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Sample records for net alkalizing effect

  1. Effects of urine alkalization and activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered carprofen in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raekallio, Marja R; Honkavaara, Juhana M; Säkkinen, Mia S; Peltoniemi, S Marikki

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effects of oral administration of activated charcoal (AC) and urine alkalinization via oral administration of sodium bicarbonate on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered carprofen in dogs. 6 neutered male Beagles. Each dog underwent 3 experiments (6-week interval between experiments). The dogs received a single dose of carprofen (16 mg/kg) orally at the beginning of each experiment; after 30 minutes, sodium bicarbonate (40 mg/kg, PO), AC solution (2.5 g/kg, PO), or no other treatments were administered. Plasma concentrations of unchanged carprofen were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography at intervals until 48 hours after carprofen administration. Data were analyzed by use of a Student paired t test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank test. Compared with the control treatment, administration of AC decreased plasma carprofen concentrations (mean +/- SD maximum concentration was 85.9 +/- 11.9 mg/L and 58.1 +/- 17.6 mg/L, and area under the time-concentration curve was 960 +/- 233 mg/L x h and 373 +/- 133 mg/L x h after control and AC treatment, respectively). The elimination half-life remained constant. Administration of sodium bicarbonate had no effect on plasma drug concentrations. After oral administration of carprofen in dogs, administration of AC effectively decreased maximum plasma carprofen concentration, compared with the control treatment, probably by decreasing carprofen absorption. Results suggest that AC can be used to reduce systemic carprofen absorption in dogs receiving an overdose of carprofen. Oral administration of 1 dose of sodium bicarbonate had no apparent impact on carprofen kinetics in dogs.

  2. Effective enzymatic in situ saccharification of bamboo shoot shell pretreated by dilute alkalic salts sodium hypochlorite/sodium sulfide pretreatment under the autoclave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gang-Gang; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Kou, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Di, Jun-Hua; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, dilute alkali salts (0.6% NaClO, 0.067% Na 2 S) pretreatment at 10% sulfidity under the autoclave system at 120°C for 40min was used for pretreating bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated BSS solid residue. After 72h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 50g/L pretreated BSS in dilute NaClO/Na 2 S media could be obtained at 31.11 and 20.32g/L, respectively. Finally, the obtained BSS-hydrolysates containing alkalic salt NaClO/Na 2 S resulted in slightly negative effects on the ethanol production. Glucose in BSS-hydrolysates was fermented from 20.0 to 0.17g/L within 48h, and an ethanol yield of 0.41g/g glucose, which represents 80.1% of the theoretical yield, was obtained. This study provided an effective strategy for potential utilization of BSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  4. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  5. PENGARUH JUMLAH PELARUT ETANOL DAN SUHU FRAKSINASI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK LEMAK KAKAO HASIL EKSTRAKSI NON ALKALIZED COCOA POWDER [The effect of amount of ethanol solvent and temperature fractionation on the characteristic of cocoa fat from the extracti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Susanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa and its derivative products are examples of very potential  export comdities that could contributed to an increase in foreign exchange.  The extraction of non-alkalized cocoa powder resulted in pure cocoa extract as  the main product and cocoa fat as by product.  Cocoa fat can be exploited further to produce some final products, either food or non food products.    This research was aimed to study the effects of ethanol addition for extraction and fractionation temperature on the characteristic of cocoa fat.  This study used a Complete Randomized Block Design with two factor treatments and three replications.  The first factor was quantity of ethanol 450 ml, 600 ml, and 750 ml, and the second factor was temperature for fractionation 15oC, 18oC, and 21oC.  The data obtained were analyzed using Bartlett test for homogenity.  Tuckey Test was used for analyzing their additivity, then the data were analyzed using ANOVA to see differences among treatments.  The data were further  tested using Least Significant Difference at of 5%  level of significancy to find the best characteristic.  The results  showed that the best characteristic of cocoa fat obtained from the treatment of the addition of 750 ml ethanol and fractionation temperature 15oC.  It resulted in fat yield of 35.0382%, fat content of 86.742%, its flavor was close to characteristic of cocoa flavor ,and the composition of unsaturated fatty acids was 49, 71% of the total fatty acids. Keywords: cocoa fat, ethanol solvent, fractionation temperature

  6. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  7. Data error effects on net radiation and evapotranspiration estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llasat, M.C.; Snyder, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential error in estimating the net radiation and reference evapotranspiration resulting from errors in the measurement or estimation of weather parameters. A methodology for estimating the net radiation using hourly weather variables measured at a typical agrometeorological station (e.g., solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity) is presented. Then the error propagation analysis is made for net radiation and for reference evapotranspiration. Data from the Raimat weather station, which is located in the Catalonia region of Spain, are used to illustrate the error relationships. The results show that temperature, relative humidity and cloud cover errors have little effect on the net radiation or reference evapotranspiration. A 5°C error in estimating surface temperature leads to errors as big as 30 W m −2 at high temperature. A 4% solar radiation (R s ) error can cause a net radiation error as big as 26 W m −2 when R s ≈ 1000 W m −2 . However, the error is less when cloud cover is calculated as a function of the solar radiation. The absolute error in reference evapotranspiration (ET o ) equals the product of the net radiation error and the radiation term weighting factor [W = Δ(Δ1+γ)] in the ET o equation. Therefore, the ET o error varies between 65 and 85% of the R n error as air temperature increases from about 20° to 40°C. (author)

  8. Enhanced bioreduction synthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroybutanoate by alkalic salt pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ganggang; Di, Junhua; Ma, Cuiluan; Wang, Dajing; Wang, Chu; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Pengqi; Zhu, Jun; He, Yucai

    2018-08-01

    In this study, biomass-hydrolysate was used for enhancing the bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE). Firstly, dilute alkalic salt pretreatment was attempted to pretreat bamboo shoot shell (BSS). It was found that enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 20-50 g/L BSS pretreated with dilute alkalic salts (0.4% Na 2 CO 3 , 0.032% Na 2 S) at 7.5% sulfidity by autoclaving at 110 °C for 40 min gave sugar yields at 59.9%-73.5%. Moreover, linear relationships were corrected on solid recovery-total delignification-sugar yield. In BSS-hydrolysates, xylose and glucose could promote the reductase activity of recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13. Compared with glucose, hydrolysate could increase the reductase activity by 1.35-folds. Furthermore, the cyclohexane-hydrolysate (10:90, v/v) biphasic media containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 40 mM) and l-glutamine (150 mM) was built for the effective biosynthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(R)-CHBE] (94.6% yield) from 500 mM COBE. In conclusion, this strategy has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of (R)-CHBE (>99% e.e.). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  10. Single pyruvate intake induces blood alkalization and modification of resting metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek, Robert A; Luszczyk, Marcin; Kujach, Sylwester; Ziemann, Ewa; Pieszko, Magdalena; Pischel, Ivo; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2015-03-01

    Three separate studies were performed with the aim to 1) determine the effect of a single sodium pyruvate intake on the blood acid-base status in males and females; 2) compare the effect of sodium and calcium pyruvate salts and establish their role in the lipolysis rate; and 3) quantify the effect of single pyruvate intake on the resting energy metabolism. In all, 48 individuals completed three separate studies. In all the studies, participants consumed a single dose of pyruvate 0.1 g/kg 60 min before commencing the measurements. The whole blood pH, bicarbonate concentration, base excess or plasma glycerol, free fatty acids, glucose concentrations, or resting energy expenditure and calculated respiratory exchange ratio were determined. The analysis of variance for repeated measurements was performed to examine the interaction between treatment and time. The single dose of sodium pyruvate induced blood alkalization, which was more marked in the male than in the female participants. Following the ingestion of sodium or calcium pyruvate, the blood acid-base parameters were higher than in the placebo trial. Furthermore, 3-h postingestion glycerol was lower in both pyruvate trials than in placebo. Resting energy expenditure did not differ between the trials; however, carbohydrate oxidation was increased after sodium pyruvate ingestion. Pyruvate intake induced mild alkalization in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, it accelerated carbohydrate metabolism and delayed the rate of glycerol appearance in the blood, but had no effect on the resting energy expenditure. Furthermore, sodium salt seems to have had a greater effect on the blood buffering level than calcium salt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of insecticide-treated bed net on malarial parasitaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... nets sold by a social marketing project were used as the intervention group. ... Keywords: Insecticide-treated bed net, Effectiveness, Malaria control, South-South Nigeria.

  12. Black carbon reduction will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a distinct type of carbonaceous material formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass based fuels under certain conditions, can interact with solar radiation and clouds through its strong light-absorption ability, thereby warming the Earth's climate system. Some studies have even suggested that global warming could be slowed down in a short term by eliminating BC emission due to its short lifetime. In this study, we estimate the influence of removing some sources of BC and other co-emitted species on the aerosol radiative effect by using an aerosol-climate coupled model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero, in combination with the aerosol emissions from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We find that the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) will be enhanced by 0.12 W m-2 compared with present-day conditions if the BC emission is reduced exclusively to the level projected for 2100 based on the RCP2.6 scenario. This will be beneficial for the mitigation of global warming. However, the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the TOA will be weakened by 1.7-2.0 W m-2 relative to present-day conditions if emissions of BC and co-emitted sulfur dioxide and organic carbon are simultaneously reduced as the most close conditions to the actual situation to the level projected for 2100 in different ways based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. Because there are no effective ways to remove the BC exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth's climate system in the future.

  13. Nitrate ions as cathodic alkalization promoters for the electro-assisted deposition of sol-gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Shangzhi; Liu Liang [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Hu Jiming [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: kejmhu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Jianqing; Cao Chunan [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Nitrate was used as a promoter to prepare dodecyltrimethoxysilane thin films on aluminum substrates. With the addition of nitrate into silane sol-gel precursors, the electro-assisted formation of silane films was facilitated, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, due to the promotion in cathodic alkalization. However, an extra-high concentration of nitrate would be harmful because of the salting-out effect in precursors and the soluble nitrate remaining in silane films.

  14. Effective utilization period of long-lasting insecticide treated nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs) (PermaNet®2.0) over time and the species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes around Bahir Dar. The space spray collection method was used to determine the species composition of indoor resting Anopheles ...

  15. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  17. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  18. A transitional alkalic dolerite dike suite of Mesozoic age in Southeastern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, O. Don; Rao, J. M.; Dickenson, M. P.; Pierce, T. A.

    1984-12-01

    Dike rocks from the New England platform of Rhode Island and adjacent Massachusetts consist of premetamorphic and post-metamorphic suites. The older group includes metamorphosed dolerite, minette, and schistose dioritic rocks. Post-metamorphic dikes consist of dolerite and sparse monchiquite. The post-metamorphic dolerites are of comparable age to the Eastern North American dolerite suite associated with the Mesozoic basins along the eastern seaboard of North America. However, the southeastern New England dolerites exhibit mineralogy and chemistry more typical of a transitional alkalic suite compared to the more subalkalic tholeiitic dolerites of the Eastern North American suite. Both suites are compatible with a rift tectonic setting, but the more alkalic dolerites may represent a deeper source of small volume melts compared to the Eastern North American dolerites. These more alkaline melts may have concentrated at local centers, or they may be typical of flank dolerites as opposed to the less alkalic varieties that occur within the central axial rift.

  19. Petrology and age of alkalic lava from the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A.S.; Pringle, M.S.; Pickthorn, L.-B.G.; Clague, D.A.; Schwab, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Volcanic rock dredged from the flanks of four volcanic edifices in the Ratak chain of the Marshall Islands consist of alkalic lava that erupted above sea level or in shallow water. Compositions of recovered samples are predominantly differentiated alkalic basalt and hawaiite but include strongly alkalic melilitite. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar total fusion and incremental heating ages of 87.3 ?? 0.6 Ma and 82.2 ?? 1.6 Ma determined for samples from Erikub Seamount and Ratak Guyot, respectively, are within the range predicted by plate rotation models but show no age progression consistent with a simple hot spot model. Variations in isotopic and some incompatible element ratios suggest interisland heterogeneity. -from Authors

  20. Preparation of micro-fibrillated cellulose from sorghum fibre through alkalization and acetylation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismojo; Simanulang, P. H.; Zulfia, A.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the pollution due to non-degradable materials including plastics, has led to needs on the development of environmental-friendly material. Owing to its biodegradability nature, sorghum fibres are interesting to be modified with petro-polymer as a composite. These materials are also expected to reduce the impact of environmental pollution. Surface modification of sorghum through chemical treatment was aimed to enhanced crystalline part of micro-fibrillated cellulose, thus increased compatibility to petro-polymer, as mean to improve composite properties. The experiments were conducted by alkalization process (10% NaOH) followed by acetylation with acetic acid glacial and acetic anhydride (CH3CO2)2 with additions of 1 and 2 drops of 25% H2SO4. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the treated and untreated fibres. The results of investigation showed that the chemical treatments have effectively produced MFC with the smallest fibre size around 5.5 - 6.5 microns and reduced lignin and hemicellulose where the highest crystalline part up to 80.64% was obtained through acetate acid treatment of 17.4 M, followed acetic anhydride with 1 drop of H2SO4 addition. Based on the current results, it is promising that the synthesized composites can be improved for their compatibilities.

  1. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and untreated nets to prevent malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Singhal, Maneesh; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Agarwal, Satya P

    2015-08-01

    India is the most malaria-endemic country in South-East Asia, resulting in a high socio-economic burden. Insecticide-treated or untreated nets are effective interventions to prevent malaria. As part of an Indian first-aid guideline project, we aimed to investigate the magnitude of this effect in India. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Central to systematically review Indian studies on the effectiveness of treated or untreated vs. no nets. Parasite prevalence and annual parasite incidence served as malaria outcomes. The overall effect was investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating the pooled risk ratios (RR) and incidence rate ratios. Of 479 articles, we finally retained 16 Indian studies. Untreated nets decreased the risk of parasite prevalence compared to no nets [RR 0.69 (95% CI; 0.55, 0.87) in high-endemic areas, RR 0.49 (95% CI; 0.28, 0.84) in low-endemic areas], as was the case but more pronounced for treated nets [RR 0.35 (95% CI; 0.26, 0.47) in high-endemic areas, risk ratio 0.16 (95% CI; 0.06, 0.44) in low-endemic areas]. Incidence rate ratios showed a similar observation: a significantly reduced rate of parasites in the blood for untreated nets vs. no nets, which was more pronounced in low-endemic areas and for those who used treated nets. The average effect of treated nets (vs. no nets) on parasite prevalence was higher in Indian studies (RR 0.16-0.35) than in non-Indian studies (data derived from a Cochrane systematic review; RR 0.58-0.87). Both treated and untreated nets have a clear protective effect against malaria in the Indian context. This effect is more pronounced there than in other countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effect of netting solidity ratio and inclined angle on the hydrodynamic characteristics of knotless polyethylene netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Hu, Fuxiang; Xu, Liuxiong; Dong, Shuchuang; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xuefang

    2017-10-01

    Knotless polyethylene (PE) netting has been widely used in aquaculture cages and fishing gears, especially in Japan. In this study, the hydrodynamic coefficient of six knotless PE netting panels with different solidity ratios were assessed in a flume tank under various attack angles of netting from 0° (parallel to flow) to 90° (perpendicular to flow) and current speeds from 40 cm s-1 to 130 cm s-1. It was found that the drag coefficient was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio and attack angle of netting. The solidity ratio was positively related with drag coefficient for netting panel perpendicular to flow, whereas when setting the netting panel parallel to the flow the opposite result was obtained. For netting panels placed at an angle to the flow, the lift coefficient reached the maximum at an attack angle of 50° and then decreased as the attack angle further increased. The solidity ratio had a dual influence on drag coefficient of inclined netting panels. Compared to result in the literature, the normal drag coefficient of knotless PE netting measured in this study is larger than that of nylon netting or Dyneema netting.

  3. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  4. Do evergreen and deciduous trees have different effects on net N mineralization in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Oleksyn, Jacek; Reich, Peter B; Eissenstat, David M

    2012-06-01

    Evergreen and deciduous plants are widely expected to have different impacts on soil nitrogen (N) availability because of differences in leaf litter chemistry and ensuing effects on net N mineralization (N(min)). We evaluated this hypothesis by compiling published data on net N(min) rates beneath co-occurring stands of evergreen and deciduous trees. The compiled data included 35 sets of co-occurring stands in temperate and boreal forests. Evergreen and deciduous stands did not have consistently divergent effects on net N(min) rates; net N(min) beneath deciduous trees was higher when comparing natural stands (19 contrasts), but equivalent to evergreens in plantations (16 contrasts). We also compared net N(min) rates beneath pairs of co-occurring genera. Most pairs of genera did not differ consistently, i.e., tree species from one genus had higher net N(min) at some sites and lower net N(min) at other sites. Moreover, several common deciduous genera (Acer, Betula, Populus) and deciduous Quercus spp. did not typically have higher net N(min) rates than common evergreen genera (Pinus, Picea). There are several reasons why tree effects on net N(min) are poorly predicted by leaf habit and phylogeny. For example, the amount of N mineralized from decomposing leaves might be less than the amount of N mineralized from organic matter pools that are less affected by leaf litter traits, such as dead roots and soil organic matter. Also, effects of plant traits and plant groups on net N(min) probably depend on site-specific factors such as stand age and soil type.

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls contents, net photosynthesis and respiration of chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Martin Moreno, C.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first 'b' chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than 'a' chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observations after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Net photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% have got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. (author)

  6. [Circadian rhythms of acid production and alkalization in the stomach of healthy subjects and duodenal ulcer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, I Iu; Beliaeva, G S; Leint'eva, V A; Smirnova, A A

    2008-01-01

    We studied 24-h rhythms of acid production and alkalization in 30 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) and 30 healthy subjects using upper endoscopic examination and computer intragastric pH-metry. Gastric acid production was higher in DU patients and was more intensive in the daytime than at night. Healthy subjects had low and monotonous acid production. In DU decompensation of alkalization in the antral stomach and suppression of duodenogastric reflux is total. In healthy subjects antrum alkalization is more evident and intensive at night due to, among other causes, duodenogastric reflux.

  7. The effect of net foreign assets on saving rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben David Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observing empirical data we find that many countries try to delay the decision of increasing saving rate in order to avoid a decrease of the living standards. However the delay leads a deterioration of countries financial stability. We present a simple theoretical model that connects between countries' saving rate and their net foreign assets. Using cross section data set of 135 countries in 2010 we estimated the econometric relation between saving rate in 2010 as dependent variable and two explanatory variables: the current account in 2010 and the aggregated current account during 1980-2010. Our findings show that industrial countries in a bad financial state tend to decrease their saving rate as external debt is larger causing to deterioration in external debt while countries with good financial state tend to increase their saving rate and the tendency increase as financial state becomes better. Only in countries with a very large external debt saving rate tends to grow. The results point that gross foreign debt will keep increasing and will worsen world financial state causing increased risk of getting into a world crisis.

  8. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-01

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  9. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-20

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  10. Alkalization of irrigated soils suitable for orchard growing in steppe Crimea and prospects for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    Data of large-scale soil surveys performed by the Ukrgiprosad Institute (Ukrainian Institute for Orchard Growing) in 1997-2013 on irrigated soils of steppe Crimea reserved for orchards on the area of about 3000 ha are discussed. It is shown that all the studied soils are subjected to alkalization with the presence of soda and with an increase in concentrations of sodium and magnesium bicarbonates up to the values toxic for fruit crops. The concentrations and occurrence frequencies of alkaline salts depend on the soil type, the presence of solonetzic features, the amount of carbonates, the particular depth in the soil profile, the subsoiling, and other factors. Within the studied area, some soils are unsuitable or partly suitable for orchard growing. To improve the soil conditions for orchard growing in the areas subjected to alkalization, alkaline salts should be neutralized to nontoxic level, and the soil alkalinity should be reduced using chemical reclamation methods.

  11. The net effects of the Project NetWork return-to-work case management experiment on participant earnings, benefit receipt, and other outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, R; Rupp, K

    2000-01-01

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) initiated Project NetWork in 1991 to test case management as a means of promoting employment among persons with disabilities. The demonstration, which targeted Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) applicants and recipients, offered intensive outreach, work-incentive waivers, and case management/referral services. Participation in Project NetWork was voluntary. Volunteers were randomly assigned to the "treatment" group or the "control" group. Those assigned to the treatment group met individually with a case or referral manager who arranged for rehabilitation and employment services, helped clients develop an individual employment plan, and provided direct employment counseling services. Volunteers assigned to the control group could not receive services from Project NetWork but remained eligible for any employment assistance already available in their communities. For both treatment and control groups, the demonstration waived specific DI and SSI program rules considered to be work disincentives. The experimental impact study thus measures the incremental effects of case and referral management services. The eight demonstration sites were successful in implementing the experimental design roughly as planned. Project NetWork staff were able to recruit large numbers of participants and to provide rehabilitation and employment services on a substantial scale. Most of the sites easily reached their enrollment targets and were able to attract volunteers with demographic characteristics similar to those of the entire SSI and DI caseload and a broad range of moderate and severe disabilities. However, by many measures, volunteers were generally more "work-ready" than project eligible in the demonstration areas who did not volunteer to receive NetWork services. Project NetWork case management increased average annual earnings by $220 per year over the first 2 years following

  12. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent......, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h....

  13. Video studies of passage by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes through holes in a simulated bed net: effects of hole size, hole orientation and net environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, James; Colborn, Kathryn L

    2015-05-13

    Holes in netting provide potential routes for mosquitoes to enter ITNs. Despite this, there is little information on how mosquitoes respond to holes in bed nets and how their responses are affected by hole size, shape and orientation or by ambient conditions around the net. Female Anopheles gambiae (G3) were recorded in a simulated bed net consisting of two sizes of untreated netting-covered behavioural arenas placed above and beside (to simulate the bed net roof and sides respectively) the experimenter who was a source of host cues from 'inside' the net. A round hole of 9 mm or 13 mm diameter was cut into the centre of the netting of each arena. Videos of unfed female mosquitoes in arenas were analysed for time spent flying, walking and standing still and for exit through the hole. The effects of the experimenter on temperature and relative humidity around the simulated net were also measured. Mosquitoes were significantly more active in overhead arenas than in arenas to the side. Hole passage was significantly more likely in smaller arenas than larger ones and for larger holes than smaller ones. In arenas to the side, hole passage rate through small holes was about 50% less likely than what could be explained by area alone. Passage rate through holes in overhead arenas was consistent with hole area. Temperature in arenas did not strongly reflect the experimenter's presence in the simulated net. Relative humidity and absolute humidity in overhead arenas, but not in arenas to the side, were immediately affected by experimenter presence. Higher levels of activity in overhead arenas than in arenas to the side were likely due to the rising heat and humidity plume from the experimenter. Lower than expected passage rates through smaller vertically oriented holes may have been be due to an edge effect that does not apply to horizontally oriented holes. Results suggest that current methods of assessing the importance of physical damage to ITNs may not accurately reflect

  14. Optimum measuring net for correcting mineralizing heterogeneity effect in XRF sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sichun; Zhao Youqing; Zhang Yuhuan

    2000-01-01

    The mineralizing heterogeneity effect in XRF sampling was investigated with theory of mathematical statistics. A method called 'Optimum measuring Net' has been developed. The theoretical estimation and experimental results show that the mineralizing heterogeneity effect can be cut down to the minimum with the method

  15. Entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in Western Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithuis, Frank M.; Kyaw, Moe Kyaw; Phe, U. Ohn; van der Broek, Ingrid; Katterman, Nina; Rogers, Colin; Almeida, Patrick; Kager, Piet A.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lubell, Yoel; Simpson, Julie A.; White, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector

  16. Enhanced 400-m sprint performance in moderately trained participants by a 4-day alkalizing diet: a counterbalanced, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Mirjam; Eibl, Angi Diana; Platen, Petra

    2018-05-31

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) is an alkalizing agent and its ingestion is used to improve anaerobic performance. However, the influence of alkalizing nutrients on anaerobic exercise performance remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of an alkalizing versus acidizing diet on 400-m sprint performance, blood lactate, blood gas parameters, and urinary pH in moderately trained adults. In a randomized crossover design, eleven recreationally active participants (8 men, 3 women) aged 26.0 ± 1.7 years performed one trial under each individual's unmodified diet and subsequently two trials following either 4 days of an alkalizing (BASE) or acidizing (ACID) diet. Trials consisted of 400-m runs at intervals of 1 week on a tartan track in a randomized order. We found a significantly lower 400-m performance time for the BASE trial (65.8 ± 7.2 s) compared with the ACID trial (67.3 ± 7.1 s; p = 0.026). In addition, responses were significantly higher following the BASE diet for blood lactate (BASE: 16.3 ± 2.7; ACID: 14.4 ± 2.1 mmol/L; p = 0.32) and urinary pH (BASE: 7.0 ± 0.7; ACID: 5.5 ± 0.7; p = 0.001). We conclude that a short-term alkalizing diet may improve 400-m performance time in moderately trained participants. Additionally, we found higher blood lactate concentrations under the alkalizing diet, suggesting an enhanced blood or muscle buffer capacity. Thus, an alkalizing diet may be an easy and natural way to enhance 400-m sprint performance for athletes without the necessity of taking artificial dietary supplements.

  17. The effect of the 'no net loss' of habitat guiding principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The potential effect of the 'no net loss' principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa hydroelectric project is assessed, including an examination of the process by which the no net loss principle will likely be implemented at the site, based on a review of past applications of the policy. The no net loss principle was developed by the federal Department of Fisheries of Oceans (DFO) as part of their 1986 Policy for the Management of Fish Habitats. The overall objective of the policy is to achieve a net gain of the productive capacity of fish habitats in Canada. Application of the policy to specific developments is based upon maintaining the productive capacity of fish habitats as well as the needs of users groups. The policy has not yet been applied to an inland hydroelectric project. Achieving no net losses may be difficult in regard to large projects such as a hydro dam, however a review of past applications of the policy reveal a number of concepts that have been employed by the DFO when applying the no net loss principle. These concepts were applied to the Conawapa project to make recommendations to achieve no net loss if the project is developed. Mitigation and compensation measures must be developed for both brook trout and lake sturgeon habitat, and should include a combination of habitat enhancement and increased protection and compliance. Measures should also be developed for other species such as lake cisco and lake whitefish, both of which may be a food source for beluga whales. The Conawapa forebay may be given consideration as compensation for lost habitat. 81 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Storm Effects on Net Ecosystem Productivity in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestin, Patrik; Grelle, Achim; Lagergren, Fredrik; Hellström, Margareta; Langvall, Ola; Lindroth, Anders

    2010-05-01

    Regional carbon budgets are to some extent determined by disturbance in ecosystems. Disturbance is believed to be partly responsible for the large inter-annual variability of the terrestrial carbon balance. When neglecting anthropogenic disturbance, forest fires have been considered the most important kind of disturbance. However, also insect outbreaks and wind-throw may be major factors in regional carbon budgets. The effects of wind-throw on CO2 fluxes in boreal forests are not well known due to lack of data. Principally, the reduced carbon sequestration capacity, increased substrate availability and severe soil perturbation following wind-throw are expected to result in increased CO2 fluxes from the forest to the atmosphere. In January 2005, the storm Gudrun hit Sweden, which resulted in approx. 66 × 106m3storm-felled stem wood distributed over an area of approx. 272 000 ha. Eddy covariance flux measurements started at storm-felled areas in Asa and Toftaholm in central Sweden during summer 2005. Data from the first months suggests increased CO2 fluxes by a factor of 2.5-10, as compared to normal silviculture (clear-cutting). An important question is how long such enhanced CO2 fluxes persist. The BIOME-BGC model will be calibrated against measured CO2 fluxes from both sites for 2005 through 2009. Modeled data will be used to fill gaps in the data sets and annual carbon balances will be calculated. Data from Asa and Toftaholm will be presented at the conference.

  19. Field-emission from parabolic tips: Current distributions, the net current, and effective emission area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debabrata

    2018-04-01

    Field emission from nano-structured emitters primarily takes place from the tips. Using recent results on the variation of the enhancement factor around the apex [Biswas et al., Ultramicroscopy 185, 1-4 (2018)], analytical expressions for the surface distribution of net emitted electrons, as well as the total and normal energy distributions are derived in terms of the apex radius Ra and the local electric field at the apex Ea. Formulae for the net emitted current and effective emission area in terms of these quantities are also obtained.

  20. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  1. Estimating climate change effects on net primary production of rangelands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Reeves; Adam L. Moreno; Karen E. Bagne; Steven W. Running

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) of U.S. rangelands were evaluated using estimated climate regimes from the A1B, A2 and B2 global change scenarios imposed on the biogeochemical cycling model, Biome-BGC from 2001 to 2100. Temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, day length, solar radiation, CO2 enrichment and nitrogen...

  2. Origin of contemporaneous tholeiitic and K-rich alkalic lavas: A case study from the northern Deccan Plateau, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.J.; Macdougall, J.D.; Lugmair, G.W. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Gopalan, K. (Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India)); Krishnamurthy, P. (Atomic Minerals Div., Nagpur (India))

    1985-01-01

    Concurrently erupted, alternating Deccan Trap flows of tholeiitic and potassic alkalic basalt outcrop along both banks of the Narmada River near Navgam. Nearby, around Rajpipla, early tholeiites are overlain by K-rich alkalic flows and intrusives, which are themselves cut by later tholeiitic dikes. Nd and Sr isotopic ratios of a wide variety of rocks from both areas form a single correlated array, which reflects mixing between positive epsilonsub(JUV) and negative epsilonsub(JUV) end members. There is an almost complete overlap between values for tholeiitic and alkalic samples; thus, both alkalic and tholeiitic primary magmas must have been produced that were isotopically much alike. A Rajpipla rhyolite also falls on the array, near the midpoint. For positive values of epsilonsub(JUV)(T) the array is indistinguishable from that defined by the lower group of tholeiites at Mahabaleshwar, some 450 km to the south, implying a similar or identical high epsilonsub(JUV) mantle source. The negative epsilonsub(JUV) component, apparently different from either of the two at Mahabaleshwar, may have been continental crust or enriched mantle. Both alkalic and tholeiitic groups display wide overlapping ranges in incompatible elements other than K, Rb, and Ba - particularly in Sr and Nb. This partial decoupling of incompatible elements, in conjunction with the isotopic similarity between the two classes of rocks, is strongly suggestive of an enrichment event in portions of the mantle source shortly before magmatism.

  3. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  4. Alkalization of steam and condensate with 2-amino-1-butanol and hydrazine; Alkalisering av aanga och kondensat med butanolamin och hydrazin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    To maintain a low corrosion level in steam- and condensate systems at power and industrial plants, an alkalization of the steam is needed. A low corrosion level lowers the risk of operation disturbances and reduces the cost of the condensate clean up. A better knowledge in the behavior of the alkalis will improve the possibilities to avoid the corrosion attacks. In this work experimental measurements have been carried out during steam boiler conditions as temperature, continuous steam generation and condensation. It has been found that the volatility of 2-amino-1-butanol is very low during stationary dynamic conditions at 250 deg C and 120 deg C. To achieve a high ph-value in the final condensate a very high concentration of 2-amino-1-butanol is thus needed especially when the steam contains acidic compounds. The alkalization effect is obtained from ammonia which is created by thermal decomposition of hydrazine in the boiler water. It is necessary to carry out experimental investigations showing the thermal stability of organic compounds in boiler water before it is possible to recommend them as better volatile alkalis than ammonia and hydrazine. 6 refs, 13 figs

  5. Perceptions on the effect of small electric fans on comfort inside bed nets in southern Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Mulako S; Briët, Olivier J T; Keating, Joseph; Ahorlu, Collins K; Yukich, Joshua O; Oppong, Samuel; Nardini, Peter; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2016-12-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. However, among those owning an LLIN, use rates are often suboptimal. A reported barrier to bed net use is discomfort due to heat. This qualitative study was part of a larger evaluation conducted in communities without electricity in rural Ghana to assess whether 0.8 W solar powered net fans can increase net use. Twenty-three key informant interviews with household heads in the study communities in Shai-Osudoku District, southern Ghana, were conducted from July to August 2015. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain insight into perceptions of participants about the net fan system in relation to LLIN use. While all study participants reported using LLINs, with mosquito nuisance prevention as the prime motivation, heat was also mentioned as a key barrier to net use. Respondents appreciated the net fans because they improved comfort inside bed nets. The LED light on the fan stand became the main source of light at night and positively influenced the perception of the intervention as a whole. The general acceptance of the net fan system by the study participants highlights the potential of the intervention to improve comfort inside mosquito nets. This, therefore, has a potential to increase bed net use in areas with low access to electricity.

  6. System effectiveness of a targeted free mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Ali K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITN and long-lasting insecticidal treated nets (LLIN are important means of malaria prevention. Although there is consensus regarding their importance, there is uncertainty as to which delivery strategies are optimal for dispensing these life saving interventions. A targeted mass distribution of free LLINs to children under five and pregnant women was implemented in Zanzibar between August 2005 and January 2006. The outcomes of this distribution among children under five were evaluated, four to nine months after implementation. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in May 2006 in two districts of Zanzibar: Micheweni (MI on Pemba Island and North A (NA on Unguja Island. Household interviews were conducted with 509 caretakers of under-five children, who were surveyed for socio-economic status, the net distribution process, perceptions and use of bed nets. Each step in the distribution process was assessed in all children one to five years of age for unconditional and conditional proportion of success. System effectiveness (the accumulated proportion of success and equity effectiveness were calculated, and predictors for LLIN use were identified. Results The overall proportion of children under five sleeping under any type of treated net was 83.7% (318/380 in MI and 91.8% (357/389 in NA. The LLIN usage was 56.8% (216/380 in MI and 86.9% (338/389 in NA. Overall system effectiveness was 49% in MI and 87% in NA, and equity was found in the distribution scale-up in NA. In both districts, the predicting factor of a child sleeping under an LLIN was caretakers thinking that LLINs are better than conventional nets (OR = 2.8, p = 0.005 in MI and 2.5, p = 0.041 in NA, in addition to receiving an LLIN (OR = 4.9, p Conclusions Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there

  7. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggaard, L; Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J

    2011-03-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net P(i) recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of P(i)) and apparently digested tP (feed - fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake, apparently digested tP, and fecal tP excretion decreased with LP. An effect of decreased tP intake on net portal plasma flux of P(i) could not be detected. However, despite numerically minute net fluxes across the liver, the net splanchnic flux of P(i) was less in LP compared with that in HP. Though arterial plasma P(i) concentration decreased, net P(i) recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of P(i) was maintained at the expense of deposition of P(i) in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary P(i) secretion being the primary regulator of P(i) homeostasis at low tP intakes. On the contrary, maintaining salivary P(i) recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdolska, Ralitza; Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul; Edland, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Increasing the proportion of subjects allocated to the experimental treatment in controlled clinical trials is often advocated as a method of increasing recruitment rates and improving the performance of trials. The presumption is that the higher likelihood of randomization to the experimental treatment will be perceived by potential study enrollees as an added benefit of participation and will increase recruitment rates and speed the completion of trials. However, studies with alternative allocation ratios require a larger sample size to maintain statistical power, which may result in a net increase in time required to complete recruitment and a net increase in total trial cost. To describe the potential net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost. Models of recruitment time and trial cost were developed and used to compare trials with 1:1 allocation to trials with alternative allocation ratios under a range of per subject costs, per day costs, and enrollment rates. In regard to time required to complete recruitment, alternative allocation ratios are net beneficial if the recruitment rate improves by more than about 4% for trials with a 1.5:1 allocation ratio and 12% for trials with a 2:1 allocation ratio. More substantial improvements in recruitment rate, 13 and 47% respectively for scenarios we considered, are required for alternative allocation to be net beneficial in terms of tangible monetary cost. The cost models were developed expressly for trials comparing proportions or means across treatment groups. Using alternative allocation ratio designs to improve recruitment may or may not be time and cost-effective. Using alternative allocation for this purpose should only be considered for trial contexts where there is both clear evidence that the alternative design does improve recruitment rates and the attained time or cost efficiency justifies the added study subject burden implied by a larger sample size.

  9. Effect of Soil pH Increase by Biochar on NO, N2O and N2 Production during Denitrification in Acid Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O and nitric oxide (NO, but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and gaseous products (NO, N2O and N2 were assessed by high-resolution gas kinetics and related to the alkalizing effect of the BCs. To delineate the pH effect from other BC effects, we removed part of the alkalinity by leaching the BCs with water and acid prior to incubation. Uncharred cacao shell and sodium hydroxide (NaOH were also included in the study. The untreated BCs suppressed N2O and NO and increased N2 production during denitrification, irrespective of the effect on denitrification rate. The extent of N2O and NO suppression was dose-dependent and increased with the alkalizing effect of the two BC types, which was strongest for cacao shell BC. Acid leaching of BC, which decreased its alkalizing effect, reduced or eliminated the ability of BC to suppress N2O and NO net production. Just like untreated BCs, NaOH reduced net production of N2O and NO while increasing that of N2. This confirms the importance of altered soil pH for denitrification product stoichiometry. Addition of uncharred cacao shell stimulated denitrification strongly due to availability of labile carbon but only minor effects on the product stoichiometry of denitrification were found, in accordance with its modest effect on soil pH. Our study indicates that stimulation of denitrification was mainly due to increases in labile carbon whereas change in product stoichiometry was mainly due to a change in soil pH.

