WorldWideScience

Sample records for nested pcr-enzyme immunoassay

  1. Use of a nested PCR-enzyme immunoassay with an internal control to detect Chlamydophila psittaci in turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddeeris Bruno M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci, an important turkey respiratory pathogen, is difficult. To facilitate the diagnosis, a nested PCR-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA was developed to detect the Cp. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA gene in pharyngeal swabs. Methods The fluorescein-biotin labelled PCR products were immobilized on streptavidin-coated microtiter plates and detected with anti-fluorescein peroxidase conjugate and a colorimetric substrate. An internal inhibition control was included to rule out the presence of inhibitors of DNA amplification. The diagnostic value of the ompA nested PCR-EIA in comparison to cell culture and a 16S-rRNA based nested PCR was assessed in pharyngeal turkey swabs from 10 different farms experiencing respiratory disease. Results The sensitivity of the nested PCR-EIA was established at 0.1 infection forming units (IFU. Specificity was 100%. The ompA nested PCR-EIA was more sensitive than the 16S-rRNA based nested PCR and isolation, revealing 105 out of 200 (52.5% positives against 13 and 74 for the latter two tests, respectively. Twenty-nine (23.8% out of 122 ompA PCR-EIA negatives showed the presence of inhibitors of DNA amplification, although 27 of them became positive after diluting (1/10 the specimens in PCR buffer or after phenol-chloroform extraction and subsequent ethanol precipitation. Conclusion The present study stresses the need for an internal control to confirm PCR true-negatives and demonstrates the high prevalence of chlamydiosis in Belgian turkeys and its potential zoonotic risk. The ompA nested PCR-EIA described here is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assay and will help to facilitate the diagnosis of Cp. psittaci infections in both poultry and man.

  2. Immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunochemistry is a relatively new science that has developed rapidly in the last few decades. One of the most useful analytical developments associated with this new science is immunoassay. Originally immunoassays were developed in medical settings to facilitate the study of immunology, particularly the antibody-antigen interaction. Immunoassays now are finding widespread applications outside the clinical field because they are appropriate for a wide range of analytes ranging from proteins to small organic molecules. In the food analysis area, immunoassays are widely used for chemical residue analysis, identification of bacteria and viruses, and detection of proteins in food and agricultural products. Protein detection is important for determination of allergens and meat species content, seafood species identification, and detection of genetically modified plant tissues. While immunoassays of all formats are too numerous to cover completely in this chapter, there are several procedures that have become standard for food analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity.

  3. Comparison of multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mervat Gamal Eldin Mansour

    Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme hybridization assay and immunofluorescence antigen detection techniques for the detection of four viral respiratory pathogens (Influenza viruses A & B and Respiratory Syncitial. Viruses A & B) were targeted to evaluate their diagnostic yield for these patients in our study. Among.

  4. Comparison of multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme hybridization assay and immunofluorescence antigen detection techniques for the detection of four viral respiratory pathogens (Influenza viruses A & B and Respiratory Syncitial Viruses A & B) were targeted to evaluate their diagnostic yield for these patients in our study. Among ...

  5. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  6. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, and Salmonella enterica on Poultry Carcasses by Using PCR-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yang; Berrang, Mark E.; Liu, Tongrui; Hofacre, Charles L.; Sanchez, Susan; Wang, Lihua; Maurer, John J.

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of retail poultry by Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. Isolation and identification of these microorganisms require a series of biochemical and serological tests. In this study, Campylobacter ceuE and Salmonella invA genes were used to design probes in PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as an alternative to conventional bacteriological methodology, for the rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobac...

  7. Radiolabelling for immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Since the early 1960s labelled compounds employed in immunoassay techniques, both radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, have involved radioisotopes typically 3 H (tritium) and 125 Iodine. With the advent of increasingly stringent governmental regulations regarding usage and disposal of radioisotopes and the impetus of research towards improved immunoassay sensitivity following the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and their application to excess reagent immunometric assay methodology, radioisotopic labels are gradually being replaced by non-isotopic labels: enzyme, fluorescence and chemiluminescence

  8. Updates in immunoassays: parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josko, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Although most clinical laboratories use microscopy and routine O&P procedures when identifying parasitic infections, there are several parasites that are better detected through serological means. Toxoplasma, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were discussed along with immunoassays used for their detection. Immunoassays provide quick results and are less labor intensive than specimen concentration and slide preparation for microscopic examination. These assays are easy to use and provide sensitive and specific results. Some clinical laboratories no longer perform O&Ps in house and refer specimens to reference laboratories for evaluation. By using immunoassays, some of the more common parasites can be identified in a timely manner reducing turn-around times. Some controversy exists over the use of IIF and EIA tests used for ANA testing along with measuring CRPs and PCT as predictors of bacterial sepsis and septic shock. Regardless of the methodology discussed in this series of articles, there are pros and cons to the various immunoassays available. Determining the most appropriate assay based on patient population and volume is governed by the institution and its patients' needs. In conclusion, immunoassays, whether manual or automated, are easy to use, cost effective and allow the medical laboratory professional to provide quick and accurate results to the clinician so the most appropriate treatment can be administered to the patient. The ultimate goal of healthcare professionals is to provide the highest quality of medical care in a timely manner. The use of immunoassays in the clinical laboratory allows the healthcare team to successfully achieve this goal.

  9. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia

    2015-04-21

    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  10. Maryland ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for raptors in Maryland. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species-specific...

  11. Louisiana ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  12. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  13. Method of immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarisbrick, J.; Gard, T.; Hall, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of immunoassay for prolactin using monoclonal lgG antibodies. The method preferably comprises the use of two different monoclonal antibodies which bind respectively at different antigenic sites on the prolactin molecule. One antibody is labelled and the other is immobilised on a water-insoluble carrier material, whereby an immunochemical complex comprising labelled antibody, prolactin and immobilised antibody is formed. (author)

  14. Specificity of immunoassays. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.J.; Woldring, M.G.; Boonman, R.; Kittikool, J.

    1979-01-01

    Practical aspects of the measurement of the specificity of immunoassay are reviewed. Antibody heterogeneity in an antiserum makes a pragmatic rather than a theoretical approach necessary. A new method for the measurement of immunoassay specificity is described. This method is based on the errors caused by the cross-reacting antigens and is directly relevant to the validity of results obtained by immunoassay methods. The effect of selectively blocking the least specific antibodies in antisera raised against steroid haptens is tested. The practical consequences of these considerations are tested using steroid radioimmunoassay and enzyme-immunoassay. (orig.) [de

  15. Interference in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Interfering factors are evident in both limited reagent (radioimmunoassay) and excess reagent (immunometric assay) technologies and should be suspected whenever there is a discrepancy between analytical results and clinical findings in the investigation of particular diseases. The overall effect of interference in immunoassay is analytical bias in result, either positive or negative of variable magnitude. The interference maybe caused by a wide spectrum of factors from poor sample collection and handling to physiological factors e.g. lipaemia, heparin treatment, binding protein abnormalities, autoimmunity and drug treatments. The range of interfering factors is extensive and difficult to discuss effectively in a short review

  16. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described.

