, Steve; Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Campbell, J. Elliott

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS or OCS) is the most abundant sulfur containing gas in the troposphere and is an atmospheric tracer for the carbon cycle. Gridded inventories of global anthropogenic COS are used for interpreting global COS measurements. However, previous gridded anthropogenic data are a climatological estimate based on input data that is over three decades old and are not representative of current conditions. Here we develop a new gridded data set of global anthropogenic COS sources that includes more source sectors than previously available and uses the most current emissions factors and industry activity data as input. Additionally, the inventory is provided as annually varying estimates from years 1980-2012 and employs a source specific spatial scaling procedure. We estimate a global source in year 2012 of 406 Gg S y-1 (range of 223-586 Gg S y-1), which is highly concentrated in China and is twice as large as the previous gridded inventory. Our large upward revision in the bottom-up estimate of the source is consistent with a recent top-down estimate based on air-monitoring and Antarctic firn data. Furthermore, our inventory time trends, including a decline in the 1990's and growth after the year 2000, are qualitatively consistent with trends in atmospheric data. Finally, similarities between the spatial distribution in this inventory and remote sensing data suggest that the anthropogenic source could potentially play a role in explaining a missing source in the global COS budget.

  19. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival.

  20. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  1. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  2. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  3. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  4. Conservation implications of anthropogenic impacts on visual communication and camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Anthropogenic environmental impacts can disrupt the sensory environment of animals and affect important processes from mate choice to predator avoidance. Currently, these effects are best understood for auditory and chemosensory modalities, and recent reviews highlight their importance for conservation. We examined how anthropogenic changes to the visual environment (ambient light, transmission, and backgrounds) affect visual communication and camouflage and considered the implications of these effects for conservation. Human changes to the visual environment can increase predation risk by affecting camouflage effectiveness, lead to maladaptive patterns of mate choice, and disrupt mutualistic interactions between pollinators and plants. Implications for conservation are particularly evident for disrupted camouflage due to its tight links with survival. The conservation importance of impaired visual communication is less documented. The effects of anthropogenic changes on visual communication and camouflage may be severe when they affect critical processes such as pollination or species recognition. However, when impaired mate choice does not lead to hybridization, the conservation consequences are less clear. We suggest that the demographic effects of human impacts on visual communication and camouflage will be particularly strong when human-induced modifications to the visual environment are evolutionarily novel (i.e., very different from natural variation); affected species and populations have low levels of intraspecific (genotypic and phenotypic) variation and behavioral, sensory, or physiological plasticity; and the processes affected are directly related to survival (camouflage), species recognition, or number of offspring produced, rather than offspring quality or attractiveness. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic effects on the visual environment may be of similar importance relative to conservation as anthropogenic effects on other sensory modalities

  5. Symmetric Cryptosystem Based on Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein ‎ A. Lafta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this wok, a novel approach based on ordinary Petri net is used to generate private key . The reachability marking  of petri net is used as encryption/decryption key to provide more complex key . The same ordinary Petri Nets models  are used for the sender(encryption and  the receiver(decryption.The plaintext has been permutated  using  look-up table ,and XOR-ed with key to generate cipher text

  6. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...... four notions of bisimulation, viz., weak and weak step bisimulation and their maximal versions. We characterize such congruences via universal contexts and via games, providing in such a way an understanding of their discerning powers....

  7. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  8. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  9. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  10. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  11. Net Pay Estimator | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and

  12. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    OpenAIRE

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  13. The Petri Net Markup Language : concepts, technology, and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billington, J.; Christensen, S.; Hee, van K.M.; Kindler, E.; Kummer, O.; Petrucci, L.; Post, R.D.J.; Stehno, C.; Weber, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Best, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is an XML-based interchange format for Petri nets. In order to support different versions of Petri nets and, in particular, future versions of Petri nets, PNML allows the definition of Petri net types.Due to this flexibility, PNML is a starting point for a

  14. Effects of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loading on Riverine Nitrogen Export in the Northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Goodale, C. L.; Howarth, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    Human activities have greatly altered the nitrogen (N) cycle, accelerating the rate of N fixation in landscapes and delivery of N to water bodies. To examine the effects of anthropogenic N inputs on riverine N export, we quantified N inputs and riverine N loss for 16 catchments along a latitudinal profile from Maine to Virginia, which encompass a range of climatic variability and are major drainages to the coast of the North Atlantic Ocean. We quantified inputs of N to each catchment: atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural and forest biological N fixation, and the net import of N in food and feed. We compared these inputs with N losses from the system in riverine export. The importance of the relative sources varies widely by watershed and is related to land use. Atmospheric deposition was the largest source (>60%) to the forested catchments of northern New England (e.g., Penobscot and Kennebec); import of N in food was the largest source of N to the more populated regions of southern New England (e.g., Charles and Blackstone); and agricultural inputs were the dominant N sources in the Mid-Atlantic region (e.g., Schuylkill and Potomac). Total N inputs to each catchment increased with percent cover in agriculture and urban land, and decreased with percent forest. Over the combined area of the catchments, net atmospheric deposition was the largest single source input (34%), followed by imports of N in food and feed (24%), fixation in agricultural lands (21%), fertilizer use (15%), and fixation in forests (6%). Riverine export of N is well correlated with N inputs, but it accounts for only a fraction (28%) of the total N inputs. This work provides an understanding of the sources of N in landscapes, and highlights how human activities impact N cycling in the northeast region.

  15. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    KAUST Repository

    Martini, Matus

    2011-04-07

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  16. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    KAUST Repository

    Martini, Matus; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Richter, Andreas; Hyer, Edward J.; Loughner, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  17. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  18. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  19. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  20. Versatile Wireless Data Net, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed R many will be MEMS devices. The net enables coordinated, efficient transmission of measurement signals; self test metrics, and environmental metrics to...

  1. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization

  2. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    ...) and registered with Internet Information Server (IIS), and can be applied in numerous fashions This project uses the NET capabilities to create a distributed discovery service (called as UNWSDS...

  3. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  4. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  5. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  6. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  7. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  8. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net the...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  9. Control of Petri Nets by finite automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhard, H D

    1983-01-01

    Petri Nets are considered where the firings are controlled by finite automata. The control may be distributed to various automata working over disjoint sets of transitions. To avoid deadlocks and conflicts for the whole system the distribution of control must be organised in an appropriate manner. The existence of deadlocks and conflicts is shown to be undecidable in general, but conflict resolving and deadlock free controls can be constructed for given nets. 10 references.

  10. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks Using PhyloNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Zhu, Jiafan; Nakhleh, Luay

    2018-07-01

    PhyloNet was released in 2008 as a software package for representing and analyzing phylogenetic networks. At the time of its release, the main functionalities in PhyloNet consisted of measures for comparing network topologies and a single heuristic for reconciling gene trees with a species tree. Since then, PhyloNet has grown significantly. The software package now includes a wide array of methods for inferring phylogenetic networks from data sets of unlinked loci while accounting for both reticulation (e.g., hybridization) and incomplete lineage sorting. In particular, PhyloNet now allows for maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference of phylogenetic networks from gene tree estimates. Furthermore, Bayesian inference directly from sequence data (sequence alignments or biallelic markers) is implemented. Maximum parsimony is based on an extension of the "minimizing deep coalescences" criterion to phylogenetic networks, whereas maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference are based on the multispecies network coalescent. All methods allow for multiple individuals per species. As computing the likelihood of a phylogenetic network is computationally hard, PhyloNet allows for evaluation and inference of networks using a pseudolikelihood measure. PhyloNet summarizes the results of the various analyzes and generates phylogenetic networks in the extended Newick format that is readily viewable by existing visualization software.

  11. Net carbon flux of dead wood in forests of the Eastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, C W; Russell, M B; Walters, B F; D'Amato, A W; Fraver, S; Domke, G M

    2015-03-01

    Downed dead wood (DDW) in forest ecosystems is a C pool whose net flux is governed by a complex of natural and anthropogenic processes and is critical to the management of the entire forest C pool. As empirical examination of DDW C net flux has rarely been conducted across large scales, the goal of this study was to use a remeasured inventory of DDW C and ancillary forest attributes to assess C net flux across forests of the Eastern US. Stocks associated with large fine woody debris (diameter 2.6-7.6 cm) decreased over time (-0.11 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)), while stocks of larger-sized coarse DDW increased (0.02 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)). Stocks of total DDW C decreased (-0.14 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)), while standing dead and live tree stocks both increased, 0.01 and 0.44 Mg ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. The spatial distribution of DDW C stock change was highly heterogeneous with random forests model results indicating that management history, live tree stocking, natural disturbance, and growing degree days only partially explain stock change. Natural disturbances drove substantial C transfers from the live tree pool (≈-4 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) to the standing dead tree pool (≈3 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) with only a minimal increase in DDW C stocks (≈1 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) in lower decay classes, suggesting a delayed transfer of C to the DDW pool. The assessment and management of DDW C flux is complicated by the diversity of natural and anthropogenic forces that drive their dynamics with the scale and timing of flux among forest C pools remaining a large knowledge gap.

  12. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  13. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  14. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  15. Decadal Anthropogenic Carbon Storage Along P16 and P02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. R.; Feely, R. A.; Talley, L. D.; Cross, J. N.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Siedlecki, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific Ocean has the largest ocean basin anthropogenic carbon (Canth) inventory due to the large size of the basin. We estimate anthropogenic carbon (Canth) concentrations and decadal storages along the meridional P16 and zonal P02 lines since the mid 90s using a modified version of the extended multiple linear regression (EMLR) technique with data from the WOCE, CLIVAR, and GO-SHIP occupations of these lines. We present our estimates and map the aragonite saturation state (ΩA) decreases and saturation horizon shoaling resulting from continued Canth storage. The average storage rate was larger along both sections during the most recent decade (2000's to 2010's) than during the previous decade (1990's to 2000's), especially along P02. Significant decadal concentration increases were found in the mixed layers, shallow thermoclines, mode waters, and portions of the intermediate water masses.

  16. Intercalibration of selected anthropogenic radionuclides for the GEOTRACES Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenna, Timothy C.; Masqué, Pere; Mas, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Program, six laboratories participated in an intercalibration exercise on several anthropogenic radionuclides of interest. The effort was successful for 239,240Pu activity, 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio, and 137Cs activity measured in filtered seawater samples from the Bermuda...... Atlantic Time Series station (BATS) and a site on the continental slope of the Northeastern U.S. A limited number of analyses were reported for 237Np, 241Am, 90Sr, and 238Pu in filtered seawater. Intercalibration of any of the isotopes of interest in filtered particulate matter was unsuccessful due...... to insufficient size of the samples distributed. Methods used were based on traditional radio-counting techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Although the majority of analyses were performed on samples ≥ 60 L, one lab demonstrated the ability to analyze several of the anthropogenic...

  17. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  18. Impact of Anthropogenic Factor on Urboecological Space Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprina Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues of the impact of the anthropogenic factor on urboecological space development. The issues are considered taking into account retrospective theoretical data to show the process of Anthropoecology development as a new branch of sociological science. At present the noosphere acquires features of anthropoecosystems having a number of parameters from the endogenous and exogenous point of view. Anthropoecology has special socio-cultural significance as considers the interaction of all actors of international space. There introduced the new branch Ecopsycology as the outer world is the reflection of the inner human world. There is a definition of the sustainability of ecological system. In the practical part of the article there is an example of academic mobility as the basis of the human potential with possible transfer into the human capital supporting by survey data. In conclusion there are recommendations on management and adaptation of the anthropogenic factor (a kind of biogenesis in modern urboecological space.

  19. Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. morphotypes related to anthropogenic habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Wróbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Giant Horsetail (Equisetum telmateia is the only representative of Equisetum genus included in the list of strictly protected species. In Central and Western Europe the species is found in communities belonging to alliances: Alno-Padion and Calthion. With progressing destruction of these biotopes, one can observe the phenomenon of this species moving to the habitats extremely anthropogenic in character. Frequent and intensive observations of this phenomenon were conducted in the Jasło - Krosno Dale area in southern Poland in three anthropogenic localities. In these localities three interesting, irregular Equisetum telmateia morphotypes were found: fo. serotinum subfo. proliferum, fo. spiralis and a morphotype with branched shoot. The phenomenon of morphological plasticity of sporophytes is thought to be connected with the action of genes, which regulate the identity of developing plant organs and their distribution. These genes perform a superior part in relation to the system of growth regulators.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  1. Anthropogenic Signatures of Lead in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiecka, D.; Gledhill, M.; Milne, A.; Achterberg, E. P.; Annett, A. L.; Atkinson, S.; Birchill, A.; Karstensen, J.; Lohan, M.; Mariez, C.; Middag, R.; Rolison, J. M.; Tanhua, T.; Ussher, S.; Connelly, D.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in enhanced lead (Pb) emissions to the environment over the past century, mainly through the combustion of leaded gasoline. Here we present the first combined dissolved (DPb), labile (LpPb), and particulate (PPb) Pb data set from the Northeast Atlantic (Celtic Sea) since the phasing out of leaded gasoline in Europe. Concentrations of DPb in surface waters have decreased by fourfold over the last four decades. We demonstrate that anthropogenic Pb is transported from the Mediterranean Sea over long distances (>2,500 km). Benthic DPb fluxes exceeded the atmospheric Pb flux in the region, indicating the importance of sediments as a contemporary Pb source. A strong positive correlation between DPb, PPb, and LpPb indicates a dynamic equilibrium between the phases and the potential for particles to "buffer" the DPb pool. This study provides insights into Pb biogeochemical cycling and demonstrates the potential of Pb in constraining ocean circulation patterns.

  2. Sinks as integrative elements of the anthropogenic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Brunner, Paul H.

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic metabolism is an open system requiring exchange of materials and energy between the anthroposphere and the environment. Material and energy flows are taken from nature and become utilized by men. After utilization, the materials either remain in the anthroposphere as recycling products, or they leave the anthroposphere as waste and emission flows. To accommodate these materials without jeopardizing human and environmental health, limited natural sinks are available; thus, man-made sinks have to be provided where natural sinks are missing or overloaded. The oral presentation (1) suggests a coherent definition of the term "sink", encompassing natural and man-made processes, (2) presents a framework to analyse and evaluate anthropogenic material flows to sinks, based on the tool substance flow analysis and impact assessment methodology, and (3) applies the framework in a case study approach for selected substances such as Copper and Lead in Vienna and Perfluorooctane sulfonate in Switzerland. Finally, the numeric results are aggregated in terms of a new indicator that specifies on a regional scale which fractions of anthropogenic material flows to sinks are acceptable. The following results are obtained: In Vienna, 99% of Cu flows to natural and man-made sinks are in accordance with accepted standards. However, the 0.7% of Cu entering urban soils and the 0.3% entering receiving waters surpass the acceptable level. In the case of Pb, 92% of all flows into sinks prove to be acceptable, but 8% are disposed of in local landfills with limited capacity. For PFOS, 96% of all flows into sinks are acceptable. 4% cannot be evaluated due to a lack of normative criteria, despite posing a risk for human health and the environment. The case studies corroborate the need and constraints of sinks to accommodate inevitable anthropogenic material flows.