  10. Factors shaping effective utilization of health information technology in urban safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Garth, Belinda; Fish, Allison; Baker, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Urban safety-net clinics are considered prime targets for the adoption of health information technology innovations; however, little is known about their utilization in such safety-net settings. Current scholarship provides limited guidance on the implementation of health information technology into safety-net settings as it typically assumes that adopting institutions have sufficient basic resources. This study addresses this gap by exploring the unique challenges urban resource-poor safety-net clinics must consider when adopting and utilizing health information technology. In-depth interviews (N = 15) were used with key stakeholders (clinic chief executive officers, medical directors, nursing directors, chief financial officers, and information technology directors) from staff at four clinics to explore (a) nonhealth information technology-related clinic needs, (b) how health information technology may provide solutions, and (c) perceptions of and experiences with health information technology. Participants identified several challenges, some of which appear amenable to health information technology solutions. Also identified were requirements for effective utilization of health information technology including physical infrastructural improvements, funding for equipment/training, creation of user groups to share health information technology knowledge/experiences, and specially tailored electronic billing guidelines. We found that despite the potential benefit that can be derived from health information technologies, the unplanned and uninformed introduction of these tools into these settings might actually create more problems than are solved. From these data, we were able to identify a set of factors that should be considered when integrating health information technology into the existing workflows of low-resourced urban safety-net clinics in order to maximize their utilization and enhance the quality of health care in such settings.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Moreno, C.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first b chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than a chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observation after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Met photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% are got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. Radio estimation by low doses, although obtained in some cases for tho 10 Gy dose, has not been statistically confirmed. (Author) 23 refs

  12. Effect of network topology on the evolutionary ultimatum game based on the net-profit decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shun-Qiang; Wang, Lu; Jones, Michael C.; Ye, Ye; Wang, Meng; Xie, Neng-Gang

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquity of altruist behavior amongst humans has long been a significant puzzle in the social sciences. Ultimatum game has proved to be a useful tool for explaining altruistic behavior among selfish individuals. In an ultimatum game where alternating roles exist, we suppose that players make their decisions based on the net profit of their own. In this paper, we specify a player's strategy with two parameters: offer level α ∈ [ 0,1) and net profit acceptance level β ∈ [ - 1,1). By Monte Carlo simulation, we analyze separately the effect of the size of the neighborhood, the small-world property and the heterogeneity of the degree distributions of the networks. Results show that compared with results observed for homogeneous networks, heterogeneous networks lead to more rational outcomes. Moreover, network structure has no effect on the evolution of kindness level, so moderate kindness is adaptable to any social groups and organizations.

  13. The costs and effects of a nationwide insecticide-treated net programme: the case of Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Juan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are a proven intervention to reduce the burden of malaria, yet there remains a debate as to the best method of ensuring they are universally utilized. This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention in Malawi that started in 1998, in Blantyre district, before expanding nationwide. Over the 5-year period, 1.5 million ITNs were sold. Methods The costs were calculated retrospectively through analysis of expenditure data. Costs and effects were measured as cost per treated-net year (cost/TNY and cost per net distributed. Results The mean cost/TNY was calculated at $4.41, and the mean cost/ITN distributed at $2.63. It also shows evidence of economies of scale, with the cost/TNY falling from $7.69 in year one (72,196 ITN to $3.44 in year five (720,577 ITN. Cost/ITN distributed dropped from $5.04 to $1.92. Conclusion Combining targeting and social marketing has the potential of being both cost-effective and capable of achieving high levels of coverage, and it is possible that increasing returns to scale can be achieved.

  14. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  15. Correcting Detector Efficiency Effects in Event-by-Event Net-Proton Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of fluctuations of conserved quantities give valuable information on the susceptibilities of the nuclear matter produced in a heavy-ion collision, and could in principle be used to distinguish QGP from hadronic matter. However, measurements of the cumulants of conserved-quantity distributions are affected by the detector efficiency, which must be accounted for in order to ensure accuracy. Following the development of a toy model that simulates detector efficiency effects on net-proton number, various correction methods, including those developed by A. Bzdak and V. Koch, were implemented and tested in a wide range of conditions. We find that the first four cumulants of net-proton-number distribution can be accurately reproduced by the Koch-Bzdak corrections with reasonable input statistics. Various methods of correcting for $p_T$ dependence of detector efficiency are also explored.

  16. Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, Gregg; West, Tristram O.; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Canella, Lorenza

    2003-01-01

    A change in agricultural practice can increase carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. To know the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, however, we consider associated changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from the consumption of fossil fuels, emissions of other greenhouse gases and effects on land productivity and crop yield. We also consider how these factors will evolve over time. A change from conventional tillage to no-till agriculture, based on data for average practice in the U.S.; will result in net carbon sequestration in the soil that averages 337 kg C/ha/yr for the initial 20 yr with a decline to near zero in the following 20 yr, and continuing savings in CO 2 emissions because of reduced use of fossil fuels. The long-term results, considering all factors, can generally be expected to show decreased net greenhouse gas emissions. The quantitative details, however, depend on the site-specific impact of the conversion from conventional to no-till agriculture on agricultural yield and N 2 O emissions from nitrogen fertilizer

  17. 2D net shape weaving for cost effective manufacture of textile reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, D. M. P.; Kern, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Cherif, C.

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant weight and performance advantages over metal parts, the today’s demand for fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) has been limited mainly by their large manufacturing cost. The combination of dry textile preforms and low-cost consolidation processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) has been appointed as a promising approach to low-cost FRPC manufacture. At the current state of the art, tooling and impregnation technology is well understood whereas preform fabrication technology has not been developed effectively. This paper presents an advanced 2D net shape weaving technology developed with the aim to establish a more cost effective system for the manufacture of dry textile preforms for FRPC. 2D net shape weaving is developed based on open reed weave (ORW) technology and enables the manufacture of 2D contoured woven fabrics with firm edge, so that oversize cutting and hand trimming after molding are no longer required. The introduction of 2D net shape woven fabrics helps to reduce material waste, cycle time and preform manufacturing cost significantly. Furthermore, higher grade of automation in preform fabrication can be achieved.

  18. Submarine Alkalic Lavas Around the Hawaiian Hotspot; Plume and Non-Plume Signatures Determined by Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D. A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T. J.; Davies, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from the Kauai Channel between Oahu and Kauai, north of Molokai, northwest of Niihau, Southwest Oahu, South Arch and North Arch volcanic fields. Sites located downstream from the center of the hotspot have 3He/4He ratios close to MORB at about 8 Ra, demonstrating that the magmas erupted at these sites had minimum contribution of volatiles from a mantle plume. In contrast, the South Arch, located upstream of the hotspot on the Hawaiian Arch, has 3He/4He ratios between 17 and 21 Ra, indicating a strong plume influence. Differences in noble gas isotopic characteristics between alkalic volcanism downstream and upstream of the hotspot imply that upstream volcanism contains incipient melts from an upwelling mantle plume, having primitive 3He/4He. In combination with lithophile element isotopic data, we conclude that the most likely source of the upstream magmatism is depleted asthenospheric mantle that has been metasomatised by incipient melt from a mantle plume. After major melt extraction from the mantle plume during production of magmas for the shield stage, the plume material is highly depleted in noble gases and moderately depleted in lithophile elements. Partial melting of the depleted mantle impregnated by melts derived from this volatile depleted plume source may explain the isotopic characteristics of the downstream alkalic magmatism.

  19. Origin and evolution of the Pirituba aluminous calc-alkalic magma, state of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, Eberhard

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Late Proterozoic calc-alkalic Pirituba magmatism near the city of Sao Paulo, State of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil, are presented and discussed on the basis of geological, petrographic, mineralogical, chemical (rocks and minerals), isotopic and zircon typology data. (author)

  20. An improved null model for assessing the net effects of multiple stressors on communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patrick L; MacLennan, Megan M; Vinebrooke, Rolf D

    2018-01-01

    Ecological stressors (i.e., environmental factors outside their normal range of variation) can mediate each other through their interactions, leading to unexpected combined effects on communities. Determining whether the net effect of stressors is ecologically surprising requires comparing their cumulative impact to a null model that represents the linear combination of their individual effects (i.e., an additive expectation). However, we show that standard additive and multiplicative null models that base their predictions on the effects of single stressors on community properties (e.g., species richness or biomass) do not provide this linear expectation, leading to incorrect interpretations of antagonistic and synergistic responses by communities. We present an alternative, the compositional null model, which instead bases its predictions on the effects of stressors on individual species, and then aggregates them to the community level. Simulations demonstrate the improved ability of the compositional null model to accurately provide a linear expectation of the net effect of stressors. We simulate the response of communities to paired stressors that affect species in a purely additive fashion and compare the relative abilities of the compositional null model and two standard community property null models (additive and multiplicative) to predict these linear changes in species richness and community biomass across different combinations (both positive, negative, or opposite) and intensities of stressors. The compositional model predicts the linear effects of multiple stressors under almost all scenarios, allowing for proper classification of net effects, whereas the standard null models do not. Our findings suggest that current estimates of the prevalence of ecological surprises on communities based on community property null models are unreliable, and should be improved by integrating the responses of individual species to the community level as does our

  1. Costs and effects of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme for insecticide-treated nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in reducing morbidity and mortality is well established. International focus has now moved on to how best to scale up coverage and what financing mechanisms might be used to achieve this. The approach in Tanzania has been to deliver a targeted subsidy for those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria while at the same time providing support to the development of the commercial ITN distribution system. In October 2004, with funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria, the government launched the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS, a nationwide discounted voucher scheme for ITNs for pregnant women and their infants. This paper analyses the costs and effects of the scheme and compares it with other approaches to distribution. Methods Economic costs were estimated using the ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of the intervention (including the user contribution are quantified and valued. Effects were measured in terms of number of vouchers used (and therefore nets delivered and treated nets years. Estimates were also made for the cost per malaria case and death averted. Results and Conclusion The total financial cost of the programme represents around 5% of the Ministry of Health's total budget. The average economic cost of delivering an ITN using the voucher scheme, including the user contribution, was $7.57. The cost-effectiveness results are within the benchmarks set by other malaria prevention studies. The Government of Tanzania's approach to scaling up ITNs uses both the public and private sectors in order to achieve and sustain the level of coverage required to meet the Abuja targets. The results presented here suggest that the TNVS is a cost-effective strategy for delivering subsidized ITNs to targeted vulnerable groups.

  2. Determining and addressing obstacles to the effective use of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benziger Peter W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this project was to achieve high, sustainable levels of net coverage in a village in rural Tanzania by combining free distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs with community-tailored education. In Tanzania, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although malaria bed nets have a well-established role in reducing disease burden, few rural households have access to nets, and effective use depends on personal practices and attitudes. Methods Five practices and attitudes inconsistent with effective LLIN use were identified from household interviews (n = 10. A randomized survey of villagers (n = 132 verified local prevalence of these practices and attitudes. Community leaders held an educational session for two members of every household addressing these practice and attitudes, demonstrating proper LLIN use, and emphasizing behaviour modification. Attendees received one or two LLINs per household. Surveys distributed three weeks (n = 104 and 15 months (n = 104 post-intervention assessed corrected practices and attitudes. Project efficacy was defined by correction of baseline practices and attitudes as well as high rates of reported daily net use, with statistical significance determined by chi-square test. Results Baseline interviews and surveys revealed incorrect practices and attitudes regarding 1 use of nets in dry season, 2 need to retreat LLINs, 3 children napping under nets, 4 need to repair nets, and 5 net procurement as a priority, with 53- 88.6% incorrect responses (11.4-47% correct responses. A three-week follow-up demonstrated 83-95% correct responses. Fifteen-month follow-up showed statistically significant (p Conclusions Results suggest that addressing community-specific practices and attitudes prior to LLIN distribution promotes consistent and correct use, and helps change attitudes towards bed nets as a preventative health measure. Future LLIN distributions

  3. Simulation of distribution nets for natural gas, in stationary state considering the compressible effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbuena C, Javier

    1997-01-01

    The general method is presented to calculate the losses of pressure in a RTD starting from the geometry of the net (diameter and longitude), of the real behavior of the gas, of the ruggedness of the pipe and of the flow, considering the compressibility of the fluid so much as the influence of the compressible effects. The simulation method is derived of the principles of conservation of mass and energy for a gas that follows a reversible poly tropic process of stable state and stable flow - stationary regime

  4. Rapid Nuclear Exclusion of Hcm1 in Aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae Leads to Vacuolar Alkalization and Replicative Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Ghavidel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, like other higher eukaryotes, undergo a finite number of cell divisions before exiting the cell cycle due to the effects of aging. Here, we show that yeast aging begins with the nuclear exclusion of Hcm1 in young cells, resulting in loss of acidic vacuoles. Autophagy is required for healthy aging in yeast, with proteins targeted for turnover by autophagy directed to the vacuole. Consistent with this, vacuolar acidity is necessary for vacuolar function and yeast longevity. Using yeast genetics and immunofluorescence microscopy, we confirm that vacuolar acidity plays a critical role in cell health and lifespan, and is potentially maintained by a series of Forkhead Box (Fox transcription factors. An interconnected transcriptional network involving the Fox proteins (Fkh1, Fkh2 and Hcm1 are required for transcription of v-ATPase subunits and vacuolar acidity. As cells age, Hcm1 is rapidly excluded from the nucleus in young cells, blocking the expression of Hcm1 targets (Fkh1 and Fkh2, leading to loss of v-ATPase gene expression, reduced vacuolar acidification, increased α-syn-GFP vacuolar accumulation, and finally, diminished replicative lifespan (RLS. Loss of vacuolar acidity occurs about the same time as Hcm1 nuclear exclusion and is conserved; we have recently demonstrated that lysosomal alkalization similarly contributes to aging in C. elegans following a transition from progeny producing to post-reproductive life. Our data points to a molecular mechanism regulating vacuolar acidity that signals the end of RLS when acidification is lost.

  5. Effects of Climate Change and Shifts in Forest Composition on Forest Net Primary Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyh-Min Chiang; Louts R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Forests are dynamic in both structure and species composition, and these dynamics are strongly Influenced by climate.However, the net effects of future tree species composition on net primary production (NPP) are not well understood. The objective of this work was to model the potential range shifts of tree species (DISTRIB Model) and predict their impacts on NPP (PnET-Ⅱ Model) that will be associated with alterations in species composition. We selected four 200 × 200 km areas In Wisconsin, Maine, Arkansas, and the Ohio-West Virginia area, representing focal areas of potential species range shifts. PnET-Ⅱ model simulations were carried out assuming that all forests achieved steady state, of which the species compositions were predicted by DISTRIB model with no migration limitation. The total NPP under the current climate ranged from 552 to 908 g C/m2 per year. The effects of potential species redistributions on NPP were moderate (-12% to +8%) compared with the influence of future climatic changes (-60% to +25%). The direction and magnitude of climate change effects on NPP were largely dependent on the degree of warming and water balance. Thus, the magnitude of future climate change can affect the feedback system between the atmosphere and biosphere.

  6. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  7. Attributable effects from information and outreach programs: Net to gross, NEBs, and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, David Juri; Skumatz, Lisa A. [Skumatz Economic Research Associates, Inc. (SERA) (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Education, outreach, advertising, and training programs provide particular difficulties in evaluation, as they focus on modifying behaviors and purchases rather than directly installing measures. This paper summarizes the results of a literature review of more than 80 studies evaluating strengths and weaknesses of evaluation work on outreach and education programs. Then, the paper presents the results of several applications of advanced evaluation techniques that are being applied to outreach, education, and training programs. This paper provides the results from detailed net-to-gross (NTG) and non-energy benefits (NEB) evaluations of outreach, training, and education programs, including:A training and education geared toward commercial architects and engineers; Two similar programs geared toward residential builders and remodelers; Residential appliance-related education and outreach programs (Energy Star); and An information-based university program.We provide information from detailed evaluations of the share of energy savings and attributable effects that are due to the program's efforts (net-to-gross ratio), and the non-energy benefits (NEBs) recognized by participants. These results augment the usual evaluation studies, and provide insights that can guide informational, outreach, and training programs to maximize their effectiveness. The attribution and NEB results provide a fuller picture of the benefits from the program, support more sophisticated benefit-cost analysis, provide direction for maximizing program 'bang for the buck', and help support program decision-making and marketing.

  8. Higher order net-proton number cumulants dependence on the centrality definition and other spurious effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombun, S.; Steinheimer, J.; Herold, C.; Limphirat, A.; Yan, Y.; Bleicher, M.

    2018-02-01

    We study the dependence of the normalized moments of the net-proton multiplicity distributions on the definition of centrality in relativistic nuclear collisions at a beam energy of \\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=7.7 {GeV}. Using the ultra relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model as event generator we find that the centrality definition has a large effect on the extracted cumulant ratios. Furthermore we find that the finite efficiency for the determination of the centrality introduces an additional systematic uncertainty. Finally, we quantitatively investigate the effects of event-pile up and other possible spurious effects which may change the measured proton number. We find that pile-up alone is not sufficient to describe the data and show that a random double counting of events, adding significantly to the measured proton number, affects mainly the higher order cumulants in most central collisions.

  9. Land Use Effects on Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in the US Great Plains: Historical Trends and Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S. J.; Parton, W. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Mosier, A. R.; Mosier, A. R.; Paustian, K.; Peterson, G. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present maps showing regional patterns of land use change and soil C levels in the US Great Plains during the 20th century and time series of net greenhouse gas fluxes associated with different land uses. Net greenhouse gas fluxes were calculated by accounting for soil CO2 fluxes, the CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions and CH4 uptake, and the CO2 costs of N fertilizer production. Both historical and modern agriculture in this region have been net sources of greenhouse gases. The primary reason for this, prior to 1950, is that agriculture mined soil C and resulted in net CO2 emissions. When chemical N fertilizer became widely used in the 1950's agricultural soils began to sequester CO2-C but these soils were still net greenhouse gas sources if the effects of increased N2O emissions and decreased CH4 uptake are included. The sensitivity of net greenhouse gas fluxes to conventional and alternative land uses was explored using the DAYCENT ecosystem model. Model projections suggest that conversion to no-till, reduction of the fallow period, and use of nitrification inhibitors can significantly decrease net greenhouse gas emissions in dryland and irrigated systems, while maintaining or increasing crop yields.

  10. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  11. Investigating the influence of alkalization on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites

    OpenAIRE

    Okikiola Ganiu AGBABIAKA; Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE; Paul Toluwalagbara OLORUNLEYE

    2014-01-01

    Natural fibers are products made from renewable agricultural and forestry feedstock, which can include wood, grasses, and crops, as well as wastes and residues. There are two primary ways these fibers are used: to create polymers or as reinforcement and filler. Thermoplastic polymer may be reinforced or filled using natural fibers such as coir, sponge, hemp, flax, or sisal. This paper focused on the influence of alkalization (NaOH treatment) on the mechanical and water absorption properties o...

  12. Detection of novel visible-light region absorbance peaks in the urine after alkalization in patients with alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhara, Yasunori; Shukuya, Kenichi; Tanaka, Masami; Mouri, Mariko; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Fujishiro, Midori; Takahashi, Tomoo; Okubo, Shigeo; Yokota, Hiromitsu; Kurano, Makoto; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Inagaki, Shinobu; Ishige-Wada, Mika; Usui, Hiromi; Yatomi, Yutaka; Shimosawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaptonuria, caused by a deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, results in the accumulation of homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA) in the urine. Alkaptonuria is suspected when the urine changes color after it is left to stand at room temperature for several hours to days; oxidation of homogentisic acid to benzoquinone acetic acid underlies this color change, which is accelerated by the addition of alkali. In an attempt to develop a facile screening test for alkaptonuria, we added alkali to urine samples obtained from patients with alkaptonuria and measured the absorbance spectra in the visible light region. We evaluated the characteristics of the absorption spectra of urine samples obtained from patients with alkaptonuria (n = 2) and compared them with those of urine specimens obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 5) and patients with phenylketonuria (n = 3), and also of synthetic homogentisic acid solution after alkalization. Alkalization of the urine samples and HGA solution was carried out by the addition of NaOH, KOH or NH4OH. The sample solutions were incubated at room temperature for 1 min, followed by measurement of the absorption spectra. Addition of alkali to alkaptonuric urine yielded characteristic absorption peaks at 406 nm and 430 nm; an identical result was obtained from HGA solution after alkalization. The absorbance values at both 406 nm and 430 nm increased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the absorbance values at these peaks were greater in strongly alkaline samples (NaOH- KOH-added) as compared with those in weakly alkaline samples (NH4OH-added). In addition, the peaks disappeared following the addition of ascorbic acid to the samples. We found two characteristic peaks at 406 nm and 430 nm in both alkaptonuric urine and HGA solution after alkalization. This new quick and easy method may pave the way for the development of an easy method for the diagnosis of alkaptonuria.

  13. Detection of novel visible-light region absorbance peaks in the urine after alkalization in patients with alkaptonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Tokuhara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alkaptonuria, caused by a deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, results in the accumulation of homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA in the urine. Alkaptonuria is suspected when the urine changes color after it is left to stand at room temperature for several hours to days; oxidation of homogentisic acid to benzoquinone acetic acid underlies this color change, which is accelerated by the addition of alkali. In an attempt to develop a facile screening test for alkaptonuria, we added alkali to urine samples obtained from patients with alkaptonuria and measured the absorbance spectra in the visible light region. METHODS: We evaluated the characteristics of the absorption spectra of urine samples obtained from patients with alkaptonuria (n = 2 and compared them with those of urine specimens obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 5 and patients with phenylketonuria (n = 3, and also of synthetic homogentisic acid solution after alkalization. Alkalization of the urine samples and HGA solution was carried out by the addition of NaOH, KOH or NH4OH. The sample solutions were incubated at room temperature for 1 min, followed by measurement of the absorption spectra. RESULTS: Addition of alkali to alkaptonuric urine yielded characteristic absorption peaks at 406 nm and 430 nm; an identical result was obtained from HGA solution after alkalization. The absorbance values at both 406 nm and 430 nm increased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the absorbance values at these peaks were greater in strongly alkaline samples (NaOH- KOH-added as compared with those in weakly alkaline samples (NH4OH-added. In addition, the peaks disappeared following the addition of ascorbic acid to the samples. CONCLUSIONS: We found two characteristic peaks at 406 nm and 430 nm in both alkaptonuric urine and HGA solution after alkalization. This new quick and easy method may pave the way for the development of an easy method for the

  14. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-safadi, B.; Charbaji, T.

    2000-11-01

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  15. Distance-dependent shifts in net effects by an unpalatable nettle on a palatable plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi N.; Suzuki, Ryo O.

    2011-07-01

    We examined whether the relative importance of facilitation and competition effects by an unpalatable perennial ( Urtica thunbergiana) on a palatable annual ( Persicaria longiseta) change with the spatial distance between them in a long-term deer-grazing habitat. Survivorship, growth, size, and fecundity of Persicaria were recorded at 1-2-month intervals during growing seasons in 2 successive years and were compared among individuals located in different positions relative to the canopy of Urtica: at the centre, internal edge, external edge, and far from the canopy. Survivorship of Persicaria was significantly higher at the centre of the Urtica canopy than outside the canopy early in the growing season in both years. No significant differences in Persicaria growth were observed among the four positions in most periods, except in one when growth was significantly higher at the centre, internal, and external edges of the canopy compared to outside the canopy. We found spatial shifts in the net effects of Urtica on Persicaria fecundity, from positive effects under the canopy centre to negative effects under the external edge of the canopy in the first year, and from negative effects under the centre to positive effects under the external edge in the second year. These results demonstrate that the relative importance of positive and negative effects of Urtica on Persicaria vary temporally within and among years and spatially around a single Urtica plant. Spatiotemporal variation in plant interactions may be attributable to annual and seasonal variation in vegetation productivity and grazing pressure.

  16. Proteolytic Remodeling of Perineuronal Nets: Effects on Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lorenzo Bozzelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The perineuronal net (PNN represents a lattice-like structure that is prominently expressed along the soma and proximal dendrites of parvalbumin- (PV- positive interneurons in varied brain regions including the cortex and hippocampus. It is thus apposed to sites at which PV neurons receive synaptic input. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in PNN integrity may affect glutamatergic input to PV interneurons, a population that is critical for the expression of synchronous neuronal population discharges that occur with gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripples. The present review is focused on the composition of PNNs, posttranslation modulation of PNN components by sulfation and proteolysis, PNN alterations in disease, and potential effects of PNN remodeling on neuronal plasticity at the single-cell and population level.

  17. Electromagnetic effects on the NET first wall caused by a plasma disruption event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.R.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1987-01-01

    During the event of a major plasma disruption, the structural components of the NET fusion reactor, such as the First Wall (FW), are subjected to strong electromagnetic transients arising from the interaction of the induced eddy currents with the large magnetic field which confines and equilibrates the plasma ring. Finite element structural analyses (static, vibration, transient dynamic) have been performed to examine stresses, deformations and reactions, generated by the electromagnetic loads, in the modular blanket-enveloping box outboard FW segment. Considering the last three engineering design variations of the outboard FW module, an improvement is obtained for the new Double Null FW configuration because of the drastic reduction of electromagnetic effects and induced stresses, mainly due to increased segmentation of the internal components

  18. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceschia, Eric; Bêziat, P; Dejoux, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse gas budgets of 15 European crop sites covering a large climatic gradient and corresponding to 41 site-years were estimated. The sites included a wide range of management practices (organic and/or mineral fertilisation, tillage or ploughing, with or without straw removal....... The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analysed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions...... caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHG budget (GHGB) for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines, and CH4 emissions...

  19. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments.

  20. COST-EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO ESTIMATE UNREPORTED DATA: REBUILDING HISTORY OF LIFT-NET FISHING IN KWANDANG WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhika Prima Prasetyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop cost-effective approach regarding the estimation unreported annual catch data of lift-net fishery using Google Earth imagery. Lift net fishery is one of the main fishing activities of coastal community in Kwandang Bay, it has been faced problem of uncertain fisheries status due to limited recorded data. Combination of a Monte Carlo procedure was applied by involving couple of assumptions on parameters such as estimate growth rate of the total number of lift-net per years (10%, day at sea per unit per month (21 days and operated lift-net per month (50% and 80%. The results showed that 101 units of lift-nets were found around Kwandang waters based on Google Earth imagery recorded in October, 7th 2010, and this were used as a benchmark of calculation. This prediction was 28 units higher than official data from North Gorontalo District of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Services (DKP Gorontalo Utara. Compared with capture fisheries statistics issued by Kwandang CFP, the estimated lift-net catches based on two-scenarios represent additional catches of 46 % and 86 %. These results suggested and could be used as a correction index to improve the reliability of Kwandang District officially reported fisheries statistics as a baseline to develop a local common fisheries policy.

  1. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  2. The effect of deltamethrin-treated net fencing around cattle enclosures on outdoor-biting mosquitoes in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreira Maia

    Full Text Available Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and -resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m(2 attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A - with cattle and no net; B - with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C - with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D - no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (p<0.0001 landed on humans. The deltamethrin-treated net significantly reduced (nearly three-fold, p<0.0001 culicine landings inside enclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa.

  3. Geochemistry of tholeiitic and alkalic lavas from the Koolau Range, Oahu, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roden, M.F.; Frey, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Lavas of the post-erosional, alkalic Honolulu Volcanics have significantly lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and higher 143 Nd/ 144 Nd than the older and underlying Koolau tholeiites which form the Koolau shield of eastern Oahu, Hawaii. Despite significant compositional variation within lavas forming the Honolulu Volcanics, these lavas are isotopically (Sr, Nd, Pb) very similar which contrasts with the isotopic heterogeneity of the Koolau tholeiites. Among Hawaiian tholeiitic suites, the Koolau lavas are geochemically distinct because of their lower iron contents and Sr and Nd isotopic ratios which range to bulk earth values. These geochemical data preclude simple models such as derivation of the Honolulu Volcanics and Koolau tholeiites from a common source by different degrees of melting or by mixing of two geochemically distinct sources. There may be no genetic relationship between the origin and evolution of these two lava suites; however, the trend shown by Koolau Range lavas of increasing 143 Nd/ 144 Nd and decreasing 87 Sr/ 86 Sr with decreasing eruption age and increasing alkalinity also occurs at Haleakala, East Molokai and Kauai volcaneoes. A complex mixing model proposed for Haleakala lavas can account for the variations in Sr and Nd isotopic ratios and processes occurring during ascent of relatively enriched mantle through relatively depleted MORB-related lithosphere. Although two isotopically distinct components may be sufficient to explain Sr and Nd isotopic variations at individual Hawaiian volcaneoes, more than two isotopically distinct materials are required to explain variations of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios in all Hawaiian lavas. (orig.)

  4. The Variscan calc-alkalic plutonism of western Corsica: mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocherie, A.; Rossi, Ph.; Le Bel, L.

    1984-10-01

    Petrographic and structural observations on the calc-alkalic plutonism of western Corsica revealed the existence of several successively emplaced units associated with large basic bodies. The present mineralogical and geochemical study deals with the genesis, evolution and relationships of these different units. Basic plutonism is represented by three genetically linked types of rock: norites and troctolites with cumulate textures characterized by low REE contents and either no Eu anomaly or a positive Eu anomaly; gabbros with enriched LREE relatively to HREE patterns, probably close to an initial basaltic liquid; and diorites ranging up to charnockites which represent liquids evolved to varying degrees, mainly by fractional crystallization. Trace element data and studies on the evolution of pyroxene pairs demonstrate the consanguinity of these calc-alkaline basic rocks which are derived from a high alumina basaltic melt. The various granitoids (granodiorites, monzogranites and leucocratic monzogranites, i.e., adamellites) have distinct evolution trends as shown by the composition of their mafic minerals and by trace element distributions. They cannot be considered as being derivatives of the basic suite and they cannot be related by a common fractionation sequence. Rather, they represent distinctive batches of crustal anatexis. In addition, hybridization phenomena with the basic melt are noticed in granodiorites. The particular problem of the low La/Yb, Eu/Eu∗ and the high U, Th, Cs leucocratic monzogranites is discussed in detail. In addition to more conventional trace element diagrams, the simultaneous statistical treatment of all the geochemical data by correspondence factor analysis is shown to be a very use tool in distinguishing between the different units and to classify the elements according to their geochemical properties.

  5. Effects of topography on simulated net primary productivity at landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X F; Chen, J M; An, S Q; Ju, W M

    2007-11-01

    Local topography significantly affects spatial variations of climatic variables and soil water movement in complex terrain. Therefore, the distribution and productivity of ecosystems are closely linked to topography. Using a coupled terrestrial carbon and hydrological model (BEPS-TerrainLab model), the topographic effects on the net primary productivity (NPP) are analyzed through four modelling experiments for a 5700 km(2) area in Baohe River basin, Shaanxi Province, northwest of China. The model was able to capture 81% of the variability in NPP estimated from tree rings, with a mean relative error of 3.1%. The average NPP in 2003 for the study area was 741 gCm(-2)yr(-1) from a model run including topographic effects on the distributions of climate variables and lateral flow of ground water. Topography has considerable effect on NPP, which peaks near 1350 m above the sea level. An elevation increase of 100 m above this level reduces the average annual NPP by about 25 gCm(-2). The terrain aspect gives rise to a NPP change of 5% for forests located below 1900 m as a result of its influence on incident solar radiation. For the whole study area, a simulation totally excluding topographic effects on the distributions of climatic variables and ground water movement overestimated the average NPP by 5%.

  6. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, William A.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Vulule, John M.; Ombok, Maurice; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Gimnig, John E.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial analyses of the effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on nearby households both with and without ITNs was performed in the context of a large-scale, group-randomized, controlled mortality trial in Asembo, western Kenya. Results illustrate a protective effect of ITNs on

  7. Magnetic sheath effect on the gross and net erosion rates due to impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, N.; Pégourié, B.; Martin, C.; Gunn, J. P.; Bufferand, H.; Roubin, P.

    2016-02-01

    Simulations of impurity trajectories in deuterium plasmas in the vicinity of the surface are performed by taking into account the magnetic sheath in conditions relevant for ITER and WEST. We show that the magnetic sheath has a strong effect on the average impact angle of impurities in divertor conditions and that it can lead to an increase of ≈ 60% at the gross erosion maximum for neon (Ne+4) compared to the case when only the cyclotron motion is considered. The evaluation of the net erosion has been undertaken by retaining local redeposition of tungsten (W). We investigate how it is affected by the sheath magnetic potential profile. The largest effect is however observed when an energy distribution is considered. In this case the number of particles that manage to exit the sheath is larger as it is dominated by the more energetic particles. The comparison with other work is also discussed. The application to a scenario of the WEST project is finally performed, which exhibits a moderate, however non negligible, erosion of the plasma facing components.

  8. Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank; ECLOUD'12

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the Joint INFN-Frascati, INFN-Pisa, CERN-LER and EuCARD-AccNet Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects, “ECLOUD12”, held at La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, from 5 to 9 June 2012. The ECLOUD12 workshop reviewed many recent electron-cloud (EC) observations at existing storage rings, EC predictions for future accelerators, electron-cloud studies at DAFNE, EC mitigation by clearing electrodes and graphite/carbon coatings, modeling of incoherent EC effects, self-consistent simulations, synergies with other communities like the Valencia Space Consortium and the European Space Agency. ECLOUD12 discussed new EC observations at existing machines including LHC, CesrTA, PETRA-3, J-PARC, and FNAL MI; latest experimental efforts to characterize the EC – including EC diagnostics, experimental techniques, mitigation techniques such as coating and conditioning, advanced chemical and physical analyses of various vacuum-chamber surfaces, beam instabilities and emittance growth –; the...

  9. Proceedings of Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimino, R; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the Joint INFN-Frascati, INFN-Pisa, CERN-LER and EuCARD-AccNet Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects, “ECLOUD12”, held at La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, from 5 to 9 June 2012. The ECLOUD12 workshop reviewed many recent electron-cloud (EC) observations at existing storage rings, EC predictions for future accelerators, electron-cloud studies at DAFNE, EC mitigation by clearing electrodes and graphite/carbon coatings, modeling of incoherent EC effects, self-consistent simulations, synergies with other communities like the Valencia Space Consortium and the European Space Agency. ECLOUD12 discussed new EC observations at existing machines including LHC, CesrTA, PETRA-3, J-PARC, and FNAL MI; latest experimental efforts to characterize the EC – including EC diagnostics, experimental techniques, mitigation techniques such as coating and conditioning, advanced chemical and physical analyses of various vacuum-chamber surfaces, beam instabilities and emittance growth –; the status of EC physics models and (new, more versatile and additional) simulation codes and their comparison with recently acquired experimental data; and the mitigation requirements and potential performance limitations imposed by the EC on upgraded and future machines, including HL-LHC, FAIR, ILC, Project-X, SuperB and SuperKEKB. A dedicated session addressed problems related to RF breakdown and multipacting for space applications. A number of open questions and future R&D needs were identified

  10. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  11. Effects of Channel Geometry and Coolant Fluid on Thermoelectric Net Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Channel geometry has a strong influence on the heat transfer coefficient and cooling energy input in a heat sink. The net power output in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be defined as power generation minus the required cooling energy in TEG. This study aims to evaluate the net power generat......, and the maximum net power output occurs at smaller Reynolds number when the channel hydraulic diameter reduces....... generation in TEG for different size of hydraulic diameter of plate-fin heat sink and over a wide range of Reynolds number. The particular focus of this study is to find optimal Reynolds number in each considered channel hydraulic diameter and to explore optimal channel hydraulic diameter for maximum TEG net...