  17. Immunoassay for thymopoietin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, G.

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes the development of a radio-immunoassay for thymopoietin in biological samples. The method of raising antibodies to this polypeptide hormone is described. This is achieved by injecting a host animal with an antigen consisting of thymopoietin covalently bonded by glutaraldehyde to a carrier protein such as bovine serum albumin and equine globulin. Different methods of radiolabelling thymopoietin with 125 I for use as the tracer antigen are described. The Bolton-Hunter procedure was preferred to the chloramine-T method since direct iodination of the tyrosyl moieties of thymopoietin resulted in some loss of immunoreactivity. Systems for separating the antigen-antibody complex and unbound antigen are compared. Binding-inhibition curves for unlabelled thymopoietin in the assay employing polyethylene glycol separation showed a sensitivity of 5 ng thymopoietin/ml. However, using the double antibody or dextran coated charcoal separation techniques, the sensitivity of thymopoietin was 0.1 ng/ml. Thus these latter two procedures are thus especially suitable for measuring thymopoietin levels in serum or plasma samples. The assay was shown to be specific for thymopoietin, no significant displacement being produced by control polypeptides. (U.K.)

  18. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM, Bacillus anthracis (BA, Yersinia pestis (YP, Francisella tularensis (FT and Varicella zoster virus (VZV. The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola, Lassa fever virus (Lassa, Rift Valley fever (RVF, Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4. Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100~1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10-2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102~1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104~1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105~1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1×10-4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The

  19. Immunoassay for determination of trilobolide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huml, L.; Jurášek, M.; Mikšátková, P.; Zimmermann, T.; Tomanová, P.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Rottnerová, Z.; Šimková, M.; Harmatha, Juraj; Kmoníčková, Eva; Lapčík, O.; Drašar, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, Jan (2017), s. 105-111 ISSN 0039-128X. [Conference on Isoprenoids /23./. Minsk, 04.09.2016-07.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : trilobolide * avidin-biotin * ELISA * Laser trilobum * synthesis * immunoassay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry (UEM-P) OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods; Pharmacology and pharmacy (UEM-P) Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  20. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  1. Bioactive prolactin levels and risk of breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworoger, Shelley S.; Rice, Megan S.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolactin is a lactogenic hormone associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies, which used immunoassays. The immunoassay captures multiple isoforms and may not fully reflect the biological activity of prolactin relevant to breast carcinogenesis. Methods We considered plasma bioactive prolactin levels measured by the Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay, which is sensitive to the somatolactogenic activity of prolactin and growth hormone, within a nested case-control study of invasive breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS/NHSII). We also considered associations with breast cancer risk factors. Results We had bioassay measures on 1329 cases and 1329 controls. Bioassay levels were inversely associated with parity (4+ vs. 0 children=−18%, p=0.01), body mass index (30+ vs. prolactin levels measured by bioassay and by immunoassay with both breast cancer risk factors and risk. Impact Future work examining risk prediction model of breast cancer can use the immunoassay to accurately characterize risk. PMID:25315962

  2. Bulk immunoassays for analysis of extracellular vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Frank A. W.; Gool, Elmar L.; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing clinical interest in extracellular vesicles (EV) for diagnostic and treatment purposes. This review provides an overview of bulk immunoassays to analyse EV. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are still the two predominant bulk immunoassays. Recently, new assays

  3. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Nested Term Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabmayer, C.A.; van Oostrom, V.

    2014-01-01

    We report on work in progress on `nested term graphs' for formalizing higher-order terms (e.g. finite or infinite lambda-terms), including those expressing recursion (e.g. terms in the lambda-calculus with letrec). The idea is to represent the nested scope structure of a higher-order term by a

  5. [Fluorescence polarization immunoassay of ractopamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E A; Shpakova, N A; Zherdev, A V; Kiu, L; Xu, C; Eremin, S A; Dzantiev, B B

    2016-01-01

    A technique was developed for fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) of ractopamine, a toxic low molecular weight nonsteroidal growth regulator belonging to the most controlled contaminants of food products of animal origin. The assay is based on the competition between a sample containing ractopamine and ractopamine–fluorophore conjugate for binding to antibodies. The competition is monitored via changes in the degree of fluorescence polarization for plane-polarized excitation light, which differs for the free and antibody-bound forms of the conjugate. The optimal assay conditions were established, ensuring a high accuracy and minimal detection limit. The developed assay demonstrated a detection limit of 1 ng/mL and a range of detectable concentrations of 2.3–50 ng/mL, which met the requirements of sanitary control. The duration of the analysis was 10 min. The possible application of the developed FPIA was demonstrated with testing of turkey meat. The speed and simplicity of the proposed assay define its efficiency as a screening tool for safety of foods.

  6. Immunoassays in monitoring biotechnological drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, D; Botta, L; Ehrat, M; Graf, P; Lefèvre, G; Oroszlan, P; Pfister, C

    1996-08-01

    For the evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic data reliable quantitative determinations are a requirement that can only be met by well-characterized and fully validated analytical methods. To cope with these requirements a method is being established that is based on an integrated and automated fiber-optic biospecific interaction analysis system (FOBIA) for immunoassays. Performance characteristics of this system used in monitoring of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39 393) are presented. Recombinant hirudin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human thrombin. Owing to its size and charge, recombinant hirudin is mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration. But only a fraction of the hirudin dose seems to be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule by luminal endocytosis and hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes, leaving approximately 50% of the dose to be extracted in the urine. Thus, renal clearance of recombinant hirudin in the absence of renal insufficiency appears to depend primarily on the glomerular filtration rate. During a 3-month i.v. tolerability study in dogs, some of the dogs developed antibodies against recombinant hirudin. The hirudin-antibody complex accumulated in plasma and apparent hirudin plasma concentrations were therefore much higher than expected from single-dose kinetics. Hirudin captured by antibodies showed an extended half-life and the hirudin-antibody complex is still pharmacologically active, as demonstrated by the observed increase in thrombin time. In conclusion, only appropriate analytical methods allow adequate monitoring and pharmacokinetic characterization of biotechnology drugs in biological materials.

  7. Variance function estimation for immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, G.M.; Thompson, R.; McKenzie, I.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program is described which implements a recently described, modified likelihood method of determining an appropriate weighting function to use when fitting immunoassay dose-response curves. The relationship between the variance of the response and its mean value is assumed to have an exponential form, and the best fit to this model is determined from the within-set variability of many small sets of repeated measurements. The program estimates the parameter of the exponential function with its estimated standard error, and tests the fit of the experimental data to the proposed model. Output options include a list of the actual and fitted standard deviation of the set of responses, a plot of actual and fitted standard deviation against the mean response, and an ordered list of the 10 sets of data with the largest ratios of actual to fitted standard deviation. The program has been designed for a laboratory user without computing or statistical expertise. The test-of-fit has proved valuable for identifying outlying responses, which may be excluded from further analysis by being set to negative values in the input file. (Auth.)