  3. Responses of Surface Ozone Air Quality to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.; Chen, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Human activities have substantially increased atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen to the Earth's surface, inducing unintentional effects on ecosystems with complex environmental and climate consequences. One consequence remaining unexplored is how surface air quality might respond to the enhanced nitrogen deposition through surface-atmosphere exchange. We combine a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and a global land model (Community Land Model) to address this issue with a focus on ozone pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. We consider three processes that are important for surface ozone and can be perturbed by addition of atmospheric deposited nitrogen: emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone dry deposition, and soil nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. We find that present-day anthropogenic nitrogen deposition (65 Tg N a-1 to the land), through enhancing plant growth (represented as increases in vegetation leaf area index (LAI) in the model), could increase surface ozone from increased biogenic VOC emissions, but could also decrease ozone due to higher ozone dry deposition velocities. Meanwhile, deposited anthropogenic nitrogen to soil enhances soil NOx emissions. The overall effect on summer mean surface ozone concentrations show general increases over the globe (up to 1.5-2.3 ppbv over the western US and South Asia), except for some regions with high anthropogenic NOx emissions (0.5-1.0 ppbv decreases over the eastern US, Western Europe, and North China). We compare the surface ozone changes with those driven by the past 20-year climate and historical land use changes. We find that the impacts from anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can be comparable to the climate and land use driven surface ozone changes at regional scales, and partly offset the surface ozone reductions due to land use changes reported in previous studies. Our study emphasizes the complexity of biosphere-atmosphere interactions, which can have important

  4. Laboratory experiments on dynamics of anthropogenic ferrimagnetics in sand formations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapička, Aleš; Fialová, Hana; Petrovský, Eduard; Kodešová, R.; Kopáč, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, Special issue (2008), s. 52-53 ISSN 1335-2806. [Paleo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism. Castle Meeting /11./. 22.06.2008-28.06.2008, Bojnice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : soil pollution * dynamics of anthropogenic particles * magnetic susceptibility Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  6. Stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal macroalgae: Geographic and anthropogenic variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Inés G.; Bode, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Growing human population adds to the natural nitrogen loads to coastal waters. Both anthropogenic and natural nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass, and these different nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of the ratio of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ 15 N). In this study δ 15 N was determined in two species of macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and in nitrate and ammonium to determine the relative importance of anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen along the coast of NW Spain. Both algal species and nitrogen sources showed similar isotopic enrichment for a given site, but algal δ 15 N was not related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or δ 15 N in the water samples. The latter suggests that inorganic nitrogen inputs are variable and do not always leave an isotopic trace in macroalgae. However, a significant linear decrease in macroalgal δ 15 N along the coast is consistent with the differential effect of upwelling. Besides this geographic variability, the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen sources is evidenced by higher δ 15 N in macroalgae from rias and estuaries compared to those from open coastal areas and in areas with more than 15 × 10 3 inhabitants in the watershed. These results indicate that, in contrast with other studies, macroalgal δ 15 N is not simply related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or human population size but depends on other factors as the upwelling or the efficiency of local waste treatment systems. - Highlights: ► Anthropogenic versus upwelling nitrogen effect on macroalgal δ 15 N was studied. ► The influence of populations and upwelling has not been made before on macroalgal δ 15 N. ► Natural variability has not been taken into account in most biomonitoring studies. ► Upwelling explains most of the variability in δ 15 N in macroalgae

  7. Stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal macroalgae: Geographic and anthropogenic variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Inés G., E-mail: ines.gonzalez@co.ieo.es; Bode, Antonio

    2013-01-15

    Growing human population adds to the natural nitrogen loads to coastal waters. Both anthropogenic and natural nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass, and these different nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of the ratio of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ{sup 15}N). In this study δ{sup 15}N was determined in two species of macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and in nitrate and ammonium to determine the relative importance of anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen along the coast of NW Spain. Both algal species and nitrogen sources showed similar isotopic enrichment for a given site, but algal δ{sup 15}N was not related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or δ{sup 15}N in the water samples. The latter suggests that inorganic nitrogen inputs are variable and do not always leave an isotopic trace in macroalgae. However, a significant linear decrease in macroalgal δ{sup 15}N along the coast is consistent with the differential effect of upwelling. Besides this geographic variability, the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen sources is evidenced by higher δ{sup 15}N in macroalgae from rias and estuaries compared to those from open coastal areas and in areas with more than 15 × 10{sup 3} inhabitants in the watershed. These results indicate that, in contrast with other studies, macroalgal δ{sup 15}N is not simply related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or human population size but depends on other factors as the upwelling or the efficiency of local waste treatment systems. - Highlights: ► Anthropogenic versus upwelling nitrogen effect on macroalgal δ{sup 15}N was studied. ► The influence of populations and upwelling has not been made before on macroalgal δ{sup 15}N. ► Natural variability has not been taken into account in most biomonitoring studies. ► Upwelling explains most of the variability in δ{sup 15}N in macroalgae.

  8. Adaptations of lowland jungle mosses to anthropogenic environments in Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Kuc, Marian

    2000-01-01

    Sixteen lowland jungle mosses growing in anthropogenic habitats at Santa and The Bell - Ituni localities on the Demerara River in Guyana were examined in detail with the aim of detecting any features which would indicate their adaptations to new habitats. Amounts of chlorophyll in leaf cells, protective coloration, alterations in leaf morphology, characteristics of old stems, rhizoid tomentum and fertility are considered as the most pronounced adaptive features of these species to new localit...

  9. Pro ASP.NET 4 in VB 2010

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew; Freeman, Adam; Szpuszta, Mario; Agarwal, Vidya Vrat

    2010-01-01

    ASP.NET 4 is the latest version of Microsoft's revolutionary ASP.NET technology. It is the principal standard for creating dynamic web pages on the Windows platform. Pro ASP.NET 4 in VB 2010 raises the bar for high-quality, practical advice on learning and deploying Microsoft's dynamic web solution. This new edition is updated with everything you need to come to grips with the latest version of ASP.NET, including coverage of ASP.NET MVC, ASP.NET AJAX 4, ASP.NET Dynamic Data, and Silverlight 3. Seasoned .NET professionals Matthew MacDonald and Mario Szpuszta explain how you can get the most fro

  10. Natural and anthropogenic {sup 236}U in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: peter.steier@univie.ac.at; Bichler, Max [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Technische Universitaet Wien, Stadionallee 2, Wien A-1020 (Austria); Keith Fifield, L. [Department of Nuclear Physics, RSPhysSE, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Golser, Robin; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Quinto, Francesca [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Richter, Stephan [Euopean Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Srncik, Michaela [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Terrasi, Philippo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Wacker, Lukas [Institute for Particle Physics, HPK H25, Schafmattstrasse 20, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Wallner, Anton [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Wallner, Gabriele [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Wilcken, Klaus M. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 OQF (United Kingdom); Maria Wild, Eva [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2008-05-15

    The interaction of thermal neutrons with {sup 235}U results in fission with a probability of {approx}85% and in the formation of {sup 236}U (t{sub 1/2} = 2.3 x 10{sup 7} yr) with a probability of {approx}15%. While anthropogenic {sup 236}U is, therefore, present in spent nuclear fuel at levels of {sup 236}U/U up to 10{sup -2}, the expected natural ratios in the pre-anthropogenic environment range from 10{sup -14} to 10{sup -10}. At VERA, systematic investigations suggest a detection limit below {sup 236}U/U = 5 x 10{sup -12} for samples of 0.5 mg U, while chemistry blanks of {approx}2 x 10{sup 7} atoms {sup 236}U per sample limit the sensitivity for smaller samples. We have found natural isotopic ratios in uranium reagents separated before the onset of human nuclear activities, in uranium ores from various origins and in water from a subsurface well in Bad Gastein, Austria. Anthropogenic contamination was clearly visible in soil and rivulet samples from Salzburg, Austria, whereas river sediments from Garigliano river (Southern Italy) were close to the detection limit. Finally, our natural in-house standard Vienna-KkU was calibrated against a certified reference material (IRMM REIMEP-18 A)

  11. Attributing Changing Rates of Temperature Record Breaking to Anthropogenic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew D.

    2017-11-01

    Record-breaking temperatures attract attention from the media, so understanding how and why the rate of record breaking is changing may be useful in communicating the effects of climate change. A simple methodology designed for estimating the anthropogenic influence on rates of record breaking in a given time series is proposed here. The frequency of hot and cold record-breaking temperature occurrences is shown to be changing due to the anthropogenic influence on the climate. Using ensembles of model simulations with and without human-induced forcings, it is demonstrated that the effect of climate change on global record-breaking temperatures can be detected as far back as the 1930s. On local scales, a climate change signal is detected more recently at most locations. The anthropogenic influence on the increased occurrence of hot record-breaking temperatures is clearer than it is for the decreased occurrence of cold records. The approach proposed here could be applied in rapid attribution studies of record extremes to quantify the influence of climate change on the rate of record breaking in addition to the climate anomaly being studied. This application is demonstrated for the global temperature record of 2016 and the Central England temperature record in 2014.

  12. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods

  13. Dynamic soil properties in response to anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Ortega, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical erosion, with direct implications on local biogeochemical cycling. However, the feedbacks between soil erosion, chemical weathering and biogeochemical cycling in response to anthropogenic forcing are not yet fully understood. Here, we study dynamic soil properties for a rapidly changing anthropogenic landscape, and focus on the coupling between physical erosion, soil production and soil chemical weathering. The archaeological site of Santa Maria de Melque (Toledo, Central Spain) was selected for its remarkably long occupation history dating back to the 7th century AD. As part of the agricultural complex, four retention reservoirs were built in the Early Middle Ages. The sedimentary archive was used to track the evolution in sedimentation rates and geochemical properties of the sediment. Catchment-wide soil erosion rates vary slightly between the various occupation phases (7th century-now), but are of the same magnitude as the cosmogenic nuclide-derived erosion rates. However, there exists large spatial variation in physical erosion rates that are coupled with chemical weathering intensities. The sedimentary records suggest that there are important changes in the spatial pattern of sediment source areas through time as a result of changing land use patterns

  14. Effect of coupled anthropogenic perturbations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Luther, F.M.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1976 the greatest concern about potential perturbations to stratospheric ozone has been in regard to the atmospheric release of chlorofluorocarbons. Consequently, atmospheric measurements of ozone have usually been compared with model calculations in which only chlorocarbon perturbations are considered. However, in order to compare theoretical calculations with recent measurements of ozone and to project expected changes to atmospheric ozone levels over the next few decades, one must consider the effect from other perturbations as well. In this paper, the authors consider the coupling between several possible anthropogenic atmospheric perturbations. Namely, they examine the effects of past and possible future increases of chlorocarbons, CO 2 , N 2 O, and NO x . The focus of these calculations is on the potential changes in ozone due to chlorocarbon emissions, how other anthropogenic perturbations may have influenced the actual change in ozone over the last decade, and how these perturbations may influence future changes in ozone. Although calculations including future chlorocarbon emissions alone result in significant reductions in ozone, there is very little change in total ozone over the coming decades when other anthropogenic sources are included. Increasing CO 2 concentrations have the largest offsetting effect on the change in total ozone due to chlorocarbons. Owing to the necessity of considering emissions from a number of trace gases simultaneously, determining expected global-scale chemical and climatic effects is more complex than was previously recognized

  15. Airborne anthropogenic radioactivity measurements from an international radionuclide monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, J.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic radioactivity is being measured in near-real time by an international monitoring system designed to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Airborne radioactivity measurements are conducted in-situ by stations that are linked to a central data processing and analysis facility. Aerosols are separated by high-volume air sampling with high-efficiency particulate filters. Radio-xenon is separated from other gases through cryogenic methods. Gamma-spectrometry is performed by high purity germanium detectors and the raw spectral data is immediately transmitted to the central facility via Internet, satellite, or modem. These highly sensitive sensors, combined with the automated data processing at the central facility, result in a system capable of measuring environmental radioactivity on the microbecquerel scale where the data is available to scientists within minutes of the field measurement. During the past year, anthropogenic radioactivity has been measured at approximately half of the stations in the current network. Sources of these measured radionuclides include nuclear power plant emissions, Chernobyl resuspension, and isotope production facilities. The ability to thoroughly characterize site-specific radionuclides, which contribute to the radioactivity of the ambient environment, will be necessary to reduce the number of false positive events. This is especially true of anthropogenic radionuclides that could lead to ambiguous analysis. (author)

  16. Lagrangian analysis of low altitude anthropogenic plume processing across the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Real

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical evolution of an anthropogenic plume from the New-York/Boston region during its transport at low altitudes over the North Atlantic to the European west coast has been studied using a Lagrangian framework. This plume, originally strongly polluted, was sampled by research aircraft just off the North American east coast on 3 successive days, and then 3 days downwind off the west coast of Ireland where another aircraft re-sampled a weakly polluted plume. Changes in trace gas concentrations during transport are reproduced using a photochemical trajectory model including deposition and mixing effects. Chemical and wet deposition processing dominated the evolution of all pollutants in the plume. The mean net photochemical O3 production is estimated to be −5 ppbv/day leading to low O3 by the time the plume reached Europe. Model runs with no wet deposition of HNO3 predicted much lower average net destruction of −1 ppbv/day O3, arising from increased levels of NOx via photolysis of HNO3. This indicates that wet deposition of HNO3 is indirectly responsible for 80% of the net destruction of ozone during plume transport. If the plume had not encountered precipitation, it would have reached Europe with O3 concentrations of up to 80 to 90 ppbv and CO between 120 and 140 ppbv. Photochemical destruction also played a more important role than mixing in the evolution of plume CO due to high levels of O3 and water vapour showing that CO cannot always be used as a tracer for polluted air masses, especially in plumes transported at low altitudes. The results also show that, in this case, an increase in O3/CO slopes can be attributed to photochemical destruction of CO and not to photochemical O3 production as is often assumed.

  17. Marine Socio-Environmental Covariates: queryable global layers of environmental and anthropogenic variables for marine ecosystem studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Lauren A; Marchand, Philippe; Gill, David A; Baum, Julia K; McPherson, Jana M

    2017-07-01

    Biophysical conditions, including climate, environmental stress, and habitat availability, are key drivers of many ecological processes (e.g., community assembly and productivity) and associated ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and fishery production). Furthermore, anthropogenic impacts such as coastal development and fishing can have drastic effects on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Scientists need to account for environmental variation and human impacts to accurately model, manage, and conserve marine ecosystems. Although there are many types of environmental data available from global remote sensing and open-source data products, some are inaccessible to potential end-users because they exist as global layers in high temporal and spatial resolutions which require considerable computational power to process. Additionally, coastal locations often suffer from missing data or data quality issues which limit the utility of some global marine products for coastal sites. Herein we present the Marine Socio-Environmental Covariates dataset for the global oceans, which consists of environmental and anthropogenic variables summarized in ecologically relevant ways. The dataset includes four sets of environmental variables related to biophysical conditions (net primary productivity models corrected for shallow-water reflectance, wave energy including sheltered-coastline corrections) and landscape context (coral reef and land cover within varying radii). We also present two sets of anthropogenic variables, human population density (within varying radii) and distance to large population center, which can serve as indicators of local human impacts. We have paired global, summarized layers available for download with an online data querying platform that allows users to extract data for specific point locations with finer control of summary statistics. In creating these global layers and online platform, we hope to make the data accessible to a

  18. Effects of anthropogenic aerosol particles on the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Einfluss anthropogener Aerosolteilchen auf den Strahlungshaushalt der Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newiger, M

    1985-01-01

    The influence of aerosol particles is assessed on the basis of the changes in the climate parameters ''albedo'' and ''neutron flux''. Apart from the directly emitted particles, particles formed in the atmosphere as a result of SO/sub 2/ emissions are investigated. The model of aerosol effects on the radiation field takes account of the feedback with the microphysical parameters of the clouds. In the investigation, given particle concentrations were recalculated for three size classes using a two-dimensional transport model. The particle size distribution is described by a modified power function. Extreme-value estimates are made because the absorption capacity of anthropogenic particles is little known. A comparison of the climatic effects of anthropogenic activities shows that aerosol particles and SO/sub 2/ emissions have opposite effects on the radiation balance. (orig./PW).