  12. Climate dependence of the CO2 fertilization effect on terrestrial net primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, G.A.; Yamagata, Y.; Oikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative formulation of the fertilization effect of CO 2 enrichment on net primary production (NPP) introduced by Keeling and Bacastow in 1970s (known as Keeling's formula) has been recognized as a summary of experimental data and has been used in various assessments of the industrial impact on atmospheric chemistry. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the formula's key coefficient, the so-called growth factor, has remained open to question. Some of the global carbon cycle modelers avoid this question by tuning growth factor and choosing the value that fits the observed course of atmospheric CO 2 changes. However, for mapping terrestrial sinks induced by the CO 2 fertilization effect one needs a geographical pattern of the growth factor rather than its globally averaged value. The earlier approach to this problem involved formulating the climate dependence of the growth factor and the derivation of its global pattern from climatic variables (whose geographical distribution is known). We use a process-based model (TsuBiMo) for this purpose and derive the values of growth factor for major biomes for comparison our approach with the earlier studies. Contrary to the earlier prevailing opinion, TsuBiMo predicts that these values decrease with mean annual temperature (excluding biomes of limited water supply). We attribute this result to the effect of light limitation caused by mutual shading inside a canopy, which was considered earlier as unimportant, and conclude that current hypotheses about CO 2 fertilization effect (and thus projections of the related carbon sink) are very sensitive to the choice of driving forces taken into account

  13. Net ecosystem carbon exchange in three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems – the effect of drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts reduce gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco, contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean, droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and changes in rain seasonality. We compared carbon fluxes measured by the eddy covariance technique in three contrasting ecosystems in southern Portugal: an evergreen oak woodland (savannah-like with ca.~21% tree crown cover, a grassland dominated by herbaceous annuals and a coppiced short-rotation eucalyptus plantation. During the experimental period (2003–2006 the eucalyptus plantation was always the strongest sink for carbon: net ecosystem exchange rate (NEE between −861 and −399 g C m−2 year−1. The oak woodland and the grassland were much weaker sinks for carbon: NEE varied in the oak woodland between −140 and −28 g C m−2 year−1 and in the grassland between −190 and +49 g C m−2 year−1. The eucalyptus stand had higher GPP and a lower proportion of GPP spent in respiration than the other systems. The higher GPP resulted from high leaf area duration (LAD, as a surrogate for the photosynthetic photon flux density absorbed by the canopy. The eucalyptus had also higher rain use efficiency (GPP per unit of rain volume and light use efficiency (the daily GPP per unit incident photosynthetic photon flux density than the other two ecosystems. The effects of a severe drought could be evaluated during the hydrological-year (i.e., from October to September of 2004–2005. Between October 2004 and June 2005 the precipitation was only 40% of the long-term average. In 2004–2005 all ecosystems had GPP lower than in wetter years and carbon sequestration was strongly restricted (less negative NEE. The grassland was a net source of carbon dioxide (+49 g C m−2 year−1. In the oak woodland a large proportion of GPP resulted from carbon assimilated by its annual vegetation

  14. Aim High or Go Low? Pricing Strategies and Enrollment Effects when the Net Price Elasticity Varies with Need and Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curs, Bradley R.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Detailed data on individual applicants to a large public university are used to demonstrate that net price responsiveness decreases with need and ability. Enrollment effects are simulated and show a movement towards a high tuition/high aid (low tuition/low aid) policy significantly lowers (raises) tuition revenue with a modest increase (decrease)…

  15. Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Schoute, Erik; Kamau, Luna; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in neighboring villages lacking ITNs was studied during a randomized controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. There was a trend of decreased abundance of Anopheles gambiae with decreasing

  16. Heating Has No Effect on the Net Protein Utilisation from Egg Whites in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Matsuoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg whites (EW are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36, 198±1 g were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU rate. The soybean protein group had a significantly lower level of food intake and was thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The NPU value was similar among the unheated, soft-boiled, and boiled EW groups (97.5±0.4, 96.5±0.1, and 96.5±0.7, resp.. The EW group values were significantly higher than the whey group values (90.5±1.0. These results show that EW serve as a good source of protein, irrespective of heating.

  17. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Modeling the effects of integrating larval habitat source reduction and insecticide treated nets for malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Yakob

    Full Text Available Integrated vector management for malaria control has received a lot of recent interest. Attacking multiple points in the transmission cycle is hoped to act synergistically and improve upon current single-tool interventions based on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In the present study, we theoretically examined the application of larval habitat source reduction with ITNs in reducing malaria transmission. We selected this type of environmental management to complement ITNs because of a potential secondary mode of action that both control strategies share. In addition to increasing vector mortality, ITNs reduce the rate at which female mosquitoes locate human hosts for blood feeding, thereby extending their gonotrophic cycle. Similarly, while reducing adult vector emergence and abundance, source reduction of larval habitats may prolong the cycle duration by extending delays in locating oviposition sites. We found, however, that source reduction of larval habitats only operates through this secondary mode of action when habitat density is below a critical threshold. Hence, we illustrate how this strategy becomes increasingly effective when larval habitats are limited. We also demonstrate that habitat source reduction is better suited to human populations of higher density and in the presence of insecticide resistance or when the insecticidal properties of ITNs are depleted.

  19. The relative effectiveness of managed care penetration and the healthcare safety net in reducing avoidable hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, Etienne E; Orban, Barbara L; Comins, Meg M; Large, John T; Asin-Oostburg, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Avoidable hospitalizations represent a key indicator for access to, and the quality of, primary care. Therefore, understanding their behavior is essential in terms of management of healthcare resources and costs. This analysis examines the affect of 2 healthcare strategies on the rate of avoidable hospitalization, managed care and the healthcare safety net. The avoidable hospitalizations definition developed by Weissman et al. (1992) was used to identify relevant inpatient episodes. A 2-stage simultaneous equations multivariate regression model with instrumental variables was used to estimate the relative influence of HMO penetration and the composition of local hospital markets on the rate of avoidable hospitalizations. Control variables in the model include healthcare supply and demand, demographic, socioeconomic, and health status characteristics. Increased market presence of public hospitals significantly reduced avoidable hospitalizations. HMO penetration did not influence the rate of avoidable hospitalizations. The results suggest that public investments in healthcare facilities and infrastructure are more effective in reducing avoidable hospitalizations. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of repeated hand washing, sunlight, smoke and dirt on the persistence of deltamethrin on insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayedi, M H; Lines, J D; Haghdoost, A A; Vatandoost, M H; Rassi, Y; Khamisabady, K

    2008-08-01

    Field studies were carried out in Iran to evaluate the effect of various factors (washing, sun, smoke, dust and dirt) on the residual insecticidal activity of PermaNet (a brand of long-lasting insecticidal net), and on nets conventionally treated with deltamethrin (K-O Tab), using bioassay tests. Thirty-two nets were washed five or 15 times, and eight nets were not washed at all. Nets were washed vigorously in cold tap water (17 degrees C, pH 8.9) with a detergent. Hand rubbing continued for 3min. After washing, some nets were exposed to dense smoke from a dung-hay fire for 3min and were also left exposed to the dusty wind between washes. One group of nets was exposed to the sunlight for the full 3-d interval between washes; another was exposed to sunlight for just 3h after each wash; two other groups were kept in the shade. There was a significantly greater loss of activity in nets exposed to the sun throughout the 3-d interval between washes: that is, for a total of 15 to 45 d. However, short sunlight exposure (maximum 3h between washes) during drying did not have any effect. We did not find any significant effect of exposure to dirt, dust and smoke after washing. It is concluded that the effect of sun is much smaller than that of washing, and that drying nets for a few hours in the sun is not harmful.

  1. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  2. Radiation risk of tissue late effects, a net consequence of probabilities of various cellular responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Late effects from the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation are hardly or not at all observed in man mainly due to the low values of risk coefficients that preclude statistical analyses of data from populations that are exposed to doses less than 0.2 Gy. In order to arrive at an assessment of potential risk from radiation exposure in the low dose range, the microdosimetry approach is essential. In the low dose range, ionizing radiation generates particle tracks, mainly electrons, which are distributed rather heterogeneously within the exposed tissue. Taking the individual cell as the elemental unit of life, observations and calculations of cellular responses to being hit by energy depositions events from low LET type are analysed. It emerges that besides the probability of a hit cell to sustain a detrimental effect with the consequense of malignant transformation there are probabilities of various adaptive responses that equipp the hit cell with a benefit. On the one hand, an improvement of cellular radical detoxification was observed in mouse bone marrow cells; another adaptive response pertaining to improved DNA repair, was reported for human lymphocytes. The improved radical detoxification in mouse bone marrow cells lasts for a period of 5-10 hours and improved DNA repair in human lymphocytes was seen for some 60 hours following acute irradiation. It is speculated that improved radical detoxification and improved DNA repair may reduce the probability of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Thus it is proposed to weigh the probability of detriment for a hit cell within a multicellular system against the probability of benefit through adaptive responses in other hit cells in the same system per radiation exposure. In doing this, the net effect of low doses of low LET radiation in tissue with individual cells being hit by energy deposition events could be zero or even beneficial. (orig./MG)

  3. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980–2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially ‘normal’ ones are not commonly researched. Theoretical background According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. Data and results A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries. PMID:28654644

  4. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, Dirk H M

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially 'normal' ones are not commonly researched. According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries.

  5. Effects of Recent Regional Soil Moisture Variability on Global Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. A.; Madani, N.; Kimball, J. S.; Reichle, R. H.; Colliander, A.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture exerts a major regional control on the inter-annual variability of the global land sink for atmospheric CO2. In semi-arid regions, annual biomass production is closely coupled to variability in soil moisture availability, while in cold-season-affected regions, summer drought offsets the effects of advancing spring phenology. Availability of satellite solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) observations and improvements in atmospheric inversions has led to unprecedented ability to monitor atmospheric sink strength. However, discrepancies still exist between such top-down estimates as atmospheric inversion and bottom-up process and satellite driven models, indicating that relative strength, mechanisms, and interaction of driving factors remain poorly understood. We use soil moisture fields informed by Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) observations to compare recent (2015-2017) and historic (2000-2014) variability in net ecosystem land-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE). The operational SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4C) product relates ground-based flux tower measurements to other bottom-up and global top-down estimates to underlying soil moisture and other driving conditions using data-assimilation-based SMAP Level 4 Soil Moisture (L4SM). Droughts in coastal Brazil, South Africa, Eastern Africa, and an anomalous wet period in Eastern Australia were observed by L4C. A seasonal seesaw pattern of below-normal sink strength at high latitudes relative to slightly above-normal sink strength for mid-latitudes was also observed. Whereas SMAP-based soil moisture is relatively informative for short-term temporal variability, soil moisture biases that vary in space and with season constrain the ability of the L4C estimates to accurately resolve NEE. Such biases might be caused by irrigation and plant-accessible ground-water. Nevertheless, SMAP L4C daily NEE estimates connect top-down estimates to variability of effective driving factors for accurate estimates of regional

  6. Sumoylation of the net inhibitory domain (NID) is stimulated by PIAS1 and has a negative effect on the transcriptional activity of Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylyk, Christine; Criqui-Filipe, Paola; Wasylyk, Bohdan

    2005-01-27

    Net (Elk-3, Sap-2, Erp) and the related ternary complex factors Elk-1 and Sap-1 are effectors of multiple signalling pathways at the transcriptional level and play a key role in the dynamic regulation of gene expression. Net is distinct from Elk-1 and Sap-1, in that it is a strong repressor of transcription that is converted to an activator by the Ras/Erk signalling pathway. Two autonomous repression domains of Net, the NID and the CID, mediate repression. We have previously shown that the co-repressor CtBP is implicated in repression by the CID. In this report we show that repression by the NID involves a different pathway, sumoylation by Ubc9 and PIAS1. PIAS1 interacts with the NID in the two-hybrid assay and in vitro. Ubc9 and PIAS1 stimulate sumoylation in vivo of lysine 162 in the NID. Sumoylation of lysine 162 increases repression by Net and decreases the positive activity of Net. These results increase our understanding of how one of the ternary complex factors regulates transcription, and contribute to the understanding of how different domains of a transcription factor participate in the complexity of regulation of gene expression.

  7. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jens Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed...... restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net Pi recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of Pi) and apparently digested tP (feed – fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake...

  8. Effects of Educational Intervention on Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Use in a Malarious Area, Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Madani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs have been advocated as an effective tool against malaria transmission. However, success of this community based intervention largely depends on the knowledge and practice regarding malaria and its prevention. According to the national strategy plan on evaluation of LLINs (Olyset nets, this study was conducted to determine the perceptions and practices about malaria and to improve use of LLINs in Bashagard district, one of the important foci of malaria in southeast Iran. The study area comprised 14 villages that were randomized in two clusters and designated as LLINs and untreated nets. Each of households in both clusters received two bed nets by the free distribution and delivery. After one month quantitative data collection method was used to collect information regarding the objectives of the study. On the basis of this information, an educational program was carried out in both areas to increase motivation for use of bed nets. Community knowledge and practice regarding malaria and LLIN use assessed pre- and post-educational program. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. At baseline, 77.5% of respondents in intervention and 69.4 % in control area mentioned mosquito bite as the cause of malaria, this awareness increased significantly in intervention (90.3% and control areas (87.9%, following the educational program. A significant increase also was seen in the proportion of households who used LLINs the previous night (92.5% compared with untreated nets (87.1%. Educational status was an important predictor of LLINs use. Regular use of LLIN was considerably higher than the targeted coverage (80% which recommended by World Heaths Organization. About 81.1% and 85.3% of respondents from LLIN and control areas reported that mosquito nuisance and subsequent malaria transmission were the main determinants of bed net use. These findings highlight a need for educational intervention in implementation of

  9. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  10. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  11. Evolution of extreme stomach pH in bilateria inferred from gastric alkalization mechanisms in basal deuterostomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y; Tseng, Yung-Che; Guh, Ying-Jeh; Chen, Yi-Chih; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-06-08

    The stomachs of most vertebrates operate at an acidic pH of 2 generated by the gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase located in parietal cells. The acidic pH in stomachs of vertebrates is believed to aid digestion and to protect against environmental pathogens. Little attention has been placed on whether acidic gastric pH regulation is a vertebrate character or a deuterostome ancestral trait. Here, we report alkaline conditions up to pH 10.5 in the larval digestive systems of ambulacraria (echinoderm + hemichordate), the closest relative of the chordate. Microelectrode measurements in combination with specific inhibitors for acid-base transporters and ion pumps demonstrated that the gastric alkalization machinery in sea urchin larvae is mainly based on direct H(+) secretion from the stomach lumen and involves a conserved set of ion pumps and transporters. Hemichordate larvae additionally utilized HCO3(-) transport pathways to generate even more alkaline digestive conditions. Molecular analyses in combination with acidification experiments supported these findings and identified genes coding for ion pumps energizing gastric alkalization. Given that insect larval guts were also reported to be alkaline, our discovery raises the hypothesis that the bilaterian ancestor utilized alkaline digestive system while the vertebrate lineage has evolved a strategy to strongly acidify their stomachs.

  12. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes: The flight response recorded in a semi-field study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an experimental house was recorded within a large screen house. We compared entry- and exit rates in relation to the presence in the house of different insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) with an untreated net. Mosquitoes were lured towards the house by dispensing a synthetic host-odour blend from within the net in the house. Complementary WHO bioassays revealed that the treated nets caused high knock-down- and mortality responses to the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strain tested. The proportion of mosquitoes that came into view of the cameras and subsequently entered the house did not differ between treated nets and the untreated net. Treated nets did not affect proportions of mosquitoes that exited the house and departed from view around the eave. However, the percentage of house-leaving and re-entering mosquitoes when an insecticide- treated net was present, was lower than in the presence of an untreated net. Our results indicated that there was no spatial repellent effect from pyrethroid-treated nets that influences house-entry at eave level. It is argued that the toxic effect of treated bed nets resulted in a reduced number of mosquitoes re-entering the house, which could thereby affect malaria transmission in neighbouring, unprotected houses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  14. Effects of precipitation changes on aboveground net primary production and soil respiration in a switchgrass field

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study attempted to test whether switchgrass aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responds to precipitation (PPT) changes in a double asymmetry pattern as framed by Knapp et al. (2016), and whether it is held true for other ecosystem processes such as soil respiration (SR). Data were colle...

  15. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, X.; Ju, W.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs) for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP) estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI) is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE) in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m-2 yr-1 to 4.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m-2 yr-1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI) and elevation have small and additive effects on improving the spatial scaling

  16. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m−2 yr−1 to 4.8 g C m−2 yr−1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m−2 yr−1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI and elevation have small and additive effects on improving

  17. Effect of operating methods of wind turbine generator system on net power extraction under wind velocity fluctuations in fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Hashizume, Takumi [Waseda Univ., Advanced Research Inst. for Science and Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Outa, Eisuke [Waseda Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Yoshiaki [Nippon Inst. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Saitama (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of how a wind turbine generator system is operated is discussed from the viewpoint of net power extraction with wind velocity fluctuation in relation to the scale and the dynamic behaviour of the system. On a wind turbine generator system consisting of a Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, a load generator and a battery, we took up two operating methods: constant tip speed ratio operation for a stand-alone system (Scheme 1) and synchronous operation by connecting a grid (Scheme 2). With our simulation model, using the result of the net extracting power, we clarified that Scheme 1 is more effective than Scheme 2 for small-scale systems. Furthermore, in Scheme 1, the appropriate rated power output of the system under each wind condition can be confirmed. (Author)

  18. Effectiveness and equity of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme for mosquito nets over 10 years of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen; Mandike, Renata; Nathan, Rose; Mohamed, Ally; Lynch, Matthew; Brown, Nick; Mnzava, Ally; Rimisho, Wilhelmina; Lengeler, Christian

    2017-06-15

    The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) was a public private partnership managed by the Ministry of Health that provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized (long-lasting) insecticide-treated nets between 2004 and 2014. It was implemented in the context of the National Insecticide Treated Nets (NATNETS) Programme and was the main keep up strategy for vulnerable populations. The programme design was adjusted considerably over time to incorporate new evidence, shifting public health policies, and changing donor priorities. Three TNVS models can be distinguished: (1) the fixed discount; (2) the fixed top-up; (3) the hybrid voucher model. The changes improved equity and effectiveness, but also had a profound effect on how the programme was managed and implemented. The TNVS reached the majority of beneficiaries with vouchers, and significantly increased household ownership and use of LLINs. While two mass distribution campaigns implemented between 2009 and 2011 achieved universal coverage and equity, the TNVS ensured continuous protection of the vulnerable populations before, during and after the campaigns. The TNVS stimulated and maintained a large national retail network which managed the LLIN supply chain. The effectiveness of the TNVS was a function of several interdependent factors, including the supply chain of vouchers through the public health system; the supply chain of nets in the commercial sector; the demand for nets from voucher recipients; management and risk mitigation measures; and the influence of global and donor objectives. The TNVS was a highly innovative and globally influential programme, which stimulated the thinking around effectively and equitably distributing ITNs, and contributed directly to the evolution of global policy. It was a fundamental component of the NATNETS programme which protected a malaria-vulnerable population for over a decade.

  19. Evaluation of runaway-electron effects on plasma-facing components for NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, H.; Calén, H.

    1991-03-01

    Runaway electrons which are generated during disruptions can cause serious damage to plasma facing components in a next generation device like NET. A study was performed to quantify the response of NET plasma facing components to runaway-electron impact. For the determination of the energy deposition in the component materials Monte Carlo computations were performed. Since the subsurface metal structures can be strongly heated under runaway-electron impact from the computed results damage threshold values for the thermal excursions were derived. These damage thresholds are strongly dependent on the materials selection and the component design. For a carbonmolybdenum divertor with 10 and 20 mm carbon armour thickness and 1 degree electron incidence the damage thresholds are 100 MJ/m 2 and 220 MJ/m 2. The thresholds for a carbon-copper divertor under the same conditions are about 50% lower. On the first wall damage is anticipated for energy depositions above 180 MJ/m 2.

  20. The Porgera gold deposit, Papua, New Guinea, 1: association with alkalic magmatism in a continent-island-arc collision zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.P.; Chappell, B.W.; McCulloch, M.T.; McDougall, I.

    1991-01-01

    The meso thermal to epithermal Porgera gold deposit is spatially and temporally associated with shallow level (≤ 2 km emplacement depth) stocks and dykes of the Porgera Intrusive Complex (PIC). Gold mineralization immediately followed emplacement of the PIC, and is dated between 5 and 6 Ma ago. The Porgera intrusive suite is comprised of fine- to medium-grained, porphyritic to euhedral granular, volatile-rich, sodic alkali basalts/gabbros, hawaiites, and mugearites (TAS chemical classification scheme). The rocks display chemical and isotopic characteristics similar to those of intra plate alkalic basalts, but their unusually high volatile contents result in stabilization of hornblende as a phenocryst and intergranular phase in more evolved rock types. The observed order of cotectic crystallization is olivine - clinopyroxene - hornblende -plagioclase, with ubiquitous spinel (chromite/magnetite) and fluor-apatite. (author)

  1. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  2. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, Carsten; Wartmann, Sina; Höhne, Niklas; Blok, Kornelis

    2014-01-01

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  3. Partitioning net ecosystem carbon exchange into net assimilation and respiration using 13CO2 measurements: A cost-effective sampling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OgéE, J.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Bariac, T.; Brunet, Y.; Berbigier, P.; Roche, C.; Richard, P.; Bardoux, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    The current emphasis on global climate studies has led the scientific community to set up a number of sites for measuring the long-term biosphere-atmosphere net CO2 exchange (net ecosystem exchange, NEE). Partitioning this flux into its elementary components, net assimilation (FA), and respiration (FR), remains necessary in order to get a better understanding of biosphere functioning and design better surface exchange models. Noting that FR and FA have different isotopic signatures, we evaluate the potential of isotopic 13CO2 measurements in the air (combined with CO2 flux and concentration measurements) to partition NEE into FR and FA on a routine basis. The study is conducted at a temperate coniferous forest where intensive isotopic measurements in air, soil, and biomass were performed in summer 1997. The multilayer soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA is adapted to compute 13CO2 flux and concentration profiles. Using MuSICA as a "perfect" simulator and taking advantage of the very dense spatiotemporal resolution of the isotopic data set (341 flasks over a 24-hour period) enable us to test each hypothesis and estimate the performance of the method. The partitioning works better in midafternoon when isotopic disequilibrium is strong. With only 15 flasks, i.e., two 13CO2 nighttime profiles (to estimate the isotopic signature of FR) and five daytime measurements (to perform the partitioning) we get mean daily estimates of FR and FA that agree with the model within 15-20%. However, knowledge of the mesophyll conductance seems crucial and may be a limitation to the method.

  4. Effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Renduo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Buchmann, Nina; Zhu, Juan; Chen, Guanhong; Moyano, Fernando; Pumpanen, Jukka; Hirano, Takashi; Takagi, Kentaro; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-06-08

    The net ecosystem CO 2 exchange is the result of the imbalance between the assimilation process (gross primary production, GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). The aim of this study was to investigate temperature sensitivities of these processes and the effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO 2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions. A database of 403 site-years of ecosystem flux data at 101 sites in the world was collected and analyzed. Temperature sensitivities of rates of RE and GPP were quantified with Q 10 , defined as the increase of RE (or GPP) rates with a temperature rise of 10 °C. Results showed that on the annual time scale, the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of GPP (Q 10sG ) was higher than or equivalent to the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of RE (Q 10sR ). Q 10sG was negatively correlated to the mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas Q 10sR was independent of MAT. The analysis of the current temperature sensitivities and net ecosystem production suggested that temperature rise might enhance the CO 2 sink of terrestrial ecosystems both in the boreal and temperate regions. In addition, ecosystems in these regions with different plant functional types should sequester more CO 2 with climate warming.

  5. The effect of small solar powered 'Bͻkͻͻ' net fans on mosquito net use: results from a randomized controlled cross-over trial in southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Yukich, Joshua O; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Miller, William; Jaeger, Mulako S; Khanna, Nitin; Oppong, Samuel; Nardini, Peter; Ahorlu, Collins K; Keating, Joseph

    2017-01-03

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are ineffective malaria transmission prevention tools if they are unused. Discomfort due to heat is the most commonly reported reason for not using nets, but this problem is largely unaddressed. With increasing rural electrification and the dropping price of solar power, fans could improve comfort inside nets and be affordable to populations in malaria endemic areas. Here, results are presented from a pilot randomized controlled cross-over study testing the effect of fans on LLIN use. Eighty-three households from two rural communities in Greater Accra, Ghana, randomized into three groups, participated in a 10-month cross-over trial. After a screening survey to identify eligible households, all households received new LLINs. Bͻkͻͻ net fan systems (one fan per member) were given to households in Group 1 and water filters were given to households in Group 2. At mid-point, Group 1 and 2 crossed over interventions. Households in Group 1 and 2 participated in fortnightly surveys on households' practices related to nets, fans and water filters, while households in Group 3 were surveyed only at screening, mid-point and study end. Entomological and weather data were collected throughout the study. Analysis took both 'per protocol' (PP) and 'intention to treat' (ITT) approaches. The mid- and end-point survey data from Group 1 and 2 were analysed using Firth logistic regressions. Fortnightly survey data from all groups were analysed using logistic regressions with random effects. Provision of fans to households appeared to increase net use in this study. Although the increase in net use explained by fans was not significant in the primary analyses (ITT odds ratio 3.24, p > 0.01; PP odds ratio = 1.17, p > 0.01), it was significant in secondary PP analysis (odds ratio = 1.95, p Fan use was 90-100% depending on the fortnightly visit. This pilot study could not provide definitive evidence that fans increase net use. A larger

  6. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend...

  7. Effect of a dual-task net-step exercise on cognitive and gait function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Kazutoshi; Showa, Satoko; Hiraoka, Akira; Fushiki, Yasuhiro; Sakauchi, Humio; Mori, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Participation in generally recommended aerobics or strength exercises may be challenging for older adults. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the types and levels of physical activities suited for them to improve their cognitive and gait function and adherence to exercise programs. This has prompted efforts to identify exercises that require less physical strength and frequency of performance, while still offering cognitive and health benefits. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of a novel dual-task net-step exercise (NSE) performed once a week for 8 consecutive weeks on improvements in cognitive performance and gait function in an older population. In this pretest/posttest experimental case control study, 60 healthy older adults (mean age 76.4 years) were recruited from community-dwelling people and separated randomly into 2 groups: a dual-task NSE group and a control group. The NSE group was asked to walk across a net without stepping on the ropes or being caught in the net. Two computer panel-type cognitive functional assessments, the Touch-M and Touch Panel-Type Dementia Assessment Scale, were administered at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention to determine the effects of NSE. Improvements in gait function were also evaluated using Timed Up and Go test scores. Mixed-effect models with repeated measures (group × time) (analysis of variance, F test) were used to test the effects of NSE. Adjustments were made for covariates including age and sex (analysis of covariance). The NSE group showed significant improvement in cognitive performance (6.8% change; total Touch-M score 5.4 points; P = .04) and gait performance (11.5% change; Timed Up and Go time -0.98 second; P cognitive and gait performance in healthy older adults. Our results indicate that NSE offers an option for a large segment of the older population who need an easier way to maintain their cognitive health and gait function.

  8. Effect on phloridzin on net rate of liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, L; Agostoni, E; Raffaini, A

    1996-11-01

    Previous indirect findings have suggested the occurrence of solute-coupled liquid absorption from the pleural space, consistent with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase on the interstitial side plus a Na(+)-H+ and CI(-)-HCO3- double exchange on the luminal side of the pleural mesothelium. To assess whether Na(+)-glucose cotransport also operates on the luminal side, the relationship between net rate of liquid absorption from the right pleural space (Jnet) and volume of liquid injected into this space (0.5, 1 or 2 ml) was determined in anaesthetized rabbits during hydrothoraces with phloridzin (10(-3)M) or with phloridzin plus 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'-disulphonic acid (SITS; 1.5 x 10(-4)M). The relationship obtained during hydrothoraces with phloridzin was displaced downwards by 0.09 ml h-1 relative to that in control hydrothoraces (P pleural mesothelium, operating simultaneously with the double exchange also under physiological conditions.

  9. Partial reactive crystallization of variable CO2-bearing siliceous MORB-eclogite-derived melt in fertile peridotite and genesis of alkalic basalts with signatures of crustal recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of heterogeneity in the form of recycled altered oceanic crust (MORB-eclogite) has been proposed in the source of HIMU ocean island basalts (OIBs) [1]. Partial melts of recycled oceanic crust, however, are siliceous and Mg-poor and thus do not resemble the major element compositions of alkalic OIBs that are silica-poor and Mg-rich. In an upwelling heterogenous mantle, MORB-eclogite undergoes melting deeper than volatile-free peridotite, hence, andesitic partial melt derived from eclogite will react with subsolidus peridotite. We have examined the effect of such a melt-rock reaction under volatile-free conditions at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the melt-rock ratio from 8 to 50 wt.% [2]. We concluded that the reacted melts reproduce certain major element characteristics of oceanic basanites, but not nephelinites. Also, the melt-rock reaction produces olivine and garnet-bearing websteritic residue. Because presence of CO2 has been invoked in the source of many HIMU ocean islands, the effect of CO2 on such a melt-rock reaction needs to be evaluated. Accordingly, we performed reaction experiments on mixtures of 25% and 33% CO2-bearing andesitic partial melt and peridotite at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the dissolved CO2 content of the reacting melts from 1 to 5 wt.% (bulk CO2 from 0.25 to 1.6 wt.%) [3, this study]. Owing to melt-rock reaction, with increasing CO2 in the bulk mixture, (a) modes of olivine and cpx decrease while melt, opx and garnet increase, (b) reacted melts evolve to greater degree of Si-undersaturation (from andesite through basanite to nephelinite), (c) enhanced crystallization of garnet take place with higher CO2 in the melt, reducing alumina content of the reacted melts, and (d) CaO and MgO content of the reacted melts increase, without affecting FeO* and Na2O contents (indicating greater propensity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ over Fe2+ and Na+ to enter silicate melt as carbonate). For a given melt-MgO, the CO2-bearing reacted melts are a better

  10. Effect of light on N2 fixation and net nitrogen release of Trichodesmium in a field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangyang; Wen, Zuozhu; Shi, Dalin; Chen, Mingming; Zhang, Yao; Bonnet, Sophie; Li, Yuhang; Tian, Jiwei; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2018-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation (NF) by marine cyanobacteria is an important pathway to replenish the oceanic bioavailable nitrogen inventory. Light is the key to modulating NF; however, field studies investigating the light response curve (NF-I curve) of NF rate and the effect of light on diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) net release are relatively sparse in the literature, hampering prediction using models. A dissolution method was applied using uncontaminated 15N2 gas to examine how the light changes may influence the NF intensity and DDN net release in the oligotrophic ocean. Experiments were conducted at stations with diazotrophs dominated by filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. in the western Pacific and the South China Sea. The effect of light on carbon fixation (CF) was measured in parallel using the 13C tracer method specifically for a station characterized by Trichodesmium bloom. Both NF-I and CF-I curves showed a Ik (light saturation coefficient) range of 193 to 315 µE m-2 s-1, with light saturation at around 400 µE m-2 s-1. The proportion of DDN net release ranged from ˜ 6 to ˜ 50 %, suggesting an increasing trend as the light intensity decreased. At the Trichodesmium bloom station, we found that the CF / NF ratio was light-dependent and the ratio started to increase as light was lower than the carbon compensation point of 200 µE m-2 s-1. Under low-light stress, Trichodesmium physiologically preferred to allocate more energy for CF to alleviate the intensive carbon consumption by respiration; thus, there is a metabolism tradeoff between CF and NF pathways. Results showed that short-term ( energy associated with the variation in light intensity would be helpful for prediction of the global biogeochemical cycle of N by models involving Trichodesmium blooms.

  11. Health impact and cost-effectiveness of a private sector bed net distribution: experimental evidence from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayr, Richard; Fink, Günther; Miller, John M; Earle, Duncan; Steketee, Richard W

    2013-03-18

    Relatively few programmes have attempted to actively engage the private sector in national malaria control efforts. This paper evaluates the health impact of a large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) conducted in partnership with a Zambian agribusiness, and its cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). The study was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A list of 81,597 cotton farmers was obtained from Dunavant, a contract farming company in Zambia's cotton sector, in December 2010. 39,963 (49%) were randomly selected to obtain one ITN each. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 438 farmers in the treatment and 458 farmers in the control group in June and July 2011. Treatment and control households were compared with respect to bed net ownership, bed net usage, self-reported fever, and self-reported confirmed malaria. Cost data was collected throughout the programme. The distribution effectively reached target beneficiaries, with approximately 95% of households in the treatment group reporting that they had received an ITN through the programme. The average increase in the fraction of household members sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the interview was 14.6 percentage points (p-value US$ per ITN to Zambia's NMCP. The results illustrate that existing private sector networks can efficiently control malaria in remote rural regions. The intra-household allocation of ITNs distributed through this channel was comparable to that of ITNs received from other sources, and the health impact remained substantial.

  12. Flood effects on efflux and net production of nitrous oxide in river floodplain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Bruderer, Christian; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Floodplain soils are often rich in nutrients and exhibit high spatial heterogeneity in terms of geomorphology, soil environmental conditions and substrate availability for processes involved in carbon and nutrient cycling. In addition, fluctuating water tables lead to temporally changing redox conditions. In such systems, there are ideal conditions for the occurrence of hot spots and moments of nitrous oxide emissions, a potent greenhouse gas. The factors that govern the spatial heterogeneity and dynamics of N2O formation in floodplain soils and the surface efflux of this gas are not fully understood. A particular issue is the contribution of N2O formation in the subsoil to surface efflux. We studied this question in the floodplain of a restored section of the Thur river (NE Switzerland) which is characterized by a flashy flow regime. As a consequence, the floodplain soils are unsaturated most of the time. We showed earlier that saturation during flood pulses leads to short phases of generally anoxic conditions followed by a drying phase with anoxic conditions within aggregates and oxic conditions in larger soil pores. The latter conditions are conducive for spatially closely-coupled nitrification-denitrification and related hot moments of nitrous oxide formation. In a floodplain zone characterized by about one meter of young, sandy sediments, that are mostly covered by the tall grass Phalaris arundinacea, we measured at several time points before and after a small flood event N2O surface efflux with the closed-chamber method, and assessed N2O concentrations in the soil air at four different depths using gas-permeable tubings. In addition, we calculated the N2O diffusivity in the soil from Radon diffusivity. The latter was estimated in-situ from the recovery of Radon concentration in the gas-permeable tubings after purging with ambient air. All these data were then used to calculate net N2O production rates at different soil depths with the gradient method. In

  13. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on 3-inch diameter photomultipliers used in KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be the largest underwater neutrino telescope and will be located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module and for KM3NeT it consists of 31 PMTs stored inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere of 17-inch that serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. Since the PMTs installed into an underwater neutrino telescope can change their orientation because of movements of the detector structure due to sea currents, the influence of Earth's magnetic field has been investigated. Magnetic shielding by means of a mu-metal cage is used to reduce magnetic effects and to make the response of the PMT sufficiently orientation independent. In order to quantify the effect on magnetic field, we compared measurements on variation of gain, transit time spread and detection efficiency for a 3-inch PMT in shielded and unshielded condition at 3 PMT inclinations. Data shows that variations are sufficiently low especially for timing properties.

  14. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap.

  15. Remote Laboratory NetLab for Effective Teaching of 1st Year Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nedic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical skills are important attributes of every engineering graduate. The Internet has provided tertiary education with the opportunity to develop innovative learning environments. The teaching and learning of practical skills has gained a new dimension with the emergence of remote laboratories. The rapidly growing number of remote laboratories (RL worldwide is the evidence that the educational community has recognized their potential to develop into a creative, flexible, engaging, and student-cantered learning environment. Even a brief review of the existing RLs shows a large diversity in their structure, design and implementation. However, not many researchers disclose how their RLs are integrated within their curricula. Therefore, an important question still remains to be answered: how to optimize the design of RLs and their integration in a course curriculum for the best learning outcomes? This problem is particularly important when RLs are used in teaching 1st year students who have limited technical knowledge and practical experience in using real equipment. In this paper we would like to share our experiences with NetLab, an RL developed at the University of South Australia (UniSA for teaching 1st year engineering students and make recommendations for improvements in teaching practices based on it.

  16. Effects of climate warming on net primary productivity in China during 1961-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fengxue; Zhang, Yuandong; Huang, Mei; Tao, Bo; Guo, Rui; Yan, Changrong

    2017-09-01

    The response of ecosystems to different magnitudes of climate warming and corresponding precipitation changes during the last few decades may provide an important reference for predicting the magnitude and trajectory of net primary productivity (NPP) in the future. In this study, a process-based ecosystem model, Carbon Exchange between Vegetation, Soil and Atmosphere (CEVSA), was used to investigate the response of NPP to warming at both national and subregional scales during 1961-2010. The results suggest that a 1.3°C increase in temperature stimulated the positive changing trend in NPP at national scale during the past 50 years. Regardless of the magnitude of temperature increase, warming enhanced the increase in NPP; however, the positive trend of NPP decreased when warming exceeded 2°C. The largest increase in NPP was found in regions where temperature increased by 1-2°C, and this rate of increase also contributed the most to the total increase in NPP in China's terrestrial ecosystems. Decreasing precipitation depressed the positive trend in NPP that was stimulated by warming. In northern China, warming depressed the increasing trend of NPP and warming that was accompanied by decreasing precipitation led to negative changing trends in NPP in large parts of northern China, especially when warming exceeded 2°C. However, warming stimulated the increase in NPP until warming was greater than 2°C, and decreased precipitation helped to increase the NPP in southern China.