  8. Size matters: nest colonization patterns for twig-nesting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the drivers of ant diversity and co-occurrence in agroecosystems is fundamental because ants participate in interactions that influence agroecosystem processes. Multiple local and regional factors influence ant community assembly.We examined local factors that influence the structure of a twig-nesting ant community in a coffee system in Mexico using an experimental approach. We investigated whether twig characteristics (nest entrance size and diversity of nest entrance sizes) and nest strata (canopy shade tree or coffee shrub) affected occupation, species richness, and community composition of twig-nesting ants and whether frequency of occupation of ant species varied with particular nest entrance sizes or strata.We conducted our study in a shaded coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico, between March and June 2012. We studied ant nest colonization by placing artificial nests (bamboo twigs) on coffee shrubs and shade trees either in diverse or uniform treatments. We also examined whether differences in vegetation (no. of trees, canopy cover and coffee density) influenced nest colonization.We found 33 ant species occupying 73% of nests placed. Nest colonization did not differ with nest strata or size. Mean species richness of colonizing ants was significantly higher in the diverse nest size entrance treatment, but did not differ with nest strata. Community composition differed between strata and also between the diverse and uniform size treatments on coffee shrubs, but not on shade trees. Some individual ant species were more frequently found in certain nest strata and in nests with certain entrance sizes.Our results indicate that twig-nesting ants are nest-site limited, quickly occupy artificial nests of many sizes, and that trees or shrubs with twigs of a diversity of entrance sizes likely support higher ant species richness. Further, individual ant species more frequently occupy nests with different sized entrances promoting ant richness on individual coffee

  9. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  10. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  11. Enclosed nests may provide greater thermal than nest predation benefits compared with open nests across latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Boyce, Andy J.; Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Mitchell, Adam E.; Armstad, Connor E.; Mouton, James C.; Bin Soudi, Evertius E.

    2017-01-01

    Nest structure is thought to provide benefits that have fitness consequences for several taxa. Traditionally, reduced nest predation has been considered the primary benefit underlying evolution of nest structure, whereas thermal benefits have been considered a secondary or even non-existent factor. Yet, the relative roles of these factors on nest structures remain largely unexplored.Enclosed nests have a constructed or natural roof connected to sides that allow a restricted opening or tube entrance that provides cover in all directions except the entrance, whereas open nests are cups or platforms that are open above. We show that construction of enclosed nests is more common among songbirds (Passeriformes) in tropical and southern hemisphere regions than in north temperate regions. This geographic pattern may reflect selection from predation risk, under long-standing assumptions that nest predation rates are higher in southern regions and that enclosed nests reduce predation risk compared with open cup nests. We therefore compared nest predation rates between enclosed vs. open nests in 114 songbird species that do not nest in tree holes among five communities of coexisting birds, and for 205 non-hole-nesting species from the literature, across northern temperate, tropical, and southern hemisphere regions.Among coexisting species, enclosed nests had lower nest predation rates than open nests in two south temperate sites, but not in either of two tropical sites or a north temperate site. Nest predation did not differ between nest types at any latitude based on literature data. Among 319 species from both our field studies and the literature, enclosed nests did not show consistent benefits of reduced predation and, in fact, predation was not consistently higher in the tropics, contrary to long-standing perspectives.Thermal benefits of enclosed nests were indicated based on three indirect results. First, species that built enclosed nests were smaller than species using

  12. Fiber Tracking Cylinder Nesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stredde, H.

    1999-01-01

    The fiber tracker consists of 8 concentric carbon fiber cylinders of varying diameters, from 399mm to 1032.2mm and two different lengths. 1.66 and 2.52 meters. Each completed cylinder is covered over the entire o.d. with scintillating fiber ribbons with a connector on each ribbon. These ribbons are axial (parallel to the beam line) at one end and stereo (at 3 deg. to the beam line) at the other. The ribbon connectors have dowel pins which are used to match with the connectors on the wave guide ribbons. These dowel pins are also used during the nesting operation, locating and positioning measurements. The nesting operation is the insertion of one cylinder into another, aligning them with one another and fastening them together into a homogeneous assembly. For ease of assembly. the nesting operation is accomplished working from largest diameter to smallest. Although the completed assembly of all 8 cylinders glued and bolted together is very stiff. individual cylinders are relatively flexible. Therefore. during this operation, No.8 must be supported in a manner which maintains its integrity and yet allows the insertion of No.7. This is accomplished by essentially building a set of dummy end plates which replicate a No.9 cylinder. These end plates are mounted on a wheeled cart that becomes the nesting cart. Provisions for a protective cover fastened to these rings has been made and will be incorporated in finished product. These covers can be easily removed for access to No.8 and/or the connection of No.8 to No.9. Another wheeled cart, transfer cart, is used to push a completed cylinder into the cylinder(s) already mounted in the nesting cart.

  13. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm 3 , respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm 3 nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  14. Bulk immunoassays for analysis of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Frank A W; Gool, Elmar L; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing clinical interest in extracellular vesicles (EV) for diagnostic and treatment purposes. This review provides an overview of bulk immunoassays to analyse EV. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are still the two predominant bulk immunoassays. Recently, new assays have become available that can detect exposure to EV concentrations that are up to 10,000-fold lower. This is advantageous for applications that detect rare EV. Other important parameters are the detectable concentration range, the required sample volume, whether simultaneous presence of different antigens on a single EV can be detected, size selectivity of each assay and practical considerations. In this review, we will explain the working principles of the traditional and novel assays together with their performance parameters. The most sensitive assays are micro-nuclear magnetic resonance, surface plasmon resonance, and time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay.

  15. Variability in Telavancin Cross-Reactivity among Vancomycin Immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    McConeghy, Kevin W.; Liao, Siyun; Clark, Douglas; Worboys, Philip; Barriere, Steven L.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Telavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with a dual mechanism of action against Gram-positive pathogens. Two brief reports have suggested potential cross-reactivity of telavancin with the vancomycin particle-enhanced turbidometric immunoassay (PETIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate several commercially available vancomycin immunoassays (fluorescence polarization [FPIA], enzyme-multiplied immunoassays [EMIT], PETIA, and chemiluminescent immunoassay [CMIA]) for cross-reactivit...

  16. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  17. The right environment for the immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emon, J.M. Van; Gerlach, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    For the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the first in-house research effort began in 1987, when results of an early immunoassay field study verified the technology's potential for environmental applications. Looking at the fundamental features of immunochemical reactions from the clinical laboratories, analytical chemists realized the potential value of these methods for hazardous waste site characterization and pesticide monitoring. Immunoassays rely on the interaction between an antibody and a target analyte. For environmental purposes, enzyme immunoassays are generally used. After the target analyte binds to the antibody, an enzymatic reaction yields a colorimetric change. This change, read visually or by a spectrophotometer, indicates the concentration of the target analyte. Promising results with assays for compounds (such as paraquat and pentachlorophenol) and compound groups (such as total petroleum hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls) spurred interest among various entrepreneurs. The first target market for immunoassays was environmental engineers and field crews who needed quick answers on-site to determine the direction of further remediation efforts

  18. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  19. Intelligent nesting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the process for the manufacture of parts from sheet metal plates depends on successful solution of the process of cutting various parts from sheet metal plates. Essentially, the problem is to arrange contours within a defined space so that they take up minimal surface. When taken in this way, the considered problem assumes a more general nature; it refers to the utilization of a flat surface, and it can represent a general principle of arranging 2D contours on a certain surface. The paper presents a conceptual solution and a prototypal intelligent nesting system for optimal cutting. The problem of nesting can generally be divided into two intellectual phases: recognition and classification of shapes, and arrangement of recognized shapes on a given surface. In solving these problems, methods of artificial intelligence are applied. In the paper, trained neural network is used for recognition of shapes; on the basis of raster record of a part's drawing, it recognizes the part's shape and which class it belongs to. By means of the expert system, based on rules defined on the basis of acquisition of knowledge from manufacturing sections, as well as on the basis of certain mathematical algorithms, parts are arranged on the arrangement surface. Both systems can also work independently, having been built on the modular principle. The system uses various product models as elements of integration for the entire system. .