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATIONS SOILS URBOECOSYSTEMS OF DNEPROPETROVSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T.F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The functioning of the city, as artificially created system of the result of the anthropogenic activity, promotes degradation and, sometimes, destruction of the environment, with change it to the technogenic replacement. First of all suffers the soil, as a basic component of any ecosystem, where the circulation of materials close, because it is a powerful biogeochemical barrier to their migration, able to deposit toxicants a long time through its protective functions. The leading role of the formation of the urban soil plays an anthropogenic factor, which is able to influence directly – the destruction of the soil profile due to construction activity and indirectly – with aerogenic or hydrogenous pollution xenobiotics contained in the emissions and discharges of the industrial enterprises; and it is determined by the type of economic use and history of area developing. The variability of using the urban soil is reflected in the soil profile and contributed to the creation of the organic-mineral layer by the mixing, mound, burial and (or contamination of the different substances on the surface. Therefore, classification of the urban soils by the anthropogenic destruction degree of the soil profile is very important scientific and practical task for the urban ecology to the achievement standards of the ecological safety of the modern city, because the restoring of their protective functions is impossible without knowledge of the morphological structure. Purpose. Classify the anthropogenical soils of city Dnipropetrovsk disturbed by the construction activities by the determining of the morphological characteristics of the soil profile structure with separation of the anthropogenic and technogenic surface formations compared to the zonal soil – ordinery chernozem. Conclusion. Within urboecosystem city Dnipropetrovsk long-term human impact to the zonal soil – chernozem led to its transformation into urbanozem witch

  20. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  1. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  2. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  3. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  4. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  5. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO 3 over SrTiO 3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  6. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  7. Geoecological controls on net mercury retention in northern peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, R.; Rydberg, J.

    2010-12-01

    Peatlands, which receive much or all of their element inputs (e.g. nutrients or trace metals) via the atmosphere, are considered an ideal archive for studying past changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. These archives potentially contain information not only on important anthropogenic contributions to the environment over the past few centuries, but also on the natural antecedent conditions over the past several millennia. However, the assumption that Hg accumulation rates in peat represent an absolute record of past atmospheric deposition has proved problematic. In on-going studies of Hg retention in northern peatlands (bogs and oligotrophic fens) we find that net Hg accumulation is influenced by a range of geoecological factors in addition to actual changes in atmospheric deposition. Factors that influence the interception and net retention of Hg include differences in vegetation and microtopography - both of which may enhance dry deposition, and properties and processes within the peat such as decomposition that might influence long-term retention. Wetness, too, may play an important role in net retention in the surface peat through increased evasive losses of Hg. Differences between Hg concentrations in vascular plants and mosses are well established (at our site: 5-15 ng/g for leaves/needles of cottongrass, heather, Labrador tea and pine; 15-45 ng/g for mosses Sphagnum centrale and S. rubellum), but we also measured significant differences between different mosses within the same plots (S. rubellum, 24±3 ng/g; S. centrale, 18±2 ng/g). Further differences in Hg concentrations occur for single moss species in different settings; for example, Hg concentrations in S. centrale in open Sphagnum-only plots relative to plots including a mixture of vascular plants that form a field-layer canopy are 18±2 and 32±6 ng/g, respectively. As a result, sampling sites consisting of both Sphagnum and vascular plants have long-term cumulative inventories of mercury in the peat

  8. .net core application lifecycle on Openshift

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    # .net core application lifecycle on Openshift I will show an example of a lifecycle of an OpenShift application with an emphasis on the continuous integration and deployment. The application compatible with [.net Standard](https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/standard/net-standard) can be easily deployed on OpenShift using [Source2Image](https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.0/architecture/core_concepts/builds_and_image_streams.html#source-build) functionality, which doesn't require developers to maintain docker images of the application. I will also present how to efficiently integrate this feature into GitLab pipelines with an automated deployment of the "review" environment, as one its parts.

  9. Towards Self-Managed Executable Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads

    2008-01-01

    An issue in self-managed systems is that different abstractions and programming models are used on different architectural layers, leading to systems that are harder to build and understand. To alleviate this, we introduce a self-management approach which combines high-level Petri nets...... with the capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service......-oriented pervasive computing systems through the runtime interpretation of colored Petri nets. The current work focuses on the change management and component control layers....

  10. Implementation of CLP4NET in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naydenova, I.; Pironkov, L.; Filipov, A.; Petrova, T.; Tsochev, G.; Ganev, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Networking solutions (networks of excellence, communities of practice, knowledge portals, etc.) are recognized as effective tools for nuclear training and education services, transfer of good practices, knowledge and programmes, and knowledge management. In addition, the e-learning is recommended as a state of the art and cost effective approach for supplementing the traditional face to face training and education programmes. Thus, the Cyber Learning Platform for Nuclear Education and Training (CLP4NET) was implemented into the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) Training System. Based on the experience of KNPP, the CLP4NET was implemented also at the College of Energy and Electronics (CEE), Technical University of Sofia (TU-Sofia), providing an appropriate tool for further establishment of a National Nuclear Network of Competency. The current study is focused mainly on specific issues and lessons learned during the installation of CLP4NET at the CEE, TU-Sofia. (author

  11. Deep Belief Nets for Topic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Arngren, Morten; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    -formative. In this paper we describe large-scale content based collaborative filtering for digital publishing. To solve the digital publishing recommender problem we compare two approaches: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and deep be-lief nets (DBN) that both find low-dimensional latent representations for documents....... Efficient retrieval can be carried out in the latent representation. We work both on public benchmarks and digital media content provided by Issuu, an on-line publishing platform. This article also comes with a newly developed deep belief nets toolbox for topic modeling tailored towards performance...

  12. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    it possible to condense the usually infinite state space of a timed Petri net into a finite condensed state space without loosing analysis power. The second method supports on-the-fly verification of certain safety properties of timed systems. We discuss the application of the two methods in a number......We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...

  13. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    dimensions of 2.8 x 0.7 x 4.6 inches make for a very good tool for TwiddleNet missions. Its Lithium -ion battery with 1200 mAh energy gives approximately...Wireless Connectivity IrDA, Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11b Battery Lithium ion Approximate Dimensions (in) 2.8 x 0.7 x 4.6 Weight (oz) 6.2 ROM 128 MB...designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well

  14. Introducing NET 40 With Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, A

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft is introducing a large number of changes to the way that the .NET Framework operates. Familiar technologies are being altered, best practices replaced, and developer methodologies adjusted. Many developers find it hard to keep up with the pace of change across .NET's ever-widening array of technologies. You may know what's happening in C#, but how about the Azure cloud? How is that going to affect your work? What are the limitations of the new pLINQ syntax? What you need is a roadmap. A guide to help you see the innovations that matter and to give you a head start on the opportunitie

  15. The Schmehausen cable net cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaich, J.; Mayr, G.; Weber, P.; Jasch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The prototype of a large cable net shell as a natural-draught cooling tower for the THTR-300 is presented. Results of wind tunnel tests and calculations are given, and the capacity is discussed. Design features of the main components are presented in illustrations and are described with regard to the construction process of the cooling tower. Finally, it is shown that the cable net cooling tower is a suitable construction for large dimensions and caving-in or seismic areas. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Pro ASP.NET 4 CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Alan

    2010-01-01

    To be a successful ASP.NET 4 developer, you need to know how to apply the vast array of new functionality available in the latest release of the .NET 4 Framework and Visual Studio 2010. This book will immerse you in a variety of advanced topics, including architecting different application data tiers, memory caching paradigms, data mining, and search engine optimization. Working through step-by-step exercises using P/LINQ, DLR, MEF, MVC, IronPython, Axum, and Ajax, you will learn a variety of approaches to building each of the key application tiers common to all web solutions. Using a proven t

  17. Net shape powder processing of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost-effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminium powder metallurgy. Net shape processing of aluminium using the classical press-and-sinter powder metallurgy technique is a unique and important metal-forming method which is cost effective in producing complex parts at, or very close to, final dimensions. This paper provides an overview of the net shape powder processing of aluminium. Current research is critically reviewed and the future potential is briefly considered

  18. Net Gain: A New Method for Preventing Malaria Deaths | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa, reports IDRC's new publication, Net Gain. Studies conducted in Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age by up to 63 percent. Net Gain reviews and ...

  19. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  20. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  1. Mechanisms and velocities of anthropogenic Pb migration in Mediterranean soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erel, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Pb measured in soil samples was used to determine rates and mechanisms of anthropogenic Pb migration in the soil. Petrol-Pb found in soluble halogenated aerosols migrates into the soil and is retained in the soil by the stationary soil particles. Lead infiltration velocity is approximately 5 x 10 -1 cm/year, and its retardation factor is estimated to be on the order of 1 x 10 3 . The infiltration of Pb into the soil is best described by the advection-dispersion equation under the assumption that the time scale of the longitudinal dispersion is much longer than the time scale of advection. Therefore, the contribution of dispersion to the solution of the advection-dispersion equation is negligible. As a result, the soil profile of petrol-Pb resembles the time-dependent input function of petrol-Pb. The estimated petrol-Pb penetration velocity and the isotopic composition profile of Pb in off-road soil are used for the computation of the fraction of anthropogenic Pb in this soil. It is calculated that the fraction of anthropogenic Pb in the acid-leached soil samples and in the soil residue of this soil profile drops from 60 and 22% near the surface to 6 and 0% at a depth of 33 cm, respectively. The downward migration velocity of Pb in soils of the studied area, which are typically 50 to 100 cm deep, implies a residence time of Pb in the soil of 100 to 200 years

  2. Anthropogenic disturbances jeopardize biodiversity conservation within tropical rainforest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Iván A; Piñero, Daniel; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Sarukhán, José

    2016-05-10

    Anthropogenic disturbances affecting tropical forest reserves have been documented, but their ecological long-term cumulative effects are poorly understood. Habitat fragmentation and defaunation are two major anthropogenic threats to the integrity of tropical reserves. Based on a long-term (four decades) study, we document how these disturbances synergistically disrupt ecological processes and imperil biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning at Los Tuxtlas, the northernmost tropical rainforest reserve in the Americas. Deforestation around this reserve has reduced the reserve to a medium-sized fragment (640 ha), leading to an increased frequency of canopy-gap formation. In addition, hunting and habitat loss have caused the decline or local extinction of medium and large herbivores. Combining empirical, experimental, and modeling approaches, we support the hypothesis that such disturbances produced a demographic explosion of the long-lived (≈120 y old, maximum height of 7 m) understory palm Astrocaryum mexicanum, whose population has increased from 1,243-4,058 adult individuals per hectare in only 39 y (annual growth rate of ca 3%). Faster gap formation increased understory light availability, enhancing seed production and the growth of immature palms, whereas release from mammalian herbivory and trampling increased survival of seedlings and juveniles. In turn, the palm's demographic explosion was followed by a reduction of tree species diversity, changing forest composition, altering the relative contribution of trees to forest biomass, and disrupting litterfall dynamics. We highlight how indirect anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., palm proliferation) on otherwise protected areas threaten tropical conservation, a phenomenon that is currently eroding the planet's richest repositories of biodiversity.

  3. Detecting Anthropogenic Disturbance on Weathering and Erosion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, V.; Schoonejans, J.; Bellin, N.; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Y.; Opfergelt, S.; Christl, M.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical erosion, with direct implications on local biogeochemical cycling. However, the feedback mechanisms between soil erosion, chemical weathering and biogeochemical cycling in response to anthropogenic forcing are not yet fully understood. In this paper, we analyze dynamic soil properties for a rapidly changing anthropogenic landscape in the Spanish Betic Cordillera; and focus on the coupling between physical erosion, soil production and soil chemical weathering. Modern erosion rates were quantified through analysis of sediment deposition volumes behind check dams, and represent catchment-average erosion rates over the last 10 to 50 years. Soil production rates are derived from in-situ produced 10Be nuclide concentrations, and represent long-term flux rates. In each catchment, soil chemical weathering intensities were calculated for two soil-regolith profiles. Although Southeast Spain is commonly reported as the European region that is most affected by land degradation, modern erosion rates are low (140 t ha-1 yr-1). About 50 % of the catchments are losing soils at a rate of less than 60 t km-2 yr-1. Our data show that modern erosion rates are roughly of the same magnitude as the long-term or cosmogenically-derived erosion rates in the Betic Cordillera. Soils developed on weathered metamorphic rocks have no well-developed profile characteristics, and are generally thin and stony. Nevertheless, soil chemical weathering intensities are high; and question the occurrence of past soil truncation.

  4. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  5. The sea surface microlayer: biology, chemistry and anthropogenic enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J T

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies increasingly point to the interface between the world's atmosphere and hydrosphere (the sea-surface microlayer) as an important biological habitat and a collection point for anthropogenic materials. Newly developed sampling techniques collect different qualitative and quantitative fractions of the upper sea surface from depths of less than one micron to several centimeters. The microlayer provides a habitat for a biota, including the larvae of many commercial fishery species, which are often highly enriched in density compared to subsurface water only a few cm below. Common enrichments for bacterioneuston, phytoneuston, and zooneuston are 10/sup 2/-10/sup 4/, 1-10/sup 2/, and 1-10, respectively. The trophic relationships or intergrated functioning of these neustonic communities have not been examined. Surface tension forces provide a physically stable microlayer, but one which is subjected to greater environmental and climatic variation than the water column. A number of poorly understood physical processes control the movement and flux of materials within and through the microlayer. The microlayer is generally coated with a natural organic film of lipid and fatty acid material overlying a polysaccharide protein complex. The microlayer serves as both a source and a sink for materials in the atmosphere and the water column. Among these materials are large quantities of anthropogenic substances which frequently occur at concentrations 10/sup 2/-10/sup 4/ greater than those in the water column. These include plastics, tar lumps, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and potentially toxic metals, such as, lead, copper, zinc, and nickel. How the unique processes occurring in the microlayer affect the fate of anthropogenic substances is not yet clear.