  17. The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Cherrelle; Reneses Guillén, Javier; Frías Marín, Pablo; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering is commonly known as a practice by which owners of distributed generation (DG) units may offset their electricity consumption from the grid with local generation. The increasing number of prosumers (consumers that both produce and consume electricity) with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation combined with net-metering results in reduced incomes for many network utilities worldwide. Consequently, this pushes utilities to increase charges per kW h in order to recover costs. For non-PV owners, this could result into inequality issues due to the fact that also non-PV owners have to pay higher chargers for their electricity consumed to make up for netted costs of PV-owners. In order to provide insight in those inequality issues caused by net-metering, this study presents the effects on cross-subsidies, cost recovery and policy objectives evolving from different applied netmetering and tariff designs for a residential consumer. Eventually this paper provides recommendations regarding tariffs and metering that will result in more explicit incentives for PV, instead of the current implicit incentives which are present to PV owners due to net-metering. - Highlights: • Network users are frequently charged by energy charging and fixed charging. • Net-metering with energy charging causes potential problems for DSO cost recovery. • Increasing rolling credit timeframes amplify net-metering impacts on cost recovery. • Observed capacity charging can incentivize local storage and self-consumption. • PV owners should receive direct incentives in order to avoid cross subsidization

  18. The Effect of a Short-term Glucose Deprivation on Neuron Net Functioning of Hippocampus Primary Culture on a Multi-electrode Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Vedunova M.V.; Korotchenko S.A.; Balashova A.N.; Isakova A.O.; Khaspekov L.G.; Kazantsev V.B.; Mukhina I.V.

    2011-01-01

    There has been studied the effect of a short-term glucose deprivation on neuron net functioning of hippocampus primary culture developing within 32 days on a multi-electrode matrix MED64 (Alpha MED Sciences Company, Japan) in an early and remote periods after deprivation. A short-term glucose deprivation (20 min) has been shown to result in the increase of electrobiological activity of neuron net of hippocampus primary culture, with the cascade of metabolic reactions being activated leading t...

  19. Selecting HVAC Systems to Achieve Comfortable and Cost-effective Residential Net-Zero Energy Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Skye, Harrison M; Domanski, Piotr A

    2018-02-15

    HVAC is responsible for the largest share of energy use in residential buildings and plays an important role in broader implementation of net-zero energy building (NZEB). This study investigated the energy, comfort and economic performance of commercially-available HVAC technologies for a residential NZEB. An experimentally-validated model was used to evaluate ventilation, dehumidification, and heat pump options for the NZEB in the mixed-humid climate zone. Ventilation options were compared to mechanical ventilation without recovery; a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) and energy recovery ventilator (ERV) respectively reduced the HVAC energy by 13.5 % and 17.4 % and reduced the building energy by 7.5 % and 9.7 %. There was no significant difference in thermal comfort between the ventilation options. Dehumidification options were compared to an air-source heat pump (ASHP) with a separate dehumidifier; the ASHP with dedicated dehumidification reduced the HVAC energy by 7.3 % and the building energy by 3.9 %. The ASHP-only option (without dedicated dehumidification) reduced the initial investment but provided the worst comfort due to high humidity levels. Finally, ground-source heat pump (GSHP) alternatives were compared to the ASHP; the GSHP with two and three boreholes reduced the HVAC energy by 26.0 % and 29.2 % and the building energy by 13.1 % and 14.7 %. The economics of each HVAC configuration was analyzed using installation cost data and two electricity price structures. The GSHPs with the ERV and dedicated dehumidification provided the highest energy savings and good comfort, but were the most expensive. The ASHP with dedicated dehumidification and the ERV (or HRV) provided reasonable payback periods.

  20. Effects of UVB radiation on net community production in the upper global ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2016-08-31

    Aim Erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with oligotrophication of the subtropical ocean is leading to enhanced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in ocean surface waters. The impact of increased exposure to UVB on planktonic primary producers and heterotrophs is uncertain. Here we test the null hypothesis that net community production (NCP) of plankton communities in surface waters of the tropical and subtropical ocean is not affected by ambient UVB radiation and extend this test to the global ocean, including the polar oceans and the Mediterranean Sea using previous results. Location We conducted experiments with 131 surface communities sampled during a circumnavigation cruise along the tropical and subtropical ocean and combined these results with 89 previous reports encompassing the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Methods The use of quartz (transparent to UVB radiation) and borosilicate glass materials (opaque to most UVB) for incubations allowed us to compare NCP between communities where UVB is excluded and those receiving natural UVB radiation. Results We found that NCP varies when exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to those where UVB was removed. NCP of autotrophic communities tended to decrease under natural UVB radiation, whereas the NCP of heterotrophic communities tended to increase. However, these variations showed the opposite trend under higher levels of UVB radiation. Main conclusions Our results suggest that earlier estimates of NCP for surface communities, which were hitherto derived using materials blocking UVB radiation were biased, with the direction and magnitude of this bias depending on the metabolic status of the communities and the underwater penetration of UVB radiation.

  1. Effects of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide on net photosynthesis and dark respiration of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, V J; Unsworth, M H

    1979-01-01

    Rates of net photosynthesis, P/sub N/, and dark respiration of Vicia faba plants were measured in the laboratory in clean air and in air containing up to 175 parts 10/sup -9/ (500 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/. At all SO/sub 2/ concentrations exceeding 35 parts 10/sup -9/, P/sub N/ was inhibited compared with clean air. At light saturation, the magnitude of inhibition depended on SO/sub 2/ concentration but at low irradiances the inhibition was independent of concentration. Dark respiration rates increased substantially, independent of concentration. When exposures continued for up to 3 days, P/sub N/ returned to clean air values about 1 h after fumigation ceased: dark respiration recovered after one photoperiod. There were no visible injuries. Reviewing possible mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of P/sub N/, it is suggested that SO/sub 2/ competes with CO/sub 2/ for binding sites in RuBP carboxylase. Analysis of resistance analogues demonstrates that SO/sub 2/ altered both stomatal and internal (residual) resistances. A model of crop photosynthesis shows the implications of the observed responses for the growth of field crops in which plants are assumed to respond like laboratory plants. Photosynthesis of the crop would be less sensitive than that of individual plants to SO/sub 2/ concentration. Daily dry matter accumulation of hypothetical polluted crops would be substantially less than clean air values but would vary relatively little with SO/sub 2/ concentration. It is concluded that physiological bases exist to account for observed reductions in growth of plants at very low SO/sub 2/ concentrations, and that thresholds for plant responses to SO/sub 2/ require reassessment. 30 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  2. Effect of sodium channel blocker, pilsicainide hydrochloride, on net inward current of atrial myocytes in thyroid hormone toxicosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Munesada; Sunagawa, Masanori; Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Namio; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Kosugi, Tadayoshi

    2005-07-01

    To investigate effect of pilsicainide hydrochloride (pilsicainide) on electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and action potentials (APs) of atrial myocytes, levo-thyroxine (T4, 500 microg/kg body weight) was daily injected into peritoneal cavity of Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days. T4-treatment significantly shortened RR interval, P wave, and QRS complex durations on ECG. Although pilsicainide did not affect the heart rate, P wave and corrected QT interval (QTc) was increased in T4-treated rats. AP recordings revealed that AP durations at 20%, 50%, and 90% repolarization were significantly shortened and maximal rate of rise (Max dV/dt) was significantly increased in T4-treated rat atrial cells. Pilsicainide significantly decreased AP amplitude (APA) and Max dV/dt in both control and T4-treated rat atrial cells. Concentration-inhibition study demonstrated that pilsicainide significantly inhibited net inward current of T4-treated rats at lower concentration (IC50 of 29.2 microg/mL) than that of control rats (133 microg/mL). In conclusion, pilsicainide could decrease the conduction velocity in T4-treated rat atrium by decreasing the Max dV/dt and net inward current, which could be a possible treatment of thyrotoxicosis-induced arrhythmia.

  3. Effect of Shock-Induced Cavitation Bubble Collapse on the damage in the Simulated Perineuronal Net of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Ting; Adnan, Ashfaq

    2017-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to conduct modeling and simulation to understand the effect of shock-induced mechanical loading, in the form of cavitation bubble collapse, on damage to the brain's perineuronal nets (PNNs). It is known that high-energy implosion due to cavitation collapse is responsible for corrosion or surface damage in many mechanical devices. In this case, cavitation refers to the bubble created by pressure drop. The presence of a similar damage mechanism in biophysical systems has long being suspected but not well-explored. In this paper, we use reactive molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate the scenario of a shock wave induced cavitation collapse within the perineuronal net (PNN), which is the near-neuron domain of a brain's extracellular matrix (ECM). Our model is focused on the damage in hyaluronan (HA), which is the main structural component of PNN. We have investigated the roles of cavitation bubble location, shockwave intensity and the size of a cavitation bubble on the structural evolution of PNN. Simulation results show that the localized supersonic water hammer created by an asymmetrical bubble collapse may break the hyaluronan. As such, the current study advances current knowledge and understanding of the connection between PNN damage and neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Investigating the influence of alkalization on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okikiola Ganiu AGBABIAKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are products made from renewable agricultural and forestry feedstock, which can include wood, grasses, and crops, as well as wastes and residues. There are two primary ways these fibers are used: to create polymers or as reinforcement and filler. Thermoplastic polymer may be reinforced or filled using natural fibers such as coir, sponge, hemp, flax, or sisal. This paper focused on the influence of alkalization (NaOH treatment on the mechanical and water absorption properties of selected natural fibers (coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites. In this study, coconut and sponge fiber were extracted from its husk by soaking them in water and was dried before it was cut into 10mm length. Those fibers were chemically treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH in a shaking water bath before it was used as reinforcement in polypropylene composite. The reinforced polypropylene composite was produced by dispersing the coconut fibers randomly in the polypropylene before it was fabricated in a compression molding machine where the composite was produced. The fiber content used were; 2%wt, 4%wt, 6%wt, 8%wt and 10%wt. Tensile and flexural properties was observed from universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for seven (7 days. It was observed that the influence of NaOH treatment highly enhanced the Flexural and water absorption properties of sponge fiber reinforced polypropylene composites than coconut fiber reinforced composite samples.

  5. Effect of untreated bed nets on blood-fed Phlebotomus argentipes in kala-azar endemic foci in Nepal and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Albert; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Murari; Burniston, Ian; Roy, Lalita; Suman, Rijal; Dinesh, Diwakar; Coosemans, Marc; Sundar, Shyam; Shreekant, Kesari; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive; Cameron, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Observational studies in the Indian subcontinent have shown that untreated nets may be protective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we evaluated the effect of untreated nets on the blood feeding rates of Phlebotomus argentipes as well as the human blood index (HBI) in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal. The study had a 'before and after intervention' design in 58 households in six clusters. The use of untreated nets reduced the blood feeding rate by 85% (95% CI 76.5-91.1%) and the HBI by 42.2% (95% CI 11.1-62.5%). These results provide circumstantial evidence that untreated nets may provide some degree of personal protection against sand fly bites.

  6. A three-dimensional numerical investigation of trapezoid baffles effect on non-isothermal reactant transport and cell net power in a PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perng, Shiang-Wuu; Wu, Horng-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study how angle and height of trapezoid baffle affect PEMFC net power. • The jet-type, trapping, and blockage effects augment non-isothermal transport in flow channel. • Greater angles and heights of trapezoid baffles provide more reactant to the catalyst layer. • Baffles of 1.5 mm and 90° fully block flow channel to show bad heat transfer and large pressure drop. • Maximum enhancement of cell net power is 90% with baffles of 60° angle and 1.125 mm height. - Abstract: The present study performed a three-dimensional numerical simulation to observe how trapezoid baffles affect non-isothermal reactant transports and cell net power in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) by the SIMPLE-C method. The geometric parameters of trapezoid baffles installed in the gas channel employed in this study include the angle and height with the same gas diffusion and catalyst layers to realize the cell net power considering the effect of liquid water formation on the fluid flow field. The cell net power is adopted to evaluate the real enhancement of cell performance due to the additional pumping power induced by the pressure loss through the PEMFC. The results illustrated that compared with traditional gas channel without baffles, the novel gas channel with trapezoid baffles, whose angle is 60° and height is 1.125 mm, enhances the cell net power best by approximately 90% among all trapezoid baffle designs

  7. Moderating factors of immediate, gross, and net cross-brand effects of price promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Horváth (Csilla); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines cross-price promotional effects in a dynamic context. Among other things, we investigate whether previously established findings hold when consumer and competitive dynamics are taken into account. Five main influential effects (asymmetric price effect, neighborhood

  8. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachan Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Methods Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY. These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. Results After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja and 99% (ANC Adjumani were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja. Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27 compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23 in Adjumani. Conclusions Targeted campaigns and routine ANC

  9. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Kolaczinski, Kate; Kyabayinze, Daniel; Strachan, Daniel; Temperley, Matilda; Wijayanandana, Nayantara; Kilian, Albert

    2010-04-20

    In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC) services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY). These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja) and 99% (ANC Adjumani) were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja). Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27) compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23) in Adjumani. Targeted campaigns and routine ANC services can both achieve high LLIN retention and use among

  10. Effect of drink carbohydrate content on postexercise gastric emptying, rehydration, and the calculation of net fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Evans, Gethin H; James, Lewis J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the gastric emptying and rehydration effects of hypotonic and hypertonic glucose-electrolyte drinks after exercise-induced dehydration. Eight healthy males lost ~1.8% body mass by intermittent cycling and rehydrated (150% of body mass loss) with a hypotonic 2% (2% trial) or a hypertonic 10% (10% trial) glucose-electrolyte drink over 60 min. Blood and urine samples were taken at preexercise, postexercise, and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min postexercise. Gastric and test drink volume were determined 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min postexercise. At the end of the gastric sampling period 0.3% (2% trial) and 42.1% (10% trial; p rehydration drink might be mediated by a slower rate of gastric emptying, but the slow gastric emptying of such solutions makes rehydration efficiency difficult to determine in the hours immediately after drinking, compromising the calculation of net fluid balance.

  11. Middle-School Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect using a NetLogo Computer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a freely available agent based, modeling program as a learning tool for seventh and eighth grade students to explore the greenhouse effect without added curriculum. The investigation was conducted at two Maine middle-schools with 136 seventh-grade students and 11 eighth-grade students in eight classes. Students were given a pre-test that consisted of a concept map, a free-response question, and multiple-choice questions about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature. The computer model simulates the greenhouse effect and allows students to manipulate atmospheric and surface conditions to observe the effects on the Earth’s temperature. Students explored the Greenhouse Effect model for approximately twenty minutes with only two focus questions for guidance. After the exploration period, students were given a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Parametric post-test analysis of the assessments indicated middle-school students gained in their understanding about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature after exploring the computer model for approximately twenty minutes. The magnitude of the changes in pre- and post-test concept map and free-response scores were small (average free-response post-test score of 7.0) compared to an expert's score (48), indicating that students understood only a few of the system relationships. While students gained in their understanding about the greenhouse effect, there was evidence that students held onto their misconceptions that (1) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere deteriorates the ozone layer, (2) the greenhouse effect is a result of humans burning fossil fuels, and (3) infrared and visible light have similar behaviors with greenhouse gases. We recommend using the Greenhouse Effect computer model with guided inquiry to focus students’ investigations on the system relationships in the model.

  12. Contribution of the net charge to the regulatory effects of amino acids and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Azusa; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The effects of lysine (Lys), monosodium glutamate (GluNa), glycine, alanine and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) (PL) with different degrees of polymerization on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules were investigated by DSC, viscosity and swelling measurements, microscopic observation, and measurement of the retained amino acid amount to clarify the contribution of the net charge to their regulatory effects on the gelatinization behavior. The amino acids and PL each contributed to an increase in the gelatinization temperature, and a decrease in the peak viscosity and swelling. These effects strongly depended on the absolute value of their net charge. The disappearance of a negative or positive net charge by adjusting the pH value weakened the contribution. The swelling index and size of the potato starch granules changed according to replacement of the swelling medium. The amino acids and PL were easily retained by the swollen potato starch granules according to replacement of the outer solution of the starch granules.

  13. Simultaneous reductions in emissions of black carbon and co-emitted species will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), a distinct type of carbonaceous material formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass based fuels under certain conditions, can interact with solar radiation and clouds through its strong light-absorption ability, thereby warming the Earth's climate system. Some studies have even suggested that global warming could be slowed down in the short term by eliminating BC emission due to its short lifetime. In this study, we estimate the influence of removing some sources of BC and other co-emitted species on the aerosol radiative effect by using an aerosol-climate atmosphere-only model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero with prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice cover, in combination with the aerosol emissions from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We find that the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) will be enhanced by 0.12 W m-2 compared with recent past year 2000 levels if the emissions of only BC are reduced to the level projected for 2100 based on the RCP2.6 scenario. This will be beneficial~for the mitigation of global warming. However, both aerosol negative direct and indirect radiative effects are weakened when BC and its co-emitted species (sulfur dioxide and organic carbon) are simultaneously reduced. Relative to year 2000 levels, the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the TOA will be weakened by 1.7-2.0 W m-2 if the emissions of all these aerosols are decreased to the levels projected for 2100 in different ways based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. Because there are no effective ways to remove the BC exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth's climate system in the future.

  14. It's like night and day: Diel net-effects on Cercopagidae densities in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenio, Patricia M.; Bunnell, David B.; Adams, Jean V.; Watson, Nicole M.; Woelmer, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, zooplankters are often sampled using standard ≤153 μm mesh nets without regard to the time of day they are collected. We sampled Cercopagidae during 2013–2014 in northern Lake Huron during day, dusk, and night using two different nets (a 0.5 m wide 153 μm mesh “standard” net and a 0.75 m wide 285 μm mesh “Bythotrephes” net) to determine if there were any differences in their sampled densities. Bythotrephes densities with the standard net were approximately 2.07-fold greater when captured at night than during the day. No time of day bias occurred with the Bythotrephes net. Nighttime Bythotrephes densities did not differ between the two net types. Cercopagis densities did not vary with net type or the time of day in this study, but future work should revisit this result given our low sample size and the low occurrence of Cercopagis in Lake Huron. To reduce bias and calculate accurate density estimates, Cercopagidae should be sampled at night if using a standard net or any time of day with the Bythotrephes net. Given the large impact of invasive predatory cladocerans Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi on food webs since their invasion in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the 1980s, proper estimation of their densities is essential.

  15. Net effects of gasoline price changes on transit ridership in U.S. urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using panel data of transit ridership and gasoline prices for ten selected U.S. urbanized areas over the time period of 2002 to 2011, : this study analyzes the effect of gasoline prices on ridership of the four main transit modesbus, light rail, h...

  16. Effect of use of insecticide treated nets on birth outcomes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major impact of malaria during pregnancy in these regions is caused by persistent or recurrent, predominantly low-grade, sometimes sub-patent, parasitaemia. In Nigeria, malaria has severe negative effects on maternal health and birth outcomes, resulting in maternal anaemia, a high incidence of miscarriages and low ...

  17. Rotational effects of polymeric fluids on shape of filaments in melt extruded net structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rawal, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available -circular geometries on their peripheries and the filaments are produced when the slots in disk and annulus are offset from each other. The effect of die rotation on the shape of filament is investigated by analysing the polymer flow inside the complex die slots...

  18. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  19. Tidal effects on net ecosystem exchange of carbon in an estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Guo; A. Noormets; B. Zhao; J. Chen; G. Sun; Y. Gu; B. Li; J. Chen

    2009-01-01

    One year of continuous data from two eddy-flux towers established along an elevation gradient incoastal Shanghai was analyzed to evaluate the tidal effect on carbon flux (Fc) over an estuarine wetland.The measured wavelet spectra and cospectra of Fc and other environmental factors demonstrated thatthe...

  20. Net effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value and digestibility of oat forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications of soil amendments containing N are part of routine forage management strategies for grasses, with a primary goal of increasing forage yield. However, the effects of N fertilization on forage nutritive value, estimates of energy density, and in-vitro DM or NDF disappearance often have b...

  1. Effect of insecticide treated nets fence in protect- ing cattle against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Negl. Trop. Dis., 5(10), e1343. Byford, R.L., Craig, M.E., and Crosby, B.L. 1982. A Review of on Ectoparasites and. Their Cattle Production' Effect. J. Anim. Sci., 70, 597– 602. Catangui, M.A., Campbell, J.B., Thomas, G.D., Boxler, D.J. 1993.

  2. Topographical effects of climate dataset and their impacts on the estimation of regional net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. Qing; Feng, Feng X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we first built and compared two different climate datasets for Wuling mountainous area in 2010, one of which considered topographical effects during the ANUSPLIN interpolation was referred as terrain-based climate dataset, while the other one did not was called ordinary climate dataset. Then, we quantified the topographical effects of climatic inputs on NPP estimation by inputting two different climate datasets to the same ecosystem model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to evaluate the importance of considering relief when estimating NPP. Finally, we found the primary contributing variables to the topographical effects through a series of experiments given an overall accuracy of the model output for NPP. The results showed that: (1) The terrain-based climate dataset presented more reliable topographic information and had closer agreements with the station dataset than the ordinary climate dataset at successive time series of 365 days in terms of the daily mean values. (2) On average, ordinary climate dataset underestimated NPP by 12.5% compared with terrain-based climate dataset over the whole study area. (3) The primary climate variables contributing to the topographical effects of climatic inputs for Wuling mountainous area were temperatures, which suggest that it is necessary to correct temperature differences for estimating NPP accurately in such a complex terrain.

  3. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  4. Net benefits: assessing the effectiveness of clinical networks in Australia through qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Frances C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 21st century, government and industry are supplementing hierarchical, bureaucratic forms of organization with network forms, compatible with principles of devolved governance and decentralization of services. Clinical networks are employed as a key health policy approach to engage clinicians in improving patient care in Australia. With significant investment in such networks in Australia and internationally, it is important to assess their effectiveness and sustainability as implementation mechanisms. Methods In two purposively selected, musculoskeletal clinical networks, members and stakeholders were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions regarding key factors relating to network effectiveness and sustainability. We adopted a three-level approach to evaluating network effectiveness: at the community, network, and member levels, across the network lifecycle. Results Both networks studied are advisory networks displaying characteristics of the ‘enclave’ type of non-hierarchical network. They are hybrids of the mandated and natural network forms. In the short term, at member level, both networks were striving to create connectivity and collaboration of members. Over the short to medium term, at network level, both networks applied multi-disciplinary engagement in successfully developing models of care as key outputs, and disseminating information to stakeholders. In the long term, at both community and network levels, stakeholders would measure effectiveness by the broader statewide influence of the network in changing and improving practice. At community level, in the long term, stakeholders acknowledged both networks had raised the profile, and provided a ‘voice’ for musculoskeletal conditions, evidencing some progress with implementation of the network mission while pursuing additional implementation strategies. Conclusions This research sheds light on stakeholders’ perceptions of assessing clinical

  5. Net benefits: assessing the effectiveness of clinical networks in Australia through qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Frances C; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-11-02

    In the 21st century, government and industry are supplementing hierarchical, bureaucratic forms of organization with network forms, compatible with principles of devolved governance and decentralization of services. Clinical networks are employed as a key health policy approach to engage clinicians in improving patient care in Australia. With significant investment in such networks in Australia and internationally, it is important to assess their effectiveness and sustainability as implementation mechanisms. In two purposively selected, musculoskeletal clinical networks, members and stakeholders were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions regarding key factors relating to network effectiveness and sustainability. We adopted a three-level approach to evaluating network effectiveness: at the community, network, and member levels, across the network lifecycle. Both networks studied are advisory networks displaying characteristics of the 'enclave' type of non-hierarchical network. They are hybrids of the mandated and natural network forms. In the short term, at member level, both networks were striving to create connectivity and collaboration of members. Over the short to medium term, at network level, both networks applied multi-disciplinary engagement in successfully developing models of care as key outputs, and disseminating information to stakeholders. In the long term, at both community and network levels, stakeholders would measure effectiveness by the broader statewide influence of the network in changing and improving practice. At community level, in the long term, stakeholders acknowledged both networks had raised the profile, and provided a 'voice' for musculoskeletal conditions, evidencing some progress with implementation of the network mission while pursuing additional implementation strategies. This research sheds light on stakeholders' perceptions of assessing clinical network effectiveness at community, network, and member levels during the network

  6. Effects of Net Metering on the Use of Small-Scale Wind Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T. L.; Pedden, M.; Gagliano, T.

    2002-11-01

    Factors such as technological advancements, steadily decreasing costs, consumer demand, and state and federal policies are combining to make wind energy the world's fastest growing energy source. State and federal policies are facilitating the growth of the domestic, large-scale wind power market; however, small-scale wind projects (those with a capacity of less than 100 kilowatts[kW]) still face challenges in many states. Net metering, also referred to as net billing, is one particular policy that states are implementing to encourage the use of small renewable energy systems. Net metering allows individual, grid-tied customers who generate electricity using a small renewable energy system to receive credit from their utility for any excess power they generate beyond what they consume. Under most state rules, residential, commercial, and industrial customers are eligible for net metering; however, some states restrict eligibility to particular customer classes. This paper illustrates how net metering programs in certain states vary considerably in terms of how customers are credited for excess power they generate; the type and size of eligible technologies and whether the utility; the state, or some other entity administers the program. This paper focuses on10 particular states where net metering policies are in place. It analyzes how the different versions of these programs affect the use of small-scale wind technologies and whether some versions are more favorable to this technology than others. The choice of citizens in some states to net meter with photovoltaics is also examined.

  7. Effect of photo-selective nettings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selahle, Maphoko Kamogelo; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2014-08-01

    Photo-selective coloured netting is referred to as a 'new agro-technological' concept adopted to manipulate light quality changes that can induce favourable responses in plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars AlvaV, Irit and SCX 248 grown under the black net (commercial net, 25% shading) showed higher weight loss, loss of firmness, ascorbic acid content and decline in the ratio of soluble solids content/titrable acidity during post-harvest storage (low-temperature storage at 10°C and 90% relative humidity for 21 days followed by market shelf conditions at 25°C for 2 days). During post-harvest storage, lycopene, β-carotene, total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging activity were higher in cvs AlfaV and Irit grown under the black or pearl nets. However, the β-carotene, total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging activity were higher in SCX 248 grown under the red net during post-harvest storage. Cultivar AlfaV grown under the red and pearl nets had a higher number of odour active aroma compounds during post-harvest storage. Panellists preferred cv. AlfaV grown under the pearl nets after storage based on taste, overall appearance and firm textured fruits. Pearl photo-selective nets retained the overall fruit quality and bioactive components in cvs AlfaV and Irit during post-harvest storage. Red photo-selective nets, however, showed greater influence on retention of overall fruit quality and bioactive compounds in cv. SCX 248 during post-harvest storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  9. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  10. Effects of winter temperature and summer drought on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Campbell, Claire; Dinsmore, Kerry; Drewer, Julia; Coyle, Mhairi; Anderson, Margaret; Skiba, Ute; Nemitz, Eiko; Billett, Michael; Sutton, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Northern peatlands are one of the most important global sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); their ability to sequester C is a natural feedback mechanism controlled by climatic variables such as precipitation, temperature, length of growing season and period of snow cover. In the UK it has been predicted that peatlands could become a net source of carbon in response to climate change with climate models predicting a rise in global temperature of ca. 3oC between 1961-1990 and 2100. Land-atmosphere exchange of CO2in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variations, which have significant short- and long-term effects on carbon sink strength. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) at Auchencorth Moss (55° 47'32 N, 3° 14'35 W, 267 m a.s.l.), a temperate peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Auchencorth Moss is a low-lying, ombrotrophic peatland situated ca. 20 km south-west of Edinburgh. Peat depth ranges from 5 m and the site has a mean annual precipitation of 1155 mm. The vegetation present within the flux measurement footprint comprises mixed grass species, heather and substantial areas of moss species (Sphagnum spp. and Polytrichum spp.). The EC system consists of a LiCOR 7000 closed-path infrared gas analyser for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and water vapour and of a Gill Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer. Over the 10 year period, the site was a consistent yet variable sink of CO2 ranging from -34.1 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -69.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing seasons and mean winter air temperature explained 93% of the variability in summertime sink strength, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant development and productivity were stunted by colder winters causing a net reduction in the annual carbon sink strength of this peatland where autotrophic processes are thought to be

  11. Effect of propolis ethanol extract on myostatin gene expression and muscle morphometry of Nile tilapia in net cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, E L; Mizubuti, I Y; Alfieri, A A; Otonel, R A A; Buck, L Y; Souza, F P; Prado-Calixto, O P; Poveda-Parra, A R; Alexandre Filho, L; Lopera-Barrero, N M

    2017-03-16

    Propolis can be used as growth enhancer due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immune-stimulant properties, but its effects on morphometry and muscle gene expression are largely unknown. The present study evaluates the influence of propolis on muscle morphometry and myostatin gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) bred in net cages. Reversed males (GIFT strain) with an initial weight of 170 ± 25 g were distributed in a (2 x 4) factorial scheme, with two diets (DPRO, commercial diet with 4% propolis ethanol extract and DCON, commercial diet without propolis, control) and four assessment periods (0, 35, 70, and 105 experimental days). Muscles were evaluated at each assessment period. Histomorphometric analysis classified the fiber diameters into four groups: 50 μm. RT-qPCR was performed to assess myostatin gene expression. Fibers 30 µm (30-50 and > 50 µm) at 70 days were 25.39% and 40.07% for DPRO and DCON, respectively. There was greater myostatin gene expression at 105 days, averaging 1.93 and 1.89 for DCON and DPRO, respectively, with no significant difference in any of the analyzed periods. Propolis ethanol extract did not affect the diameter of muscle fibers or the gene expression of myostatin. Future studies should describe the mechanisms of natural products' effects on muscle growth and development since these factors are highly relevant for fish production performance.

  12. Effects of system net charge and electrostatic truncation on all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shen, Jana K.

    2014-01-01

    Constant pH molecular dynamics offers a means to rigorously study the effects of solution pH on dynamical processes. Here we address two critical questions arising from the most recent developments of the all-atom continuous constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) method: 1) What is the effect of spatial electrostatic truncation on the sampling of protonation states? 2) Is the enforcement of electrical neutrality necessary for constant pH simulations? We first examined how the generalized reaction field and force shifting schemes modify the electrostatic forces on the titration coordinates. Free energy simulations of model compounds were then carried out to delineate the errors in the deprotonation free energy and salt-bridge stability due to electrostatic truncation and system net charge. Finally, CpHMD titration of a mini-protein HP36 was used to understand the manifestation of the two types of errors in the calculated pK a values. The major finding is that enforcing charge neutrality under all pH conditions and at all time via co-titrating ions significantly improves the accuracy of protonation-state sampling. We suggest that such finding is also relevant for simulations with particle-mesh Ewald, considering the known artifacts due to charge-compensating background plasma. PMID:25142416

  13. Effects of system net charge and electrostatic truncation on all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shen, Jana K

    2014-10-15

    Constant pH molecular dynamics offers a means to rigorously study the effects of solution pH on dynamical processes. Here, we address two critical questions arising from the most recent developments of the all-atom continuous constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) method: (1) What is the effect of spatial electrostatic truncation on the sampling of protonation states? (2) Is the enforcement of electrical neutrality necessary for constant pH simulations? We first examined how the generalized reaction field and force-shifting schemes modify the electrostatic forces on the titration coordinates. Free energy simulations of model compounds were then carried out to delineate the errors in the deprotonation free energy and salt-bridge stability due to electrostatic truncation and system net charge. Finally, CpHMD titration of a mini-protein HP36 was used to understand the manifestation of the two types of errors in the calculated pK(a) values. The major finding is that enforcing charge neutrality under all pH conditions and at all time via cotitrating ions significantly improves the accuracy of protonation-state sampling. We suggest that such finding is also relevant for simulations with particle mesh Ewald, considering the known artifacts due to charge-compensating background plasma. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effect of irradiance on long-term skeletal growth and net photosynthesis in Galaxea fascicularis under four light conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Velthoven, van B.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between irradiance, skeletal growth and net photosynthesis was studied for the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis to provide experimental evidence for mediation of light-enhanced calcification through photosynthesis. The hypothesis was tested that skeletal growth and

  15. Comparison of the effects of two bongo net mesh sizes on the estimation of abundance and size of Engraulidae eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies of ichthyoplankton retention by nets of different mesh sizes are important because they help in choosing a sampler when planning collection and the establishment of correction factors. These factors make it possible to compare studies performed with nets of different mesh sizes. In most studies of mesh retention of fish eggs, the taxonomic identification is done at the family level, resulting in the loss of detailed information. We separated Engraulidae eggs, obtained with 0.333 mm and 0.505 mm mesh bongo nets at 172 oceanographic stations in the southeastern Brazilian Bight, into four groups based on their morphometric characteristics. The difference in the abundance of eggs caught by the two nets was not significant for those groups with highest volume, types A and B, but in type C (Engraulis anchoita, the most eccentric, and in type D, of the smallest volume, the difference was significant. However, no significant difference was observed in the egg size sampled with each net for E. anchoita and type D, which exhibited higher abundance in the 0.333 mm mesh net and minor axis varying from 0.45-0.71 mm, smaller than the 0.505 mm mesh aperture and the mesh diagonal.

  16. [Effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching on the net primary productivity, soil heterotrophic respiration, and net CO2 exchange flux of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Run-Hua; Lai, Dong-Mei; Yan, Zheng-Yue; Jiang, Li; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2012-04-01

    In April-October, 2009, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching (MD) on the net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) , and net CO2 exchange flux (NEF(CO2)) of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, taking the traditional flood irrigation with no mulching (NF) as the control. With the increasing time, the NPP, Rh, and NEF(CO2) in treatments MD and NF all presented a trend of increasing first and decreased then. As compared with NF, MD increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP of cotton, and decreased the Rh. Over the whole growth period, the Rh in treatment MD (214 g C x m(-2)) was smaller than that in treatment NF (317 g C x m(-2)), but the NEF(CO2) in treatment MD (1030 g C x m(-2)) was higher than that in treatment NF (649 g C x m(-2)). Treatment MD could fix the atmospheric CO2 approximately 479 g C x m(-2) higher than treatment NF. Drip irrigation with plastic mulching could promote crop productivity while decreasing soil CO2 emission, being an important agricultural measure for the carbon sequestration and emission reduction of cropland ecosystems in arid area.

  17. Isotope geochemistry of brasiliano age, coarsely porphyritic, K-calc-alkalic granitoids and associated K-diorites, northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, A.N.; Mariano, G.; Ferreira, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Several porphyritic, K-calc-alkalic were syntectonically intruded in NE Brazil during the Brasiliano orogeny. They show bi-(qz) diorite and coarsely porphyritic granodiorite to qz monzonite ('Itaporanga-type') in commingling zones on a scale of cm to m irrespective of whether plutons are at the margins of the NE-trending Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro Fold Belt (CSF) or intruded metasediments of the Serido Fold Belt (SFB). The bi(qz) diorites are found in magmatic or stromatic structures and narrow dikes wich intruded the felsic facies. SiO 2 in the porphyritic facies ranges from 61 to 72% with K 2 O usually > Na 2 O. K-diorities exhibit SiO 2 from 50 to 58%, MgO from 2 to 10% and K 2 O from 2 to 5%. Both facies are usually Ba and Sr-enriched, with similar, highly fractionated REE patterns, lacking free of Eu anomaly. Quartz 180 values are considered homogeneous on the scale of these intrusions in the CSF, (8 to 10 per milSMOW). Bi-(qz) diorites exhibit slightly higher 180 (9.5 to 10.5 per milSMOW). In the SFB both facies are lower than 180. The oxygen isotope data for the porphyritic facies are compatible with I-type source with some metasedimentary component of variable proportion. As bi(qz) diorites were formed pre- to post-porphyritic facies intrusion, their high LREE, K and 180 reflect their source rather than the interaction with the potassic felsic magma. Preliminarly sulfur isotope values suggest that porphyritic facies of granitoids in the SBF are lower in 34S than those in the CSF. Rb and Sr isotopes reflect source heterogeneity, complicated by mixing relations. Ages span from 510 to 630 Ma suggesting that the Itaporanga-type association was formed during uplift and cooling of the Pan-African I and onset of the Pan-African II orogenies, recognized in West Africa. (author) [pt

  18. Synergistic effect of embryo vaccination with Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens NetB proteins on inducing protective immunity against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of embryo vaccination with Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens NetB toxin proteins in combination with the Montanide IMS-OVO adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis were investigated using an E. maxima/C. perfringens co-infection model. Eighteen-day-old br...