  20. Neste plans three projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Neste Chemicals (Helsinki) is discussing three joint ventures with local authorities in China, says Mikko Haapavaara, v.p./Asia. The projects should help the Finnish producer to increase sales in Asia by a considerable amount by 2000, he says. The plan involves production of polyethylene (PE), unsaturated polyester resins and PE compounding-all core operations. Sites have not been selected, but Shanghai is the favored location for the PE operations. The company is also looking at a site in the south, near Hong Kong, and at locations near Beijing. The PE plant would need to be near an ethylene unit, says Haapavaara. The PE resin plant would be designed to produce about 150,000 m.t./year and would cost about No. 150 million. A part of the output would need to be exported to take care of the financing, the company says. A feasibility study now under way with the potential Chinese partners should be completed by the end of March. The plant would use Neste's linear low-density PE process, proved in a world-scale plant at Beringen, Belgium. The compounding units would produce specialty PE material for the wire and cable and pipe industry. The company is a joint venture partner in a propane dehydrogenation/polypropylene (PP) plant and a minority partner in a Qualipoly, the 20,000 m.t./year unsaturated polyester resin producer

  1. PyNEST: a convenient interface to the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen M Eppler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural simulation tool NEST (http://www.nest-initiative.org is a simulator for heterogeneous networks of point neurons or neurons with a small number of compartments. It aims at simulations of large neural systems with more than 10^4 neurons and 10^7 to 10^9 synapses. NEST is implemented in C++ and can be used on a large range of architectures from single-core laptops over multi-core desktop computers to super-computers with thousands of processor cores. Python (http://www.python.org is a modern programming language that has recently received considerable attention in Computational Neuroscience. Python is easy to learn and has many extension modules for scientific computing (e.g. http://www.scipy.org. In this contribution we describe PyNEST, the new user interface to NEST. PyNEST combines NEST’s efficient simulation kernel with the simplicity and flexibility of Python. Compared to NEST’s native simulation language SLI, PyNEST makes it easier to set up simulations, generate stimuli, and analyze simulation results. We describe how PyNEST connects NEST and Python and how it is implemented. With a number of examples, we illustrate how it is used.

  2. Development of national immunoassay reagent programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufi, S.B.; Micallef, J.V.; Ahsan, R.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the existence of networks of fully equipped laboratories with well-trained staff, the availability of immunodiagnostic services in developing countries is often limited by the high cost of imported kits. There are a number of ways of tackling this problem, ranging from bulk purchase of kits or reagents to local development and production of assay systems. Argentina/Chile, China, Cuba/Mexico, and Thailand are amongst the countries which have established local immunoassay reagent programmes to manufacture low cost, high quality immunoassay reagents. Kits from these projects are now beginning to become available, and it is hoped that they will promote national diagnostic services and research, as well as stimulating the development of reagent programmes for other analytes. (author). 4 refs, 1 tab

  3. Reimagining the Cuckoo's Nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, David A

    2018-03-01

    One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1962) by Ken Kesey and The Devil in Silver (2012) by Victor LaValle are two novels that focus on mental hospitalization as a medical and social practice. Published fifty years apart, however, the books possess important differences in setting, method, and message reflecting the times that spawned them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the changing documentary and metaphorical uses of the asylum novel by comparing an iconic work in the genre with a respectful, but divergent, successor. What emerges from this comparison is an appreciation of the literary conventions shared by Kesey and LaValle but also the ingredients that separate their work. Whereas Kesey produced an enduring tribute to the virtue of nonconformity, LaValle's social criticism expresses itself as a disturbing portrayal of class-based disparities and administrative dysfunction inside the contemporary American mental health system.

  4. The influence of nest-site characteristics on the nesting success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of nest site has important consequences for nest survival. We examined nest-site characteristics relative to nest success in Karoo Prinias breeding in coastal dwarf shrubland, where high nest predation is the main cause of nest failure. Initially, we compared nests that failed during the building, laying, incubation and ...

  5. Neste Corporation - a successful year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1991-01-01

    The past year proved a successful one for Neste Corporation. Profitability was good and operations were consistently developed. Neste is committed to giving high priority to productivity and know- how to ensure that this success continues into the future. Important developments affecting the structure of Neste Corporation during 1990 included the amalgamation of Neste's oil-related activities into a single division, the increasing concentration of Neste Chemicals, activities in Central and Southern Europe and a major strengthening of oil exploration and production operations. Neste Oil turned in a good result during 1990. Neste imported a total of 8.9 million tonnes of crude oil during 1990. Imports from the Soviet Union at 5.2 million tonnes, were over 2 million tonnes less than planned. Some 2.5 million tonnes were imported from the North Sea, and 1.2 million tonnes from the Middle East. The year was one of expansion, diversification, and solid profit for Neste Chemicals. Net sales grew by 18 % compared to 1989 and the division recorded a satisfactory performance. Petrochemicals and polyolefins production increased suhstantially as a result of plants completed, acquired, or leased during 1989. The gas division's net sales during 1990 were 46 % higher than during 1989. This growth largely resulted from an increase in the consumption of natural gas and an expansion in the volume of international IPG business. The division's profitability remained satisfactory

  6. Jordan Isomorphisms on Nest Subalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of Jordan isomorphisms on nest subalgebras of factor von Neumann algebras. It is shown that every Jordan isomorphism ϕ between the two nest subalgebras algMβ and algMγ is either an isomorphism or an anti-isomorphism.

  7. The Nest Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickerill, Heath [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of the project was to build a competitive solar-powered house for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015 held in Irvine, California. The house, named the Nest Home, was an innovative design that works with the environment to meet the needs of the occupants, identified as a growing family. Reused materials were instrumental in the design. Three refurbished shipping containers composed the primary structure of the house, creating an open floor plan that defies common architecture for container homes. The exterior siding was made of deconstructed shipping pallets collected locally. Other recycled products included carpet composed of discarded fishing nets, denim batting made of recycled blue jeans that outperform traditional fiberglass insulation in sound proofing and thermal resistance, and kitchen cabinets that were purchased used and refinished. Collectively these elements formed a well-balanced blend of modern design, comfort, and sustainability. The house was Missouri University of Science and Technology’s sixth entry in the DOE Solar Decathlon. Missouri S&T has been invited to compete in six of the seven decathlons held, more than any other university worldwide. The house was brought back to Rolla after the Decathlon in California where it has been placed in its permanent location on the S&T campus.

  8. Comparison of an enzyme-immunoassay with a radio-immunoassay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    HBs, ... (RIA) and enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) method for detecting the hepatitis markers anti-HBs, anti-HBc and ... radioactive anti-HBc in the serum competes with human anti-. HBc 1251 for binding sites on beads coated with ...

  9. Comparison of an enzyme-immunoassay with a radio-immunoassay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immunoassay (EIA) method for detecting the hepatitis markers anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg. The results indicated that the RIA and EIA were comparable for the HBsAg marker but that the RIA test was more sensit!ve for anti-HBs and more ...

  10. Detection of poliovirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Ukkonen, P; Huovilainen, A; Hovi, T

    1986-01-01

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed for the detection of poliovirus antigen. Rabbit and guinea pig antisera for the assay were raised against purified poliovirus type 3/Fin (strain 3/Fin/K) isolated from a fecal specimen from a meningitis patient during an outbreak of poliomyelitis in Finland in 1984. The EIA was highly specific for poliovirus type 3, and it was about 30 times more sensitive for strain 3/Fin/K than for strain 3/Saukett used in the inactivated poliovirus vacci...