  6. Stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal macroalgae: geographic and anthropogenic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Inés G; Bode, Antonio

    2013-01-15

    Growing human population adds to the natural nitrogen loads to coastal waters. Both anthropogenic and natural nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass, and these different nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of the ratio of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ(15)N). In this study δ(15)N was determined in two species of macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and in nitrate and ammonium to determine the relative importance of anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen along the coast of NW Spain. Both algal species and nitrogen sources showed similar isotopic enrichment for a given site, but algal δ(15)N was not related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or δ(15)N in the water samples. The latter suggests that inorganic nitrogen inputs are variable and do not always leave an isotopic trace in macroalgae. However, a significant linear decrease in macroalgal δ(15)N along the coast is consistent with the differential effect of upwelling. Besides this geographic variability, the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen sources is evidenced by higher δ(15)N in macroalgae from rias and estuaries compared to those from open coastal areas and in areas with more than 15×10(3) inhabitants in the watershed. These results indicate that, in contrast with other studies, macroalgal δ(15)N is not simply related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or human population size but depends on other factors as the upwelling or the efficiency of local waste treatment systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Will Outer Tropical Cyclone Size Change due to Anthropogenic Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, B. A.; Lin, N.; Chavas, D. R.; Vecchi, G. A.; Knutson, T. R.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown significant interbasin and intrabasin variability in outer tropical cyclone (TC) size. Moreover, outer TC size has even been shown to vary substantially over the lifetime of the majority of TCs. However, the factors responsible for both setting initial outer TC size and determining its evolution throughout the TC lifetime remain uncertain. Given these gaps in our physical understanding, there remains uncertainty in how outer TC size will change, if at all, due to anthropogenic warming. The present study seeks to quantify whether outer TC size will change significantly in response to anthropogenic warming using data from a high-resolution global climate model and a regional hurricane model. Similar to prior work, the outer TC size metric used in this study is the radius in which the azimuthal-mean surface azimuthal wind equals 8 m/s. The initial results from the high-resolution global climate model data suggest that the distribution of outer TC size shifts significantly towards larger values in each global TC basin during future climates, as revealed by 1) statistically significant increase of the median outer TC size by 5-10% (p<0.05) according to a 1,000-sample bootstrap resampling approach with replacement and 2) statistically significant differences between distributions of outer TC size from current and future climate simulations as shown using two-sample Kolmogorov Smirnov testing (p<<0.01). Additional analysis of the high-resolution global climate model data reveals that outer TC size does not uniformly increase within each basin in future climates, but rather shows substantial locational dependence. Future work will incorporate the regional mesoscale hurricane model data to help focus on identifying the source of the spatial variability in outer TC size increases within each basin during future climates and, more importantly, why outer TC size changes in response to anthropogenic warming.

  8. Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; van Beest, Floris; Grimm, Volker

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to anthropogenic disturbances that cause animals to change behavior and move away from potential foraging grounds. Here we present a process-based modeling framework for assessing population consequences of such sub-lethal behavioral effects. It builds...... on how disturbances influence animal movements, and how this in turn affect their foraging and energetics. The animals’ tendency to move away from disturbances is directly related to the experienced noise level. The reduced foraging in noisy areas affects the animals’ energy budget, fitness...... that determine animal fitness, are expected to have high predictive power in novel environments, making them ideal tools for marine management....

  9. Study of revitalisation methods on anthropogenic soils - Stara Beta locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, J.

    2003-01-01

    Coal mining in Krusne Mts. region is significant anthropogenic pressure. Thus it is necessary to restore land devastated by mining and to bring back its natural functions. Since 2002 locality of Stara Beta, Jan Sverma quarry hopper is being monitored. In 1992 restoration works at Stara Beta were opened. Monitoring is aimed at evaluation development of restoration processes, soil and vegetation caring. Areas where restoration works are realized represent about 60 square kilometres in Most district. The aim is to prepare necessary groundwork for methodology on caring of wood vegetation on restored areas

  10. Balance of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneyama, Teppei; Ito, Toshimichi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Concentration data of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu between 1960 and 2002 were examined to estimate the balance of anthropogenic radionuclides in water of the Japan Sea. Until 1960s, they had accumulated mainly in the upper layer of the Japan Sea. After that, the amount of the radionuclides decreased as a result of termination of global fallout and exchange of surface water. The trend turned into increase since 1980s and the amounts will continue to increase for a while. (author)

  11. Anthropogenic sea level rise and adaptation in the Yangtze estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Ruan, R.; Xu, G.; Zeng, G.; Zhu, J.; Dai, Z.; Gu, S.; Zhang, X.; Wang, H.

    2016-02-01

    Sea level rise is a major projected threat of climate change. There are regional variations in sea level changes, depending on both naturally the tectonic subsidence, geomorphology, naturally changing river inputs and anthropogenic driven forces as artificial reservoir water impoundment within the watershed and urban land subsidence driven by ground water depletion in the river delta. Little is known on regional sea level fall in response to the channel erosion due to the sediment discharge decline by reservoir interception in the upstream watershed, and water level rise driven by anthropogenic measures as the land reclamation, deep waterway regulation and fresh water reservoir construction to the sea level change in estuaries. Changing coastal cities are situated in the delta regions expected to be threatened in various degrees. Shanghai belongs to those cities. Here we show that the anthropogenic driven sea level rise in the Yangtze estuary from the point of view of the continuous hydrodynamic system consisted of river catchment, estuary and coastal sea. Land subsidence is cited as 4 mm/a (2011-2030). Scour depth of the estuarine channel by upstream engineering as Three Gauge Dam is estimated at 2-10 cm (2011-2030). The rise of water level by deep waterway and land reclamation is estimated at 8-10 cm (2011-2030). The relative sea level rise will be speculated about 10 -16 cm (2011-2030), which these anthropogenic sea level changes will be imposed into the absolute sea level rise 2 mm/a and tectonic subsidence 1 mm/a measured in 1990s. The action guideline to the sea level rise strategy in the Shanghai city have been proposed to the Shanghai government as (1) recent actions (2012-2015) to upgrade the city water supply and drainage engineering and protective engineering; (2) interim actions (2016-2020) to improve sea level monitoring and early warning system, and then the special, city, regional planning considering sea level rise; (3) long term actions (2021

  12. Birth of a closed universe, and the anthropogenic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A scenario is proposed for the evolution of the universe, starting with the quantum birth of a closed world at a minimum in the self-consistent de Sitter cosmological solution with vacuum polarization. The closure of the universe and the permanently supercritical value of its density follow directly from a single condition: that quantum birth take place. The perturbations must be small in order that the de Sitter phase may be sufficiently prolonged to ensure a protracted Friedmann plasma-matter expansion. Thus a universe having the properties we observe may in fact have been singled out by the anthropogenic principle

  13. Stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal macroalgae: geographic and anthropogenic variability

    OpenAIRE

    González-Viana, I. (Inés); Bode, A. (Antonio)

    2013-01-01

    Proyectos ANILE (CTM2009-08396 and CTM2010-08804-E) del Plan Nacional de I+D+i y RADIALES del Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO). I.G.V. recibió un contrato FPI del Ministerio de Economía y Competividad Growing human population add to the natural nitrogen loads to coastal waters. As the excess nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass anthropogenic and natural nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N). In this study δ15N was dete...

  14. CM Net heterogeneous local network of microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutche, R.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Realization of the CM Net heterogeneous local network for the PDP-11 type computers with the RT-11 operational system control is described. The main advantage of the network is the realization of virtual disks in general form including a system unit. the network can be used everywhere, where the problem on computer connection by simple interfaces is stated. 6 refs

  15. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  16. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... avoid double taxation of net investment income and the taxation of amounts distributed to charities. The.... The proposed regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts. This document also contains a notice... calculated correctly. The likely respondents are individuals, estates, and trusts. Estimated total annual...

  17. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... of Article 23 (Relief from Double Taxation) of the 2006 United States Model Income Tax Convention... taxation of ANSTs at the lowest individual tax rate. Furthermore, section 646 treats all distributions, to... of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet...

  18. Teaching Petri Nets Using P3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasevic, Dragan; Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Petri net software tool P3 that is developed for training purposes of the Architecture and organization of computers (AOC) course. The P3 has the following features: graphical modeling interface, interactive simulation by single and parallel (with previous conflict resolution) transition firing, two well-known Petri net…

  19. Petri Nets as Models of Linear Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    1990-01-01

    The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic...

  20. Analysis of Squid Net Fisheries Business Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herna Octivia Damayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Squid net is one of alternatives to replace trawl net in Pati regency. The purposes of the research are 1 to determine the influence factors, 2 to analyze the return to scale, 3 to analyze cost and return.The research location in Juwana Subdistrict particularly Bakaran Kulon, Dukutalit, Bajomulyo and Bendar Villages. The research conducted on October 2015 to June 2016. The number of final samples was 36, while the formulation of management strategies used 15 samples by snowball sampling. Data analysis techniques used 1 Cobb Douglas production function, 2 revenue-cost ratio analysis. The results of the research are 1 significant inputs for production factor are long trip, Solar fuel, the number of crew and lights. 2 the return to scale of squid net bussiness in Juwana subdistrict Pati regency is -0.231 means decreasing to scale. 3 the R/C ratio of scenario II more profitable for squid net crews than  scenario I.

  1. Distributed S-Net: design and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Julku, J.; Penczek, F.; Morazan, M.

    2009-01-01

    S-Net is a declarative coordination language and component technology aimed at modern multi-core/many-core architectures and systems-on-chip. It builds on the concept of stream processing to structure networks of communicating asynchronous components, which can be implemented using a conventional

  2. Distributed evaluation of stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, A.; Buchholz, Peter; Lehnert, Ralf; Pioro, Micha

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present on the distributed performance evaluation and model checking of systems specified by stochastic Petri nets. The approaches discussed rely on an explicit state-space generation and target at the usage of clusters of workstations. We present results for systems with several

  3. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    of interesting theoretical properties distinguishing them from other time extensions of Petri nets. We shall give an overview of the recent theory developed in the verification of TAPN extended with features like read/transport arcs, timed inhibitor arcs and age invariants. We will examine in detail...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment § 1926.105...

  5. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2017-12-19

    Background Integration and analysis of phenotype data from humans and model organisms is a key challenge in building our understanding of normal biology and pathophysiology. However, the range of phenotypes and anatomical details being captured in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization that includes as one of its components an ontology designed to integrate phenotype ontologies. While not applicable to matching arbitrary ontologies, PhenomeNET can be used to identify related phenotypes in different species, including human, mouse, zebrafish, nematode worm, fruit fly, and yeast. Results Here, we apply the PhenomeNET to identify related classes from two phenotype and two disease ontologies using automated reasoning. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. Combining automated reasoning with lexical matching further improves results in aligning ontologies. Conclusions PhenomeNET can be used to align and integrate phenotype ontologies. The results can be utilized for biomedical analyses in which phenomena observed in model organisms are used to identify causative genes and mutations underlying human disease.

  6. Average Costs versus Net Present Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be verified that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  7. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  8. OK-Net Arable online knowledge platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Jensen, Allan Leck; Jørgensen, Margit Styrbæk

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of organic farming requires farmers to have a very high level of knowledge and skills, but exchange on organic farming techniques remains limited. In order to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping in Europe, the thematic network OK-Net Arable under Horizon 20...

  9. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  10. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502... consistent with professional accounting pronouncements, excluding management fees. [74 FR 36932, July 27...

  11. Net escapement of Antartic krill in trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, B.A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    This document describes the aims and methodology of a three year project (commenced in 2012) entitled Net Escapement of Antarctic krill in Trawls (NEAT). The study will include a morphology based mathematical modeling (FISHSELECT) of different sex and maturity groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia...

  12. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section 5.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for Distilled...

  13. RadNet Radiological Air Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Telofski, J.; Askren, D.R.; Petko, Ch.M.; Fraass, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency operates a national environmental radiation monitoring program called RadNet. RadNet monitors airborne particulates, precipitation, milk, and drinking water for radiation levels. The primary purpose of the original program in the 1950's and 1960's was to collect and analyze samples in various media to assess the effects of radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing. As above-ground testing diminished in the 1970's, the program, especially the air network, became critical in evaluating effects of other types of nuclear incidents, such as the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, as well as monitoring trends in environmental radioactive contamination. The value of rapid data collection subsequent to such incidents led to the consideration of developing air monitors with radiation detectors and telecommunication equipment for real-time radiation measurement. The strengthened United States homeland security posture after 2001 led to production and installation of the current real-time RadNet air monitors. There are now 118 stationary, continuously operating air monitoring stations and 40 mobile air monitors for site specific monitoring. The stationary air monitors include radiation detectors, meteorological sensors, a high-volume air sampler, and communication devices for hourly data transfers. When unusual levels are detected, scientists download a full sodium iodide detector spectrum for analysis. The real-time data collected by RadNet stationary systems permit rapid identification and quantification of airborne nuclides with sufficient sensitivity to provide critical information to help determine protective actions. The data also may help to rapidly refine long-range radioactive plume models and estimate exposure to the population. This paper provides an overview of the airborne particulate monitoring conducted during above-ground nuclear weapon testing, summarizes the uses of data from the program

  14. Nuclear Renaissance in an Era of Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, John [Bruce Power, Box 3000 B06, Tiverton, Ontario N0G 2T0 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper substantiates the anthropogenic origin of climate change, demonstrates the resulting consequences, and thereby establishes the need for a nuclear renaissance over the next thirty years. First, the mechanisms behind the natural cycles in global warming, specifically, cycles of precession and eccentricity in Earth's orbit, as measured in ice cores, are compared to the mechanisms of anthropogenic warming, revealing the scientific basis for the observed correlation between carbon dioxide and temperature. Second, the resulting climate change is exemplified by key results from experiments performed by the author in the Arctic and at the South Geographic Pole, and the author's experience of Switzerland's costliest natural catastrophe - the flash flood of 2005. Third, although facing barriers such as research and development requirements, political will and public acceptance, the potential for nuclear power to triple to 1,000 GWe by 2050 would mitigate climate change by holding carbon dioxide concentration below 500 ppm, thereby challenging the younger nuclear generation to contribute to the most important issue facing humanity. (authors)

  15. Nuclear Renaissance in an Era of Anthropogenic Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper substantiates the anthropogenic origin of climate change, demonstrates the resulting consequences, and thereby establishes the need for a nuclear renaissance over the next thirty years. First, the mechanisms behind the natural cycles in global warming, specifically, cycles of precession and eccentricity in Earth's orbit, as measured in ice cores, are compared to the mechanisms of anthropogenic warming, revealing the scientific basis for the observed correlation between carbon dioxide and temperature. Second, the resulting climate change is exemplified by key results from experiments performed by the author in the Arctic and at the South Geographic Pole, and the author's experience of Switzerland's costliest natural catastrophe - the flash flood of 2005. Third, although facing barriers such as research and development requirements, political will and public acceptance, the potential for nuclear power to triple to 1,000 GWe by 2050 would mitigate climate change by holding carbon dioxide concentration below 500 ppm, thereby challenging the younger nuclear generation to contribute to the most important issue facing humanity. (authors)

  16. Anthropogenic CO2 distribution in the North Pacific ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses the penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 in the North Pacific Ocean based on carbonate data in the literature. The carbonate data in the literature were used to supplement the tracer data showing oceanic mixing features for waters formed in the last 140 years. The deepest penetration over 2,000m was found in the northwest North Pacific. On the other hand, the shallowest penetration to less than 400m was found in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Consequently, it was suggested that penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 has been controlled by such factors as deep water formation in the Northwest Pacific, upwelling in the equatorial Pacific, and vertical mixing in the western boundary areas. It was revealed that these results are in harmony well with results implied from tritium, C-14, and freons distributions. The total inventory of excess carbon in the North Pacific was 14.7[plus minus]4[times]10[sup 15]g around 1980. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  18. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qinhong; Weng Jianqing; Wang Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides 99 Tc and 129 I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides 99 Tc, 129 I, and 237 Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  19. Influence of anthropogenic aerosol on solar radiation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Brink, H M

    1993-12-01

    Backscatter of solar radiation by aerosol and the cooling thus induced, is the single largest uncertainty factor in assessing the climate effect of the greenhouse gases. The dominant reason for the uncertainty in the aerosol effect is its local nature. Therefore it is only via localized efforts that estimates can be improved. It is the aim of the present study to better assess the amount of solar radiation intercepted by aerosol, especially that of aerosol of anthropogenic origin in Europe. The assessment is realized along three interconnected approaches. First, empirical factors stemming from measurements in the US and used in the present estimates of the reflection of solar radiation by anthropogenic aerosol are checked for their validity in the European domain. Secondly, historical data on solar flux in Europe are related to the historic trend in aerosol loading. Finally, a sophisticated aerosol and cloud (radiation) module is developed for incorporation in a climate model. The radiation module uses aerosol characteristics as measured in the field and is validated via solar radiation measurements. The concerted investigation started in January 1993. The data obtained in the first phase of the study formed the basis for the definite detailed approach and will therefore be reported in this text. 1 fig., 9 refs.