  19. 26 CFR 1.996-8 - Effect of carryback of capital loss or net operating loss to prior DISC taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of carryback of capital loss or net operating loss to prior DISC taxable year. 1.996-8 Section 1.996-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales...

  20. Effect of adrenaline and alpha-agonists on net rate of liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, L; Raffaini, A; Agostoni, E

    1997-05-01

    Indirect evidence supporting a solute-coupled liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits has recently been provided; moreover, the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline has been found to increase this absorption. In this study the effect of adrenaline and alpha-adrenoceptor agonists on net rate of liquid absorption (Jnet) from albumin Ringer hydrothoraces of various sizes has been determined in anaesthetized rabbits. In hydrothoraces with adrenaline (5 x 10(-6) M) the relationship between Jnet and volume of liquid injected was displaced upwards by 0.09 ml h-1 relative to that in control hydrothoraces (P liquid absorption, since beta-agonists inhibit lymphatic activity while, at relatively high concentrations, they may increase active transport. Conversely, the strong stimulation of lymphatic alpha-receptors that should occur with adrenaline after beta-blockade may fail to increase lymphatic drainage, because it has been shown that the increase in contraction frequency of lymphatics may be balanced by the decrease in their stroke volume. Arterial blood pressure during the hydrothoraces with adrenaline was unchanged. In hydrothoraces with the alpha 2-agonist clonidine (5 x 10(-6) M; a less potent agent than adrenaline) the slope of the relationship between Jnet and volume injected increased by 26% (P liquid load. In hydrothoraces with the alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine (5 x 10(-6) or 10(-7) M) Jnet was simlar to control values.

  1. Effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on pH, net oxygen production, and respiration by algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, Ronald J.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Slaght, Karen S.; Seelye, James G.

    1999-01-01

    The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used in the United States and Canada for more than 35 years to control larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in tributaries of the Great Lakes. Occasionally, during stream treatments with TFM, nontarget-fish mortality reaches unacceptable levels. These losses could be due to the presence of sensitive fish species, excess TFM, or a combination of factors that influence the toxicity of TFM, such as delays in daily stream reaeration by algae resulting in extended periods of low pH and low dissolved oxygen (DO). We determined the effects of a broad range of TFM concentrations on net DO production and respiration by two species of algae, in two culture media (high alkalinity and low alkalinity). The pH and DO in cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum were recorded at time zero and again after a 9-h exposure to TFM under either lighted or dark conditions. Algal cultures exposed to TFM concentrations typical of those used to control sea lampreys in streams showed only small changes in pH (<0.1) and small reductions in DO (about 8% in lighted conditions and 11% in dark conditions). Changes in pH and DO of this magnitude probably do not change the efficacy of TFM or cause nontarget fish mortality if algae are the predominant photosynthetic organisms in the stream.

  2. Cost-effective sampling of 137Cs-derived net soil redistribution: part 1 – estimating the spatial mean across scales of variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Chappell, A.; Nyamdavaa, B.; Yu, H.; Davaasuren, D.; Zoljargal, K.

    2015-01-01

    The 137 Cs technique for estimating net time-integrated soil redistribution is valuable for understanding the factors controlling soil redistribution by all processes. The literature on this technique is dominated by studies of individual fields and describes its typically time-consuming nature. We contend that the community making these studies has inappropriately assumed that many 137 Cs measurements are required and hence estimates of net soil redistribution can only be made at the field scale. Here, we support future studies of 137 Cs-derived net soil redistribution to apply their often limited resources across scales of variation (field, catchment, region etc.) without compromising the quality of the estimates at any scale. We describe a hybrid, design-based and model-based, stratified random sampling design with composites to estimate the sampling variance and a cost model for fieldwork and laboratory measurements. Geostatistical mapping of net (1954–2012) soil redistribution as a case study on the Chinese Loess Plateau is compared with estimates for several other sampling designs popular in the literature. We demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid design for spatial estimation of net soil redistribution. To demonstrate the limitations of current sampling approaches to cut across scales of variation, we extrapolate our estimate of net soil redistribution across the region, show that for the same resources, estimates from many fields could have been provided and would elucidate the cause of differences within and between regional estimates. We recommend that future studies evaluate carefully the sampling design to consider the opportunity to investigate 137 Cs-derived net soil redistribution across scales of variation. - Highlights: • The 137 Cs technique estimates net time-integrated soil redistribution by all processes. • It is time-consuming and dominated by studies of individual fields. • We use limited resources to estimate soil

  3. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  4. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  5. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  6. Effects of sulfur dioxide on net CO/sub 2/ assimilation in the lichen Evernia mesomorpha Nyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, D B; L' Hirondelle, S J; Addison, P A

    1985-01-01

    Physiologically active thalli of the lichen Evernia mesomorpha Nyl. were very sensitive to short-term fumigations with low concentrations of gaseous sulfur dioxide. Net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate (NAR) was significantly reduced after exposure to 0.085 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ (250 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/ for 1 h or more, and the reduction increased with increasing concentration. Duration of exposure had no significant effect on NAR, indicating the importance of rate of SO/sub 2/ uptake rather than the total amount absorbed. Respiration was significantly reduced after 4 h or more of exposure to 0.265 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ (639 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/ or higher. Recovery of NAR after fumigation was dependent on both SO/sub 2/ concentration and duration of fumigation, and on the time allowed for recovery. Virtually complete recovery occurred within 24 h after episodes with up to 0.355 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ (856 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/ for 1 h and 0.085 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/ for 4 h. Above these levels, recovery was incomplete or nonexistent after 24 h in clean air. The level of sensitivity found can be attributed to the environmental conditions during fumigation, which prevented thallus desiccation and inactivity. Based on this study, neither the concept of dose (concentration x time) nor that of threshold levels of SO/sub 2/ fumigations are supported. Peak exposures to SO/sub 2/ for short periods may be of primary importance in determining the survival of lichens in industrial areas.

  7. Direct and indirect effects of climatic variations on the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange across terrestrial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiong Shao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variables not only directly affect the interannual variability (IAV in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE but also indirectly drive it by changing the physiological parameters. Identifying these direct and indirect paths can reveal the underlying mechanisms of carbon (C dynamics. In this study, we applied a path analysis using flux data from 65 sites to quantify the direct and indirect climatic effects on IAV in NEE and to evaluate the potential relationships among the climatic variables and physiological parameters that represent physiology and phenology of ecosystems. We found that the maximum photosynthetic rate was the most important factor for the IAV in gross primary productivity (GPP, which was mainly induced by the variation in vapour pressure deficit. For ecosystem respiration (RE, the most important drivers were GPP and the reference respiratory rate. The biome type regulated the direct and indirect paths, with distinctive differences between forests and non-forests, evergreen needleleaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests, and between grasslands and croplands. Different paths were also found among wet, moist and dry ecosystems. However, the climatic variables can only partly explain the IAV in physiological parameters, suggesting that the latter may also result from other biotic and disturbance factors. In addition, the climatic variables related to NEE were not necessarily the same as those related to GPP and RE, indicating the emerging difficulty encountered when studying the IAV in NEE. Overall, our results highlight the contribution of certain physiological parameters to the IAV in C fluxes and the importance of biome type and multi-year water conditions, which should receive more attention in future experimental and modelling research.

  8. Applying the net-benefit framework for analyzing and presenting cost-effectiveness analysis of a maternal and newborn health intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennen Hounton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coverage of maternal and newborn health (MNH interventions is often influenced by important determinants and decision makers are often concerned with equity issues. The net-benefit framework developed and applied alongside clinical trials and in pharmacoeconomics offers the potential for exploring how cost-effectiveness of MNH interventions varies at the margin by important covariates as well as for handling uncertainties around the ICER estimate. AIM: We applied the net-benefit framework to analyze cost-effectiveness of the Skilled Care Initiative and assessed relative advantages over a standard computation of incremental cost effectiveness ratios. METHODS: Household and facility surveys were carried out from January to July 2006 in Ouargaye district (where the Skilled Care Initiative was implemented and Diapaga (comparison site district in Burkina Faso. Pregnancy-related and perinatal mortality were retrospectively assessed and data were collected on place of delivery, education, asset ownership, place, and distance to health facilities, costs borne by households for institutional delivery, and cost of standard provision of maternal care. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: There was a 30% increase in institutional births in the intervention district compared to 10% increase in comparison district, and a significant reduction of perinatal mortality rates (OR 0.75, CI 0.70-0.80 in intervention district. The incremental cost for achieving one additional institutional delivery in Ouargaye district compared to Diapaga district was estimated to be 170 international dollars and varied significantly by covariates. However, the joint probability distribution (net-benefit framework of the effectiveness measure (institutional delivery, the cost data and covariates indicated distance to health facilities as the single most important determinant of the cost-effectiveness analysis with implications for policy making

  9. [Effects of plastic film mulching and nitrogen application rate on net global warming potential in semiarid rain-fed maize cropland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian Can; Wang, Ze Lin; Yue, Shan Chao; Li, Shi Qing

    2018-04-01

    A one-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of plastic film mulching (FM) and nitrogen application rates applied to rain-fed maize fields on net global warming potential (Net GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) at the Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station. Both GWP and GHGI were affected by the plastic film mulching and nitrogen application rate. Under the FM treatment, maize yield ranged from 1643 to 16699 kg·hm -2 , the net GWP (CO 2 -eq) ranged from 595 to 4376 kg·hm -2 ·a -1 , and the GHGI (CO 2 -eq) ranged from 213 to 358 kg·t -1 . The grain yield of maize, net GWP and GHGI for the UM (no mulching) treatment were 956 to 8821 kg·hm -2 , 342 to 4004 kg·hm -2 ·a -1 and 204 to 520 kg·t -1 , respectively. The results suggested that plastic film mulching could simultaneously improve grain yield and decrease GHGI in rain-fed cropland along with nitrogen fertilizer of 250 kg·hm -2 .

  10. The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ankomah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria’s 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P<0.0001. Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P=0.020, while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P=0.019. Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria.

  11. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science; Daly, Chris [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    2003-04-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km{sup 2} area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m{sup 2}, with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process

  12. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E.; Daly, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km 2 area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m 2 , with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process models

  13. The use of mediation analysis to assess the effects of a behaviour change communication strategy on bed net ideation and household universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily E; Boulay, Marc; Ainslie, Robert; Babalola, Stella; Fotheringham, Megan; Koenker, Hannah; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-01-21

    SBCC campaigns are designed to act on cognitive, social and emotional factors at the individual or community level. The combination of these factors, referred to as 'ideation', play a role in determining behaviour by reinforcing and confirming decisions about a particular health topic. This study introduces ideation theory and mediation analysis as a way to evaluate the impact of a malaria SBCC campaign in Tanzania, to determine whether exposure to a communication programme influenced universal coverage through mediating ideational variables. A household survey in three districts where community change agents (CCAs) were active was conducted to collect information on ITN use, number of ITNs in the household, and perceptions about ITN use and ownership. Variables relating to attitudes and beliefs were combined to make 'net ideation'. Using an ideational framework, a mediation analysis was conducted to see the impact exposure to a CCA only, mass media and community (M & C) messaging only, or exposure to both, had on household universal coverage, through the mediating variable net ideation. All three levels of exposure (CCA, M & C messaging, or exposure to both) were significantly associated with increased net ideation (CCA: 0.283, 95% CI: 0.136-0.429, p-value: mediation analysis is an applicable new tool to assess SBCC campaigns. Ideation as a mediator of the effects of communication exposure on household universal coverage has implications for designing SBCC to support both mass and continuous distribution efforts, since both heavily rely on consumer participation to obtain and maintain ITNs. Such systems can be strengthened by SBCC programming, generating demand through improving social norms about net ownership and use, perceived benefits of nets, and other behavioural constructs.

  14. Studies of Standard Heat Treatment Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Net Shape Manufactured INCONEL 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H.; Azer, M.; Ritter, A.

    2009-10-01

    Laser net shape manufacturing (LNSM) is a laser cladding/deposition based technology, which can fabricate and repair near-net-shape high-performance components directly from metal powders. Characterizing mechanical properties of the laser net shape manufactured components is prerequisite to the applications of LNSM in aircraft engine industrial productions. Nickel-based superalloys such as INCONEL 718 are the most commonly used metal materials in aircraft engine high-performance components. In this study, the laser deposition process is optimized through a set of designed experiments to reduce the porosity to less than 0.03 pct. It is found that the use of plasma rotating electrode processed (PREP) powder and a high energy input level greater than 80 J/mm are necessary conditions to minimize the porosity. Material microstructure and tensile properties of laser-deposited INCONEL 718 are studied and compared under heat treatment conditions of as deposited, direct aged, solution treatment and aging (STA), and full homogenization followed by STA. Tensile test results showed that the direct age heat treatment produces the highest tensile strength equivalent to the wrought material, which is followed by the STA-treated and the homogenization-treated tensile strengths, while the ductility exhibits the reverse trend. Finally, failure modes of the tensile specimens were analyzed with fractography.

  15. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  16. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  17. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  18. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  19. FILTER-NET STRUCTURE AND PUMPING ACTIVITY IN THE POLYCHAETE NEREIS-DIVERSICOLOR - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PUMP-MODELING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H.U.; Vedel, A.; Boye, H.

    1992-01-01

    on water processing were measured as clearance of suspended algal cells or measured directly. Pumping activity (undulating body movements of worms kept in glass tubes) was monitored using an infrared phototransducer technique. In the temperature interval from 5 to about 15-degrees-C there was a linear...... and a halving of the net cycle length. At low temperatures a tendency towards an extended pause between pumping periods was noticed. The N. diversicolor pump was modelled as a positive displacement leaking unit, and earlier data on back pressure characteristics were examined in light of the proposed model...

  20. Coupled eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms enable the simulation of water table depth effects on boreal peatland net CO2 exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezbahuddin, Mohammad; Grant, Robert F.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.

    2017-12-01

    Water table depth (WTD) effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of boreal peatlands are largely mediated by hydrological effects on peat biogeochemistry and the ecophysiology of peatland vegetation. The lack of representation of these effects in carbon models currently limits our predictive capacity for changes in boreal peatland carbon deposits under potential future drier and warmer climates. We examined whether a process-level coupling of a prognostic WTD with (1) oxygen transport, which controls energy yields from microbial and root oxidation-reduction reactions, and (2) vascular and nonvascular plant water relations could explain mechanisms that control variations in net CO2 exchange of a boreal fen under contrasting WTD conditions, i.e., shallow vs. deep WTD. Such coupling of eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms in a process-based ecosystem model, ecosys, was tested against net ecosystem CO2 exchange measurements in a western Canadian boreal fen peatland over a period of drier-weather-driven gradual WTD drawdown. A May-October WTD drawdown of ˜ 0.25 m from 2004 to 2009 hastened oxygen transport to microbial and root surfaces, enabling greater microbial and root energy yields and peat and litter decomposition, which raised modeled ecosystem respiration (Re) by 0.26 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. It also augmented nutrient mineralization, and hence root nutrient availability and uptake, which resulted in improved leaf nutrient (nitrogen) status that facilitated carboxylation and raised modeled vascular gross primary productivity (GPP) and plant growth. The increase in modeled vascular GPP exceeded declines in modeled nonvascular (moss) GPP due to greater shading from increased vascular plant growth and moss drying from near-surface peat desiccation, thereby causing a net increase in modeled growing season GPP by 0.39 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. Similar increases in GPP and Re caused no significant WTD effects on modeled

  1. Coupled eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms enable the simulation of water table depth effects on boreal peatland net CO2 exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mezbahuddin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water table depth (WTD effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of boreal peatlands are largely mediated by hydrological effects on peat biogeochemistry and the ecophysiology of peatland vegetation. The lack of representation of these effects in carbon models currently limits our predictive capacity for changes in boreal peatland carbon deposits under potential future drier and warmer climates. We examined whether a process-level coupling of a prognostic WTD with (1 oxygen transport, which controls energy yields from microbial and root oxidation–reduction reactions, and (2 vascular and nonvascular plant water relations could explain mechanisms that control variations in net CO2 exchange of a boreal fen under contrasting WTD conditions, i.e., shallow vs. deep WTD. Such coupling of eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms in a process-based ecosystem model, ecosys, was tested against net ecosystem CO2 exchange measurements in a western Canadian boreal fen peatland over a period of drier-weather-driven gradual WTD drawdown. A May–October WTD drawdown of  ∼  0.25 m from 2004 to 2009 hastened oxygen transport to microbial and root surfaces, enabling greater microbial and root energy yields and peat and litter decomposition, which raised modeled ecosystem respiration (Re by 0.26 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. It also augmented nutrient mineralization, and hence root nutrient availability and uptake, which resulted in improved leaf nutrient (nitrogen status that facilitated carboxylation and raised modeled vascular gross primary productivity (GPP and plant growth. The increase in modeled vascular GPP exceeded declines in modeled nonvascular (moss GPP due to greater shading from increased vascular plant growth and moss drying from near-surface peat desiccation, thereby causing a net increase in modeled growing season GPP by 0.39 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. Similar increases in

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  3. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  4. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  5. Surface roughness effects on onset of nucleate boiling and net vapor generation point in subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Wada, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    The ability to predict void formation and void fraction in subcooled flow boiling is of importance to the nuclear reactor technology because the presence of voids affects the steady state and transient response of a reactor. The onset of nucleate boiling and the point of net vapor generation on subcooled flow boiling, focusing on surface roughness, liquid subcooling and liquid velocity were investigated experimentally and analytically. Experiments were conducted using a copper thin-film and subcooled water in a range of the liquid velocity from 0.27 to 4.6 m/s at 0.10MPa; the liquid subcoolings were 20, 30 and 40K, respectively. The surface roughness on the test heater was observed by SEM. Experimental results showed that temperatures at the onset nucleate boiling increased with increasing the liquid subcoolings or the liquid velocities. The trend of increase in the temperature at the ONB was in good agreement with the present analytical result based on the stability theory of preexisting nuclei. The measured results for the net vapor generation point agreed well with the results of correlation by Saha and Zuber in the range of the present experiments. The temperature at the ONB decreased with an increasing size of surface roughness, while the NVG-point was independent on the surface roughness. The dependence on the ONB temperature of the roughness size was also represented well by the present analytical model

  6. Shifting the Arctic Carbon Balance: Effects of a Long-Term Fertilization Experiment and Anomalously Warm Temperatures on Net Ecosystem Exchange in the Alaskan Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S.; Natali, S.; Rastetter, E. B.; Shaver, G. R.; Graham, L. M.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The arctic is warming at an accelerated rate relative to the globe. Among the predicted consequences of warming temperatures in the arctic are increased gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and nutrient availability. The net effect of these changes on the carbon (C) cycle and resulting C balance and feedback to climate change remain unclear. Historically the Arctic has been a C sink, but evidence from recent years suggests some regions in the Arctic are becoming C sources. To predict the role of the Arctic in global C cycling, the mechanisms affecting arctic C balances need to be better resolved. We measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a long-term, multi-level, fertilization experiment at Toolik Lake, AK during an anomalously warm summer. We modeled NEE, ER, and GPP using a Bayesian network model. The best-fit model included Q10 temperature functions and linear fertilization functions for both ER and GPP. ER was more strongly affected by temperature and GPP was driven more by fertilization level. As a result, fertilization increased the C sink capacity, but only at moderate and low temperatures. At high temperatures (>28 °C) the NEE modeled for the highest level of fertilization was not significantly different from zero. In contrast, at ambient nutrient levels modeled NEE was significantly below zero (net uptake) until 35 °C, when it becomes neutral. Regardless of the level of fertilization, NEE never decreased with warming. Temperature in low ranges (5-15°C) had no net effect on NEE, whereas NEE began to increase exponentially with temperature after a threshold of 15°C until becoming a net source to the atmosphere at 37°C. Our results indicate that the C sink strength of tundra ecosystems can be increased with small increases in nutrient availability, but that large increase in nutrient availability can switch tundra ecosystems into C sources under warm conditions. Warming temperatures in tundra ecosystems will only decrease C

  7. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  8. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Net Ecosystem and Net Primary Productivities as Determined from Flux Tower, Biometric, and Model Estimates for a Coastal Douglas-fir Forest in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Black, T. A.; Jassal, R. S.; Filipescu, C.

    2013-12-01

    In coastal BC, 6,000-10,000 ha of public and significant areas of private forest land are annually fertilized with nitrogen, with or without thinning, to increase merchantable wood and reduce rotation age. Fertilization has also been viewed as a way to increase carbon (C) sequestration in forests and obtain C offsets. Such offset projects must demonstrate additionality with reference to a baseline and include monitoring to verify net C gains over the project period. Models in combination with field-plot measurements are currently the accepted methods for most C offset protocols. On eastern Vancouver Island, measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross primary productivity (GPP) using the eddy-covariance (EC) technique as well as component C fluxes and stocks have been made since 1998 in an intermediate-aged Douglas-fir dominated forest planted in 1949. In January 2007 an area around the EC flux tower was aerially fertilized with 200 kg urea-N ha-1. Ground plots in the fertilized area and an adjacent unfertilized control area were also monitored for soil (Rs) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration, litterfall, and tree growth. To determine fertilization effects on whole tree growth, sample trees were felled in both areas for the 4-year (2003-06) pre- and the 4-year (2007-10) post-fertilization periods and were compared with EC NEP estimates and tree-ring based NEP estimates from Carbon Budget Model - Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) for the same periods. Empirical equations using climate and C fluxes from 1998-2006 were derived to estimate what the EC fluxes would have been in 2007-10 for the fertilized area had it been unfertilized. Mean EC NEP for 2007-10 was 561 g C m2 y-1 , a 64% increase above pre-fertilization NEP (341 g C m2 y-1) or 28% increase above estimated unfertilized NEP (438 g C m2 y-1). Most of the increase was attributed to increased tree C uptake (i.e., GPP), with little change in Re. In 2007 fertilization

  9. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  10. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  11. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  12. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  13. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo (R), a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s. : a release-recapture assay in experimental huts

    OpenAIRE

    Djènontin, A.; Alou, L. P. A.; Koffi, A.; Zogo, B.; Duarte, E.; N'Guessan, R.; Moiroux, Nicolas; Pennetier, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN), Olyset (R) Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER) and the insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen (PPF). An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset (R) Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of ho...

  14. Cycling and walking for transport: Estimating net health effects from comparison of different transport mode users' self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Flügel, Stefan; Ramjerdi, Farideh; Minken, Harald

    2011-07-20

    There is comprehensive evidence of the positive health effects of physical activity, and transport authorities can enable this by developing infrastructure for cycling and walking. In particular, cycling to work or to school can be a relatively high intensity activity that by itself might suffice for maximum health gain. In this paper, we present estimates of net health effects that can be assumed for demand responses to infrastructure development. The estimation was based on comparing current cyclists/pedestrians against potential cyclists/pedestrians, applying the international physical activity questionnaire, which is a survey-based method for estimating metabolic equivalent task levels from self-reported types of physical activity, and their frequency, duration and level of intensity (moderate or vigorous).. By comparing between shares of individuals with medium or high intensity levels, within the segments of current cyclists/pedestrians and potential cyclists/pedestrians, we estimate the possible net health effects of potential new users of improved cycling/walking infrastructure. For an underpinning of the estimates, we also include the respondents' assessments of the extent to which cycling/walking for transport replaces other physical activity, and we carry out a regression of cycling/walking activity levels on individual characteristics and cycle/walk facility features. The estimated share of new regular cyclists obtaining net health gains was ca. 30%, while for new regular pedestrians this was only ca. 15%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the new users of improved cycle/walk facilities are best represented by self-declared potential users of such improved facilities. For potential cyclists/pedestrians, exercise was stated as the main motivation for physical active transport, but among current regular cyclists "fast and flexible" was just as important as exercising. Measured intensity levels from physically active transport increased with

  15. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  16. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  17. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  18. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  19. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  20. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  1. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  2. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...... ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  3. Effect of shading nets on the production and quality of blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcelo Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth, development and fruit quality blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. variety Brigitta under different shade nets were evaluated. Assays were performed in plants 7 years in a commercial orchard Collipulli, Araucanía Region, Chile. Treatments were a control without shading and four types of screens: a red 40% and 18% shade; aluminized mesh with 40% shade and a black mesh 35% shade. In fruits shade of red mesh 40% greater equatorial and polar diameter were observed and three weeks later harvested the fruits of treatment without mesh. In growing shade 40% aluminized mesh phenological stages extension lag and the maximum weekly production two weeks over control was observed. The highest yields were observed in plants of treatment and control shade of red mesh 40%, with 11008 kg ha-1 and 10461 kg ha-1, respectively, while the lowest was in red mesh 18% with 9668 kg ha-1. The fruits grown under shade of red mesh 18% showed the highest number of fruits per plant with 1806 berries per plant, fruit weight less than 1.69 g with the strongest with 3.76 N mm-1 module deformability. Therefore, the largest weight berry fruits observed in non-mesh screen and 40% red shading, together with the increased size and performance.

  4. The effect of cigarette smoking on endothelial damage and atherosclerosis development – modeled and analyzed using Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewska Kaja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis as one of the crucial causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD is the leading reason of death worldwide. One of the contributing factors to this phenomenon is endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with the impact of various agents and their interactions. Tobacco smoke is one of the well known factors here. For better understanding of its significance a model of its impact on atherosclerotic plaque formation has been proposed. The model contains selected aspects of the influence of tobacco smoke, dual function of nitric oxide (NO (influence of various mechanisms on NO bioavailability, oxidative stress which promotes low density lipoproteins oxidation, macrophages significance and other mechanisms leading to an aggravation of the endothelial disturbances. The model has been built using Petri nets theory and the analysis has been based on t-invariants. This approach allowed to confirm the important role of inflammation and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis development and moreover it has shown the considerable influence of the cigarette smoke.

  5. Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Albiez, Gunther; Nehring, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    A novel long-lasting repellent-treated net (LLRTN) has been designed by binding the skin repellents N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or IR3535, onto the fibres of bed net fabric using a new polymer-coating technique. The repellent toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of a factory-based repellent-impregnated fabric has been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. By using this repellent-embedding impregnation technique, concentrations exceeding 10 g/m(2) could be achieved with one single polymer layer. Both DEET- and IR3535-impregnated fabrics revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidal activity. One hundred percent knockdown times of DEET-treated bed nets ranged from 187.5 +/- 31.8 to 27.5 +/- 3.5 min against A. aegypti, and between 214 +/- 47 and 22.6 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, linked to a DEET concentration of 1.08 and 10.58 g/m(2), respectively. With IR3535, A. aegypti produced dose-dependent 100% knockdown times varying from 87.5 +/- 10.6 to 57.5 +/- 3.5 min and between 131.4 +/- 6.5 and 33.8 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, respectively, linked to concentrations between 1.59 and 10.02 g/m(2). One hundred percent repellency measured by complete landing and biting protection of impregnated fabric by using the arm-in-cage test could be achieved at DEET concentrations exceeding 3.7 to 3.9 g/m(2), and for IR3535 concentrations over 10 g/m(2). One hundred percent landing and biting protection could be preserved with DEET-treated fabrics for 29 weeks at an initial concentration of 4.66 g/m(2), 54 weeks at 8.8 g/m(2), 58 weeks at 9.96 g/m(2) and 61 weeks at 10.48 g/m(2) for DEET, and 23 weeks for IR3535-treated fabric at a concentration of 10.02 g/m(2). Unlike repellent-treated fabric, a brand of a commercially available long-lasting insecticide-treated net tested containing 500 mg permethrin/m(2) did not protect from mosquito bites. First results on

  6. Effects of noise-induced hearing loss on parvalbumin and perineuronal net expression in the mouse primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anna; Khaleel, Haroun M; Razak, Khaleel A

    2017-07-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is associated with increased excitability in the central auditory system but the cellular correlates of such changes remain to be characterized. Here we tested the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss causes deterioration of perineuronal nets (PNNs) in the auditory cortex of mice. PNNs are specialized extracellular matrix components that commonly enwrap cortical parvalbumin (PV) containing GABAergic interneurons. Compared to somatosensory and visual cortex, relatively less is known about PV/PNN expression patterns in the primary auditory cortex (A1). Whether changes to cortical PNNs follow acoustic trauma remains unclear. The first aim of this study was to characterize PV/PNN expression in A1 of adult mice. PNNs increase excitability of PV+ inhibitory neurons and confer protection to these neurons against oxidative stress. Decreased PV/PNN expression may therefore lead to a reduction in cortical inhibition. The second aim of this study was to examine PV/PNN expression in superficial (I-IV) and deep cortical layers (V-VI) following noise trauma. Exposing mice to loud noise caused an increase in hearing threshold that lasted at least 30 days. PV and PNN expression in A1 was analyzed at 1, 10 and 30 days following the exposure. No significant changes were observed in the density of PV+, PNN+, or PV/PNN co-localized cells following hearing loss. However, a significant layer- and cell type-specific decrease in PNN intensity was seen following hearing loss. Some changes were present even at 1 day following noise exposure. Attenuation of PNN may contribute to changes in excitability in cortex following noise trauma. The regulation of PNN may open up a temporal window for altered excitability in the adult brain that is then stabilized at a new and potentially pathological level such as in tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, NET, and CRHR1 genes in African-American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African-American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report (Children’s Depression Inventory, CDI) and adult counselor-report (Teacher Report Form, TRF). DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, NET, and CRHR1. ANCOVAs with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their GxE interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher CDI and TRF symptoms. Results for child self-report symptoms indicated a GxE interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. Additionally, BDNF and tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a GxGxE interaction. Analyses for counselor-report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the TRF indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. NET was found to further moderate the GxE interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status revealing a GxGxE interaction. This GxGxE was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, GxGxE effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the CRHR1 haplotype. The findings illustrate the variable influence of specific genotypes in GxE interactions based on variation in maltreatment experiences and the importance of a multi-genic approach for understanding influences on depression and internalizing symptoms among African-American children. PMID:25422957

  8. Strength in Numbers: Opportunities for Enhancing the Development of Effective Treatments for Type 1 Diabetes-The TrialNet Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Carla J; Speake, Cate; Krischer, Jeffrey; Buckner, Jane; Gottlieb, Peter A; Schatz, Desmond A; Herold, Kevan C; Atkinson, Mark A

    2018-07-01

    The early to mid-1980s were an inflection point in the history of type 1 diabetes research. Two landmark events occurred: the initiation of immune-based interventions seeking to prevent type 1 diabetes and the presentation of an innovative model describing the disorder's natural history. Both formed the basis for hundreds of subsequent studies designed to achieve a dramatic therapeutic goal-a means to prevent and/or reverse type 1 diabetes. However, the need to screen large numbers of individuals and prospectively monitor them using immunologic and metabolic tests for extended periods of time suggested such efforts would require a large collaborative network. Hence, the National Institutes of Health formed the landmark Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) in the mid-1990s, an effort that led to Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet. TrialNet studies have helped identify novel biomarkers; delineate type 1 diabetes progression, resulting in identification of highly predictable stages defined by the accumulation of autoantibodies (stage 1), dysglycemia (stage 2), and disease meeting clinical criteria for diagnosis (stage 3); and oversee numerous clinical trials aimed at preventing disease progression. Such efforts pave the way for stage-specific intervention trials with improved hope that a means to effectively disrupt the disorder's development will be identified. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Effects of Biochar on the Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Continuous Flooding and Water-Saving Irrigation Conditions in Paddy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the greenhouse gas emission under different application of biochar in the conditions of continuous flooding and water-saving irrigation in paddy fields, whereas, plant and soil carbon sequestration were considered in the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions. The emission rates of methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, and nitrous oxide (N2O gases were simultaneously monitored once every 7–10 days using the closed-chamber method. As a whole, the net greenhouse gas emission in the water-saving irrigation was more than that of the continuous flooding irrigation conditions. Compared with the water-saving irrigation, the continuous flooding irrigation significantly increased the CH4 in the control (CK and chemical fertilizer treatments (NPK. The CO2 emissions increased in each treatment of the water-saving irrigation condition, especially in the chemical fertilizer treatments (NPKFW. Similarly, the soil N2O emission was very sensitive to the water-saving irrigation condition. An interesting finding is that the biochar application in soils cut down the soil N2O emission more significantly than NPKFW in the water-saving irrigation condition while the effect of biochar increased under the continuous flooding irrigation condition.

  10. WATER QUALITY AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF LOBSTER REARED IN FLOATING NET CAGE IN EKAS BAY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Junaidi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of lobster farming in floating net cage in Ekas Bay caused an environmental degradation such as decrease water quality due to some aquaculture wastes. The purposes of this study were to determine the status of water quality and their effect on growth and survival rate of lobster reared in floating net cages (FNC in the Ekas Bay, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Water sample collection and handling referred to the APHA (1992. Analyses of water quality data were conducted using Principal Component Analysis. Determination of the water quality status of Ekas Bay was performed with STORET system. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between water quality, growth, and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Results showed that Ekas Bay water quality status was categorized in class C (medium contaminated, which exceeded some quality standard parameters such as ammonia (0.3 mg/l, nitrate (0.008 mg/l, and phosphate (0.015 mg/l. During lobster farming activities feeding with trash fish for 270 days, we obtained daily growth rate of  0.74% (lower than normal growth rate of 0.86%, survival rate of 66% (lower than normal survival rate of 86.7%, and feed conversion ratio of 11.15. Ammonia was found as a dominant factor reducing growth  and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Keywords: water quality, lobsters, growth, survival, Ekas Bay

  11. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  12. [Phenotypic plasticity and its regulation of tillers prolonged reproductive growth of Puccinellia tenuiflora population on alkalized meadow in Songnen Plains of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ju; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2007-04-01

    Puccinellia tenuiflora is a salt-tolerant plant of grass family. By the method of random sampling, big samples of reproductive tillers of P. tenuiflora population on the alkalized meadow in the Songnen Plains of China were collected at early heading, heading, flowering, and milky stages, respectively, and the plasticity of their quantitative characters was analyzed. The results showed that except some fluctuations at flowering stage, the tiller height, tiller biomass, spike length and spike biomass of the reproductive tillers at other three growth stages increased significantly every five days with the increasing time of reproductive growth. At each growth stage, tiller height had a significant positive correlation with spike biomass, but a negative correlation with reproductive allocation. With the time of reproductive growth prolonged, the increasing rate of spike biomass at early heading, flowering and milky stages increased in power function with the increase of tiller height. The reproductive allocation decreased linearly by 43.2% and 44.31% at early heading and heading stages, respectively when the reproductive growth time increased ten days, and by 130% at milky stage when the time increased five days. The regulation of the tiller phenotypic plasticity of P. tenuiflora population at its reproductive growth stage followed definite patterns.

  13. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p time from 55 to 75 %, the corresponding 100 % kill time (p time of etofenprox from 42 to 50 % (p = 0.004), the 100 % kill time from 25 to 38 % (p biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent effects of multi-layer polymer

  14. Fluvial gravel stabilization by net-spinning Hydropsychid caddisflies: exploring the magnitude and geographic scope of ecosystem engineering effect and evaluating resistance to anthropogenic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M.; Albertson, L.; Sklar, L. S.; Tumolo, B.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the substantial effects that organisms can have on earth surface processes. Known as ecosystem engineers, in streams these organisms maintain, modify, or create physical habitat structure by influencing fluvial processes such as gravel movement, fine sediment deposition and bank erosion. However, the ecology of ecosystem engineers and the magnitude of ecosystem engineering effects in a world increasingly influence by anthropogenically-driven changes is not well understood. Here we present a synthesis of research findings on the potential gravel stabilization effects of Hydropsychid caddisflies, a globally distributed group of net-spinning insects that live in the benthic substrate of most freshwater streams. Hydropsychid caddisflies act as ecosystem engineers because these silk structures can fundamentally alter sediment transport conditions, including sediment stability and flow currents. The silk nets spun by these insects attach gravel grains to one another, increasing the shear stress required to initiate grain entrainment. In a series of independent laboratory experiments, we investigate the gravel size fractions most affected by these silk attachments. We also investigate the role of anthropogenic environmental stresses on ecosystem engineering potential by assessing the impact of two common stressors, high fine sediment loads and stream drying, on silk structures. Finally, an extensive field survey of grain size and Hydropsychid caddisfly population densities informs a watershed-scale network model of Hydropsychid caddisfly gravel stabilizing potential. Our findings provide some of the first evidence that caddisfly silk may be a biological structure that is resilient to various forms of human-mediated stress and that the effects of animal ecosystem engineers are underappreciated as an agent of resistance and recovery for aquatic communities experiencing changes in sediment loads and hydrologic regimes.