  11. Gliadin Detection in Food by Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter; Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunoassays are very sensitive and efficient tests that are commonly used to identify a specific protein. Examples of applications in the food industry include identification of proteins expressed in genetically modified foods, allergens, or proteins associated with a disease, including celiac disease. This genetic disease is associated with Europeans and affects about one in every 200 people in North America. These individuals react immunologically to wheat proteins, and consequently their own immune systems attack and damage their intestines. This disease can be managed if wheat proteins, specifically "gliadins," are avoided in foods.

  12. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  13. Serotype sensitivity of a lateral flow immunoassay for cryptococcal antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Hollingsworth, Marcellene A; Kozel, Thomas R

    2013-04-01

    To meet the needs of a global community, an immunoassay for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) must have high sensitivity for CrAg of all major serotypes. A new immunoassay for CrAg in lateral flow format was evaluated and found to have a high sensitivity for detection of serotypes A, B, C, and D.

  14. Microarray-integrated optoelectrofluidic immunoassay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongsik; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-05-01

    A microarray-based analytical platform has been utilized as a powerful tool in biological assay fields. However, an analyte depletion problem due to the slow mass transport based on molecular diffusion causes low reaction efficiency, resulting in a limitation for practical applications. This paper presents a novel method to improve the efficiency of microarray-based immunoassay via an optically induced electrokinetic phenomenon by integrating an optoelectrofluidic device with a conventional glass slide-based microarray format. A sample droplet was loaded between the microarray slide and the optoelectrofluidic device on which a photoconductive layer was deposited. Under the application of an AC voltage, optically induced AC electroosmotic flows caused by a microarray-patterned light actively enhanced the mass transport of target molecules at the multiple assay spots of the microarray simultaneously, which reduced tedious reaction time from more than 30 min to 10 min. Based on this enhancing effect, a heterogeneous immunoassay with a tiny volume of sample (5 μl) was successfully performed in the microarray-integrated optoelectrofluidic system using immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-IgG, resulting in improved efficiency compared to the static environment. Furthermore, the application of multiplex assays was also demonstrated by multiple protein detection.

  15. Do Predation Rates on Artificial Nests Accurately Reflect Predation Rates on Natural Bird Nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Curtice R. Griffin; Thomas J. Maier

    1999-01-01

    Artificial nests are widely used in avian field studies. However, it is unclear how well predation rates on artificial nests reflect predation rates on natural nests. Therefore, we compared survival rates of artificial nests (unused natural nests baited with House Sparrow eggs) with survival rates of active bird nests in the same habitat at the same sites. Survival...

  16. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  17. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : birds nests * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  18. Pre-nesting and nesting behavior of the Swainson's warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, B.

    1969-01-01

    The Swainson?s Warbler is one of the least known of southern birds. Although fairly common in some parts of its summer range, observations of its breeding biology have been made by very few persons. The present study was conducted mostly at Macon, Georgia; Pendleton Ferry, Arkansas; and Dismal Swamp, Virginia....In central Georgia and east-central Arkansas, Swainson?s Warblers usually arrive on their territories during the first two weeks in April. Territories in several localities ranged in size from 0.3 to 4.8 acres. A color-marked Arkansas male occupied the same territory for at least four months. Hostile encounters between territorial male Swainson?s Warblers usually take place along the boundary of adjacent territories. Paired males were more aggressive than unpaired males. Toward the end of an encounter one of the two males would usually perform a display in which the wing and tail feathers were spread and the tail vibrated. Following boundary encounters males drifted back onto their territories and usually sang unbroken courses of songs for several minutes.....During pre-nesting at Macon, a mated pair spent the day mostly on the ground within 20 feet of each other, often foragin g 3 to 4 feet apart. What may have been a form of courtship display, in which the male flew from a perch down to the female and either pecked her rump or pounced on her, occurred about three times each hour throughout the day. During this period the male sang less than at other times during the breeding season.....First nests are usually built by the first week in May. Although other investigators reported finding nests of this species outside of the defended territory, all nests that I have found were within the territory. The large, bulky nest of this species usually is placed 2-6 feet above the ground. It is built by the female from materials gathered close to the nest site; and takes two or three days to complete.....Three and occasionally four white eggs are laid. The female

  19. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  20. Microretroreflector-sedimentation immunoassays for pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gavin; Shakarisaz, David; Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Hagström, Anna E V; Raja, Balakrishnan; Pascente, Carmen; Kar, Archana; Kourentzi, Katerina; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Ruchhoeft, Paul; Willson, Richard C

    2014-09-16

    Point-of-care detection of pathogens is medically valuable but poses challenging trade-offs between instrument complexity and clinical and analytical sensitivity. Here we introduce a diagnostic platform utilizing lithographically fabricated micron-scale forms of cubic retroreflectors, arguably one of the most optically detectable human artifacts, as reporter labels for use in sensitive immunoassays. We demonstrate the applicability of this novel optical label in a simple assay format in which retroreflector cubes are first mixed with the sample. The cubes are then allowed to settle onto an immuno-capture surface, followed by inversion for gravity-driven removal of nonspecifically bound cubes. Cubes bridged to the capture surface by the analyte are detected using inexpensive, low-numerical aperture optics. For model bacterial and viral pathogens, sensitivity in 10% human serum was found to be 10(4) bacterial cells/mL and 10(4) virus particles/mL, consistent with clinical utility.

  1. Nest poaching in Neotropical parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.F.; Toft, C.A.; Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E.; Gonzalez-Elizondo, J.; Albornoz, M.; Rodriguez-Ferraro, A.; Rojas-Suarez, F.; Sanz, V.; Trujillo, A.; Beissinger, S.R.; Berovides A., V.; Galvez A., X.; Brice, A.T.; Joyner, K.; Eberhard, J.; Gilardi, J.; Koenig, S.E.; Stoleson, S.; Martuscelli, P.; Meyers, J.M.; Renton, K.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Sosa-Asanza, A.C.; Vilella, F.J.; Wiley, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the poaching of nestlings for the pet trade is thought to contribute to the decline of many species of parrots, its effects have been poorly demonstrated. We calculated rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 countries. We also examined how poaching rates vary with geographic region, presence of active protection programs, conservation status and economic value of a species, and passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act. The average poaching rate across all studies was 30% of all nests observed. Thirteen studies reported poaching rates of >20%, and four reported rates of >70%. Only six studies documented no nest poaching. Of these, four were conducted on islands in the Caribbean region, which had significantly lower poaching rates than the mainland Neotropics. The other two studies that showed no poaching were conducted on the two species with the lowest economic value in our sample (U.S. retail price). In four studies that allowed direct comparison between poaching at sites with active nest protection versus that at unprotected sites, poaching rates were significantly lower at protected sites, suggesting that active protection efforts can be effective in reducing nest poaching. In those studies conducted both before and after the passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act, poaching rates were found to be significantly lower following its enactment than in the period before. This result supports the hypothesis that the legal and illegal parrot trades are positively related, rather than inversely related as has been suggested by avicultural interests. Overall, our study indicates that poaching of parrot nestlings for economic gain is a widespread and biologically significant source of nest mortality in Neotropical parrots.