  20. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Geochemical record of anthropogenic impacts on Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yunping; Jaffe, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Bulk geochemical parameters and organic matter biomarkers in a short, high resolution gravity core (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) were examined to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts on the lake's conditions. During the period of ca. 1840-1990, sedimentary organic matter was characterized by high contents of total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN), low TOC/TN values as well as relatively enriched δ 13 C and δ 15 N signals, suggesting a primary autochthonous (algae and macrophytes) organic matter origin. The occurrence of large amounts of C 23 and C 25 relative to C 29 and C 31 n-alkanes indicated substantial inputs from submerged/floating macrophytes. The variations of C 32 15-keto-ol, tetrahymanol, diploptene, C 32 bishomohopanol, 2-methylhopane, dinosterol and isoarborinol concentrations over the investigated period record changes in the planktonic community structure, including Botryococcus braunii, bacteriavore ciliates, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophytes and dinoflagellates. A principal shift occurred in the 1910s when cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates became more abundant at the expense and decline of B. braunii and Eustigmatophytes, likely related to increasing anthropogenic activity around the lake. A second shift (less obvious) occurred in the 1960s when cyanobacteria became the sole predominant planktonic class, coinciding with further deterioration of lake conditions

  2. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the White sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.; Bogunov, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in the White Sea was presented. The study was conducted to determine natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in order to aid in future zoning plans. Hydrocarbons were extracted from samples of aerosols, ice, water, particulate matter, phyto- and zooplankton, and bottom sediments. Results of the study suggested that HC concentrations in aerosols above the White Sea were lower than in marine aerosols above the southeastern Atlantic and lower than Alkane concentrations in aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea. A study of PAH behaviour in Northern Dvina estuaries showed that the submicron fractions contained light polyarenes. Particulate matter collected in sedimentation traps was enriched in phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Aliphatic HC enrichment was due to the presence of phytoplankton and other microorganisms. Between 54 per cent and 85 per cent of initial organic matter was consumed during diagenesis in the bottom sediments, indicating a high rate of HC transformation. It was suggested that the majority of oil HC transported with river water is precipitated. Fluoranthene was the dominant PAH in the study, and was assumed to be caused by natural transformation of PAH composition during distant atmospheric transport. Pyrogenic contamination of the bottom sediments was attributed to an aluminium plant. It was concluded that the detection of significant amounts of HC is not direct evidence of their anthropogenic origins. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  3. The anthropogenic influence on carbonaceous aerosol in the European background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Barbara; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Hammer, Samuel (Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)). e-mail: barbara.may@iup.uni-heidelberg.de; Steier, Peter (VERA laboratory, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Puxbaum, Hans (Inst. for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna Univ. of Technology, Vienna (Austria)); Pio, Casimiro (CESAM and Dept. of Environment, Univ. of Aveiro (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    To constrain the relatively uncertain anthropogenic impact on the organic aerosol load, radiocarbon analyses were performed on aerosol samples, collected year-round, at six non-urban sites including a maritime background and three remote mountain stations, lying on a west-east transect over Western Europe. From a crude three component model supported by TOC and levoglucosan filter data, the fossil fuel, biomass burning and biogenic TOC fraction are estimated, showing at all stations year-round, a relatively constant fossil fuel fraction of around (26 +- 6)%, a dominant biogenic contribution of on average (73 +- 7)% in summer and the continental as well as the maritime background TOC to be only about 50% biogenic. Assuming biomass burning as completely anthropogenic, the carbonaceous aerosol concentration at the mountain sites was found to have increased by a factor of up to (1.4 +- 0.2) in summer and up to (2.5 +- 1.0) in winter. This figure is significantly lower, however, than the respective TOC change since pre-industrial times seen in an Alpine ice core. Reconciling both observations would require an increase, since pre-industrial times, of the background biogenic aerosol load, which is estimated at a factor of 1.3-1.7.

  4. The anthropogenic influence on carbonaceous aerosol in the European background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Barbara; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Hammer, Samuel (Inst. fuer Umweltphysik, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)). e-mail: barbara.may@iup.uni-heidelberg.de; Steier, Peter (VERA laboratory, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Puxbaum, Hans (Inst. for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria)); Pio, Casimiro (CESAM and Dept. of Environment, Univ. of Aveiro (Portugal))

    2008-07-01

    To constrain the relatively uncertain anthropogenic impact on the organic aerosol load, radiocarbon analyses were performed on aerosol samples, collected year-round, at six non-urban sites including a maritime background and three remote mountain stations, lying on a west-east transect over Western Europe. From a crude three component model supported by TOC and levoglucosan filter data, the fossil fuel, biomass burning and biogenic TOC fraction are estimated, showing at all stations year-round, a relatively constant fossil fuel fraction of around (26 +- 6)% , a dominant biogenic contribution of on average (73 +- 7)% in summer and the continental as well as the maritime background TOC to be only about 50% biogenic. Assuming biomass burning as completely anthropogenic, the carbonaceous aerosol concentration at the mountain sites was found to have increased by a factor of up to (1.4 +- 0.2) in summer and up to (2.5 +- 1.0) in winter. This figure is significantly lower, however, than the respective TOC change since pre-industrial times seen in an Alpine ice core. Reconciling both observations would require an increase, since pre-industrial times, of the background biogenic aerosol load, which is estimated at a factor of 1.3-1.7

  5. Anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1980 to 2012 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Deng, Meihua; Li, Tingqiang; Japenga, Jan; Chen, Qianqian; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2017-07-01

    China was considered the biggest contributor for airborne mercury in the world but the amount of mercury emission in effluents and solid wastes has not been documented. In this study, total national and regional mercury emission to the environment via exhaust gases, effluents and solid wastes were accounted with updated emission factors and the amount of goods produced and/or consumed. The national mercury emission in China increased from 448 to 2151 tons during the 1980-2012 period. Nearly all of the emissions were ended up as exhaust gases and solid wastes. The proportion of exhaust gases decreased with increasing share of solid wastes and effluents. Of all the anthropogenic sources, coal was the most important contributor in quantity, followed by mercury mining, gold smelting, nonferrous smelting, iron steel production, domestic wastes, and cement production, with accounting for more than 90% of the total emission. There was a big variation of regional cumulative mercury emission during 1980-2012 in China, with higher emissions occurred in eastern areas and lower values in the western and far northern regions. The biggest cumulative emission occurred in GZ (Guizhou), reaching 3974 t, while the smallest cumulative emission was lower than 10 t in XZ (Tibet). Correspondingly, mercury accumulation in soil were higher in regions with larger emissions in unit area. Therefore, it is urgent to reduce anthropogenic mercury emission and subsequent impact on ecological functions and human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornber, Carol S.; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W.; McKinney, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and δ 15 N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in δ 15 N among sites, but with two exceptions had δ 15 N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals (δ 15 N = ∼14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries

  7. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornber, Carol S. [Department of Biological Sciences, 100 Flagg Road, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)], E-mail: thornber@uri.edu; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W. [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, South Ferry Road, Narragansett, RI 02881 (United States); McKinney, Richard A. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlantic Ecology Division, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and {delta}{sup 15}N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in {delta}{sup 15}N among sites, but with two exceptions had {delta}{sup 15}N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals ({delta}{sup 15}N = {approx}14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries.

  8. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, Carol S; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W; McKinney, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and delta(15)N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in delta(15)N among sites, but with two exceptions had delta(15)N above 10 per thousand, reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals (delta(15)N= approximately 14-17 per thousand and 8-12 per thousand, respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries.

  9. Avoiding Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, K. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, PA (United States); Hall, M. [Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Kim, Seung-Rae [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bradford, D.F. [Department of Economics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Oppenheimer, M. [Woodrow Wilson School and Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Robertson Hall 448, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the avoidance of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'. Among the many plausible choices, dangerous interference with the climate system may be interpreted as anthropogenic radiative forcing causing distinct and widespread climate change impacts such as a widespread demise of coral reefs or a disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet. The geological record and numerical models suggest that limiting global warming below critical temperature thresholds significantly reduces the likelihood of these eventualities. Here we analyze economically optimal policies that may ensure this risk-reduction. Reducing the risk of a widespread coral reef demise implies drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions within decades. Virtually unchecked greenhouse gas emissions to date (combined with the inertia of the coupled natural and human systems) may have already committed future societies to a widespread demise of coral reefs. Policies to reduce the risk of a West Antarctic ice sheet disintegration allow for a smoother decarbonization of the economy within a century and may well increase consumption in the long run.

  10. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  11. Comparative cytotoxicity assessments of some manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Karla Fabiola

    Due to increasing diversity of newly engineered nanoparticles, it is important to consider the hazards of these materials. Very little is known regarding the potential toxicity of relatively new nanomaterials. However, beginning with several historical accounts of nanomaterials applications---chrysotile asbestos and silver---it was assumed that these examples would provide some awareness and guidelines for future nanomaterial and nanotechnology applications, especially health effects. In this study in vitro assays were performed on a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human alveolar macrophage cell line (THB-1), and human epithelial lung cell line (A549) to assess the comparative cytotoxicity of a wide range of manufactured (Ag, TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, ZrO2, black carbon, two different types of multiwall structures and chrysotile asbestos as the toxicity standard) and anthropogenic nanoparticulates. There are several parameters of nanoparticulates that are considered to trigger an inflammatory response (particularly respiratory) or cause toxicity. These parameters include: particle size, shape, specific surface area, transition metals in particulates, and organic compounds. Therefore, a wide variety of manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulates having different morphologies, sizes, specific surface area and chemistries as noted were tested. To determine the nanoparticulates' size and morphology, they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where it was observed that the commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate had an identical morphology to chrysotile asbestos and combustion-formed carbon nanotubes, i.e.; those that form from natural gas combustion. Light optical microscopy was used to determine cell morphology upon exposure to nanoparticulates as an indication of cell death. Also, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the collected nanoparticulates was analyzed and correlated with cytotoxic responses. For

  12. Attribution of irreversible loss to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Bresch, David; Hansen, Gerrit; James, Rachel; Mechler, Reinhard; Stone, Dáithí; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    The Paris Agreement (2015) under the UNFCCC has anchored loss and damage in a separate article which specifies that understanding and support should be enhanced in areas addressing loss and damage such as early warning, preparedness, insurance and resilience. Irreversible loss is a special category under loss and damage but there is still missing clarity over what irreversible loss actually includes. Many negative impacts of climate change may be handled or mitigated by existing risk management, reduction and absorption approaches. Irreversible loss, however, is thought to be insufficiently addressed by risk management. Therefore, countries potentially or actually affected by irreversible loss are calling for other measures such as compensation, which however is highly contested in international climate policy. In Paris (2015) a decision was adopted that loss and damage as defined in the respective article of the agreement does not involve compensation and liability. Nevertheless, it is likely that some sort of mechanism will eventually need to come into play for irreversible loss due to anthropogenic climate change, which might involve compensation, other forms of non-monetary reparation, or transformation. Furthermore, climate litigation has increasingly been attempted to address negative effects of climate change. In this context, attribution is important to understand the drivers of change, what counts as irreversible loss due to climate change, and, possibly, who or what is responsible. Here we approach this issue by applying a detection and attribution perspective on irreversible loss. We first analyze detected climate change impacts as assessed in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. We distinguish between irreversible loss in physical, biological and human systems, and accordingly identify the following candidates of irreversible loss in these systems: loss of glaciers and ice sheets, loss of subsurface ice (permafrost) and related loss of lake systems; loss

  13. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-wei; Liao, Yuan-mei; Liu, Hui; Nie, Ren-hua; Havumaki, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas. This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI). Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people), however only 169 (48.0%) households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2%) residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN) and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN) were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05), however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN) was significantly lower (34.5%, Pcash income per person (ACIP) was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (PHigh bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  14. Modelling of current loads on aquaculture net cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Trygve; Faltinsen, Odd M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we propose and discuss a screen type of force model for the viscous hydrodynamic load on nets. The screen model assumes that the net is divided into a number of flat net panels, or screens. It may thus be applied to any kind of net geometry. In this paper we focus on circular net cages for fish farms. The net structure itself is modelled by an existing truss model. The net shape is solved for in a time-stepping procedure that involves solving a linear system of equations for the unknown tensions at each time step. We present comparisons to experiments with circular net cages in steady current, and discuss the sensitivity of the numerical results to a set of chosen parameters. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and numerical prediction of drag and lift as function of the solidity ratio of the net and the current velocity is documented.

  15. Expected Net Present Value, Expected Net Future Value, and the Ramsey Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Gollier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Weitzman (1998) showed that when future interest rates are uncertain, using the expected net present value implies a term structure of discount rates that is decreasing to the smallest possible interest rate. On the contrary, using the expected net future value criteria implies an increasing term structure of discount rates up to the largest possible interest rate. We reconcile the two approaches by introducing risk aversion and utility maximization. We show that if the aggregate consumption ...

  16. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005. Net radiative forcing (RF is then estimated using the GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m−2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100 yr global warming potential (GWP100 are estimated as −0.124 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from −0.115 to −0.131 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S–28° N followed by the northern midlatitudes (28° N–60° N, independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international

  17. Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.-H.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Blake, D. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Kiley, C. M.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Streets, D. G.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nolf, S. R.

    2003-10-01

    We report here airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific during the March-April 2001 Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The CO2 spatial distributions were notably influenced by cyclogenesis-triggered transport of regionally polluted continental air masses. Examination of the CO2 to C2H2/CO ratio indicated rapid outflow of combustion-related emissions in the free troposphere below 8 km. Although the highest CO2 mixing ratios were measured within the Pacific Rim region, enhancements were also observed further east over the open ocean at locations far removed from surface sources. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered within the planetary boundary layer contained up to 393 ppmv of CO2. Coincident enhancements in the mixing ratios of C2Cl4, C2H2, and C2H4 measured concurrently revealed combustion and industrial sources. To elucidate the source distributions of CO2, an emissions database for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5-day backward trajectories that revealed the WNW/W sector of northeast Asia was a major contributor to these pollution events. Comparisons of NOAA/CMDL and JMA surface data with measurements obtained aloft showed a strong latitudinal gradient that peaked between 35° and 40°N. We estimated a net CO2 flux from the Asian continent of approximately 13.93 Tg C day-1 for late winter/early spring with the majority of the export (79%) occurring in the lower free troposphere (2-8 km). The apportionment of the flux between anthropogenic and biospheric sources was estimated at 6.37 Tg C day-1 and 7.56 Tg C day-1, respectively.