  15. The affordable care act and family planning services: the effect of optional medicaid expansion on safety net programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanese, Bethany G; Oglesby, Willie H

    2016-01-01

    Title X of the Public Health Service Act provides funding for a range of reproductive health services, with a priority given to low-income persons. Now that many of these services are provided to larger numbers of people with low-income since the passage of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid expansion, questions remain on the continued need for the Title X program. The current project highlights the importance of these safety net programs. To help inform this policy issue, research was conducted to examine the revenue and service changes for Title X per state and compare those findings to the states' Medicaid expansion and demographics. The dataset include publicly available data from 2013 and 2014 Family Planning Annual Reports (FPAR). Paired samples differences of means t-tests were then used to compare the means of family planning participation rates for 2013 and 2014 across the different categories for Medicaid expansion states and non-expansion states. The ACA has had an impact on Title X services, but the link is not as direct as previously thought. The findings indicate that all states' Title X funded clinics lost revenue; however, expansion states fared better than non-expansion states. While the general statements from the FPAR National surveys certainly are supported in that Title X providers have decreased in number and scope of services, which has led to the decrease in total clients, these variations are not evenly applied across the states. The ACA has very likely had an impact on Title X services, but the link is not as obvious as previously thought. Title X funded clinics have helped increase access to health insurance at a greater rate in expansion states than non-expansion states. There was much concern from advocates that with the projected increased revenue from Medicaid and private insurance, that Title X programs could be deemed unnecessary. However, this revenue increase has yet to actually pan out. Title X still helps fill a much needed

  16. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  17. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  18. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  19. Effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C in difficult-to-treat patients in a safety-net health system: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Christina; de la Flor, Carolina; Marshall, John; Zoellner, Cindy; Thompson, Grace; Quirk, Lisa; Mayorga, Christian; Turner, Barbara J; Singal, Amit G; Jain, Mamta K

    2017-11-20

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized chronic hepatitis C (HCV) treatment, but real-world effectiveness among vulnerable populations, including uninsured patients, is lacking. This study was conducted to characterize the effectiveness of DAAs in a socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patient cohort. This retrospective observational study included all patients undergoing HCV treatment with DAA-based therapy between April 2014 and June 2016 at a large urban safety-net health system (Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas, TX, USA). The primary outcome was sustained virologic response (SVR), with secondary outcomes including treatment discontinuation, treatment relapse, and loss to follow-up. DAA-based therapy was initiated in 512 patients. The cohort was socioeconomically disadvantaged (56% uninsured and 13% Medicaid), with high historic rates of alcohol (41%) and substance (50%) use, and mental health disorders (38%). SVR was achieved in 90% of patients (n = 459); 26 patients (5%) were lost to follow-up. SVR was significantly lower in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (82% SVR; OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.85) but did not differ by insurance status (P = 0.98) or alcohol/substance use (P = 0.34). Reasons for treatment failure included loss to follow-up (n = 26, 5%), viral relapse (n = 16, 3%), non-treatment-related death (n = 7, 1%), and treatment discontinuation (n = 4, 1%). Of patients with viral relapse, 6 reported non-compliance and have not been retreated, 5 have been retreated and achieved SVR, 4 have undergone resistance testing but not yet initiated retreatment, and 1 was lost to follow-up. Effective outcomes with DAA-based therapy can be achieved in difficult-to-treat underinsured populations followed in resource-constrained safety-net health systems.

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  1. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  2. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  3. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  5. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  6. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  7. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  8. Technology-facilitated depression care management among predominantly Latino diabetes patients within a public safety net care system: comparative effectiveness trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Ell, Kathleen; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Katon, Wayne J; Nezu, Art M; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Vidyanti, Irene; Chou, Chih-Ping; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Health disparities in minority populations are well recognized. Hispanics and Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States; a significant proportion receives their care via a safety net. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression is high among this group, but the uptake of evidence-based collaborative depression care management has been suboptimal. The study design and baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample in the Diabetes-Depression Care-management Adoption Trial (DCAT) establishes a quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research clinical trial aimed at accelerating the adoption of collaborative depression care in safety net clinics. The study was conducted in collaboration with the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services at eight county-operated clinics. DCAT has enrolled 1406 low-income, predominantly Hispanic/Latino patients with diabetes to test a translational model of depression care management. This three-group study compares usual care with a collaborative care team support model and a technology-facilitated depression care model that provides automated telephonic depression screening and monitoring tailored to patient conditions and preferences. Call results are integrated into a diabetes disease management registry that delivers provider notifications, generates tasks, and issues critical alerts. All subjects receive comprehensive assessments at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months by independent English-Spanish bilingual interviewers. Study outcomes include depression outcomes, treatment adherence, satisfaction, acceptance of assessment and monitoring technology, social and economic stress reduction, diabetes self-care management, health care utilization, and care management model cost and cost-effectiveness comparisons. DCAT's goal is to optimize depression screening, treatment, follow-up, outcomes, and cost savings to reduce health disparities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  10. Refining cost-effectiveness analyses using the net benefit approach and econometric methods: an example from a trial of anti-depressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Kendricks, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluation analyses can be enhanced by employing regression methods, allowing for the identification of important sub-groups and to adjust for imperfect randomisation in clinical trials or to analyse non-randomised data. To explore the benefits of combining regression techniques and the standard Bayesian approach to refine cost-effectiveness analyses using data from randomised clinical trials. Data from a randomised trial of anti-depressant treatment were analysed and a regression model was used to explore the factors that have an impact on the net benefit (NB) statistic with the aim of using these findings to adjust the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Exploratory sub-samples' analyses were carried out to explore possible differences in cost-effectiveness. Results The analysis found that having suffered a previous similar depression is strongly correlated with a lower NB, independent of the outcome measure or follow-up point. In patients with previous similar depression, adding an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to supportive care for mild-to-moderate depression is probably cost-effective at the level used by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence to make recommendations. This analysis highlights the need for incorporation of econometric methods into cost-effectiveness analyses using the NB approach.

  11. Zero net flux estimates of septal extracellular glucose levels and the effects of glucose on septal extracellular GABA levels

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Rauw, Gail; Baker, Glen B.; Parent, Marise B.

    2009-01-01

    Although hippocampal infusions of glucose enhance memory, we have found repeatedly that septal glucose infusions impair memory when γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are activated. For instance, hippocampal glucose infusions reverse the memory-impairing effects of co-infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol, whereas septal glucose infusions exacerbate memory deficits produced by muscimol. One potential explanation for these deleterious effects of glucose in the septum is that there are highe...

  12. Intended and unintended effects of policy measures aimed at promoting net neutrality: an examination of the value chain for video distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, P.; Leurdijk, A.; van Eijk, N.

    2012-01-01

    Net neutrality has, for a number of years, been a topic of often heated discussion in the Internet and telecom community. Net neutrality, in essence, requires that Internet users have open access to content and applications on the Internet, and, vice versa, that providers of applications can reach

  13. The effect of pressure loadings on the conservatism of the net-section stress criterion for the failure of cracked stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1994-01-01

    The technological problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of type 304 stainless steel piping in boiling water reactor piping systems, has provided the motivation for the considerable research interest in the integrity of cracked piping systems that are fabricated by ductile materials. IGSCC cracks are able to form at the inner surfaces of pipes. The cracks are circumferential and are able to grow slowly in service by a time dependent environmentally assisted mechanism. From a safety standpoint, it is important to know whether accident condition loadings will drive a part-through IGSCC crack unstably across the pipe thickness by a non-environmentally assisted fracture mechanism, and the resulting through-wall crack then propagate around the pipe circumference leading to a complete pipe severance. A methodology that has been developed to address this problem is a net-section stress methodology. The net-section stress approach for predicting the onset of crack extension in a piping system can give overly conservative predictions because a piping system is built-in at its end points and because crack extension requires some plastic deformation. The present paper is concerned with identifying the role of system pressure on the degree of conservatism, and two effects are important. Firstly, by inducing an axial tensile force at the cracked section, it is shown that the factor of conservatism can be increased. Secondly it is shown that the pressure induced moment at the cracked section behaves no differently to other contributions to this moment, in that all sources are associated with the same limited amount of elastic follow-up. All sources are associated with the same elastic flexibility parameter L*, which depends solely on the flexibility of the system and not on the nature of the loading

  14. Bulk rock and mineral chemistries and ascent rates of high-K calc-alkalic epidote-bearing magmas, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, R. G.; Sial, A. N.; Ferreira, V. P.; Pimentel, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    A manifestation of the Pan-African-Brasiliano orogeny (700-550 Ma) in northeastern Brazil was the emplacement of widespread Neoproterozoic granitoids in diverse tectonic terranes. Among these plutons are the magmatic epidote-bearing Conceição das Creoulas, Caldeirão Encantado, Murici, and Boqueirão plutons, located close to the boundary between the Alto Pajeú and Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro terranes. The plutons are high-K calc-alkalic granodiorites to monzogranites, with tabular K-feldspar megacrysts. Pistacite [atomic Fe+ 3/(Fe3++ Al)] in epidote in these granitoids ranges from 21 to 27%. High oxygen fugacity (log fO2 - 19 to - 13) and the preservation of epidote suggest that the magma was oxidized. Al-in-hornblende barometry indicates hornblende solidification between 6 and 8 kbar, at 620 to 780 °C according to the hornblende-plagioclase thermometer. Zircon saturation thermometry attests to a near-liquidus temperature range from 794 to 853 °C. Partial corrosion of magmatic epidote in these four plutons occurred during an interval of no more than 10-30 years, which corresponds to maximum magma ascent rates of 650-1000 m/year. Diking, associated with regional shearing, probably facilitated rapid transport of granitic magma through hot continental crust at peak metamorphism, and permitted survival of epidote that was out of equilibrium at the low pressure of final emplacement. Similarities between mineralogical composition, chemistry, and isotopic compositions (εNd(0.60Ga) between - 2 and - 5,TDM from 1.2 to 1.3 Ga, δ18O values > 10‰, V-SMOW) of these four plutons and Neoproterozoic magmatic epidote-bearing plutons elsewhere in northeastern Brazil, argue for similar metabasaltic/mafic sources that had previously experienced low-temperature alteration.

  15. When are net effects gross products? : The power of influence and the influence of power in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Postmes, T; Lea, M; Wolbert, A

    2002-01-01

    The rush to judgment about the social effects of the new communications media has branded them as positive and negative in equal measure. Alienation from "real world" relationships coupled with a lack of social regulation within the medium is balanced by liberation from the influences, inequalities,

  16. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  17. Health Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets in the Control of Malaria in Endemic Regions, Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemicity of malaria in tropical areas of the world persists, especially in countries south of Saharan Africa. The efforts and concerns invested by the World Health Organization and other health agencies to eradicate malaria are commendable. However, in spite of all these efforts, the loss in economic and human resources continues. In a previous report, the long-term health effects of insecticide-impregnated bednet (IIBN use were highlighted with the expectation of attracting serious thoughts and further research on the issue. This present paper is an update on that expectation. Results from a comprehensive literature search show that not much work has been done on the effects of long-term exposure to IIBNs in combating malarial infection. The efficacy of IIBNs is not in question. What is in question is whether long-term exposure to IIBNs have any health effects. The aims and outcomes of the research found in the literature on the subject to date seem to support only the efficacy of the temporal use of plain bednets, but not the use of IIBNs, and do not tell much about the long-term effects of IIBN exposure. All pesticides are toxic by nature and present risks of adverse effects. While there is agreement that IIBNs can be effective in reducing malarial morbidity and mortality under field trials, a number of factors relating to their long-term-exposure health effects have yet to be determined. Further reliable research projects are recommended urgently. However, some of the anticipated behavioral effects caused by insecticidal use will be avoided by the use of untreated nets instead.

  18. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  19. Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Chafika; Yukich, Joshua; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Wahabi, Rachid; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kaddaf, Mustapha; El Idrissi, Abderrahmane Laamrani; Ameur, Btissam; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases by passive and active case detection, sandfly abundance, and cost and cost-effectiveness was compared between study arms over 5 years. Incidence of CL and sandfly abundance were significantly lower in the IRS arm compared with SoC-EM (CL incidence rate ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15–0.69, P = 0.005 and sandfly abundance ratio = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.85, P = 0.022). Reductions in the LLIN arm of the study were not significant, possibly due to poor compliance. IRS was effective and more cost-effective for the prevention of CL in Morocco. PMID:26811431

  20. Monte Carlo modeling of the net effects of coma scattering and thermal reradiation on the energy input to cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, H.

    1988-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation method is presented that can, to an accuracy of a few percent, calculate the effects of a dusty coma on the total energy input to the cometary nucleus. This method treats nonconservative nonisotropic scattering, as well as the reflection from the nucleus surface. Results are presented as a function of the optical thickness of the dust column in the sun-comet axis. The total energy input to the nucleus appears to be only weakly dependent on the opacity of the coma, the radial distribution of the dust, or the details of the extinction processes. 18 references

  1. Evapotranspiration estimates and consequences due to errors in the determination of the net radiation and advective effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.M. de; Leitao, M. de M.V.B.R.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the consequences in the evapotranspiration estimates (ET) during the growing cycle of a peanut crop due to the errors committed in the determination of the radiation balance (Rn), as well as those caused by the advective effects. This research was conducted at the Experimental Station of CODEVASF in an irrigated perimeter located in the city of Rodelas, BA, during the period of September to December of 1996. The results showed that errors of the order of 2.2 MJ m -2 d -1 in the calculation of Rn, and consequently in the estimate of ET, can occur depending on the time considered for the daily total of Rn. It was verified that the surrounding areas of the experimental field, as well as the areas of exposed soil within the field, contributed significantly to the generation of local advection of sensible heat, which resulted in the increase of the evapotranspiration [pt

  2. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  3. Application of Bayesian belief net in modelling the origin and effects of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in a boreal aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Mika; Hoikkala, Laura; Soinne, Helena

    2013-04-01

    Bayesian belief nets (BBN) are capable of developing holistic understanding of the origin, transportation, and effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in ecosystems. The role of riverine DOM, transporting carbon and macronutrients N and P into lakes and coastal areas, has been largely neglected in research about processes influencing aquatic ecosystem functions although dissolved organic matter provides a significant nutrient source for primary producers in aquatic environments. This neglect has also contributed to the environmental policies which are focused in the control of inorganic N and P load. It is of great social and economic interest to gain improved knowledge of whether the currently applied policy instruments act in synchrony in mitigating eutrophication caused by N and P versus DOM load. DOM is a complex mixture of compounds that are poorly characterized. DOM export is strongly regulated by land use (urban, forest, agricultural land, peat land), in addition to soil type and soil organic carbon concentration. Furthermore, the composition of DOM varies according to its origin. The fate and effects of DOM loads in the fresh water and coastal environments depend, for example, on their biodegradability. Degradation kinetics again depends on the interactions between composition of the DOM pool and the receiving environment. Impact studies of dissolved organic matter pose a complicated environmental impact assessment challenge for science. There exists strategic uncertainty in the science about the causal dependencies and about the quality of knowledge related to DOM. There is a clear need for systematization in the approach as uncertainty is typically high about many key processes. A cross-sectorial, integrative analysis will aid in focusing on the most relevant issues. A holistic and unambiguous analysis will provide support for policy-decisions and management by indicating which outcome is more probable than another. The task requires coupling complex

  4. Effect of Different Feeding on Feed Conversion and Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio in Floating Net Cage Culture at Jatiluhur Dike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two feeding methods commonly used in cage culture of carp Cyprinus carpio at Jatiluhur Lake, Purwakarta. Common carp in mean weight of 24.29±4.29 gram were reared in floating net cage 7×7×3 m3, for 70 days rearing.  Fish were fed on a commercial diet containing 30% protein at 5 times daily.  Experimental treatment was feeding technique, i.e., by 6% of body weight, and at satiation for the second treatment.  The results showed that the application of "at satiation feeding method" was more effective than "fixed method" (6% of body weight indicating with food conversion ratio of 1.86 versus 1.91. Production of fish fed on the diet using at satiation method for 70 days was 1,241 kg/cage. Keywords: common carp, Cyprinus carpio, FCR, floating net cage, at satiation   ABSTRAK Salah satu cara untuk menekan biaya dalam usaha budidaya ikan secara intensif adalah dengan penggunaan pakan secera efisien agar ikan tumbuh optimal dan pakan yang terbuang seminimal mungkin. Penelitian dilakukan di Waduk Jatiluhur, Purwakarta.  Ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio ukuran bobot awal rata-rata 24,29±4,29 gram dipelihara dalam jaring apung ukuran 7×7×3 m3, selama 70 hari.  Ikan diberi pakan dengan frekuensi yang sama sebanyak 5 kali/hari. Perlakuan pada penelitian ini adalah teknik pemberian pakan, yaitu ikan pada jaring pertama diberi pakan sebanyak 6% dari bobot biomassa, sementara pada jaring kedua ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya (at satiation.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pakan dengan metode sekenyangnya (at satiation menghasilkan nilai FCR sebesar 1,86 yang relatif lebih efisien dibandingkan dengan sebanyak 6% berdasarkan bobot biomassa (1,91. Produktivitas akhir ikan dengan pemberian pakan sekenyangnya 70 hari pemeliharaan dalam jaring apung di waduk Jatiluhur mencapai 1.241 kg. Kata kunci: ikan mas, Cyprinus carpio, FCR, Keramba jaring apung, at satiation

  5. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  6. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  7. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  8. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults. The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests. The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001). Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels. The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  9. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ducrot

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults.The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests.The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001. Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels.The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  10. Seasonal Oxygen Dynamics in a Warm Temperate Estuary: Effects of Hydrologic Variability on Measurements of Primary Production, Respiration, and Net Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal responses in estuarine metabolism (primary production, respiration, and net metabolism) were examined using two complementary approaches. Total ecosystem metabolism rates were calculated from dissolved oxygen time series using Odum’s open water method. Water column rates...

  11. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo®, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s.: a release-recapture assay in experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djènontin Armel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN, Olyset® Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER and the insect growth regulator (IGR, pyri-proxyfen (PPF. An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset® Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of holes (6, 30, or 150 that may accrue in nets over time was simulated. We used two laboratory Anopheles gambiae s.s. strains: the susceptible Kisumu strain and the pyrethroid-resistant VK-Per strain having solely kdr as resistance mechanism. The effect of these nets on the reproductive success of blood-fed females that survived the different LNs conditions was recorded. Regardless of the mosquito strain, the LNs containing PPF alone with as many as 30 holes drastically reduced the number of eggs laid by females succeeding in feeding, i.e. fecundity by 98% and egg hatching rate (fertility by 93% relative to untreated control net. Very few of the resistant females blood fed and survived under the Olyset® Duo with similar number of holes (up to 30 but of these few, the inhibition of reproductive success was 100%. There was no evidence that the Olyset® Duo LN with 150 holes impacted fecundity or fertility of the resistant colony. The efficacy of Olyset® Duo is encouraging and clearly illustrates that this new net might be a promising tool for malaria transmission control and resistance management.

  12. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo®, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s.: a release-recapture assay in experimental huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djènontin, Armel; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P; Koffi, Alphonsine; Zogo, Barnabas; Duarte, Elves; N'Guessan, Raphael; Moiroux, Nicolas; Pennetier, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN), Olyset® Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER) and the insect growth regulator (IGR), pyri-proxyfen (PPF). An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset® Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of holes (6, 30, or 150) that may accrue in nets over time was simulated. We used two laboratory Anopheles gambiae s.s. strains: the susceptible Kisumu strain and the pyrethroid-resistant VK-Per strain having solely kdr as resistance mechanism. The effect of these nets on the reproductive success of blood-fed females that survived the different LNs conditions was recorded. Regardless of the mosquito strain, the LNs containing PPF alone with as many as 30 holes drastically reduced the number of eggs laid by females succeeding in feeding, i.e. fecundity by 98% and egg hatching rate (fertility) by 93% relative to untreated control net. Very few of the resistant females blood fed and survived under the Olyset® Duo with similar number of holes (up to 30) but of these few, the inhibition of reproductive success was 100%. There was no evidence that the Olyset® Duo LN with 150 holes impacted fecundity or fertility of the resistant colony. The efficacy of Olyset® Duo is encouraging and clearly illustrates that this new net might be a promising tool for malaria transmission control and resistance management. © A. Djènontin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccinating children in Malawi with RTS,S vaccines in comparison with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mikyung Kelly; Baker, Peter; Ngo, Karen Ngoc-Lan

    2014-02-24

    New RTS,S malaria vaccines may soon be licensed, yet its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Before the widespread introduction of RTS,S vaccines, cost-effectiveness studies are needed to help inform governments in resource-poor settings about how best to prioritize between the new vaccine and existing malaria interventions. A Markov model simulated malaria progression in a hypothetical Malawian birth cohort. Parameters were based on published data. Three strategies were compared: no intervention, vaccination at one year, and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) at birth. Both health service and societal perspectives were explored. Health outcomes were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costed in 2012 US$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted. Three times GDP per capita ($1,095) per DALY averted was used for a cost-effectiveness threshold, whilst one times GDP ($365) was considered 'very cost-effective'. From a societal perspective the vaccine strategy was dominant. It averted 0.11 more DALYs than LLINs and 0.372 more DALYs than the no intervention strategy per person, while costing $10.04 less than LLINs and $59.74 less than no intervention. From a health service perspective the vaccine's ICER was $145.03 per DALY averted, and thus can be considered very cost-effective. The results were robust to changes in all variables except the vaccine and LLINs' duration of efficacy. Vaccines remained cost-effective even at the lowest assumed efficacy levels of 49.6% (mild malaria) and 14.2% (severe malaria), and the highest price of $15. However, from a societal perspective, if the vaccine duration efficacy was set below 2.69 years or the LLIN duration of efficacy was greater than 4.24 years then LLINs became the more cost-effective strategy. The results showed that vaccinating Malawian children with RTS,S vaccines was very cost-effective from both a societal and a

  14. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the net effect of long-term drainage on a permafrost ecosystem through year-round eddy-covariance flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, F.; Heimann, M.; Goeckede, M.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost regions in the Northern high latitudes play a key role in the carbon budget of the earth system because of their massive carbon reservoir and the uncertain feedback processes with future climate change. For an improved understanding of mechanisms and drivers dominating permafrost carbon cycling, more observations in high-latitude regions are needed. Particularly the contribution of wintertime fluxes to the annual carbon budget and the impact of disturbances on biogeochemical and biogeophysical ecosystem properties, and the resulting modification of the carbon cycle, have rarely been studied to date. In summer of 2013, we established a new eddy-covariance station for continuous, year-round monitoring of carbon fluxes and their environmental drivers near Cherskii in Northeast Siberia (68.75°N, 161.33°E). Parts of the observation area have been disturbed by drainage since 2004, altering the soil water conditions in a way that is expected for degrading ice-rich permafrost under a warming climate. With two eddy-covariance towers running in parallel over the disturbed (drained) area and a reference area nearby, respectively, we can directly infer the disturbance effect on the carbon cycle budgets and the dominating biogeochemical mechanisms. This study presents findings based on 16 months of continuous eddy-covariance CO2 flux measurements (July 2013 - October 2014) for both observation areas. At both towers, we observed systematic, non-zero flux contributions outside the growing seasons that significantly altered annual CO2 budgets. A direct comparison of fluxes between the two disturbance regimes indicates a net reduction of the sink strength for CO2 in the disturbed area during the growing season, mostly caused by reduced CO2 uptake with low water levels in late summer. Moreover, shifts in soil temperatures and snow cover caused by reduced soil water levels result in lower net CO2 emissions during the winter at the drained area, which is partly

  16. Effects of nitrogen application rates on net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in double-rice cropping systems of the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongdu; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    The net global warming potential (NGWP) and net greenhouse gas intensity (NGHGI) of double-rice cropping systems are not well documented. We measured the NGWP and NGHGI including soil organic carbon (SOC) change and indirect emissions (IE) from double-crop rice fields with fertilizing systems in Southern China. These experiments with three different nitrogen (N) application rates since 2012 are as follows: 165 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 225 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N1), which was the local N application rates as the control; 135 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 180 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N2, 20 % reduction); and 105 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 135 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N3, 40 % reduction). Results showed that yields increased with the increase of N application rate, but without significant difference between N1 and N2 plots. Annual SOC sequestration rate under N1 was estimated to be 1.15 MgC ha -1  year -1 , which was higher than those under other fertilizing systems. Higher N application tended to increase CH 4 emissions during the flooded rice season and significantly increased N 2 O emissions from drained soils during the nonrice season, ranking as N1 > N2 > N3 with significant difference (P < 0.05). Two-year average IE has a huge contribution to GHG emissions mainly coming from the higher N inputs in the double-rice cropping system. Reducing N fertilizer usage can effectively decrease the NGWP and NGHGI in the double-rice cropping system, with the lowest NGHGI obtained in the N2 plot (0.99 kg CO 2 -eq kg -1 yield year -1 ). The results suggested that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be simultaneously achieved by properly reducing N fertilizer application in double-rice cropping systems.

  17. [Effects of drying and wetting cycles induced by tides on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 over a salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen Jun; Han, Guang Xuan; Xu, Yan Ning; Zhang, Xi Tao; Wang, An Dong; Che, Chun Guang; Sun, Bao Yu; Zhang, Xiao Shuai

    2018-01-01

    As a unique hydrological characteristic, the tidal action can strongly affect carbon balance in a salt marsh despite their short duration. Using the eddy covariance technique, we measured the net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) and its environmental factors and tidal change over a salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta. It aimed to investigate the effect of tidal process and drying and wetting cycles induced by tides on NEE. The results showed that the tidal process promoted the daytime CO 2 uptake, but it didn't clearly affect the nighttime CO 2 release. Tidal inundation was a major factor influencing daytime NEE. The diurnal change of NEE showed a distinct U-shaped curve on both drought and wet stages, but not with substantial variation in its amplitude during the drought stage. The drying and wetting cycles enhanced the absorption of daytime CO 2 . Under drought stage, the mean of the maximum photosynthetic rate (A max ), apparent quantum yield (α) and ecosystem respiration (R eco ) were higher than those in wet stage. In addition, the drying and wetting cycles suppressed the nighttime CO 2 release from the salt marsh but increased its temperature sensitivity.

  18. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael; Rap, Alex; Reddington, Carly; Spracklen, Dominick; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of rapidly growing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning have increased the diffuse fraction of incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis leading to increased plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of atmospheric and biospheric models, we find that changes in diffuse light associated with fossil fuel aerosol emission accounts for only 2.8% of the increase in global net primary production (1.221 PgC/yr) over the study period 1998 to 2007. This relatively small global signal is however a result of large regional compensations. Over East Asia, the strong increase in fossil fuel emissions contributed nearly 70% of the increased plant carbon uptake (21 TgC/yr), whereas the declining fossil fuel aerosol emissions in Europe and North America contributed negatively (-16% and -54%, respectively) to increased plant carbon uptake. At global scale, we also find the CO2 fertilization effect on photosynthesis to be the dominant driver of increased plant carbon uptake, in line with previous studies. These results suggest that further research into alternative mechanisms by which fossil fuel emissions could increase carbon uptake, such as nitrogen deposition and carbon-nitrogen interactions, is required to better understand a potential link between the recent changes in fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon uptake.

  19. Effect of village-wide use of long-lasting insecticidal nets on visceral Leishmaniasis vectors in India and Nepal: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Albert; Das, Murari L; Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Dinesh, Diwakar S; Roy, Lalita; Rijal, Suman; Das, Pradeep; Rowland, Mark; Sundar, Shyam; Coosemans, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive R

    2010-01-26

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control in the Indian subcontinent is currently based on case detection and treatment, and on vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) has been postulated as an alternative or complement to IRS. Here we tested the impact of comprehensive distribution of LN on the density of Phlebotomus argentipes in VL-endemic villages. A cluster-randomized controlled trial with household P. argentipes density as outcome was designed. Twelve clusters from an ongoing LN clinical trial--three intervention and three control clusters in both India and Nepal--were selected on the basis of accessibility and VL incidence. Ten houses per cluster selected on the basis of high pre-intervention P. argentipes density were monitored monthly for 12 months after distribution of LN using CDC light traps (LT) and mouth aspiration methods. Ten cattle sheds per cluster were also monitored by aspiration. A random effect linear regression model showed that the cluster-wide distribution of LNs significantly reduced the P. argentipes density/house by 24.9% (95% CI 1.80%-42.5%) as measured by means of LTs. The ongoing clinical trial, designed to measure the impact of LNs on VL incidence, will confirm whether LNs should be adopted as a control strategy in the regional VL elimination programs. The entomological evidence described here provides some evidence that LNs could be usefully deployed as part of the VL control program. ClinicalTrials.gov CT-2005-015374.

  20. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  1. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  2. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  3. Low moisture availability inhibits the enhancing effect of increased soil temperature on net photosynthesis of white birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings grown under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2009-11-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown under two carbon dioxide concentrations (ambient: 360 micromol mol(-1) and elevated: 720 micromol mol(-1)), three soil temperatures (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three moisture regimes (low: 30-40%; intermediate: 45-55% and high: 60-70% field water capacity) in greenhouses. In situ gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2 months of treatments. Net photosynthetic rate (A(n)) of seedlings grown under the intermediate and high moisture regimes increased from low to intermediate T(soil) and then decreased to high T(soil). There were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil), with the exception that A(n) was significantly higher under high than low T(soil) at the high moisture regime. No significant T(soil) effect on A(n) was observed at the low moisture regime. The intermediate T(soil) increased stomatal conductance (g(s)) only at intermediate and high but not at low moisture regime, whereas there were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil) treatments. Furthermore, the difference in g(s) between the intermediate and high T(soil) at high moisture regime was not statistically significant. The low moisture regime significantly reduced the internal to ambient CO2 concentration ratio at all T(soil). There were no significant individual or interactive effects of treatment on maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, triose phosphate utilization or potential photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The results of this study suggest that soil moisture condition should be taken into account when predicting the responses of white birch to soil warming.

  4. Net shape powder processing of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost-effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminium powder metallurgy. Net shape processing of aluminium using the classical press-and-sinter powder metallurgy technique is a unique and important metal-forming method which is cost effective in producing complex parts at, or very close to, final dimensions. This paper provides an overview of the net shape powder processing of aluminium. Current research is critically reviewed and the future potential is briefly considered

  5. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  6. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  7. Isolating and Quantifying the Effects of Climate and CO2 Changes (1980–2014 on the Net Primary Productivity in Arid and Semiarid China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the net primary productivity (NPP of arid/semiarid ecosystem is generally thought to be controlled by precipitation, other factors like CO2 fertilization effect and temperature change may also have important impacts, especially in the cold temperate areas of the northern China, where significant warming was reported in the recent decades. However, the impacts of climate and atmospheric CO2 changes to the NPP dynamics in the arid and semiarid areas of China (ASA-China is still unclear, hindering the development of climate adaptation strategy. Based on numeric experiments and factorial analysis, this study isolated and quantified the effects of climate and CO2 changes between 1980–2014 on ASA-China’s NPP, using the Arid Ecosystem Model (AEM that performed well in predicting ecosystems’ responses to climate/CO2 change according to our evaluation based on 21 field experiments. Our results showed that the annual variation in NPP was dominated by changes in precipitation, which reduced the regional NPP by 10.9 g·C/(m2·year. The precipitation-induced loss, however, has been compensated by the CO2 fertilization effect that increased the regional NPP by 14.9 g·C/(m2·year. The CO2 fertilization effect particularly benefited the extensive croplands in the Northern China Plain, but was weakened in the dry grassland of the central Tibetan Plateau due to suppressed plant activity as induced by a drier climate. Our study showed that the climate change in ASA-China and the ecosystem’s responses were highly heterogeneous in space and time. There were complex interactive effects among the climate factors, and different plant functional types (e.g., phreatophyte vs. non-phreatophyte could have distinct responses to similar climate change. Therefore, effective climate-adaptive strategies should be based on careful analysis of local climate pattern and understanding of the characteristic responses of the dominant species. Particularly, China

  8. Implementation of CLP4NET in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naydenova, I.; Pironkov, L.; Filipov, A.; Petrova, T.; Tsochev, G.; Ganev, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Networking solutions (networks of excellence, communities of practice, knowledge portals, etc.) are recognized as effective tools for nuclear training and education services, transfer of good practices, knowledge and programmes, and knowledge management. In addition, the e-learning is recommended as a state of the art and cost effective approach for supplementing the traditional face to face training and education programmes. Thus, the Cyber Learning Platform for Nuclear Education and Training (CLP4NET) was implemented into the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) Training System. Based on the experience of KNPP, the CLP4NET was implemented also at the College of Energy and Electronics (CEE), Technical University of Sofia (TU-Sofia), providing an appropriate tool for further establishment of a National Nuclear Network of Competency. The current study is focused mainly on specific issues and lessons learned during the installation of CLP4NET at the CEE, TU-Sofia. (author

  9. The pH dependency of N-converting enzymatic processes, pathways and microbes: effect on net N2O production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Jan-Michael; Su, Qingxian; Ma, Yunjie

    2018-01-01

    causing steric changes in catalytic sites or proton/electron transfer routes that alter the enzymes' overall activity. Augmenting molecular information with, e.g., nitritation or denitrification rates yields explanations of changes in net N2 O production with pH. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria are of highest...... relevance for N2 O production, while heterotrophic denitrifiers are relevant for N2 O consumption at pH > 7.5. Net N2 O production in N-cycling water engineering systems is predicted to display a 'bell-shaped' curve in the range of pH 6.0-9.0 with a maximum at pH 7.0-7.5. Net N2 O production at acidic p...

  10. The concentration of the coolant 7Li in Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant operating with potassium hydroxide as an alkalizing reagent (possible impact on the occurrence of axial offset anomaly)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrevski, I.D.; Minkova, K.F.; Ivanova, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of axial offset anomaly (AOA) has occurred in a number of PWRs operating with extended fuel cycles and high boiling duty cores. Up to now AOA has been observed in PWRs operating with lithium hydroxide and the alkalizing reagent used for pH adjustment in boric acid water solutions. Since AOA is connected with the LiBO 2 precipitation in porous corrosion product deposits on the fuel cladding surfaces, we could presume that the replacement of lithium hydroxide with potassium hydroxide will avoid AOA. Nowadays there is a lack of observed AOA in VVER, i.e., a lack of formation of lithium metaborate (LiBO 2 ) deposits on the fuel element surfaces by coolant alkalization with potassium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the concentrations of 7 Li appear in the coolant, as a product of the neutron reaction with boron: 10 B (n,α) → 7 Li (n, α). As a consequence the possibility it is not excluded of LiBO 2 formation in VVERs with potassium hydroxide water chemistry. The aim of this study is to inform the reader about the development of the concentration of the coolant lithium concentration during the fuel cycles of VVERs and to discuss the possibility of LiBO 2 formation under VVER operation conditions. (orig.)

  11. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  12. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  13. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  14. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of climate and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Cernusca, Alexander

    2008-04-27

    The role and relative importance of climate and cutting for the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO 2 (NEE) of a temperate mountain grassland was investigated. Eddy covariance CO 2 flux data and associated measurements of the green area index and the major environmental driving forces acquired during 2001-2006 at the study site Neustift (Austria) were analyzed. Driven by three cutting events per year which kept the investigated grassland in a stage of vigorous growth, the seasonal variability of NEE was primarily modulated by gross primary productivity (GPP). The role of environmental parameters in modulating the seasonal variability of NEE was obscured by the strong response of GPP to changes in the amount of green area, as well as the cutting-mediated decoupling of phenological development and the seasonal course of climate drivers. None of the climate and management metrics examined was able to explain the inter-annual variability of annual NEE. This is thought to result from (1) a high covariance between GPP and ecosystem respiration (R eco ) at the annual time scale which results in a comparatively small inter-annual variation of NEE, (2) compensating effects between carbon exchange during and outside the management period, and (3) changes in the biotic response to rather than the climate variables per se. GPP was more important in modulating inter-annual variations in NEE in spring and before the first and second cut, while R eco explained a larger fraction of the inter-annual variability of NEE during the remaining, in particular the post-cut, periods.

  15. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  16. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  17. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  18. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  19. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  20. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO 3 over SrTiO 3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  1. Assessing Effect of Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Net Primary Production, Soil Respiration and Carbon Budget in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Ecosystem under Mashhad Climatic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y alizade

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The imbalance between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere by ecosystems has led to an increase in the average concentration of this greenhouse gas (GHG in the atmosphere. Enhancing carbon sequestration in soil is an important issue to reduce net flux of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Soil organic carbon content is obtained from the difference between carbon input resulting from plant biomass and carbon losses the soil through different ways including soil respiration. CO2 emission varies largely during the year and is considerably affected by management type. The goal of this investigation was to study the effects of application of manure and chemical fertilizer on CO2 flux and carbon balance in agricultural system. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the carbon dynamics and effect of fertilizer and manure management on soil respiration and carbon budget for winter wheat, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Faculty of Agriculture of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for two years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 . The experimental treatments were 150 and 250 kg chemical nitrogen (N1 and N2, manure (M, manure plus chemical nitrogen (F-M and control (C. CO2 emission was measured six times during growth season and to minimize daily temperature variation error, the measurement was performed between 8 to 11 am. Chambers length and diameter were 50 cm and 30 cm respectively and their edges were held down 3 cm in soil in time of sampling so that no plant live mass was present in the chamber. Carbon budgets were estimated for two years using an ecological technique. Results and Discussion The net primary production (NPP was significantly higher in the F2 and F-M treatments with 6467 and 6294kg ha-1 in the first year and 6260 and 6410 kg ha-1 in the second year, respectively. The highest shoot to root ratio was obtained in

  2. Representations of Nets of C*-Algebras over S 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2012-11-01

    In recent times a new kind of representations has been used to describe superselection sectors of the observable net over a curved spacetime, taking into account the effects of the fundamental group of the spacetime. Using this notion of representation, we prove that any net of C*-algebras over S 1 admits faithful representations, and when the net is covariant under Diff( S 1), it admits representations covariant under any amenable subgroup of Diff( S 1).