  2. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  3. Nest use is influenced by the positions of nests and drinkers in aviaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentfer, T L; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E K F; von Borell, E

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers on nest use by laying hens in a commercial aviary was assessed. Twenty pens in a laying hen house were equipped with the same commercial aviary system, but the pens differed in the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers. Nests were placed along the walls in 10 pens, and nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. The other 10 pens were equipped with nests placed on a tier within the aviary (integrated nests). Nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. A total of 225 Lohmann Selected Leghorns were housed per pen. The hens were offered 4 nests per pen: 2 facing the service corridor of the laying hen house and 2 facing the outdoor area. The numbers of nest eggs and mislaid eggs were counted daily per pen. At 25, 36, and 43 wk of age, the nest platforms were videotaped and the behavior of laying hens in front of the nests was analyzed. The nest location affected the stationary and locomotive behaviors in front of the nests. Hens in front of the integrated nests and the nests with drinkers displayed more stationary behaviors than hens in front of wall-placed nests or nests without drinkers. No difference in the number of nest eggs could be detected, but the integration of the nests inside the aviary led to a more even distribution of hens while nest searching. In the pens with wall-placed nests, significantly more hens laid eggs in the nests at the wall near the service corridor than at the wall near the outdoor area. Due to this imbalance, crowding in front of the preferred nests occurred and pushing and agonistic interactions on the nest platforms were significantly more frequent. Placement of nipple drinkers in front of nests had no effect on the number of eggs laid in those nests.

  4. Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner...... Exformatics, a danish provider of case and workflow management systems. We formalize the semantics by giving first a map from Nested to (flat) DCR Graphs with milestones, and then extending the previously given mapping from DCR Graphs to Buchi-automata to include the milestone relation....

  5. Mass Spectrometric Immunoassays in Characterization of Clinically Significant Proteoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgica Trenchevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteins can exist as multiple proteoforms in vivo, as a result of alternative splicing and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, as well as posttranslational processing. To address their clinical significance in a context of diagnostic information, proteoforms require a more in-depth analysis. Mass spectrometric immunoassays (MSIA have been devised for studying structural diversity in human proteins. MSIA enables protein profiling in a simple and high-throughput manner, by combining the selectivity of targeted immunoassays, with the specificity of mass spectrometric detection. MSIA has been used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of single and multiple proteoforms, distinguishing between normal fluctuations and changes related to clinical conditions. This mini review offers an overview of the development and application of mass spectrometric immunoassays for clinical and population proteomics studies. Provided are examples of some recent developments, and also discussed are the trends and challenges in mass spectrometry-based immunoassays for the next-phase of clinical applications.

  6. Effects of invasive woody plants on avian nest site selection and nesting success in shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Schlossberg; D.I. King

    2010-01-01

    Exotic, invasive plants are a growing conservation problem. Birds frequently use invasive plants as nest substrates, but effects of invasives on avian nesting success have been equivocal in past studies. In 2004 and 2005, we assessed effects of invasive woody plants on avian nest-site selection and nesting success in western Massachusetts shrublands. At the nest scale...

  7. Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancucci, Luis; Martin, Thomas E

    2010-09-01

    1. Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of birds is a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites. 3. Specifically, we tested if: (i) predation increased with nest size; (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size; and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. 4. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests in both sites. However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. 5. Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on nest size and nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nest predation on nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics.

  8. Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use

  9. Critical appraisal of four IL-6 immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Thompson

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 contributes to numerous inflammatory, metabolic, and physiologic pathways of disease. We evaluated four IL-6 immunoassays in order to identify a reliable assay for studies of metabolic and physical function. Serial plasma samples from intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs, with expected rises in IL-6 concentrations, were used to test the face validity of the various assays.IVGTTs, administered to 14 subjects, were performed with a single infusion of glucose (0.3 g/kg body mass at time zero, a single infusion of insulin (0.025 U/kg body mass at 20 minutes, and frequent blood collection from time zero to 180 minutes for subsequent Il-6 measurement. The performance metrics of four IL-6 detection methods were compared: Meso Scale Discovery immunoassay (MSD, an Invitrogen Luminex bead-based multiplex panel (LX, an Invitrogen Ultrasensitive Luminex bead-based singleplex assay (ULX, and R&D High Sensitivity ELISA (R&D. IL-6 concentrations measured with MSD, R&D and ULX correlated with each other (Pearson Correlation Coefficients r = 0.47-0.94, p<0.0001 but only ULX correlated (r = 0.31, p = 0.0027 with Invitrogen Luminex. MSD, R&D, and ULX, but not LX, detected increases in IL-6 in response to glucose. All plasma samples were measurable by MSD, while 35%, 1%, and 4.3% of samples were out of range when measured by LX, ULX, and R&D, respectively. Based on representative data from the MSD assay, baseline plasma IL-6 (0.90 ± 0.48 pg/mL increased significantly as expected by 90 minutes (1.29 ± 0.59 pg/mL, p = 0.049, and continued rising through 3 hours (4.25 ± 3.67 pg/mL, p = 0.0048.This study established the face validity of IL-6 measurement by MSD, R&D, and ULX but not LX, and the superiority of MSD with respect to dynamic range. Plasma IL-6 concentrations increase in response to glucose and insulin, consistent with both an early glucose-dependent response (detectable at 1-2 hours and a late insulin-dependent response

  10. Status of immunoassay as an analytical tool in environmental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Emon, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Immunoassay methods were initially applied in clinical situations where their sensitivity and selectivity were utilized for diagnostic purposes. In the 1970s, pesticide chemists realized the potential benefits of immunoassay methods for compounds difficult to analyze by gas chromatography. This transition of the technology has extended to the analysis of soil, water, food and other matrices of environmental and human exposure significance particularly for compounds difficult to analyze by chromatographic methods. The utility of radioimmunoassays and enzyme immunoassays for environmental investigations was recognized in the 1980s by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) with the initiation of an immunoassay development programme. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (PDA) have investigated immunoassays for the detection of residues in food both from an inspection and a contamination prevention perspective. Environmental immunoassays are providing rapid screening information as well as quantitative information to fulfill rigorous data quality objectives for monitoring programmes

  11. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  12. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  13. Do artificial nests simulate nest success of greater sage-grouse?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Mabray, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial nests have been used to study factors affecting nest success because researchers can manipulate them more than natural bird nests. Many researchers have questioned the validity of generalizing the results from artificial nests onto naturally occurring nests. Other studies have assessed the validity of artificial nest studies by simultaneously comparing overall depredation or daily survival rates, depredation timing, predator species, or habitat characteristics of artificial and nat...

  14. Size matters: Nest colonization patterns for twig-nesting ants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Soto, E; Philpott, SM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Understanding the drivers of ant diversity and co-occurrence in agroecosystems is fundamental because ants participate in interactions that influence agroecosystem processes. Multiple local and regional factors influence ant community assembly. We examined local factors that influence the structure of a twig-nesting ant community in a coffee system in Mexico using an experimental approach. We investigated whether ...

  15. Multicenter Analytical Validation of Aβ40 Immunoassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. C. van Waalwijk van Doorn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBefore implementation in clinical practice, biomarker assays need to be thoroughly analytically validated. There is currently a strong interest in implementation of the ratio of amyloid-β peptide 1-42 and 1-40 (Aβ42/Aβ40 in clinical routine. Therefore, in this study, we compared the analytical performance of six assays detecting Aβ40 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in six laboratories according to a recently standard operating procedure (SOP developed for implementation of ELISA assays for clinical routine.MethodsAβ40 assays of six vendors were validated in up to three centers per assay according to recently proposed international consensus validation protocols. The performance parameters included sensitivity, precision, dilutional linearity, recovery, and parallelism. Inter-laboratory variation was determined using a set of 20 CSF samples. In addition, test results were used to critically evaluate the SOPs that were used to validate the assays.ResultsMost performance parameters of the different Aβ40 assays were similar between labs and within the predefined acceptance criteria. The only exceptions were the out-of-range results of recovery for the majority of experiments and of parallelism by three laboratories. Additionally, experiments to define the dilutional linearity and hook-effect were not executed correctly in part of the centers. The inter-laboratory variation showed acceptable low levels for all assays. Absolute concentrations measured by the assays varied by a factor up to 4.7 for the extremes.ConclusionAll validated Aβ40 assays appeared to be of good technical quality and performed generally well according to predefined criteria. A novel version of the validation SOP is developed based on these findings, to further facilitate implementation of novel immunoassays in clinical practice.