  18. The Anthropogenic Effects of Hydrocarbon Inputs to Coastal Seas: Are There Potential Biogeochemical Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. R.; Rivkin, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon discharges related to fossil fuel exploitation have the potential to alter microbial processes in the upper ocean. While the ecotoxicological effects of such inputs are commonly evaluated, the potential for eutrophication from the constituent organic and inorganic nutrients has been largely ignored. Hydrocarbons from natural seeps and anthropogenic sources represent a measurable source of organic carbon for surface waters. The most recent (1989-1997) estimate of average world-wide input of hydrocarbons to the sea is 1.250 x 1012 g/yr ≈ 1.0 x 1012g C/year. Produced water from offshore platforms is the largest waste stream from oil and gas exploitation and contributes significant quantities of inorganic nutrients such as N, P and Fe. In coastal areas where such inputs are a significant source of these nutrients, model studies show the potential to shift production toward smaller cells and net heterotrophy. The consequences of these nutrient sources for coastal systems and semi enclosed seas are complex and difficult to predict, because (1) there is a lack of comprehensive data on inputs and in situ concentrations and (2) the is no conceptual or quantitative framework to consider their effects on ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we use examples from the North Sea (produced water discharges 1% total riverine input and NH4 3% of the annual riverine nitrogen load), the South China Sea (total petroleum hydrocarbons = 10-1750 μg/l in offshore waters), and the Gulf of Mexico (seeps = 76-106 x 109 gC/yr, Macondo blowout 545 x 109 gC) to demonstrate how hydrocarbon and produced water inputs can influence basin scale biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and to propose a framework to consider these effects on larger scales.

  19. NET test blanket design and remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.; Hubert, P.

    1991-01-01

    The NET machine has three horizontal ports reserved for testing tritium breeding blanket designs during the physics phase and possibly five during the technology phase. The design of the ports and test blankets are modular to accept a range of blanket options, provide radiation shielding and allow routine replacement. Radiation levels during replacement or maintenance require that all operations must be carried out remotely. The paper describes the problems overcome in providing a port design which includes attachment to the vacuum vessel with double vacuum seals, an integrated cooled first wall and support guides for the test blanket module. The method selected to remotely replace the test module whilst controlling the spread of contamination is also adressed. The paper concludes that the provisions of a test blanket facility based on the NET machine design is feasible. (orig.)

  20. Fuzzy net present value for engineering analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazeri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cash flow analysis is one of the most popular methods for investigating the outcome of an economical project. The costs and benefits of a construction project are often involved with uncertainty and it is not possible to find a precise value for a particular project. In this paper, we present a simple method to calculate the net present value of a cash flow when both costs and benefits are given as triangular numbers. The proposed model of this paper uses Delphi method to figure out the fair values of all costs and revenues and then using fizzy programming techniques, it calculates the fuzzy net present value. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated using a simple example.

  1. AstroNet-II International Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Masdemont, Josep

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the "AstroNet-II International Final Conference". This conference was one of the last milestones of the Marie-Curie Research Training Network on Astrodynamics "AstroNet-II", that has been funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The aim of the conference, and thus this book, is to communicate work on astrodynamics problems to an international and specialised audience. The results are presented by both members of the network and invited specialists. The topics include: trajectory design and control, attitude control, structural flexibility of spacecraft and formation flying. The book addresses a readership across the traditional boundaries between mathematics, engineering and industry by offering an interdisciplinary and multisectorial overview of the field.

  2. Automatic pipeline operation using Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Guilherme O. [PETROBRAS TRANSPORTE S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A pipeline operation requires several actions, attention and time from the control room operator in each of its operating phases. This article proposition is to use automation as something more than a remote control, drastically reducing the number of repetitive and routine actions needed from the operator to start and stop the system, granting more time for system supervision, decision making during critical conditions and avoiding errors caused due to the need of several actions being executed in a short period of time. To achieve these objectives the pipeline operation will be modeled as a Petri Net consisting of states, event and actions. A methodology for converting this Petri Net into a Ladder controller code will also be proposed. (author)

  3. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution (50 km) climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The experiments were forced at the lateral boundary by large-scale atmospheric conditions from transient climate change scenario simulations...... with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. We find that due to a much better representation of the surface topography in the RCM, the geographical distribution of present-day accumulation rates simulated by the RCM represents a substantial...... improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found...

  4. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  5. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Martinez, Cristian Camilo; Castano Llano, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETS) are rare neoplasms which can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Their particular characteristics include uptake of silver salts, neuroendocrine cell marker expression and hormonal secretory granules. Depending on their size, anatomical location and upon whether or not metastasis has occurred, these tumors can show different clinical patterns and have different prognoses. Early diagnosis is essential for treating these lesions and improving the patients' prognoses, but it requires a high degree of suspicion and confirmation by special testing. Surgical treatment is the first choice, but other medical therapy can be helpful for patients who have unresectable disease. This review presents the most relevant aspects of classification, morphology, methods of locating tumors, diagnosis and treatment of GEP-NETS. It presents only the Colombian experience in the epidemiology and management of these tumors.

  6. Thermal transmission of camouflage nets revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jersblad, Johan; Jacobs, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    In this article we derive, from first principles, the correct formula for thermal transmission of a camouflage net, based on the setup described in the US standard for lightweight camouflage nets. Furthermore, we compare the results and implications with the use of an incorrect formula that have been seen in several recent tenders. It is shown that the incorrect formulation not only gives rise to large errors, but the result also depends on the surrounding room temperature, which in the correct derivation cancels out. The theoretical results are compared with laboratory measurements. The theoretical results agree with the laboratory results for the correct derivation. To summarize we discuss the consequences for soldiers on the battlefield if incorrect standards and test methods are used in procurement processes.

  7. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    Performance is often a central issue in the design, development, and configuration of systems. It is not always enough to know that systems work properly, they must also work effectively. There are numerous studies, e.g. in the areas of computer and telecommunication systems, manufacturing......, military, health care, and transportation, that have shown that time, money, and even lives can be saved if the performance of a system is improved. Performance analysis studies are conducted to evaluate existing or planned systems, to compare alternative configurations, or to find an optimal configuration...... of a system. There are three alternative techniques for analysing the performance of a system: measurement, analytical models, and simulation models. This dissertation focuses on the the use of coloured Petri nets for simulationbased performance analysis of industrial-sized systems. Coloured Petri nets...

  8. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  9. Dental health state of children living in different anthropogenic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Luchynskyі

    2015-11-01

    I. Y. Horbachevskyy Ternopil State Medical University of Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Ukraine, Ternopil (Ternopil, Maydan Voli, 1, 46001   Abstract   The purpose of the work is to study dental health of children living in conditions of combined negative impact of natural and technological factors. Materials and methods. It was performed an epidemiological dental examination of 2,551 children aged 6 to 15 years, who settled in different regions of the Precarpathians, in conditions of iodine and fluoride deficiency (plain - 1087 children, foothills - 730 and mountain - 734 children. Results. Comprehensive epidemiological studies found low levels of dental health of children living in different geochemical and anthropogenic conditions of Ivano-Frankivsk region (48,83 ± 0,36% in the general observation, that is not statistically different by regions examination, moreover girls level is lower, than that of boys in examined regions (48,14 ± 0,50 and (49,51 ± 0,52%, respectively. It was founded, that the main diseases, which contribute to the reduction of dental health in children, is dental caries and its complications and abnormalities of dentoalveolar system. It was found, that the frequency and severity of dentoalveolar abnormalities depend on anthropogenic environmental conditions: in children of plain and foothill regions, that suffer from greater anthropogenic pressure, dentoalveolar abnormalities where found in (67,99 ± 1,42 and (65,21 ± 1,76%, against (45,91 ± 1,84% in children of conditionally pure mountain region. These same children also often recorded more severe pathology – combined anomalies (24,09 ± 1,57 and (22,06 ± 1,90%, against (12,17 ± 1,78%, respectively. It was found the connection between the dentoalveolar abnormalities and the presence of caries (r = + 0,95; p <0,01 and periodontal tissue diseases (r = + 0,79; p <0,05.   Keywords: children, dental health, dentoalveolar abnormalities, dental caries, periodontal disease, hypoplasia.

  10. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie P. Bunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  11. Determinization of timed Petri nets behaviors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Lahaye, S.; Boimond, J.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 413-437 ISSN 0924-6703 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13012; GA ČR GA15-02532S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : timed Petri nets * (max,+) automata * determinization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.660, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10626-015-0214-1

  12. Liquid metal cooled blanket concept for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Casal, V.; Arheidt, K.; Fischer, U.; Link, W.; Rust, K.

    1986-01-01

    A blanket concept for NET using liquid lithium-lead both as breeder material and as coolant is described. The need for inboard breeding is avoided by using beryllium as neutron multiplier in the outboard blanket. Novel flow channel inserts are employed in all poloidal ducts to reduce the MHD pressure drop. The concept offers a simple mechanical design and a higher tritium breeding ratio compared to water- and gas-cooled blankets. (author)

  13. Modulated error diffusion CGHs for neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Pieter J. E.; Casasent, David P.

    1990-05-01

    New modulated error diffusion CGHs (computer generated holograms) for optical computing are considered. Specific attention is given to their use in optical matrix-vector, associative processor, neural net and optical interconnection architectures. We consider lensless CGH systems (many CGHs use an external Fourier transform (FT) lens), the Fresnel sampling requirements, the effects of finite CGH apertures (sample and hold inputs), dot size correction (for laser recorders), and new applications for this novel encoding method (that devotes attention to quantization noise effects).

  14. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Torstrick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  15. Fuzzy Neuroidal Nets and Recurrent Fuzzy Computations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 675-686 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2001 Workshop on Soft Computing. Piešťany, 29.11.2001-30.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489; GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy computing * fuzzy neural nets * fuzzy Turing machines * non-uniform computational complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. New control system: net communications on VAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Maugeais, C.

    1992-01-01

    The control system is made of five different types of processors: a server (VAX 3800), stations (VS4000) as setting interfaces for operators, CAMAC VANTAGE controllers, VME controllers and industrial programmable automates. These automates are treated with the IMAGIN supervision software and with the OSI communication protocol. All the processors are of the VAX family and use DECNET communication protocol on ETHERNET net. (A.B.). 3 figs

  17. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  18. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share

  19. SpecNet: Spectrum Sensing Sans Frontieres

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Anand Padmanabha; Chintalapudi, Krishna; Navda, Vishnu; Ramjee, Ramachandran; Padmanabhan, Venkata N; Murthy, Chandra R

    2011-01-01

    While the under-utilization of licensed spectrum based on measurement studies conducted in a few developed countries has spurred lots of interest in opportunistic spectrum access, there exists no infrastructure today for measuring real-time spectrum occupancy across vast geographical regions. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of SpecNet, a first-of-its-kind platform that allows spectrum analyzers around the world to be networked and efficiently used in a coordinated manner...

  20. A Petri Nets Model for Blockchain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Andrea; Tonelli, Roberto; Orrú, Matteo; Marchesi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A Blockchain is a global shared infrastructure where cryptocurrency transactions among addresses are recorded, validated and made publicly available in a peer- to-peer network. To date the best known and important cryptocurrency is the bitcoin. In this paper we focus on this cryptocurrency and in particular on the modeling of the Bitcoin Blockchain by using the Petri Nets formalism. The proposed model allows us to quickly collect information about identities owning Bitcoin addresses and to re...

  1. GOLD NETTING TO STRENGTHEN FINANCIAL SYSTEM STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed Kameel Mydin Meera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and financial crises seem to occur with increased frequency. Indeed now most countries, including several advanced economies like the US, Europe and Japan, are in serious economic recession. Employment and business opportunities have been much dampened. Inflation seems to be soaring globally and nations are witnessing widening gaps in income and wealth distribution. Many of these advanced economies are also facing shrinking population sizes that translate into aging problems and labor shortages. On top of those, there are environmental issues, including global warming. All these, in turn, have caused regional and global political conflicts and turmoil. The Arab Spring and the sovereign debt problems faced by some European countries like Greece are examples of this. Sustainability of economics and environment is thus of paramount concern of today. This paper considers those problems and suggests Interest-free Gold-based Electronic Netting System (IGENS as an effective way of injecting liquidity into the economy, practically free, that can spur business and employment while bringing about structural stability, inflation checked with both economic and environmental sustainability. Netting or muqassah is a transaction allowed in shari’ah and is practiced worldwide in different forms. Examples include the highly successful WIR Bank of Switzerland, various Local Exchange Trading Schemes (LETS and Bilateral and Multilateral Payment Arrangements between central banks.   Keywords:  Global crisis, Payment system, Gold, Netting, Muqassah, Liquidity, Sustainability, Financial system stability JEL Classification: E40, E42, E51

  2. WE-NET: Japanese hydrogen program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsugi, Chiba; Harumi, Arai; Kenzo, Fukuda

    1998-01-01

    The Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), started the New Sunshine Program in 1993 by unifying the Sunshine Program (R and D on new energy technology), the Moonlight Program (R and D on energy conservation technology), and the Research and Development Program for Environmental Technology. The objective of the new program is to develop innovative technologies to allow sustainable growth while solving energy and environmental issues. One of the new projects in this program is the ''International Clean Energy System Technology Utilizing Hydrogen (World Energy Network)'': WE-NET. The goal of WE-NET is to construct a worldwide energy network for effective supply, transportation and utilization of renewable energy using hydrogen. The WE-NET program extends over 28 years from 1993 to 2020. In Phase 1, we started core research in areas such as development of high efficiency technologies including hydrogen production using polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbines, etc. (author)

  3. Atmospheric delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust to the ocean

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 彰記; 時, 宗波; ITO, Akinori; SHI, Zongbo

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. Here, we...

  4. Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the ocean

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 彰記; 時, 宗波; ITO, Akinori; SHI, Zongbo

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. In this ...

  5. Phosphorus in Denmark: national and regional anthropogenic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinglmair, Manfred; Lemming, Camilla; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    by country-wide average values. To quantify and evaluate these imbalances we integrated a country-scale and regional-scale model of the Danish anthropogenic P flows and stocks. We examine three spatial regions with regard to agriculture, as the main driver for P use, and waste management, the crucial sector......Substance flow analyses (SFA) of phosphorus (P) have been examined on a national or supra-national level in various recent studies. SFA studies of P on the country scale or larger can have limited informative value; large differences between P budgets exist within countries and are easily obscured...... for P recovery. The regions are characterised by their differences in agricultural practice, population and industrial density. We show considerable variation in P flows within the country. First, these are driven by agriculture, with mineral fertiliser inputs varying between 3 and 5 kg ha−1 yr−1...