  3. Effect of river discharge and geometry on tides and net water transport in an estuarine network, an idealized model applied to the Yangtze Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebregtse, N. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345704304; de Swart, H. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725

    2016-01-01

    Tidal propagation in, and division of net water transport over different channels in an estuarine network are analyzed using a newly developed idealized model. The water motion in this model is governed by the cross-sectionally averaged shallow water equations and is forced by tides at the seaward

  4. Effectiveness of antenatal clinics to deliver intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide treated nets for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, Jenny; Dellicour, Stephanie; Bruce, Jane; Ouma, Peter; Smedley, James; Otieno, Peter; Ombock, Maurice; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Hamel, Mary J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy can have devastating consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the WHO prevention strategy for sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent-preventive-treatment (IPTp) with two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and insecticide-treated-nets (ITNs) in pregnancy is low. We

  5. CO2 supersaturation and net heterotrophy in a tropical estuary (Cochin, India): Influence of anthropogenic effect - Carbon dynamics in tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, G.V.M.; Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Madhu, N.V.; Madeswaran, P.; Nair, S.

    of pCO sub(2) (up to 6000 mu atm) and CO sub(2) effluxes (up to 274 mmolC m sup(-2) d sup(-1)) especially during monsoon. A first-order estimate of the carbon mass balance shows that net production of dissolved inorganic carbon is an order of magnitude...

  6. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  7. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  8. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  9. Criteria for Definition of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartori, Igor; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Napolitano, Assunta

    2010-01-01

    The idea of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) is understood conceptually, as it is understood that the way a Net ZEB is defined affects significantly the way it is designed in order to achieve the goal. However, little agreement exists on a common definition; the term is used commercially...... without a clear understanding and countries are enacting policies and national targets based on the concept without a clear definition in place. This paper presents a harmonised framework for describing the relevant characteristics of Net ZEBs in a series of criteria. Evaluation of the criteria...... and selection of the related options becomes a methodology for elaborating sound Net ZEB definitions in a formal, systematic and comprehensive way, creating the basis for legislations and action plans to effectively achieve the political targets. The common denominator for the different possible Net ZEB...

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la fotosintesis neta y la respiracion de Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fernandez, J

    1983-07-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first b chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than a chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observation after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Met photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% are got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. Radio estimation by low doses, although obtained in some cases for tho 10 Gy dose, has not been statistically confirmed. (Author) 23 refs.

  11. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Study protocol of the ASD-Net, the German research consortium for the study of Autism Spectrum Disorder across the lifespan: from a better etiological understanding, through valid diagnosis, to more effective health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Poustka, Luise; Bachmann, Christian; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hoffmann, Falk; Kanske, Philipp; Kirsch, Peter; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rietschel, Marcella; Roepke, Stefan; Roessner, Veit; Schad-Hansjosten, Tanja; Singer, Tania; Stroth, Sanna; Witt, Stephanie; Wermter, Anne-Kathrin

    2017-06-02

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe, lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder with early onset that places a heavy burden on affected individuals and their families. Due to the need for highly specialized health, educational and vocational services, ASD is a cost-intensive disorder, and strain on health care systems increases with increasing age of the affected individual. The ASD-Net will study Germany's largest cohort of patients with ASD over the lifespan. By combining methodological expertise from all levels of clinical research, the ASD-Net will follow a translational approach necessary to identify neurobiological pathways of different phenotypes and their appropriate identification and treatment. The work of the ASD-Net will be organized into three clusters concentrating on diagnostics, therapy and health economics. In the diagnostic cluster, data from a large, well-characterized sample (N = 2568) will be analyzed to improve the efficiency of diagnostic procedures. Pattern classification methods (machine learning) will be used to identify algorithms for screening purposes. In a second step, the developed algorithm will be tested in an independent sample. In the therapy cluster, we will unravel how an ASD-specific social skills training with concomitant oxytocin administration can modulate behavior through neurobiological pathways. For the first time, we will characterize long-term effects of a social skills training combined with oxytocin treatment on behavioral and neurobiological phenotypes. Also acute effects of oxytocin will be investigated to delineate general and specific effects of additional oxytocin treatment in order to develop biologically plausible models for symptoms and successful therapeutic interventions in ASD. Finally, in the health economics cluster, we will assess service utilization and ASD-related costs in order to identify potential needs and cost savings specifically tailored to Germany. The ASD-Net has been established as part of

  13. Effect of the Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation Estimation Error on Net Primary Production Estimation - A Study with MODIS FPAR and TOMS Ultraviolet Reflective Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hoyano, A.

    2002-01-01

    Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), which is defined as downward solar radiation in 400-700 nm absorbed by vegetation, is one of the significant variables for Net Primary Production (NPP) estimation from satellite data. Toward the reduction of the uncertainties in the global NPP estimation, it is necessary to clarify the APAR accuracy. In this paper, first we proposed the improved PAR estimation method based on Eck and Dye's method in which the ultraviolet (UV) reflectivity data derived from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) at the top of atmosphere were used for clouds transmittance estimation. The proposed method considered the variable effects of land surface UV reflectivity on the satellite-observed UV data. Monthly mean PAR comparisons between satellite-derived and ground-based data at various meteorological stations in Japan indicated that the improved PAR estimation method reduced the bias errors in the summer season. Assuming the relative error of the fraction of PAR (FPAR) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to be 10%, we estimated APAR relative errors to be 10-15%. Annual NPP is calculated using APAR derived from MODIS/ FPAR and the improved PAR estimation method. It is shown that random and bias errors of annual NPP in a 1 km resolution pixel are less than 4% and 6% respectively. The APAR bias errors due to the PAR bias errors also affect the estimated total NPP. We estimated the most probable total annual NPP in Japan by subtracting the bias PAR errors. It amounts about 248 MtC/yr. Using the improved PAR estimation method, and Eck and Dye's method, total annual NPP is 4% and 9% difference from most probable value respectively. The previous intercomparison study among using fifteen NPP models4) showed that global NPP estimations among NPP models are 44.4-66.3 GtC/yr (coefficient of variation = 14%). Hence we conclude that the NPP estimation uncertainty due to APAR estimation error is small

  14. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    Spatial determinants of malaria risk within communities are associated with heterogeneity of exposure to vector mosquitoes. The abundance of adult malaria vectors inside people's houses, where most transmission takes place, should be associated with several factors: proximity of houses to larval habitats, structural characteristics of houses, indoor use of vector control tools containing insecticides, and human behavioural and environmental factors in and near houses. While most previous studies have assessed the association of larval habitat proximity in landscapes with relatively low densities of larval habitats, in this study these relationships were analysed in a region of rural, lowland western Kenya with high larval habitat density. 525 houses were sampled for indoor-resting mosquitoes across an 8 by 8 km study area using the pyrethrum spray catch method. A predictive model of larval habitat location in this landscape, previously verified, provided derivations of indices of larval habitat proximity to houses. Using geostatistical regression models, the association of larval habitat proximity, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) use, house structural characteristics (wall type, roof type), and peridomestic variables (cooking in the house, cattle near the house, number of people sleeping in the house) with mosquito abundance in houses was quantified. Vector abundance was low (mean, 1.1 adult Anopheles per house). Proximity of larval habitats was a strong predictor of Anopheles abundance. Houses without an LLIN had more female Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus than houses where some people used an LLIN (rate ratios, 95% CI 0.87, 0.85-0.89; 0.84, 0.82-0.86; 0.38, 0.37-0.40) and houses where everyone used an LLIN (RR, 95% CI 0.49, 0.48-0.50; 0.39, 0.39-0.40; 0.60, 0.58-0.61). Cooking in the house also reduced Anopheles abundance across all species. The number of people sleeping in the house, presence of cattle near the house

  15. Root biomass, turnover and net primary productivity of a coffee agroforestry system in Costa Rica: effects of soil depth, shade trees, distance to row and coffee age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrenet, Elsa; Roupsard, Olivier; Van den Meersche, Karel; Charbonnier, Fabien; Pastor Pérez-Molina, Junior; Khac, Emmanuelle; Prieto, Iván; Stokes, Alexia; Roumet, Catherine; Rapidel, Bruno; de Melo Virginio Filho, Elias; Vargas, Victor J; Robelo, Diego; Barquero, Alejandra; Jourdan, Christophe

    2016-08-21

    In Costa Rica, coffee (Coffea arabica) plants are often grown in agroforests. However, it is not known if shade-inducing trees reduce coffee plant biomass through root competition, and hence alter overall net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated biomass and NPP at the stand level, taking into account deep roots and the position of plants with regard to trees. Stem growth and root biomass, turnover and decomposition were measured in mixed coffee/tree (Erythrina poeppigiana) plantations. Growth ring width and number at the stem base were estimated along with stem basal area on a range of plant sizes. Root biomass and fine root density were measured in trenches to a depth of 4 m. To take into account the below-ground heterogeneity of the agroforestry system, fine root turnover was measured by sequential soil coring (to a depth of 30 cm) over 1 year and at different locations (in full sun or under trees and in rows/inter-rows). Allometric relationships were used to calculate NPP of perennial components, which was then scaled up to the stand level. Annual ring width at the stem base increased up to 2·5 mm yr -1 with plant age (over a 44-year period). Nearly all (92 %) coffee root biomass was located in the top 1·5 m, and only 8 % from 1·5 m to a depth of 4 m. Perennial woody root biomass was 16 t ha -1 and NPP of perennial roots was 1·3 t ha -1 yr -1 Fine root biomass (0-30 cm) was two-fold higher in the row compared with between rows. Fine root biomass was 2·29 t ha -1 (12 % of total root biomass) and NPP of fine roots was 2·96 t ha -1 yr -1 (69 % of total root NPP). Fine root turnover was 1·3 yr -1 and lifespan was 0·8 years. Coffee root systems comprised 49 % of the total plant biomass; such a high ratio is possibly a consequence of shoot pruning. There was no significant effect of trees on coffee fine root biomass, suggesting that coffee root systems are very competitive in the topsoil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  16. The net effect of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in a semi-arid ecosystem NE Spain: implications for the management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Yolanda; Arroyo, Antonio I.; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2014-05-01

    Degradation in arid and semiarid lands can be irreversible without human intervention, due to a positive plant-soil feedback where the loss of vegetation cover leads to soil degradation, which in turn hampers plant establishment. Human intervention in restoration actions usually involves the amendment of the degraded abiotic conditions, revegetation of bare areas, or both. However, abiotic amelioration is often expensive and too intrusive, and revegetation is not successful in many cases. Biotic interactions between plants, and more specifically facilitation by a "nurse" plant, have been proposed as a new via to take profit of improved abiotic conditions without intervention, and to increase the success rate of revegetation actions. But "nurse" plants can also interfere with others (i.e. by competition for resources or the release of allelopathic compounds), and the net balance between facilitation and interference could depend on plant types involved. We present recent observational and experimental studies performed in the semiarid ecosystems of the Middle Ebro Valley (NE Spain) about the role of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in the productivity, dynamics and diversity of plant communities under different stress conditions (aridity and grazing). We found that all plant types studied (shrubs and perennial grasses) improved abiotic conditions (soil temperature and water availability for plants) with respect to open areas. However, only some shrubs (mainly Salsola vermiculata) had a positive net balance in the biotic interactions between plants, while other shrubs (Artemisia herba-alba) and perennial grasses (Lygeum spartum) showed interference with other plants. Moreover, the net balance between facilitation and interference among plants in the community shifted from competitive to neutral or from neutral to facilitative with increasing aridity. Grazing status did not strongly change the net biotic interactions between plants. Our results suggest that

  17. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  18. The conservatism of the net-section stress procedure for predicting the failure of cracked piping systems: The effect of crack location on the degree of conservatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1993-01-01

    Interest in the integrity of cracked piping systems fabricated from ductile materials has been motivated, in large part, by the technological problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 stainless steel piping in boiling water nuclear reactor piping systems. The failure of cracked steel piping is often predicted by assuming that failure conforms to a net-section stress criterion using as input an appropriate value for the critical net-section stress together with a knowledge of the anticipated loadings. The stresses at the cracked section are usually calculated via a purely elastic analysis based on the piping being uncracked. However because the piping is built-in at the ends into a larger component, and since the onset of crack extension requires some plastic deformation, use of the net-section stress approach can give overly conservative failure predictions. An earlier paper has quantified the extent of this conservatism, and has shown how it depends on the material ductility and the elastic flexibility of a piping system. Using the results of analyses for simple model systems, the present paper shows that, for the same cracked section geometry, the degree of conservatism is markedly influenced by the location of the cracked section within the system

  19. The conservatism of the net-section stress procedure for predicting the failure of cracked piping systems: the effect of crack shape complexity on the degree of conservatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1996-01-01

    The failure of circumferentially cracked steel piping is often predicted by assuming that failure conforms to a net-section stress criterion using as input an appropriate value for the critical net-section stress together with a knowledge of the anticipated loadings. The stress at the cracked section is usually calculated via a purely elastic analysis based on the piping being uncracked. however, because the piping is built-in at the ends into a larger component, and since the onset of crack extension requires some plastic deformation, use of the net-section stress approach can give overly conservative failure predictions. In earlier work, the author has quantified the extent of this conservatism, and has shown how it depends on the geometry of the cracked section, the material ductility and the elastic flexibility of a piping system. This paper quantifies the conservatism with regard to the case where a through-wall crack extends over a prescribed fraction of the pipe circumference, while there is also an internal circumferential crack extending around the remainder of the pipe section. This is an extreme form of circumferential cracking but nevertheless, simulates the well-known Duane Arnold safe-end crack. (Author)

  20. Recycled fishing nets as reinforcement of existing concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigvardsen, Nina Marie; Bonnerup, Amanda Helena; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of fishing nets are discarded every year polluting the oceans with plastic fibers on a global scale. Due to the big fishing industry in Greenland, an alternative use for discarded fishing nets would have a decreasing effect on the amount of marine litter in the Arctic. A use...

  1. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Chris M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net. In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar sources, female An. gambiae appear to prefer a nearby human source of blood

  2. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  3. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  4. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  5. Modulated error diffusion CGHs for neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Pieter J. E.; Casasent, David P.

    1990-05-01

    New modulated error diffusion CGHs (computer generated holograms) for optical computing are considered. Specific attention is given to their use in optical matrix-vector, associative processor, neural net and optical interconnection architectures. We consider lensless CGH systems (many CGHs use an external Fourier transform (FT) lens), the Fresnel sampling requirements, the effects of finite CGH apertures (sample and hold inputs), dot size correction (for laser recorders), and new applications for this novel encoding method (that devotes attention to quantization noise effects).

  6. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  7. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  8. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  9. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  10. RadNet Radiological Air Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Telofski, J.; Askren, D.R.; Petko, Ch.M.; Fraass, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency operates a national environmental radiation monitoring program called RadNet. RadNet monitors airborne particulates, precipitation, milk, and drinking water for radiation levels. The primary purpose of the original program in the 1950's and 1960's was to collect and analyze samples in various media to assess the effects of radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing. As above-ground testing diminished in the 1970's, the program, especially the air network, became critical in evaluating effects of other types of nuclear incidents, such as the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, as well as monitoring trends in environmental radioactive contamination. The value of rapid data collection subsequent to such incidents led to the consideration of developing air monitors with radiation detectors and telecommunication equipment for real-time radiation measurement. The strengthened United States homeland security posture after 2001 led to production and installation of the current real-time RadNet air monitors. There are now 118 stationary, continuously operating air monitoring stations and 40 mobile air monitors for site specific monitoring. The stationary air monitors include radiation detectors, meteorological sensors, a high-volume air sampler, and communication devices for hourly data transfers. When unusual levels are detected, scientists download a full sodium iodide detector spectrum for analysis. The real-time data collected by RadNet stationary systems permit rapid identification and quantification of airborne nuclides with sufficient sensitivity to provide critical information to help determine protective actions. The data also may help to rapidly refine long-range radioactive plume models and estimate exposure to the population. This paper provides an overview of the airborne particulate monitoring conducted during above-ground nuclear weapon testing, summarizes the uses of data from the program

  11. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  12. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  13. Comparing Biofouling Control Treatments for Use on Aquaculture Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Swain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Test panels comprised of uncoated, copper coated and silicone coated 7/8'' (22 mm mesh knitted nylon net were evaluated to compare their properties and the effectiveness to prevent biofouling. This paper describes test procedures that were developed to quantify the performance in terms of antifouling, cleanability, drag and cost. The copper treatment was the most effective at controlling fouling, however, the silicone treated nets were the easiest to clean. The drag forces on the net were a function of twine diameter, twine roughness and fouling. After immersion, the uncoated nets had the most drag followed by the silicone and copper treatments. The cost of applying silicone to nets is high; however, improved formulations may provide a non-toxic alternative to control fouling.

  14. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  15. The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2014-05-01

    In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics

  16. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  17. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  18. A finite element method for netting application to fish cages and fishing gear

    CERN Document Server

    Priour, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book describes a finite element method for netting that describes the relation between forces and deformation of the netting and takes into account forces due to the twine elasticity, the hydrodynamic forces, the catch effect, the mesh opening stiffness.

  19. ROOT.NET: Using ROOT from .NET languages like C# and F#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    ROOT.NET provides an interface between Microsoft's Common Language Runtime (CLR) and .NET technology and the ubiquitous particle physics analysis tool, ROOT. ROOT.NET automatically generates a series of efficient wrappers around the ROOT API. Unlike pyROOT, these wrappers are statically typed and so are highly efficient as compared to the Python wrappers. The connection to .NET means that one gains access to the full series of languages developed for the CLR including functional languages like F# (based on OCaml). Many features that make ROOT objects work well in the .NET world are added (properties, IEnumerable interface, LINQ compatibility, etc.). Dynamic languages based on the CLR can be used as well, of course (Python, for example). Additionally it is now possible to access ROOT objects that are unknown to the translation tool. This poster will describe the techniques used to effect this translation, along with performance comparisons, and examples. All described source code is posted on the open source site CodePlex.

  20. ROOT.NET: Using ROOT from .NET languages like C and F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G

    2012-01-01

    ROOT.NET provides an interface between Microsoft's Common Language Runtime (CLR) and .NET technology and the ubiquitous particle physics analysis tool, ROOT. ROOT.NET automatically generates a series of efficient wrappers around the ROOT API. Unlike pyROOT, these wrappers are statically typed and so are highly efficient as compared to the Python wrappers. The connection to .NET means that one gains access to the full series of languages developed for the CLR including functional languages like F (based on OCaml). Many features that make ROOT objects work well in the .NET world are added (properties, IEnumerable interface, LINQ compatibility, etc.). Dynamic languages based on the CLR can be used as well, of course (Python, for example). Additionally it is now possible to access ROOT objects that are unknown to the translation tool. This poster will describe the techniques used to effect this translation, along with performance comparisons, and examples. All described source code is posted on the open source site CodePlex.

  1. The effect of holes in long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria in Malawi: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minta, Anna A; Landman, Keren Z; Mwandama, Dyson A; Shah, Monica P; Eng, Jodi L Vanden; Sutcliffe, James F; Chisaka, Joseph; Lindblade, Kim A; Mathanga, Don P; Steinhardt, Laura C

    2017-10-02

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are a cornerstone of malaria prevention. Holes develop in LLINs over time and compromise their physical integrity, but how holes affect malaria transmission risk is not well known. After a nationwide mass LLIN distribution in July 2012, a study was conducted to assess the relationship between LLIN damage and malaria. From March to September 2013, febrile children ages 6-59 months who consistently slept under LLINs (every night for 2 weeks before illness onset) were enrolled in a case-control study at Machinga District Hospital outpatient department. Cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites by microscopy while controls were negative. Digital photographs of participants' LLINs were analysed using an image-processing programme to measure holes. Total hole area was classified by quartiles and according to the World Health Organization's proportionate hole index (pHI) cut-offs [ 790 cm 2 (too torn)]. Number of holes by location and size, and total hole area, were compared between case and control LLINs using non-parametric analyses and logistic regression. Of 248 LLINs analysed, 97 (39%) were from cases. Overall, 86% of LLINs had at least one hole. The median number of holes of any size was 9 [interquartile range (IQR) 3, 22], and most holes were located in the lower halves of the nets [median 7 (IQR 2, 16)]. There were no differences in number or location of holes between LLINs used by cases and controls. The median total hole area was 10 cm 2 (IQR 2, 125) for control LLINs and 8 cm 2 (IQR 2, 47) for case LLINs (p = 0.10). Based on pHI, 109 (72%) control LLINs and 83 (86%) case LLINs were in "good" condition. Multivariable modeling showed no association between total hole area and malaria, controlling for child age, caregiver education, and iron versus thatched roof houses. LLIN holes were not associated with increased odds of malaria in this study. However, most of the LLINs were in relatively good

  2. Absorption of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) and its effect on net photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisson, W.B.; Booth, J.A.; Throneberry, G.O.

    1981-06-01

    Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) leaflets exposed to 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ were measured over a 2 h period. SO/sub 2/ was rapidly absorbed by the leaflets in all treatments during the initial 30-50 min; the rate of uptake decreased to a rather constant level thereafter. Total SO/sub 2/ absorbed during the 2 h period was 15.6, 25.6, and 38.9 nmol cm/sup -2/ for the low, medium, and high SO/sub 2/ concentrations, respectively. Reductions in net photosynthetic rates were proportional to ambient SO/sub 2/ concentrations and total SO/sub 2/ absorbed. Partial photosynthetic recovery occurred in all treatments during a 2 hr post-treatment period and full recovery occurred during a 12 h dark period. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ resulted in slight increases in stomatal and boundary layer resistances to CO/sub 2/ and substantial increases in residual resistances. Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) exposed to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ for 1 h were approximately double those of pecan exposed to the same ambient SO/sub 2/ concentration. Alfalfa net photosynthetic rates were reduced 74% after 1 h exposure to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ while a depression of 42% occurred in pecan.

  3. 1 Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria ... breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health ... Key words: scepticism, low uptake, mosquito nets, malaria, social marketing, Tanzania.

  4. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  5. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  6. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  7. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    Performance is often a central issue in the design, development, and configuration of systems. It is not always enough to know that systems work properly, they must also work effectively. There are numerous studies, e.g. in the areas of computer and telecommunication systems, manufacturing......, military, health care, and transportation, that have shown that time, money, and even lives can be saved if the performance of a system is improved. Performance analysis studies are conducted to evaluate existing or planned systems, to compare alternative configurations, or to find an optimal configuration...... of a system. There are three alternative techniques for analysing the performance of a system: measurement, analytical models, and simulation models. This dissertation focuses on the the use of coloured Petri nets for simulationbased performance analysis of industrial-sized systems. Coloured Petri nets...

  8. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    tunable metrics for the FL are (1) window size, (2) drift rate, and (3) persistence counter. Ultimate range limits are also included in case the NN command should drift slowly to a limit value that would cause the FL to be defeated. The FL has proven to work as intended. Both high-g transients and excessive structural loads are controlled with NN hard-over commands. This presentation discusses the FL design features and presents test cases. Simulation runs are included to illustrate the dramatic improvement made to the control of NN hard-over effects. A mission control room display from a flight playback is presented to illustrate the neural net fault display representation. The FL is very adaptable to various requirements and is independent of flight condition. It should be considered as a cost-effective safety monitor to control single-string inputs in general.

  9. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  10. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  11. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  12. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  13. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  14. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  15. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  16. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  17. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  18. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  19. GOLD NETTING TO STRENGTHEN FINANCIAL SYSTEM STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed Kameel Mydin Meera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and financial crises seem to occur with increased frequency. Indeed now most countries, including several advanced economies like the US, Europe and Japan, are in serious economic recession. Employment and business opportunities have been much dampened. Inflation seems to be soaring globally and nations are witnessing widening gaps in income and wealth distribution. Many of these advanced economies are also facing shrinking population sizes that translate into aging problems and labor shortages. On top of those, there are environmental issues, including global warming. All these, in turn, have caused regional and global political conflicts and turmoil. The Arab Spring and the sovereign debt problems faced by some European countries like Greece are examples of this. Sustainability of economics and environment is thus of paramount concern of today. This paper considers those problems and suggests Interest-free Gold-based Electronic Netting System (IGENS as an effective way of injecting liquidity into the economy, practically free, that can spur business and employment while bringing about structural stability, inflation checked with both economic and environmental sustainability. Netting or muqassah is a transaction allowed in shari’ah and is practiced worldwide in different forms. Examples include the highly successful WIR Bank of Switzerland, various Local Exchange Trading Schemes (LETS and Bilateral and Multilateral Payment Arrangements between central banks.   Keywords:  Global crisis, Payment system, Gold, Netting, Muqassah, Liquidity, Sustainability, Financial system stability JEL Classification: E40, E42, E51

  20. WE-NET: Japanese hydrogen program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsugi, Chiba; Harumi, Arai; Kenzo, Fukuda

    1998-01-01

    The Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), started the New Sunshine Program in 1993 by unifying the Sunshine Program (R and D on new energy technology), the Moonlight Program (R and D on energy conservation technology), and the Research and Development Program for Environmental Technology. The objective of the new program is to develop innovative technologies to allow sustainable growth while solving energy and environmental issues. One of the new projects in this program is the ''International Clean Energy System Technology Utilizing Hydrogen (World Energy Network)'': WE-NET. The goal of WE-NET is to construct a worldwide energy network for effective supply, transportation and utilization of renewable energy using hydrogen. The WE-NET program extends over 28 years from 1993 to 2020. In Phase 1, we started core research in areas such as development of high efficiency technologies including hydrogen production using polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbines, etc. (author)

  1. Effects of a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing and calcium alginate on the healing of split skin graft donor sites: a prospective randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    An open randomised prospectively controlled trial was performed to assess the healing efficacy, slippage rate and degree of discomfort on removal of calcium alginate and a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing on split skin graft donor sites. Sixteen patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 14 to the silicone-coated group. The donor sites were assessed at days 7, 10, 14 and up to day 21. The mean time to healing in the calcium alginate group was 8.75 +\\/- 0.78 days (range 7 to 14 days) compared to 12 +\\/- 0.62 days (range 7 to 16 days) for the silicone-coated group (p < 0.01). Although more silicone-coated dressings slipped (5 versus 1), the difference was not statistically significant. Pain during the first dressing change was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale. Although no significant differences were found between the groups, it was necessary to change the dressing protocol in the silicone-coated arm of the trial after entering the first two patients. Overlaid absorbent gauze adhered to the donor site through the fenestrations in the dressing necessitating the placement of paraffin gauze between the experimental dressing and the overlying cotton gauze. There was one infection in the study, occurring in the alginate group. Based on these results we recommend calcium alginate as the dressing of choice for split skin graft donor sites.

  2. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  3. .net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  4. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  5. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  6. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  7. TAPAAL and Reachability Analysis of P/T Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Finnemann; Nielsen, Thomas Søndersø; Østergaard, Lars Kærlund

    2016-01-01

    We discuss selected model checking techniques used in the tool TAPAAL for the reachability analysis of weighted Petri nets with inhibitor arcs. We focus on techniques that had the most significant effect at the 2015 Model Checking Contest (MCC). While the techniques are mostly well known, our...... contribution lies in their adaptation to the MCC reachability queries, their efficient implementation and the evaluation of their performance on a large variety of nets from MCC'15....

  8. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  9. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  10. Effectiveness of a new long-lasting insecticidal nets delivery model in two rural districts of Mozambique: a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge A H; Candrinho, Baltazar; Mendis, Chandana; Varela, Pablo; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2018-02-05

    In 2015, Mozambique piloted a new model of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) delivery in a campaign. The new delivery model was used in two rural districts were, and two others were considered as control, maintaining the old delivery model. The aim of this study is to compare the coverage of ownership and use of LLINs in intervention and control districts in Mozambique. A before-after design with control group was carried out 6 months after LLINs distribution. Using systematic probabilistic sampling, 1547 households were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. To find associations between the district categories (intervention and control) and the main outcomes of the study (LLIN ownership, use, and universal coverage achievement), odds ratio (OR) and respective confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 760 households surveyed in the intervention districts, 98.8% had at least one LLIN; of the 787 households surveyed in the control districts, 89.6% had at least one LLIN [OR: 9.7, 95% (CI 4.84-19.46)]. Around 95 and 87% of households owning at least one LLIN reported having slept under the LLIN the previous night in the intervention and control districts, respectively [OR: 3.2; 95% (CI 2.12-4.69)]. Seventy-one percent of the households surveyed achieved universal coverage in the intervention districts against 59.6% in the control districts [OR: 1.6; 95% (CI 1.33-2.03)]. The universal coverage campaign piloted with the new delivery model has increased LLINs ownership, use, and progression for reaching universal coverage targets in the community.

  11. Effect of operating methods of wind turbine-generator system on net power extraction under wind speed fluctuations in fields; Hendo fukyoka deno doryoku chushutsu kara mita furyoku hatsuden system no unten seigyoho ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    2000-01-25

    The effect of operating methods of wind turbine-generator system on net power extraction under wind speed fluctuations is discussed in relation to the dynamic behavior of the system. The system is composed of a Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine and a load generator. In this paper, two types of operating method are examined; constant tip speed ratio operation for stand-alone power systems (Scheme 1) and synchronous operation for utility power systems (Scheme 2). The computed results of the net extracting power using our dynamic simulation model show that the dominant factor of power extraction in Scheme 1 is the dynamic characteristics of rotational components and that it is important to select the appropriate rated wind speed in Scheme 2. Thus, it is concluded that a conformable operating method and rated power output of the system exist for each wind condition. In particular, small-scale systems, which are smaller than approximately 10 kW-system range, are desirable to be operated under a constant tip speed ratio as stand-alone power systems. (author)

  12. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  13. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  14. Numerical study on the hydrodynamic characteristics of biofouled full-scale net cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chun-wei; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai

    2015-06-01

    The effect of biofouling on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the net cage is of particular interest as biofouled nettings can significantly reduce flow of well-oxygenated water reaching the stocked fish. For computational efficiency, the porous-media fluid model is proposed to simulate flow through the biofouled plane net and full-scale net cage. The porous coefficients of the porous-media fluid model can be determined from the quadratic-function relationship between the hydrodynamic forces on a plane net and the flow velocity using the least squares method. In this study, drag forces on and flow fields around five plane nets with different levels of biofouling are calculated by use of the proposed model. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data of Swift et al. (2006) and the effectiveness of the numerical model is presented. On that basis, flow through full-scale net cages with the same level of biofouling as the tested plane nets are modeled. The flow fields inside and around biofouled net cages are analyzed and the drag force acting on a net cage is estimated by a control volume analysis method. According to the numerical results, empirical formulas of reduction in flow velocity and load on a net cage are derived as function of drag coefficient of the corresponding biofouled netting.

  15. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  16. Drag of Clean and Fouled Net Panels--Measurements and Parameterization of Fouling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Gansel

    Full Text Available Biofouling is a serious problem in marine aquaculture and it has a number of negative impacts including increased forces on aquaculture structures and reduced water exchange across nets. This in turn affects the behavior of fish cages in waves and currents and has an impact on the water volume and quality inside net pens. Even though these negative effects are acknowledged by the research community and governmental institutions, there is limited knowledge about fouling related effects on the flow past nets, and more detailed investigations distinguishing between different fouling types have been called for. This study evaluates the effect of hydroids, an important fouling organism in Norwegian aquaculture, on the forces acting on net panels. Drag forces on clean and fouled nets were measured in a flume tank, and net solidity including effect of fouling were determined using image analysis. The relationship between net solidity and drag was assessed, and it was found that a solidity increase due to hydroids caused less additional drag than a similar increase caused by change in clean net parameters. For solidities tested in this study, the difference in drag force increase could be as high as 43% between fouled and clean nets with same solidity. The relationship between solidity and drag force is well described by exponential functions for clean as well as for fouled nets. A method is proposed to parameterize the effect of fouling in terms of an increase in net solidity. This allows existing numerical methods developed for clean nets to be used to model the effects of biofouling on nets. Measurements with other types of fouling can be added to build a database on effects of the accumulation of different fouling organisms on aquaculture nets.

  17. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  18. [Effects of selective cutting on the carbon density and net primary productivity of a mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Cai, Hui-Ying; Jin, Guang-Ze

    2013-10-01

    To accurately quantify forest carbon density and net primary productivity (NPP) is of great significance in estimating the role of forest ecosystems in global carbon cycle. By using the forest inventory and allometry approaches, this paper measured the carbon density and NPP of the virgin broadleaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest and of the broadleaved-Korean pine forest after 34 years selective-cutting (the cutting intensity was 30%, and the cutting trees were in large diameter class). The total carbon density of the virgin and selective-cutting broadleaved-Korean pine forests was (397.95 +/- 93.82) and (355.61 +/- 59.37) t C x hm(-2), respectively. In the virgin forest, the carbon density of the vegetation, debris, and soil accounted for 31.0%, 3.1%, and 65.9% of the total carbon pool, respectively; in the selective-cutting forest, the corresponding values were 31.7%, 2.9%, and 65.4%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the total carbon density and the carbon density of each component between the two forests. The total NPP of the virgin and selective-cutting forests was (36.27 +/- 0.36) and (6.35 +/- 0.70) t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), among which, the NPP of overstory, understory, and fine roots in virgin forest and selective-cutting forest accounted for 60.3%, 2.0%, and 37.7%, and 66.1%, 2.0%, and 31.2%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the total NPP and the contribution rate of each component between the two forests. However, the ratios of the needle and broadleaf NPPs of the virgin and selective-cutting forests were 47.24:52.76 and 20.48:79.52, respectively, with a significant difference. The results indicated that the carbon density and NPP of the broadleaved-Korean pine forest after 34 years selective-cutting recovered to the levels of the virgin broadleaved-Korean pine forest.

  19. Individual and Combined Effects of Dietary Factors on Risk of Incident Hypertension: Prospective Analysis From the NutriNet-Santé Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Helene; Blacher, Jacques; Baudry, Julia; Adriouch, Solia; Galan, Pilar; Fezeu, Leopold; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-10-01

    Dietary intake is pointed as one of the major determinants in hypertension development. Data in the area are mostly obtained from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between (1) individual nutritional factors and (2) adherence to the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension and the risk of incident hypertension in a large cohort study. We prospectively examined the incidence of hypertension among 80 426 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Self-reported sociodemographic, lifestyle health questionnaires and dietary consumption assessed by three 24-hour records were completed at baseline and yearly thereafter. Associations between quartiles (Q) of nutrients and food groups and adherence to Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet and hypertension risk were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. During a mean follow-up of 3.4±2.1 years, 2413 cases of incident hypertension were documented. Dietary intakes of sodium (Q4 versus Q1): hazard ratio (HR)=1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.35), potassium: HR=0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.94), animal protein: HR=1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.43), vegetable protein: HR=0.85 (95% CI, 0.75-0.95), fiber: HR =0.81 (95% CI, 0.71-0.93), magnesium: HR=0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.89), fruit and vegetables: HR=0.85 (95% CI, 0.74-0.97), whole grain: HR=0.84(95% CI, 0.76-0.93), nuts: HR=0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.83), and red and processed meat: HR=1.25 (95% CI, 1.11-0.42) were associated with risk of hypertension. Besides, adherence to the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension was strongly inversely associated with incident hypertension: (Q4 versus Q1) HR=0.66 (95% CI, 0.58-0.75). Our results confirmed the association of several nutritional factors intake and incident hypertension and highlighted that adopting a global healthy diet could strongly contribute to the prevention of hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  1. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  2. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  3. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  4. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  5. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  6. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  7. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  8. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  9. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  10. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  11. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  12. The effect of Arctic sea-ice extent on the absorbed (net solar flux at the surface, based on ISCCP-D2 cloud data for 1983–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matsoukas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the effect of the Arctic sea ice on the absorbed (net solar flux using a radiative transfer model. Ice and cloud input data to the model come from satellite observations, processed by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP and span the period July 1983–June 2007. The sea-ice effect on the solar radiation fluctuates seasonally with the solar flux and decreases interannually in synchronisation with the decreasing sea-ice extent. A disappearance of the Arctic ice cap during the sunlit period of the year would radically reduce the local albedo and cause an annually averaged 19.7 W m−2 increase in absorbed solar flux at the Arctic Ocean surface, or equivalently an annually averaged 0.55 W m−2 increase on the planetary scale. In the clear-sky scenario these numbers increase to 34.9 and 0.97 W m−2, respectively. A meltdown only in September, with all other months unaffected, increases the Arctic annually averaged solar absorption by 0.32 W m−2. We examined the net solar flux trends for the Arctic Ocean and found that the areas absorbing the solar flux more rapidly are the North Chukchi and Kara Seas, Baffin and Hudson Bays, and Davis Strait. The sensitivity of the Arctic absorbed solar flux on sea-ice extent and cloud amount was assessed. Although sea ice and cloud affect jointly the solar flux, we found little evidence of strong non-linearities.