  16. Advanced techniques for modeling avian nest survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, S.J.; White, Gary C.; Knopf, F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of avian nest survival has traditionally involved simple measures of apparent nest survival or Mayfield constant-nest-survival models. However, these methods do not allow researchers to build models that rigorously assess the importance of a wide range of biological factors that affect nest survival. Models that incorporate greater detail, such as temporal variation in nest survival and covariates representative of individual nests represent a substantial improvement over traditional estimation methods. In an attempt to improve nest survival estimation procedures, we introduce the nest survival model now available in the program MARK and demonstrate its use on a nesting study of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus Townsend) in Montana, USA. We modeled the daily survival of Mountain Plover nests as a function of the sex of the incubating adult, nest age, year, linear and quadratic time trends, and two weather covariates (maximum daily temperature and daily precipitation) during a six-year study (1995–2000). We found no evidence for yearly differences or an effect of maximum daily temperature on the daily nest survival of Mountain Plovers. Survival rates of nests tended by female and male plovers differed (female rate = 0.33; male rate = 0.49). The estimate of the additive effect for males on nest survival rate was 0.37 (95% confidence limits were 0.03, 0.71) on a logit scale. Daily survival rates of nests increased with nest age; the estimate of daily nest-age change in survival in the best model was 0.06 (95% confidence limits were 0.04, 0.09) on a logit scale. Daily precipitation decreased the probability that the nest would survive to the next day; the estimate of the additive effect of daily precipitation on the nest survival rate was −1.08 (95% confidence limits were −2.12, −0.13) on a logit scale. Our approach to modeling daily nest-survival rates allowed several biological factors of interest to be easily included in nest survival models

  17. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Millsap; Teryl G. Grubb; Robert K. Murphy; Ted Swem; James W. Watson

    2015-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest), but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests). Conservation plans often protect used nests, but...

  18. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler.

  19. Nest defense- Grassland bird responses to snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Predation is the primary source of nest mortality for most passerines; thus, behaviors to reduce the impacts of predation are frequently quantified to study learning, adaptation, and coevolution among predator and prey species. Video surveillance of nests has made it possible to examine real-time parental nest defense. During 1999-2009, we used video camera systems to monitor 518 nests of grassland birds. We reviewed video of 48 visits by snakes to 34 nests; 37 of these visits resulted in predation of active nests. When adult birds encountered snakes at the nest (n = 33 visits), 76% of the encounters resulted in a form of nest defense (nonaggressive or aggressive); in 47% of the encounters, birds physically struck snakes. When defending nests, most birds pecked at the snakes; Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) and Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) pecked most frequently in anyone encounter. Also, two Eastern Meadowlarks ran around snakes, frequently with wings spread, and three Bobolinks struck at snakes from the air. Nest defense rarely appeared to alter snake behavior; the contents of seven nests defended aggressively and two nests defended nonaggressively were partially depredated, whereas the contents of six nests defended each way were consumed completely. One fledgling was produced at each of three nests that had been aggressively defended. During aggressive defense, one snake appeared to be driven away and one was wounded. Our findings should be a useful starting point for further research. For example, future researchers may be able to determine whether the behavioral variation we observed in nest defense reflects species differences, anatomic or phylogenetic constraints, or individual differences related to a bird's prior experience. There appears to be much potential for studying nest defense behavior using video recording of both real and simulated encounters. 

  20. On the Denesting of Nested Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    We present the basic theory of denesting nested square roots, from an elementary point of view, suitable for lower level coursework. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for direct denesting, where the nested expression is rewritten as a sum of square roots of rational numbers, and for indirect denesting, where the nested expression is…

  1. Differences in predators of artificial and real songbirds nests: Evidence of bias in artificial nest studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Dirk E. Burhans

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, many researchers have used artificial nest to measure relative rates of nest predation. Recent comparisons show that real and artificial nests may not be depredated at the same rate, but no one has examined the mechanisms underlying these patterns. We determined differences in predator-specific predation rates of real and artificial nests. we...

  2. Avoiding the nest : responses of field sparrows to the threat of nest predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk E. Burhans

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure in birds (Ricklefs 1969, Martin 1992). Birds confronted with an enemy near the nest may use behaviors to deter the prospect of nest predation. The benefits of nest defense have been shown for many agressive species (Martin 1992), but smaller birds that cannot deter predators may need to resort to other behaviors...

  3. Quality assurance in immunoassay performance--comparison of different enzyme immunoassays for the determination of caffeine in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandke, Julia; Oberleitner, Lidia; Resch-Genger, Ute; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2013-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays with optical detection are amongst the most widely used bioanalytical tools. We defined seven parameters for the quality assessment of immunoassays that were addressed in a systematic study of direct and indirect immunoassays, using the enzymes horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), the chromogenic substrates 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and para-nitrophenyl phosphate, and the fluorescent substrates 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate. The same monoclonal antibody against caffeine was used throughout the study. The four quality parameters regarding the standard curve were the test midpoint (sensitivity), the measurement range, the relative dynamic range of the signal, and the goodness of fit of the adjusted four-parameter logistic function. All HRP immunoassays showed a higher sensitivity compared to the AP assays. On the basis of all four criteria, it was established that the direct assay format is superior to the indirect format, the immunoassay using HRP TMB fulfilling all requirements best. In a second step, caffeine concentrations in 24 beverage and cosmetics samples were determined and three more quality parameters were assessed with this application. The direct HRP TMB assay showed one of the best intra- and inter-plate precisions and the best accuracy, defined by the correlation of results with those from the chosen reference method liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Considering all criteria, HRP TMB seems to be the enzyme substrate system of choice preferably used in the direct assay format.

  4. Antigen excess in modern immunoassays: to anticipate on the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joannes F M; van der Molen, Renate G; Bossuyt, Xavier; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Immunoassays measuring sera with high analyte concentration may be prone to an artifact that causes underestimation of the analyte concentration. This phenomenon is generally described as antigen excess or the prozone effect. Characteristically, serum with high concentrations of a certain analyte can give a false negative/low result when tested at the recommended dilution, but reacts strongly positive upon further dilution. Increased insight of the antigen excess mechanisms and tools to prevent it has reduced the analytical problems caused by prozone effects in daily laboratory practice. However, misinterpretation of laboratory results caused by antigen excess does still occur, in virtually any type of immunoassay. Awareness by the laboratory specialist of the mechanisms underlying antigen excess in the different immunoassays, strategies to detect it, and adequate communication with clinicians can help to avoid reporting false negative test-results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Peptide dot immunoassay and immunoblotting: electroblotting from aluminum thin-layer chromatography plates and isoelectric focusing gels to activated nitrocellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O.J.; Holm, A.; Lauritzen, Edgar

    1993-01-01

    Peptide dot immunoassay, electroblotting, activated nitrocellulose, dot blot, membranes, peptides and proteins......Peptide dot immunoassay, electroblotting, activated nitrocellulose, dot blot, membranes, peptides and proteins...