  6. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the Antarctic pack ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted near the Russian Antarctic stations in May, 2001 in the Pridz Bay and coastal part of the Davies Sea to examine the content of dissolved and suspended forms of aliphatic hydrocarbons in melted snow samples, pack ice and ice cores. The site included clean control areas and polluted test areas. A spill was performed by covering the bare ice surface with marine diesel fuel. The different physical characteristics of clean and polluted ice were measured. This included radiation balance, reflected solar radiation, integral albedo radiation, surface temperature, seawater temperature, salinity at depth, and ice salinity. The study showed that accumulation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon took place in the ice-water barrier zone, mostly in suspended form. It was concluded that for oil spills in pack Antarctic ice, the mechanism of filtration due to convection-diffusion plays an important role in the transformation of diesel fuel. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Anthropogenic influence on forest landscape in the Khumbu valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Emanuele; Garbarino, Matteo; Urbinati, Carlo; Carrer, Marco

    2013-04-01

    High altitude Himalayan regions are geo-dynamically very active and very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic disturbances due to their steep slopes, variations of precipitations with elevation and short growing periods. Nonetheless, even in this remote region human pressure is often the most important factor affecting forest landscape. In the last decades the firewood demand has increased each year between September to December. The increase in the number of tourists, mountaineering, guides, porters, carpenters, lodges lead to a peak in the use of fuelwood. In order to understand anthropogenic impacts on forest, resources landscape and stand scale dynamics were analyzed in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and its Buffer Zone in the Khumbu Valley (Nepal, Eastern Himalaya). Biological and historical data sources were employed, and a multi-scale approach was adopted to capture the influence of human activities on the distribution of tree species and forest structure. Stand structure and a range of environmental variables were sampled in 197 20x20 m square plots, and land use and anthropogenic variables were derived in a GIS environment (thematic maps and IKONOS, Landsat and Terra ASTER satellite images). We used multivariate statistical analyses to relate forest structure, anthropogenic influences, land uses, and topography. Fuel wood is the prime source of energy for cooking (1480-1880 Kg/person/year) and Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Pinus wallichiana, among the others, are the most exploited species. Due to lack of sufficient energy sources deforestation is becoming a problem in the area. This might be a major threat causing soil erosion, landslides and other natural hazards. Among the 25 species of trees that were found in the Buffer Zone Community Forests of SNP, Pinus wallichiana, Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum are the dominant species. The total stand density ranged from 228 to 379 tree/ha and the

  8. Psychic pathology of anthropogenic accidents at risk enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhovskij, N.N.

    1993-01-01

    The literary data on the clinic and pathogenesis distinctions of traumatic and posttraumatic stress following the accidents are analyzed. The inner contradictory character of the Chernobyl NPP operators reaction to psychodraumatic situation is revealed. A number of concepts liable to discussion is given: inner contradiction of the reactions to traumatic stress on account of accidents at risk cuterprises puts forward the way for psychology evolution in process, besides, posttraumatic stress may be considered as one of the stages of such evolution; the misuse of spirits by the persons with traumatic stress appeared on account of accidents at risk enterprises puts forward the way for the subsequent evolution towards psychic degeneration; the prevailing effect of the reality denial among the personnel of the risk enterprises may form a muthcreative attitude to technical sphere and play a certain role in the emergence of anthropogenic accidents at these enterprises. 22 refs

  9. National greenhouse gas accounts: Current anthropogenic sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subak, S.; Raskin, P.; Hippel, David von

    1992-01-01

    This study provides spatially disaggregated estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the major anthropogenic sources for 145 countries. The data compilation is comprehensive in approach, including emissions from CO, CH 4 , N 2 O and ten halocarbons, in addition to CO 2 . The sources include emissions from fossil fuel production and use, cement production, halocarbons, landfills, land use changes, biomass burning, rice and livestock production and fertilizer consumption. The approach used to derive these estimates corresponds closely with the simple methodologies proposed by the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Task Force of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The inventory includes a new estimate of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion based principally on data from the International Energy Agency. The research methodologies for estimating emissions from all sources is briefly described and compared with other recent studies in the literature. (112 refs.)

  10. Anthropogenic SO2/NOx committee--current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1993-04-01

    Current activities of the Anthropogenic SO 2 /NO x Committee center around the compilation of Version 1 of the GEIA inventories. These inventories will be based on the GEIA-specified 1 degrees by 1 degrees grid (lower left corner at 180 degrees W/90 degrees S, west to east and south to north), reflect 1985 emissions and consist of two data sets: Version 1A inventories with annual emissions at one level and Version 1B inventories with seasonal emissions, two vertical levels (defined at 100 m) and sectoral split information. The basic information used for both versions of the GEIA inventories will be identical; i.e., emissions totals across both inventories will be the same. Work is being carried out in two complementary working groups; Carmen Benkovitz, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA heads the work on the annual inventory, Eva Voldner, Atmospheric Environment Services, Canada and Trevor Scholtz, ORTECH International, Canada, head the work on the seasonal inventory

  11. Linkage of anthropogenic aerosol to clouds and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report describes the monitoring being done to validate a linkage of anthropogenic aerosol to clouds and climate. Equipment and findings are reported. The equipment construction called for in the original proposal has now been competed. These instruments are the high temperature processor, the data acquisition system for the direct Royco optical particle counter (OPC), and modifications to the formvar replicator. The main field effort during the past year has been the shipboard experiment SEAHUNT (Shiptrail Evolution Above High Updraft Naval Targets). There were also some laboratory and local ambient particle measurements and a surface field program on and near the California coast. The shipboard project was not anticipated in the original proposal but the laboratory and surface measurements were along the lines suggested in the original proposal

  12. Anthropogenic range contractions bias species climate change forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurby, Søren; Araújo, Miguel B.

    2018-03-01

    Forecasts of species range shifts under climate change most often rely on ecological niche models, in which characterizations of climate suitability are highly contingent on the species range data used. If ranges are far from equilibrium under current environmental conditions, for instance owing to local extinctions in otherwise suitable areas, modelled environmental suitability can be truncated, leading to biased estimates of the effects of climate change. Here we examine the impact of such biases on estimated risks from climate change by comparing models of the distribution of North American mammals based on current ranges with ranges accounting for historical information on species ranges. We find that estimated future diversity, almost everywhere, except in coastal Alaska, is drastically underestimated unless the full historical distribution of the species is included in the models. Consequently forecasts of climate change impacts on biodiversity for many clades are unlikely to be reliable without acknowledging anthropogenic influences on contemporary ranges.

  13. A retrospect of anthropogenic radioactivity in the global marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1998-01-01

    . The IAEA's IASAP study has evaluated the radiological consequences of these dumpings. In a recent international study (MARDOS) by the IAEA it was concluded that the doses to man from anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment are generally one to two orders of magnitude less than the doses from......Man-made radionuclides were introduced into the marine environment in the mid forties with the exploitation of nuclear fission for military purposes. Plutonium production reactors at Hanford, USA, released radioactivity to the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. In the former Soviet Union (FSU......) the military nuclear establishment at Cheliabinsk (later MAYAK) a few years later began direct discharging of fission products to the nearby Techa River, which is a part of the Ob river system, and the Arctic Ocean received man made radioactivity. In the 1950s, when atmospheric testing of thermonuclear weapons...

  14. Anthropogenic inputs of dissolved organic matter in New York Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.

  15. The comparative evidence for urban species sorting by anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Hu, Yang; Francis, Clinton D

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic noise is more intense at lower sound frequencies, which could decrease urban tolerance of animals with low-frequency vocalizations. Four large comparative studies tested whether anthropogenic noise filters bird species according to the sound frequencies they use and produced discrepant results. We reanalysed data from these studies to explain their different results. Urban tolerance of bird species (defined here as often occurring and breeding in cities) is very weakly related to urban preference or relative abundance (defined based on changes in population density from urban to nearby rural environments). Data on urban preference/abundance are potentially accurate for individual cities but differ among cities for the same species, whereas existing data on urban tolerance are coarser but provide a more global synthesis. Cross-species comparisons find a positive association between the sound frequency of song and urban tolerance, but not urban preference/abundance. We found that showing an association between song frequency and urban tolerance requires controlling for additional species traits that influence urban living. On the contrary, controlling for other species traits is not required to show a positive association between song frequency and use of noisy relative to quiet areas within the same type of environment. Together, comparative evidence indicates that masking by urban noise is part of a larger set of factors influencing urban living: all else being equal, species with high-frequency sounds are more likely to tolerate cities than species with low-frequency sounds, but they are not more likely to prefer, or to be more abundant in, urban than non-urban habitats.

  16. Regional modelling of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engardt, M.; Leong, C. P.

    A co-operative research project between the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) focussing on the usage of an atmospheric transport and chemistry model, has just been initiated. Here, we describe the main features of the dispersion model and discuss a first set of calculations in light of available measurements of sulphuric species in Southeast Asia. According to our results, anthropogenic sulphur concentrations and depositions are particularly high near the large cities of the region, around a metal smelter in the southern Philippines, and in a region extending from northern Vietnam into southeastern China. These areas coincide with the high-emissions regions of Southeast Asia and we tentatively conclude that regional transport of acidifying species is not as far-reaching as in the mid-latitudes. From our calculations, and from supporting measurements we conclude that most of rural Southeast Asia is not yet severely affected by anthropogenic sulphur, but given the rapid rate of economical development in this region the situation may deteriorate quickly. Areas that are particularly at risk include the large cities, northern Vietnam, most of central Thailand, most of peninsular Malaysia, eastern Sumatra and parts of Java, all of which receive total-sulphur depositions in excess of 0.5 g S m -2 yr -1. Our model simulates sulphate in precipitation in accordance with measurements, but it has a tendency to overestimate atmospheric SO 2. It remains to be investigated whether this is a problem in the model formulation or a result of unrepresentative sampling. An immediate continuation of this study should be performed with higher spatial resolution than the currently used 100×100 km 2. Other imperfections in this model study, which should be addressed in future work, include parameterised vertical transport in deep convective clouds, the influence of natural emissions (primarily from volcanoes) on the

  17. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shirsat

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft in Antarctica, covering the 2004–2005 period.

    The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica.

    Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004–2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  18. Migrating mule deer: effects of anthropogenically altered landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E Lendrum

    Full Text Available Migration is an adaptive strategy that enables animals to enhance resource availability and reduce risk of predation at a broad geographic scale. Ungulate migrations generally occur along traditional routes, many of which have been disrupted by anthropogenic disturbances. Spring migration in ungulates is of particular importance for conservation planning, because it is closely coupled with timing of parturition. The degree to which oil and gas development affects migratory patterns, and whether ungulate migration is sufficiently plastic to compensate for such changes, warrants additional study to better understand this critical conservation issue.We studied timing and synchrony of departure from winter range and arrival to summer range of female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus in northwestern Colorado, USA, which has one of the largest natural-gas reserves currently under development in North America. We hypothesized that in addition to local weather, plant phenology, and individual life-history characteristics, patterns of spring migration would be modified by disturbances associated with natural-gas extraction. We captured 205 adult female mule deer, equipped them with GPS collars, and observed patterns of spring migration during 2008-2010.Timing of spring migration was related to winter weather (particularly snow depth and access to emerging vegetation, which varied among years, but was highly synchronous across study areas within years. Additionally, timing of migration was influenced by the collective effects of anthropogenic disturbance, rate of travel, distance traveled, and body condition of adult females. Rates of travel were more rapid over shorter migration distances in areas of high natural-gas development resulting in the delayed departure, but early arrival for females migrating in areas with high development compared with less-developed areas. Such shifts in behavior could have consequences for timing of arrival on birthing areas

  19. Establishing an anthropogenic nitrogen baseline using Native American shell middens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn eOczkowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic nutrients for more than 200 years. Recent efforts to improve water quality have cut sewage nitrogen (N loads to this point source estuary by more than half. Given that the bay has been heavily fertilized for longer than monitoring programs have been in place, we sought additional insight into how N dynamics in the system have historically changed. To do this, we measured the N stable isotope (δ15N values in clam shells from as early as 3000 BP to the present. Samples from Native American middens were compared with those collected locally from museums, an archaeological company, and graduate student thesis projects, during a range of time periods. Overall, δ15N values in clam shells from Narragansett Bay have increased significantly over time, reflecting known patterns of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. Pre-colonization midden shell δ15N values were significantly lower than those post-European contact. While there were no statistical differences among shells dated from the late 15th Century to 2005, there was a significant difference between 2005 and 2015 shells, which we attribute to the higher δ15N values in the effluent associated with recent sewage treatment upgrades. In contrast, the δ15N values of shells from the southern Rhode Island coast remained constant through time; while influenced by human activities, these areas are not directly influenced by point-source sewage discharge. Overall, our results show that this isotope technique for measuring δ15N values in clam shells provides useful insight into how N dynamics in coastal ecosystems have changed during thousands of years, providing managers vital historical information when setting goals for N reduction.

  20. Evaluation of anthropogenic influence in probabilistic forecasting of coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C. J.; Wilson, K.; Adams, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of large scale coastal behavior is especially challenging in areas of pervasive human activity. Many coastal zones on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts are moderately to highly modified through the use of soft sediment and hard stabilization techniques. These practices have the potential to alter sediment transport and availability, as well as reshape the beach profile, ultimately transforming the natural evolution of the coastal system. We present the results of a series of probabilistic models, designed to predict the observed geomorphic response to high wave events at Fire Island, New York. The island comprises a variety of land use types, including inhabited communities with modified beaches, where beach nourishment and artificial dune construction (scraping) occur, unmodified zones, and protected national seashore. This variation in land use presents an opportunity for comparison of model accuracy across highly modified and rarely modified stretches of coastline. Eight models with basic and expanded structures were developed, resulting in sixteen models, informed with observational data from Fire Island. The basic model type does not include anthropogenic modification. The expanded model includes records of nourishment and scraping, designed to quantify the improved accuracy when anthropogenic activity is represented. Modification was included as frequency of occurrence divided by the time since the most recent event, to distinguish between recent and historic events. All but one model reported improved predictive accuracy from the basic to expanded form. The addition of nourishment and scraping parameters resulted in a maximum reduction in predictive error of 36%. The seven improved models reported an average 23% reduction in error. These results indicate that it is advantageous to incorporate the human forcing into a coastal hazards probability model framework.

  1. Variability in fluvial geomorphic response to anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Van Loo, Maarten; Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haen, Koen; Dusar, Bert; De Brue, Hanne

    2017-10-01

    Humans have greatly impacted the processes and intensities of erosion, sediment transport and storage since the introduction of agriculture. In many regions around the world, accelerated floodplain sedimentation can be related to increases in human pressure on the environment. However, the relation between the intensity of anthropogenic disturbance and the magnitude of change in fluvial sediment dynamics is not straightforward and often non-linear. Here, we review a number of case studies from contrasting environmental settings in the European loess belt, the Eastern Mediterranean mountain ranges and the eastern USA. Detailed field-based sediment archive studies and sediment budgets covering time periods ranging from 200 to over 5000 year, as well as the use of pollen and sediment provenance techniques, show that no overarching concept of changes in floodplain sedimentation following anthropogenic disturbance can be established. Slope-channel (dis)connectivity controls the existence of thresholds or tipping points that need to be crossed before significant changes in downstream sediment dynamics are recorded following human impact. This coupling can be related to characteristics of human pressure such as its duration, intensity and spatial patterns, but also to the geomorphic and tectonic setting. Furthermore, internal feedback mechanisms, such as those between erosion and soil thickness, further complicate the story. All these factors controlling the propagation of sediment from eroding hillslopes to river channels vary between regions. Hence, only unique patterns of fluvial geomorphic response can be identified. As a result, unravelling the human impact from current-day sediment archives and predicting the impact of future human disturbances on fluvial sediment dynamics remain a major challenge. This has important implications for interpreting contemporary sediment yields as well as downstream sediment records in large floodplains, deltas and the marine

  2. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulule John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs with attached global positioning systems (GPS were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3% of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0% of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7% slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1% of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%. Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  3. RadNet Air Data From Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Sacramento, CA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  4. RadNet Air Data From Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Honolulu, HI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  5. Observations of NC stop nets for bottlenose dolphin takes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To observe the NC stop net fishery to document the entanglement of bottlenose dolphins and movement of dolphins around the nets.