  13. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of a Technology-Facilitated Depression Care Management Model in Safety-Net Primary Care Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: 6-Month Outcomes of a Large Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Ell, Kathleen; Jin, Haomiao; Vidyanti, Irene; Chou, Chih-Ping; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Belson, David; Nezu, Arthur M; Hay, Joel; Wang, Chien-Ju; Scheib, Geoffrey; Di Capua, Paul; Hawkins, Caitlin; Liu, Pai; Ramirez, Magaly; Wu, Brian W; Richman, Mark; Myers, Caitlin; Agustines, Davin; Dasher, Robert; Kopelowicz, Alex; Allevato, Joseph; Roybal, Mike; Ipp, Eli; Haider, Uzma; Graham, Sharon; Mahabadi, Vahid; Guterman, Jeffrey

    2018-04-23

    Comorbid depression is a significant challenge for safety-net primary care systems. Team-based collaborative depression care is effective, but complex system factors in safety-net organizations impede adoption and result in persistent disparities in outcomes. Diabetes-Depression Care-management Adoption Trial (DCAT) evaluated whether depression care could be significantly improved by harnessing information and communication technologies to automate routine screening and monitoring of patient symptoms and treatment adherence and allow timely communication with providers. The aim of this study was to compare 6-month outcomes of a technology-facilitated care model with a usual care model and a supported care model that involved team-based collaborative depression care for safety-net primary care adult patients with type 2 diabetes. DCAT is a translational study in collaboration with Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, the second largest safety-net care system in the United States. A comparative effectiveness study with quasi-experimental design was conducted in three groups of adult patients with type 2 diabetes to compare three delivery models: usual care, supported care, and technology-facilitated care. Six-month outcomes included depression and diabetes care measures and patient-reported outcomes. Comparative treatment effects were estimated by linear or logistic regression models that used generalized propensity scores to adjust for sampling bias inherent in the nonrandomized design. DCAT enrolled 1406 patients (484 in usual care, 480 in supported care, and 442 in technology-facilitated care), most of whom were Hispanic or Latino and female. Compared with usual care, both the supported care and technology-facilitated care groups were associated with significant reduction in depressive symptoms measured by scores on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (least squares estimate, LSE: usual care=6.35, supported care=5.05, technology-facilitated care=5

  15. Emergency Preparedness and Response: A Safety Net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, H., E-mail: hannele.aaltonen@stuk.fi [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: The objective of nuclear regulatory work is to prevent accidents. Nevertheless, possibility of a severe accident cannot be totally excluded, which makes a safety net, efficient emergency preparedness and response, necessary. Should the possibility of accidents be rejected, the result would be in the worst case inadequate protection of population, functions of society, and environment from harmful effects of radiation. Adequate resources for maintenance and development of emergency arrangement are crucial. However, they need to be balanced taking into account risks assessments, justified expectations of society, and international requirements. To successfully respond to an emergency, effective emergency preparedness, such as up-to-date plans and procedures, robust arrangements and knowledgeable and regularly trained staff are required. These, however, are not enough without willingness and proactive attitude to • communicate in a timely manner; • co-operate and coordinate actions; • provide and receive assistance; and • evaluate and improve emergency arrangements. In the establishment and development of emergency arrangements, redundant and diverse means or tools used are needed in, for example, communication and assessment of hazard. Any severe nuclear emergency would affect all countries either directly or indirectly. Thus, national emergency arrangements have to be compatible to the extent practicable with international emergency arrangements. It is important to all countries that the safety nets of emergency arrangements are reliable - and operate efficiently in a coordinated manner when needed - on national, regional and international level. (author)

  16. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the diarrhea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration therapy (DAZT) program in rural Gujarat India: an application of the net-benefit regression framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillcutt, Samuel D; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Taneja, Sunita; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the DAZT program for scaling up treatment of acute child diarrhea in Gujarat India using a net-benefit regression framework. Costs were calculated from societal and caregivers' perspectives and effectiveness was assessed in terms of coverage of zinc and both zinc and Oral Rehydration Salt. Regression models were tested in simple linear regression, with a specified set of covariates, and with a specified set of covariates and interaction terms using linear regression with endogenous treatment effects was used as the reference case. The DAZT program was cost-effective with over 95% certainty above $5.50 and $7.50 per appropriately treated child in the unadjusted and adjusted models respectively, with specifications including interaction terms being cost-effective with 85-97% certainty. Findings from this study should be combined with other evidence when considering decisions to scale up programs such as the DAZT program to promote the use of ORS and zinc to treat child diarrhea.

  18. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru.The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses.A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001.Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative

  20. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  1. CLIMATIC FORECASTING OF NET INFILTRATION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, USING ANALOGUE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Faybishenko

    2005-01-01

    Net infiltration is a key hydrologic parameter that controls the rate of deep percolation through the unsaturated zone, the groundwater recharge, radionuclide transport, and seepage into the underground tunnels. Because net infiltration is largely affected by climatic conditions, future changes in climatic conditions will potentially alter net infiltration. The objectives of this presentation are to: (1) Present a conceptual model and a semi-empirical approach for regional, climatic forecasting of net infiltration, based on the precipitation and temperature data from analogue meteorological stations, and (2) Demonstrate the results of forecasting net infiltration for future climates--interglacial, monsoon and glacial--over the Yucca Mountain region for the period of 500,000 years. Calculations of the net infiltration were performed using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, for which potential evapotranspiration was evaluated from the temperature-based Thornthwaite formula. (Both Budyko's and Thornthwaite's formulae have been used broadly in hydrological studies.) The results of calculations were used for ranking net infiltration, along with the aridity and precipitation-effectiveness (P-E) indexes, for future climatic scenarios. Using this approach, we determined a general trend of increasing net infiltration from the present-day (interglacial) climate to monsoon, intermediate (glacial transition), and then to the glacial climate. Ranking of the aridity and P-E indexes is practically the same as that of net infiltration. The validation of the computed net infiltration rates yielded a good match with other field and modeling study results of groundwater recharge and net infiltration evaluation

  2. Effect of the Net Charge Distribution on the Aqueous Solution Properties of Polyampholytes Effet de la répartition de la charge nette sur les propriétés des solutions aqueuses de polyampholytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candau F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The zwitterion nature of ampholytic polymers provides features that are useful in environmental and industrial applications, e. g. ion-exchange membrane, as flocculants in sewage treatment and in oil recovery processes. In the latter case, the increase in viscosity which is observed in the presence of brine (anti -polyelectrolyte behavior make them ideal candidates for high salinity media. The aqueous solution properties of a series of ampholytic terpolymers based on sodium-2-acrylamido-2- rilethylpropanesulfonate (NaAMPS, Methacryloyloxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MADQUAT and acrylamide (AM, prepared in inverse micro emulsions have been investigated by viscometry and light scattering experiments. The distribution of the net charge among the chains was varied by adjusting the initial monomer composition and the degree of conversion. The effect of this distribution on the solubility of the samples and on the chain conformation was studied. It was found that samples with a narrow distribution of net charges were soluble in water even if the average net charge is small. Addition of salt produces a transition from an extended conformation to a more compact one in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. A practically alternated NaAMPS- MADQUAT copolymer prepared in homogeneous solution and with a small average net charge shows a behaviour quite similar to that of the terpolymers. La nature zwitterioniquedes polymères ampholytes présente des caractéristiques qui sont utiles dans les applications environnementales et industrielles, comme les membranes d'échange ionique, les floculants dans le traitement des eaux usées et dans les procédés de récupération de pétrole. Dans ce dernier cas, l'augmentation de viscosité qui est observée en présence de saumure (comportement antipolyélectrolyte en fait des candidats idéaux pour des milieux de salinité élevée. Les propriétés de la solution aqueuse d'une série de terpolym

  3. Service Quality, User Satisfaction and Net-Benefits' Effect on e-School Success: The Case of NEPAD's e-School Pilot in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagowa, Hesbon O.; Ocholla, Dennis N.; Mutula, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of a set of dimensions on e-School success in a cross-sectional study of NEPAD's e-School pilot in Kenya. All of the six e-Schools participating in the NEPAD's e-School pilot in Kenya were selected. The study used survey methodology. Students and teachers in those schools formed the study…

  4. Prevention of malaria in pregnancy with intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide treated nets in Mali: a quantitative health systems effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Webster

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the health system effectiveness of ANC for the delivery of a dose of IPTp and an ITN to women attending ANC during eligible gestation, and to identify the predictors of systems effectiveness. METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken in 10 health facilities including structured non-participant observations of the ANC process for 780 pregnant women followed by exit interviews. The proportion of pregnant women receiving a dose of IPTp-SP and an ITN was assessed. Predictors of each ineffective intermediate process were identified using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 0% and 24.5% of pregnant women of eligible gestation on the first visit to ANC received a dose of IPTp-SP by DOT at the district and community levels respectively. Ineffective intermediate processes were 'given IPTp-SP at the ANC' 63.9% and 74.0% (95% CI 62.0, 83.3, and 'given IPTp-SP by DOT' 0% and 34.3% (95% CI 10.5, 69.8, at district and community levels, respectively. Delivery of ITNs was effective where they were in stock; however stock-outs were a problem. Predictors of receiving IPTp-SP at the district level were 4 to 6 months gestation, not reporting symptoms of malaria at ANC visit and the amount of money spent during the visit. At the community level, the predictors were 4 to 6 months gestation, maternal education below primary level, routine ANC visit (not for an illness, palpation of the abdomen, and expenditure of money in ANC. CONCLUSION: In Segou District, the delivery of IPTp-SP was ineffective; whilst ITN delivery was effective if ITNs were in stock. Predictors of receiving IPTp-SP at the district and community levels included gestational age, the amount of expenditure during the ANC visit and no illness.

  5. Effects of Tax Depreciation Rules on Firms' Investment Decisions in an Inflationary Phase: Comparison of Net Present Values in Selected OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Woon Nam

    2001-01-01

    This study compares incentive effects of various tax depreciation methods which are currently employed in selected OECD countries. Their generosity is determined on the basis of Samuelson’s true economic depreciation. For this purpose, the present value model is applied. The central issue is that the so-called historical cost accounting method, which is adopted in practice when calculating the corporate tax base, causes fictitious profits in inflationary phases that should also be taxed. Th...

  6. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  7. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  8. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  9. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  10. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  11. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  12. Comparison of the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program on household food security and dietary diversity in the face of rising food prices: ways forward for a more nutrition-sensitive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baye, Kaleab; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet

    2014-09-01

    In light of the continuing rise in food prices during and after the 2008 world food crisis, whether food and cash transfers are equally effective in improving food security and diet quality is debatable. To compare the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security and dietary diversity. Data on household dietary diversity, child anthropometry, food security, and preference of transfer modalities (food, cash, or mixed) were generated from a cross-sectional survey of 195 PSNP beneficiary households (67 receiving food and 128 receiving cash) in Hawella Tulla District, Sidama, southern Ethiopia. Most beneficiaries (96%) reported food shortages, and 47% reported food shortages that exceeded 3 months. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity scores (p = .02) and higher consumption of oils and fats (p = .003) and vitamin A-rich foods (p = .002). Compared with households receiving food, households receiving cash were more affected by increases in food prices that forced them to reduce their number of daily meals (p diversity than households receiving food, a result suggesting that cash transfers may be more effective. However, the continuing rise infood prices may offset these benefits unless cash transfers are index-linked to food price fluctuations.

  13. Effects of a catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention campaign on infection rate, catheter utilization, and health care workers' perspective at a community safety net hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dorinne; Nussle, Richard; Cruz, Abner; Kane, Gail; Toomey, Michael; Bay, Curtis; Ostovar, Gholamabbas Amin

    2016-01-01

    Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections is in the forefront of health care quality. However, nurse and physician engagement is a common barrier in infection prevention efforts. After implementation of a multidisciplinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention campaign, we studied the impact of our campaign and showed its association with reducing the CAUTI rate and catheter utilization and the positive effect on health care workers' engagement and perspectives. CAUTI prevention campaigns can lead to lower infection rates and change health care workers' perspective. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  15. The potential effects of concurrent increases in temperature, CO2 and O3 on net photosynthesis, as mediated by rubisCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Essex Univ., Colchester

    1992-07-01

    At the leaf level, under light saturating and light limiting conditions, it is shown that elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only alters the scale of the response of carbon gain to rising temperature, but can alter the direction of response. These points bring into serious question the value of any predictions of plant production which ignore not only the direct effect Of C0 2 on carbon gain, but also the basic interactions of temperature, C0 2 and 0 3 . Whilst many factors may potentially diminish the enhancement of lightsaturated leaf photosynthetic rates with increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, no mechanism has so far been identified which could remove the parallel stimulation of light-limited photosynthesis

  16. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  17. Large-scale implementation of disease control programmes: a cost-effectiveness analysis of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net distribution channels in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya-a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Niessen, Louis; Buff, Ann M; Kariuki, Simon

    2016-11-21

    Historically, Kenya has used various distribution models for long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) with variable results in population coverage. The models presently vary widely in scale, target population and strategy. There is limited information to determine the best combination of distribution models, which will lead to sustained high coverage and are operationally efficient and cost-effective. Standardised cost information is needed in combination with programme effectiveness estimates to judge the efficiency of LLIN distribution models and options for improvement in implementing malaria control programmes. The study aims to address the information gap, estimating distribution cost and the effectiveness of different LLIN distribution models, and comparing them in an economic evaluation. Evaluation of cost and coverage will be determined for 5 different distribution models in Busia County, an area of perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Cost data will be collected retrospectively from health facilities, the Ministry of Health, donors and distributors. Programme-effectiveness data, defined as the number of people with access to an LLIN per 1000 population, will be collected through triangulation of data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional malaria survey, a cross-sectional survey administered to a subsample of beneficiaries in Busia County and LLIN distributors' records. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis will be used for the evaluation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a health-systems perspective, and cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques. The study has been evaluated and approved by Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific and Ethical Review Unit (SERU number 2997). All participants will provide written informed consent. The findings of this economic evaluation will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  18. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  19. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  20. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  1. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  2. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  3. Cationic liposomes promote antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells by alkalizing the lysosomal pH and limiting the degradation of antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jie Gao,1–3 Lukasz J Ochyl,1,3 Ellen Yang,4 James J Moon1,3,5 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Biointerfaces Institute, 4Department of Chemistry, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Cationic liposomes (CLs have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs, and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation – the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8+ T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I. However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs, antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. To achieve this, we have used 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cell responses. These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine

  4. Setting a price for solar net-metering in California

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering programs are an effective policy tool for promoting investment in solar photovoltaics, yet little attention has been paid to the rate at which excess energy generation is credited until recently. Like most States, California customers who participate in net-metering receive a credit for excess generation at the current retail rate for electricity. This buy-back rate does not take into account the value of solar energy to the utility or the costs to the customer of purchasing an...

  5. Estimation of daily net radiation from synoptic meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.; Myung, E.J.; Kim, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    Five models for net radiation estimation reported by Linacre (1968), Berljand(1956), Nakayama et al. (1983), Chang (1970) and Doorenbos et al. (1977) were tested for the adaptability to Korea. A new model with effective longwave radiation term parameterized by air temperature, solar radiation and vapor pressure was formulated and tested for its accuracy. Above five models with original parameter values showed large absolute mean deviations ranging from 0.86 to 1.64 MJ/m 2 /day. The parameters of the above five models were reestimated by using net radiation and meteorological elements measured in Suwon, Korea

  6. Jamaica National Net-Billing Pilot Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stout, Sherry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Kimberly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    This technical report discusses the effectiveness of the Jamaica Public Service Company Limited Net-Billing Pilot Program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed data from a wide range of stakeholders, conducted in-country research, and compared program elements to common interconnection practices to form programmatic recommendations for the Jamaica context. NREL finds that the net-billing pilot program has successfully contributed to the support of the emerging solar market in Jamaica with the interconnection of 80 systems under the program for a total of 1.38 megawatts (MW) at the time of original analysis.

  7. Near Net Manufacturing Using Thin Gage Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Jennifer; Potter, David; Holquin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and near net spin forming of FSW aluminumn blanks were investigated for large-scale pressure vessel applications. With a specific focus on very thin gage 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, the program concentrated on the following: the criteria used for material selection, a potential manufacturing flow, and the effectiveness and associated risks of near net spin forming. Discussion will include the mechanical properties of the friction stir welds and the parent material from before and after the spin forming process. This effort was performed under a NASA Space Exploration initiative focused on increasing the affordability, reliability and performance of pressure vessels larger than 10 ft. diameter.

  8. Beginning ASP.NET 4.5 in C#

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This book is the most comprehensive and up to date introduction to ASP.NET ever written. Focussing solely on C#, with no code samples duplicated in other languages, award winning author Matthew MacDonald introduces you to the very latest thinking and best practices for the ASP.NET 4.5 technology.Assuming no prior coding experience, you'll be taught everything you need to know from the ground up.  Starting from first principals, you'll learn the skills you need to be an effective ASP.NET developer who is ready to progress to more sophisticated projects and professional work. You'll be taught ho

  9. Appropriate Determination of Net Working Capital in Corporate Financial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Motlíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity and working capital management belongs to one of the fundamental tasks of short-term financial management. However, in the context of net working capital, the issue of management of current assets and liabilities significantly overlaps with long-term financial management, in which the effects of various decisions have long-term consequences, with considerable inertia and possibility of high losses. The present study is therefore focused on the determination of appropriate amount of working capital, as an important part of financial decision making process in the company. The paper presents an empirical research aiming to identify the appropriate approach to accurate calculations of net working capital and determining its needs. The main contribution of the study can be found in the verification of calculation method of net working capital needs, which, according to the authors, may be beneficial both for business practice and teaching of financial management at universities.

  10. Study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.; Worraker, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the reactor relevance of NET, i.e. whether the technologies and design principles proposed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration power reactor (DEMO). The main areas of study were those near to the plasma, namely the divertor, first wall and tritium breeding blanket. Other aspects which were investigated were tritium permeation and recovery, reactor maintenance, afterheat and effects of disruptions. The principal results of the study are briefly presented; the details of the work are given in fourteen appendices. These appendices were selected for INIS and indexed separately. The overall conclusion of the study is that the NET design is only partly relevant to the design requirements of a DEMO reactor. (U.K.)

  11. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  12. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  13. SupportNet for Frontline Behavioral Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Review of the Impact of Adherence on the Effectiveness of e-Therapies. Journal of Medical Internet Research , 13(3), 52. Frank, R. (2003, January...Improve the Uptake and Impact of eHealth Technologies. Journal of Medical Internet Research , 13(4), 111. 41 Appendix V SupportNet

  14. Give Your Old-School Curriculum a NETS Makeover

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMaster, Jen

    2012-01-01

    Integrating digital age technology into an industrial age educational system is hard enough. Imagine introducing ed tech to a 450-year-old Jesuit educational paradigm. Find out how to seamlessly combine the NETS with a centuries-old framework to create an effective ed tech strategic plan. This article describes how the author successfully…

  15. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (b... be recorded in Account 4361 as required by paragraph (a) of this section. (3) The tax effects of... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32...

  16. Fixing the Net Tuition Revenue Dilemma: The Dickinson College Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Robert J.; Parker, Annette S.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes how Dickinson College, guided by a strategic plan, addressed its net tuition revenue problem through effective decision support, marketing and branding approaches, and pricing and financial aid strategies. The college's strategic plan guides allocation of resources toward fulfilling the college's purpose of providing an…

  17. Maximising net returns to fertiliser use by financially constrained

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2013, National Agricultural Research Organisation ... for typical fertiliser use costs and grain prices in Uganda was greatest for a ... to maximise net returns to fertiliser use for finance-limited crop management in ... maximum profit ha-1 where the additional ... Potassium effects were not significant for cereal crops and bean.

  18. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  19. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  20. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  1. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  2. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  3. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  4. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  5. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  6. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  7. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  8. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  9. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net...

  10. Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.

  11. Development of Network Interface Cards for TRIDAQ systems with the NaNet framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Frezza, O.; Cicero, F. Lo; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E.; Simula, F.; Valente, P.; Vicini, P.; Lorenzo, S. Di; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Sozzi, M.; Fiorini, M.; Neri, I.; Lamanna, G.; Rossetti, D.

    2017-01-01

    NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the network protocol stack, the stream processing capability, and the zero-copy CPU and GPU Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA). Three NIC designs have been developed with the NaNet framework: NaNet-1 and NaNet-10 for the CERN NA62 low level trigger and NaNet 3 for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope DAQ system. We will focus our description on the NaNet-10 design, as it is the most complete of the three in terms of capabilities and integrated IPs of the framework.

  12. Travel-associated infection presenting in Europe (2008-12): an analysis of EuroTravNet longitudinal, surveillance data, and evaluation of the effect of the pre-travel consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Weld, Leisa; Goorhuis, Abraham; Gautret, Philippe; Weber, Rainer; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Jensenius, Mogens; Cramer, Jakob P; Field, Vanessa K; Odolini, Silvia; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chappuis, Francois; Malvy, Denis; van Genderen, Perry J J; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Smith, Catherine; Beeching, Nicholas J; Ursing, Johan; Rapp, Christophe; Parola, Philippe; Grobusch, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    Travel is important in the acquisition and dissemination of infection. We aimed to assess European surveillance data for travel-related illness to profile imported infections, track trends, identify risk groups, and assess the usefulness of pre-travel advice. We analysed travel-associated morbidity in ill travellers presenting at EuroTravNet sites during the 5-year period of 2008-12. We calculated proportionate morbidity per 1000 ill travellers and made comparisons over time and between subgroups. We did 5-year trend analyses (2008-12) by testing differences in proportions between subgroups using Pearson's χ(2) test. We assessed the effect of the pre-travel consultation on infection acquisition and outcome by use of proportionate morbidity ratios. The top diagnoses in 32 136 patients, ranked by proportionate morbidity, were malaria and acute diarrhoea, both with high proportionate morbidity (>60). Dengue, giardiasis, and insect bites had high proportionate morbidity (>30) as well. 5-year analyses showed increases in vector borne infections with significant peaks in 2010; examples were increased Plasmodium falciparum malaria (χ(2)=37·57, ptravel consultation was associated with significantly lower proportionate morbidity ratios for P falciparum malaria and also for acute hepatitis and HIV/AIDS. The pattern of travel-related infections presenting in Europe is complex. Trend analyses can inform on emerging infection threats. Pre-travel consultation is associated with reduced malaria proportionate morbidity ratios and less severe illness. These findings support the importance and effectiveness of pre-travel advice on malaria prevention, but cast doubt on the effectiveness of current strategies to prevent travel-related diarrhoea. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the International Society of Travel Medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  14. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  15. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  16. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotty, R.M.; Perry, A.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of net energy from nuclear power plants is dependent on a large number of variables and assumptions. The energy requirements as they relate to reactor type, concentration of uranium in the ore, enrichment tails assays, and possible recycle of uranium and plutonium were examined. Specifically, four reactor types were considered: pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and heavy water reactor (CANDU). The energy requirements of systems employing both conventional (current) ores with uranium concentration of 0.176 percent and Chattanooga Shales with uranium concentration of 0.006 percent were determined. Data were given for no recycle, uranium recycle only, and uranium plus plutonium recycle. Starting with the energy requirements in the mining process and continuing through fuel reprocessing and waste storage, an evaluation of both electrical energy requirements and thermal energy requirements of each process was made. All of the energy, direct and indirect, required by the processing of uranium in order to produce electrical power was obtained by adding the quantities for the individual processes. The energy inputs required for the operation of a nuclear power system for an assumed life of approximately 30 years are tabulated for nine example cases. The input requirements were based on the production of 197,100,000 MWH(e), i.e., the operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant for 30 years with an average plant factor of 0.75. Both electrical requirements and thermal energy requirements are tabulated, and it should be emphasized that both quantities are needed. It was found that the electricity generated far exceeded the energy input requirements for all the cases considered

  17. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merica Slišković

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

  18. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  19. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  20. First study of the negative binomial distribution applied to higher moments of net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnowsky, Terence J.; Westfall, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the first four moments (mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis) and their products (κσ 2 and Sσ) of the net-charge and net-proton distributions in Au + Au collisions at √(s NN )=7.7–200 GeV from HIJING simulations has been carried out. The skewness and kurtosis and the collision volume independent products κσ 2 and Sσ have been proposed as sensitive probes for identifying the presence of a QCD critical point. A discrete probability distribution that effectively describes the separate positively and negatively charged particle (or proton and anti-proton) multiplicity distributions is the negative binomial (or binomial) distribution (NBD/BD). The NBD/BD has been used to characterize particle production in high-energy particle and nuclear physics. Their application to the higher moments of the net-charge and net-proton distributions is examined. Differences between κσ 2 and a statistical Poisson assumption of a factor of four (for net-charge) and 40% (for net-protons) can be accounted for by the NBD/BD. This is the first application of the properties of the NBD/BD to describe the behavior of the higher moments of net-charge and net-proton distributions in nucleus–nucleus collisions

  1. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  2. The Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Prevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection, Clinical Malaria and Anemia in an Area of Perennial Transmission and Moderate Coverage of Insecticide Treated Nets in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Gimnig

    Full Text Available Insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS have been scaled up for malaria prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few studies on the benefit of implementing IRS in areas with moderate to high coverage of ITNs. We evaluated the impact of an IRS program on malaria related outcomes in western Kenya, an area of intense perennial malaria transmission and moderate ITN coverage (55-65% use of any net the previous night.The Kenya Division of Malaria Control, with support from the US President's Malaria Initiative, conducted IRS in one lowland endemic district with moderate coverage of ITNs. Surveys were conducted in the IRS district and a neighboring district before IRS, after one round of IRS in July-Sept 2008 and after a second round of IRS in April-May 2009. IRS was conducted with pyrethroid insecticides. At each survey, 30 clusters were selected for sampling and within each cluster, 12 compounds were randomly selected. The primary outcomes measured in all residents of selected compounds included malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria (P. falciparum infection plus history of fever and anemia (Hb<8 of all residents in randomly selected compounds. At each survey round, individuals from the IRS district were matched to those from the non-IRS district using propensity scores and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed based on the matched dataset.At baseline and after one round of IRS, there were no differences between the two districts in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria or anemia. After two rounds of IRS, the prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 6.4% in the IRS district compared to 16.7% in the comparison district (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.59, p<0.001. The prevalence of clinical malaria was also lower in the IRS district (1.8% vs. 4.9%, OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20-0.68, p = 0.001. The prevalence of anemia was lower in the IRS district but only in children under 5 years of age (2

  3. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  4. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  5. Insecticide mixtures for mosquito net impregnation against malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel V.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides belonging to the pyrethroid family are the only compounds currently available for the treatment of mosquito nets. Unfortunately, some malaria vector species have developed resistance to pyrethroids and the lack of alternative chemical categories is a great concern. One strategy for resistance management would be to treat mosquito nets with a mixture associating two insecticides having different modes of action. This study presents the results obtained with insecticide mixtures containing several proportions of bifenthrin (a pyrethroid insecticide and carbosulfan (a carbamate insecticide. The mixtures were sprayed on mosquito net samples and their efficacy were tested against a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Africa. A significant synergism was observed with a mixture containing 25 mg/m2 of bifenthrin (half the recommended dosage for treated nets and 6.25 mg/m2 of carbosulfan (about 2 % of the recommended dosage. The observed mortality was significantly more than expected in the absence of any interaction (80 % vs 41 % and the knock-down effect was maintained, providing an effective barrier against susceptible mosquitoes.

  6. The underlying reasons for very high levels of bed net use, and higher malaria infection prevalence among bed net users than non-users in the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellemu, Daniel; Shemdoe, Aloysia; Makungu, Christina; Mlacha, Yeromini; Kannady, Khadija; Dongus, Stefan; Killeen, Gerry F; Dillip, Angel

    2017-10-23

    ) Bed nets with holes large enough to allow mosquitoes to pass (28%); and (3) Going to bed late after already being bitten outdoors (24%). Behaviours associated with bed net use like; bed sharing, bed net non compliant-bedfellow, sleeping pattern like ulalavi and some physical bed net attributes compromise its effectiveness and supposedly increase of malaria infection to bed net users. While some well-screened houses looked to instigate low malaria prevalence to non-bed net users.

  7. Local Area Network: Community Involvement, Social Capital, and Glocalization at NetU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevett-Smith, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic and interview data from a long-term study of "NetU," a wired community and college, are used to investigate the effects of computer-mediated communication on social relationships. During the course of this research "LAN" residents of NetU are compared with a similar group of non-LAN residents who lived in the same neighborhood, but…

  8. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  9. Social marketing of insecticide-treated bed net for malaria control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effectiveness of the insecticide-treated bed net in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria has been proved at all levels of malaria transmission. Several models on how to achieve massive coverage have been suggested, but social marketing of the nets is highly favoured for its ...

  10. Leaf area and net photosynthesis during development of Prunus serotina seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    We used the plastochron index to study the relationship between plant age, leaf age and development, and net photosynthesis of black cherry (Prtmus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings. Leaf area and net photosynthesis were measured on all leaves >=75 mm of plants ranging in age from 7 to 20 plastochrons. Effects of plant developmental stage...

  11. Addressing the NETS*S in K-12 Classrooms: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Dale S.; Lindstrom, Denise L.; Strobel, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS*S) were developed to provide guidelines for effective and meaningful technology use with K-12 students. In the present study we used the NETS*S as a framework to analyze ways that teachers integrated instructional technology use and provided opportunities for their students to…

  12. Symmetric Cryptosystem Based on Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein ‎ A. Lafta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this wok, a novel approach based on ordinary Petri net is used to generate private key . The reachability marking  of petri net is used as encryption/decryption key to provide more complex key . The same ordinary Petri Nets models  are used for the sender(encryption and  the receiver(decryption.The plaintext has been permutated  using  look-up table ,and XOR-ed with key to generate cipher text

  13. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...... four notions of bisimulation, viz., weak and weak step bisimulation and their maximal versions. We characterize such congruences via universal contexts and via games, providing in such a way an understanding of their discerning powers....

  14. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  15. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  16. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  17. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  18. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-06-15

    A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  19. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  20. Net Pay Estimator | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and

  1. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    OpenAIRE

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  2. The Petri Net Markup Language : concepts, technology, and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billington, J.; Christensen, S.; Hee, van K.M.; Kindler, E.; Kummer, O.; Petrucci, L.; Post, R.D.J.; Stehno, C.; Weber, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Best, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is an XML-based interchange format for Petri nets. In order to support different versions of Petri nets and, in particular, future versions of Petri nets, PNML allows the definition of Petri net types.Due to this flexibility, PNML is a starting point for a

  3. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  4. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  5. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  6. Versatile Wireless Data Net, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed R many will be MEMS devices. The net enables coordinated, efficient transmission of measurement signals; self test metrics, and environmental metrics to...

  7. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization

  8. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    ...) and registered with Internet Information Server (IIS), and can be applied in numerous fashions This project uses the NET capabilities to create a distributed discovery service (called as UNWSDS...

  9. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  10. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  11. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  12. Accurate Complex Systems Design: Integrating Serious Games with Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Sinclair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty understanding the large number of interactions involved in complex systems makes their successful engineering a problem. Petri Nets are one graphical modelling technique used to describe and check proposed designs of complex systems thoroughly. While automatic analysis capabilities of Petri Nets are useful, their visual form is less so, particularly for communicating the design they represent. In engineering projects, this can lead to a gap in communications between people with different areas of expertise, negatively impacting achieving accurate designs.In contrast, although capable of representing a variety of real and imaginary objects effectively, behaviour of serious games can only be analysed manually through interactive simulation. This paper examines combining the complementary strengths of Petri Nets and serious games. The novel contribution of this work is a serious game prototype of a complex system design that has been checked thoroughly. Underpinned by Petri Net analysis, the serious game can be used as a high-level interface to communicate and refine the design.Improvement of a complex system design is demonstrated by applying the integration to a proof-of-concept case study.   

  13. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  14.  NET and NETosis – new phenomenon in immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matoszka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Neutrophils are one of the first cells of the immune system recruited to the site of infection, representing the host’s most effective and numerous front-line defenders. Recently, a novel antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been described: upon activation, they release DNA and a subset of their granule content, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. These extracellular, chromatin structures, which contain histones and neutrophil granule proteins, can trap and kill a broad spectrum of microbes, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Some of the pathogens, which are trapped and exposed to high local concentrations of antimicrobial compounds, employ strategies against NET binding, including surface modification and/or degradation of NET by DNases. It has been suggested that NETs are formed during active cell death, recently named NETosis. New data indicate that this novel mechanism of cell death requires interaction between three processes – reactive oxygen species generation, histone citrullination and autophagy – and significantly differs from previously known types of cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, the release of nuclear chromatin was also described for other types of cells – mast cells and eosinophils. Mast cells, like neutrophils, under certain conditions release nuclear chromatin and may undergo a similar active cell death program, while eosinophils release only mitochondrial chromatin, and its release does not lead to the death of these cells.

  15. USE OF MIRROR PATTERN CUTTING OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF LAKE BEACH SEINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification and calculation of a new methodological approach to the construction of a standard beach seine (502 / 302 х 3.75 with the use of the properties of mirror netting ensuring the saving of the netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance. Methodology. The carp age group selectivity of the constructed seine was assessed within fish fauna monitoring based on the catch analysis of monitoring gill nets with mesh sizes of 30-130 mm according to generally accepted methods [9, 10]. Calculation of netting materials and ropes was carried out according to generally accepted methods [12-14]. Seine resistance was calculated according to N. T. Senin formula for different netting materials and the angles of the movement of different seine parts in water [2]. The gear reliability and data processing were carried out according to standard methods [11, 14, 15]. Findings. A variant of the construction of the maximum lightweight beach lake seines made of mirror pattern netting taking into account the properties of the mirror pattern netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance has been proposed. The provided recalculation of the properties of a serial seine made of rhombic mesh for the mirror netting seine taking into account netting properties allowed: 1 reducing the seine drag resistance value by 1,4 times; 2 reducing the weight of netting materials by 16.3% compared to the prototype; 3 increasing the seine selectivity when fishing older age groups of carp in non-drainable ponds. Originality. We presented the method of the calculation and construction of lake beach seines made of mirror netting, analyzed the technological stages of the construction of mirror netting, determined main qualitative and technological parameters, which had effect on the conditions of the construction and reliability of such fishing gears. A new method of the use of an insert of the combined netting material cutting ensuring

  16. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-01-01

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes

  17. Development and Application of High-Content Biological Screening for Modulators of NET Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria J. Chicca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs are DNA-based antimicrobial web-like structures whose release is predominantly mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS; their purpose is to combat infections. However, unbalanced NET production and clearance is involved in tissue injury, circulation of auto-antibodies and development of several chronic diseases. Currently, there is lack of agreement regarding the high-throughput methods available for NET investigation. This study, therefore, aimed to develop and optimize a high-content analysis (HCA approach, which can be applied for the assay of NET production and for the screening of compounds involved in the modulation of NET release. A suitable paraformaldehyde fixation protocol was established to enable HCA of neutrophils and NETs. Bespoke and in-built bioinformatics algorithms were validated by comparison with standard low-throughput approaches for application in HCA of NETs. Subsequently, the optimized protocol was applied to high-content screening (HCS of a pharmaceutically derived compound library to identify modulators of NETosis. Of 56 compounds assessed, 8 were identified from HCS for further characterization of their effects on NET formation as being either inducers, inhibitors or biphasic modulators. The effects of these compounds on naïve neutrophils were evaluated by using specific assays for the induction of ROS and NET production, while their modulatory activity was validated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Results indicated the involvement of glutathione reductase, Src family kinases, molecular-target-of-Rapamycin, and mitogen-activated-protein-kinase pathways in NET release. The compounds and pathways identified may provide targets for novel therapeutic approaches for treating NET-associated pathologies.

  18. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  19. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  20. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net the...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....