  6. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1085 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1085 Net operating loss deduction. When determining your net earnings from self-employment...

  8. Nets, Boats and Fishing in the Roman World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2002-01-01

    Ithas been claimed that in Roman times, net fishing was a shore-based technology, but a study of literary sources and pictorial evidence, mainly mosaics, show that net fishing from boats was widespread throughout the first four centuries AD....

  9. RadNet Air Data From Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Austin, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  10. RadNet Air Data From Mason City, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Mason City, IA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. Cast net design characteristics, catch composition and selectivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Key words: Cast net, selectivity, burst speed, hanging ratio. INTRODUCTION .... financial analysis for the cast net operation was examined to know the economics ..... M.Sc. dissertation in Fisheries, University of. Lagos, Nigeria ...

  12. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  13. RadNet Air Data From Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Houston, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  14. RadNet Air Data From Fort Smith, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fort Smith, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. Global Estimated Net Migration Grids by Decade: 1970-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Estimated Net Migration by Decade: 1970-2000 data set provides estimates of net migration over the three decades from 1970 to 2000. Because of the lack of...

  16. MetNet Network Mission for Martian Atmospheric Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Arrugeo, I.; Schmidt, W.; Vazquez, L.; Genzer, M.; Haukka, H.

    2014-07-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars called MetNet is being developed for martian atmospheric investigations. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy tens of small landers on the martian surface.

  17. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Advanced Near Net Shape Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) project is to radically improve near net shape manufacturing methods from the current...

  18. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection maps the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through...

  19. RadNet Air Data From Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Orlando, FL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  20. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  1. Current Status and Future Prospect of K-NET and KiK-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Nakamura, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2014-12-01

    During 18 years since the deployment of K-NET following the Kobe earthquake, our attention has mainly focused on rapidity of the data collection and an unfailing and reliable observation. In this presentation, we review three generations of the instruments employed by K-NET and KiK-net from these two points of view.At beginning of the 2000's, we newly developed the second generation instruments (K-NET02, K-NET02A, KiK-net06) to replace the first generation instruments (K-NET95, SMAC-MDK) employed when the networks were constructed in the 1990's. These instruments have an automatic dial-out function. It takes typically 2-5 s to establish communication and a few seconds to send the pre-trigger data. After that, data is available typically within a 1.5 s delay. Not only waveform data but also strong motion indexes such as real-time intensity, PGA, PGV, PGD, and response spectra are continuously sent once a second.After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have developed the third generation instruments (K-NET11, KiK-net11) and have replaced almost half of the all stations country wide. Main improvement of this instrument is more unfailing and reliable observation. Because we have often experienced very large ground motions (e.g. 45 records exceeding gravity), the maximum measureable range was expanded from 2000 gal to 4000 gal for the second generation instrument, and to 8000 gal for the third. For the third generation instrument, in case of power failure, observation (including transmission of data) works for seven days thanks to the backup battery, while for the second generation instruments it works only for one day. By adding an oblique component to the three-component accelerometers, we could automatically distinguish shaking data from noise such as electric pulses which may cause a false alarm in EEW. Implementation to guarantee the continuity of observation under severe conditions such as during the Tohoku earthquake is very important, as well as a highly efficient

  2. SkyNet: Modular nuclear reaction network library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-10-01

    The general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. Any list of isotopes can be evolved and SkyNet supports various different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular, permitting new or existing physics, such as nuclear reactions or equations of state, to be easily added or modified.

  3. Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M

    2017-01-24

    Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that short-lived greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to short-lived substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in short-lived gases or net radiative forcing.

  4. ROOT.NET: Using ROOT from .NET languages like C# and F#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    ROOT.NET provides an interface between Microsoft's Common Language Runtime (CLR) and .NET technology and the ubiquitous particle physics analysis tool, ROOT. ROOT.NET automatically generates a series of efficient wrappers around the ROOT API. Unlike pyROOT, these wrappers are statically typed and so are highly efficient as compared to the Python wrappers. The connection to .NET means that one gains access to the full series of languages developed for the CLR including functional languages like F# (based on OCaml). Many features that make ROOT objects work well in the .NET world are added (properties, IEnumerable interface, LINQ compatibility, etc.). Dynamic languages based on the CLR can be used as well, of course (Python, for example). Additionally it is now possible to access ROOT objects that are unknown to the translation tool. This poster will describe the techniques used to effect this translation, along with performance comparisons, and examples. All described source code is posted on the open source site CodePlex.

  5. ROOT.NET: Using ROOT from .NET languages like C and F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G

    2012-01-01

    ROOT.NET provides an interface between Microsoft's Common Language Runtime (CLR) and .NET technology and the ubiquitous particle physics analysis tool, ROOT. ROOT.NET automatically generates a series of efficient wrappers around the ROOT API. Unlike pyROOT, these wrappers are statically typed and so are highly efficient as compared to the Python wrappers. The connection to .NET means that one gains access to the full series of languages developed for the CLR including functional languages like F (based on OCaml). Many features that make ROOT objects work well in the .NET world are added (properties, IEnumerable interface, LINQ compatibility, etc.). Dynamic languages based on the CLR can be used as well, of course (Python, for example). Additionally it is now possible to access ROOT objects that are unknown to the translation tool. This poster will describe the techniques used to effect this translation, along with performance comparisons, and examples. All described source code is posted on the open source site CodePlex.

  6. Translating Colored Control Flow Nets into Readable Java via Annotated Java Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Tjell, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for developing Java applications from Colored Control Flow Nets (CCFNs), which is a special kind of Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) that we introduce. CCFN makes an explicit distinction between the representation of: The system, the environment of the system, and the ......In this paper, we present a method for developing Java applications from Colored Control Flow Nets (CCFNs), which is a special kind of Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) that we introduce. CCFN makes an explicit distinction between the representation of: The system, the environment of the system......, and the interface between the system and the environment. Our translation maps CCFNs into Anno- tated Java Workflow Nets (AJWNs) as an intermediate step, and these AJWNs are finally mapped to Java. CCFN is intended to enforce the modeler to describe the system in an imperative manner which makes the subsequent...... translation to Java easier to define. The translation to Java preserves data dependencies and control-flow aspects of the source CCFN. This paper contributes to the model-driven software development paradigm, by showing how to model a system, environment, and their interface, as a CCFN and presenting a fully...

  7. Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings -

    Science.gov (United States)

    only an estimated 1% of commercial buildings are built to net-zero energy criteria. One reason for this Continuum Magazine | NREL Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Net -Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Researchers work to package and share step

  8. Theory of net analyte signal vectors in inverse regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, R.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller

    2003-01-01

    The. net analyte signal and the net analyte signal vector are useful measures in building and optimizing multivariate calibration models. In this paper a theory for their use in inverse regression is developed. The theory of net analyte signal was originally derived from classical least squares...

  9. Application of Coloured Petri Nets in System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) and their supporting computer tools have been used in a wide range of application areas such as communication protocols, software designs, and embedded systems. The practical application of CP-nets has also covered many phases of system development ranging fr...

  10. Cast net design characteristics, catch composition and selectivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cast net design characteristics, construction, operational techniques and selectivity in Lagos lagoon, Nigeria was examined between September and December 2005. Netting materials for cast net construction in Lagos lagoon were monofilament nylon, poly-ethylene (PE) and polyester (PES). The conventional ratio 1:2 of ...

  11. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    submission track of ToPNoC. The 12 papers cover a diverse range of topics including model checking and system verification, synthesis, foundational work on specific classes of Petri nets, and innovative applications of Petri nets and other models of concurrency. Thus, this volume gives a good view of ongoing...... concurrent systems and Petri nets research...

  12. Pro C# 2005 and the .NET 2.0 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Troelsen, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This third edition overviews the C# language, then transitions to technical and architectural issues crucial to .NET developers. Troelsen provides extensive coverage of the .NET Framework, and enlightens programmers about subtle topics like proper use of threads and leveraging new .NET remoting protocol.

  13. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; and (iii) The current realizable market value, determined as of the close of the market on the last... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.17 - Net market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net market value. 1221.17 Section 1221.17 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.17 Net market value. Net market value means: (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)and (c) of this section, the value...

  15. Computer Tools for Construction, Modification and Analysis of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The practical use of Petri nets is — just as any other description technique — very dependent on the existence of adequate computer tools, which may assist the user to cope with the many details of a large description. For Petri nets there is a need for tools supporting construction of nets...

  16. Facilitating the Practical Use of Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo

    This dissertation is to investigate and advance tools for practical use of CP-nets. This includes development of facilities for creating domain-specific graphical user interfaces, a proposal for facilities for including auxiliary information in a CP-net without modifying the CP-net itself...

  17. Recyclables Valorisation as the Best Strategy for Achieving Landfill CO2e Emissions Abatement from Domestic Waste: Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Taboada-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various nations in the world have developed technologies and strategies for appropriate waste disposal, and to abate waste generation and greenhouse gasses. Alternatives like recovering materials can help, but they require reliable information to improve planning and management. This study quantifies the Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions produced by the lack of valorisation of materials in a Mexican city. Two waste characterisations in a lower-class neighbourhood were carried out. For the CO2 emission estimation, two scenarios were considered. DEFRA emission factors for waste treatment processes were used. Waste generation was 0.64 kg/capita/day in the first study, and 0.50 kg/capita/day in the second. The CO2eq emissions of collected waste in the neighbourhood were estimated at 1824 kg for 2013 (0.20 kg/capita/day and 1636 kg for 2015 (0.19 kg/capita/day. The behaviour of solid waste management in the city can be explained by the “prisoner’s dilemma” model, studied in game theory, which is ideally suited to analysing situations affected by multiple agents, but requires an accurate understanding of solid waste actors and social implications.

  18. A Science Cloud: OneSpaceNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Y.; Murata, K. T.; Watari, S.; Kato, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Inoue, S.; Tsubouchi, K.; Fukazawa, K.; Kimura, E.; Tatebe, O.; Shimojo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Main methodologies of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (STP) so far are theoretical, experimental and observational, and computer simulation approaches. Recently "informatics" is expected as a new (fourth) approach to the STP studies. Informatics is a methodology to analyze large-scale data (observation data and computer simulation data) to obtain new findings using a variety of data processing techniques. At NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan) we are now developing a new research environment named "OneSpaceNet". The OneSpaceNet is a cloud-computing environment specialized for science works, which connects many researchers with high-speed network (JGN: Japan Gigabit Network). The JGN is a wide-area back-born network operated by NICT; it provides 10G network and many access points (AP) over Japan. The OneSpaceNet also provides with rich computer resources for research studies, such as super-computers, large-scale data storage area, licensed applications, visualization devices (like tiled display wall: TDW), database/DBMS, cluster computers (4-8 nodes) for data processing and communication devices. What is amazing in use of the science cloud is that a user simply prepares a terminal (low-cost PC). Once connecting the PC to JGN2plus, the user can make full use of the rich resources of the science cloud. Using communication devices, such as video-conference system, streaming and reflector servers, and media-players, the users on the OneSpaceNet can make research communications as if they belong to a same (one) laboratory: they are members of a virtual laboratory. The specification of the computer resources on the OneSpaceNet is as follows: The size of data storage we have developed so far is almost 1PB. The number of the data files managed on the cloud storage is getting larger and now more than 40,000,000. What is notable is that the disks forming the large-scale storage are distributed to 5 data centers over Japan (but the storage

  19. MACv2-SP: a parameterization of anthropogenic aerosol optical properties and an associated Twomey effect for use in CMIP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Bjorn [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Fiedler, Stephanie [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Kinne, Stefan [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Peters, Karsten [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Rast, Sebastian [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Müsse, Jobst [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Smith, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    A simple plume implementation of the second version (v2) of the Max Planck Institute Aerosol Climatology, MACv2-SP, is described. MACv2-SP provides a prescription of anthropogenic aerosol optical properties and an associated Twomey effect. It was created to provide a harmonized description of post-1850 anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing for climate modeling studies. MACv2-SP has been designed to be easy to implement, change and use, and thereby enable studies exploring the climatic effects of different patterns of aerosol radiative forcing, including a Twomey effect. MACv2-SP is formulated in terms of nine spatial plumes associated with different major anthropogenic source regions. The shape of the plumes is fit to the Max Planck Institute Aerosol Climatology, version 2, whose present-day (2005) distribution is anchored by surface-based observations. Two types of plumes are considered: one predominantly associated with biomass burning, the other with industrial emissions. These differ in the prescription of their annual cycle and in their optical properties, thereby implicitly accounting for different contributions of absorbing aerosol to the different plumes. A Twomey effect for each plume is prescribed as a change in the host model's background cloud-droplet population density using relationships derived from satellite data. Year-to-year variations in the amplitude of the plumes over the historical period (1850–2016) are derived by scaling the plumes with associated national emission sources of SO2 and NH3. Experiments using MACv2-SP are performed with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. The globally and annually averaged instantaneous and effective aerosol radiative forcings are estimated to be -0.6 and -0.5 W m-2, respectively. Forcing from aerosol–cloud interactions (the Twomey effect) offsets the reduction of clear-sky forcing by clouds, so that the net effect of clouds on the aerosol forcing is small

  20. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyan; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the total effects due to anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system is studied using an aerosol-climate online model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero. The results show that the summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface reduce by 4.8 and 5.0 W m- 2, respectively, due to the increases of global aerosol emissions in 2000 relative to 1850. Changes in radiations and their resulting changes in heat and water transport and cloud fraction contribute together to the surface cooling over EAMR in summer. The increases in global anthropogenic aerosols lead to a decrease of 2.1 K in summer mean surface temperature and an increase of 0.4 hPa in summer mean surface pressure averaged over EAMR, respectively. It is shown that the changes in surface temperature and pressure are significantly larger over land than ocean, thus decreasing the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure. This results in the marked anomalies of north and northeast winds over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans in summer, thereby weakening the EASM. The summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR reduces by 12%. The changes in non-East Asian aerosol emissions play a more important role in inducing the changes of local temperature and pressure, and thus significantly exacerbate the weakness of the EASM circulation due to local aerosol changes. The weakening of circulation due to both is comparable, and even the effect of non-local aerosols is larger in individual regions. The changes of local and non-local aerosols contribute comparably to the reductions in precipitation over oceans, whereas cause opposite changes over eastern China. Our results highlight the importance of aerosol changes outside East Asia in the impact of the changes of anthropogenic aerosols on EASM.