  6. From neurons to nests: nest-building behaviour as a model in behavioural and comparative neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zachary J; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, specifically, how the avian brain controls nest building. Here, we argue that nest building in birds may be a useful model behaviour in which to study how the brain controls behaviour. Specifically, we argue that nest building as a behavioural model provides a unique opportunity to study not only the mechanisms through which the brain controls behaviour within individuals of a single species but also how evolution may have shaped the brain to produce interspecific variation in nest-building behaviour. In this review, we outline the questions in both behavioural and comparative neuroscience that nest building could be used to address, summarize recent findings regarding the neurobiology of nest building in lab-reared zebra finches and across species building different nest structures, and suggest some future directions for the neurobiology of nest building.

  7. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    Use of nest boxes is an important part of the behavioural repertoire of laying hens kept under commercial conditions. A special form of nest box use is gregarious nesting, which occurs when a hen given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site...... risk of broken or dirty eggs. The main objectives were to investigate the use of nest boxes according to their position and the occurrence of gregarious nesting with age. Twelve groups of 15 Isa Warren hens were housed in pens each containing three adjacent roll-out nest boxes only differing...... and higher at age 20 weeks than at the other ages (P eggs were laid in the left nest box than in the other two nest boxes (P  0.05). The proportion of gregarious visits of the total number of visits, where the hens had a choice between...

  8. Detection of antinuclear antibodies by solid-phase immunoassays and immunofluorescence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Wiik, Allan; Høier-Madsen, Mimi

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are associated with several inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and compare them with classic immunofluorescent analysis (IFA) for the detection of ANA. METHODS: Seven enzyme immunoassays...

  9. Rapid detection of fungal alpha-amylase in the work environment with a lateral flow immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, J.; Koets, M.; Sander, I.; Wouters, I.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Amerongen, van A.; Doekes, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background Occupational allergen exposure assessment usually requires airborne dust sampling at the worksite followed by dust extraction and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis at the laboratory. Use of semiquantitative lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) may allow a more rapid detection procedure with

  10. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  11. Variability in telavancin cross-reactivity among vancomycin immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConeghy, Kevin W; Liao, Siyun; Clark, Douglas; Worboys, Philip; Barriere, Steven L; Rodvold, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Telavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with a dual mechanism of action against Gram-positive pathogens. Two brief reports have suggested potential cross-reactivity of telavancin with the vancomycin particle-enhanced turbidometric immunoassay (PETIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate several commercially available vancomycin immunoassays (fluorescence polarization [FPIA], enzyme-multiplied immunoassays [EMIT], PETIA, and chemiluminescent immunoassay [CMIA]) for cross-reactivity with telavancin. Seven sites were selected to analyze serum samples for vancomycin. Each site received a set of samples (n = 18) which combined drug-free serum with telavancin, 7-OH telavancin metabolite, or vancomycin. Immunoassays demonstrating potential cross-reactivity were further evaluated by sending a duplicate sample set to multiple laboratories. Cross-reactivity was defined as the percent theoretical concentration (reported concentration/theoretical concentration × 100). No cross-reactivity was seen with FPIA or EMIT. Within the theoretical concentration range of 5 to 120 μg/ml of telavancin, the Synchron PETIA system reported vancomycin concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 54.2 μg/ml compared to vancomycin concentrations from 1.1 to 5.6 μg/ml for the Vista PETIA system. The Architect CMIA system reported vancomycin concentrations in the range of 0.27 to 0.97 μg/ml, whereas Advia Centaur XP CMIA reported vancomycin concentrations between 1.6 and 31.6 μg/ml. The Architect CMIA immunoassay had the lowest percent cross-reactivity (0.8 to 5.4%), while the Synchron PETIA immunoassay demonstrated the highest percent cross-reactivity (45.2 to 53.8%). Telavancin samples measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 93.9 to 122% of theoretical concentrations. Vancomycin concentrations were not measured in any 7-OH telavancin-spiked sample. Vancomycin concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 57.2 to 113% of

  12. Nested polyhedra model of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcan, Ö. D.

    2017-06-01

    A discretization of the wave-number space is proposed, using nested polyhedra, in the form of alternating dodecahedra and icosahedra that are self-similarly scaled. This particular choice allows the possibility of forming triangles using only discretized wave vectors when the scaling between two consecutive dodecahedra is equal to the golden ratio and the icosahedron between the two dodecahedra is the dual of the inner dodecahedron. Alternatively, the same discretization can be described as a logarithmically spaced (with a scaling equal to the golden ratio), nested dodecahedron-icosahedron compounds. A wave vector which points from the origin to a vertex of such a mesh, can always find two other discretized wave vectors that are also on the vertices of the mesh (which is not true for an arbitrary mesh). Thus, the nested polyhedra grid can be thought of as a reduction (or decimation) of the Fourier space using a particular set of self-similar triads arranged approximately in a spherical form. For each vertex (i.e., discretized wave vector) in this space, there are either 9 or 15 pairs of vertices (i.e., wave vectors) with which the initial vertex can interact to form a triangle. This allows the reduction of the convolution integral in the Navier-Stokes equation to a sum over 9 or 15 interaction pairs, transforming the equation in Fourier space to a network of "interacting" nodes that can be constructed as a numerical model, which evolves each component of the velocity vector on each node of the network. This model gives the usual Kolmogorov spectrum of k-5 /3. Since the scaling is logarithmic, and the number of nodes for each scale is constant, a very large inertial range (i.e., a very high Reynolds number) with a much lower number of degrees of freedom can be considered. Incidentally, by assuming isotropy and a certain relation between the phases, the model can be used to systematically derive shell models.

  13. Eggs in the Freezer: Energetic Consequences of Nest Site and Nest Design in Arctic Breeding Shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Tulp, Ingrid; Schekkerman, Hans; de Leeuw, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their nests in thermally favourable microhabitats and/or to invest more in nest insulation than large species. To test this hypothesis, we examined characteristics of nests of six Arctic breeding shorebird s...

  14. Interactive effects between nest microclimate and nest vegetation structure confirm microclimate thresholds for Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Godar, Alixandra J.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) spans 4 unique ecoregions along 2 distinct environmental gradients. The Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion of the Southern High Plains of New Mexico and Texas is environmentally isolated, warmer, and more arid than the Short-Grass, Sand Sagebrush, and Mixed-Grass Prairie ecoregions in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and the northeast panhandle of Texas. Weather is known to influence Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion; regional variation may also influence nest microclimate and, ultimately, survival during incubation. To address this question, we placed data loggers adjacent to nests during incubation to quantify temperature and humidity distribution functions in 3 ecoregions. We developed a suite of a priori nest survival models that incorporated derived microclimate parameters and visual obstruction as covariates in Program MARK. We monitored 49 nests in Mixed-Grass, 22 nests in Sand Shinnery Oak, and 30 nests in Short-Grass ecoregions from 2010 to 2014. Our findings indicated that (1) the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion was hotter and drier during incubation than the Mixed- and Short-Grass ecoregions; (2) nest microclimate varied among years within ecoregions; (3) visual obstruction was positively associated with nest survival; but (4) daily nest survival probability decreased by 10% every half-hour when temperature was greater than 34°C and vapor pressure deficit was less than −23 mmHg during the day (about 0600–2100 hours). Our major finding confirmed microclimate thresholds for nest survival under natural conditions across the species' distribution, although Lesser Prairie-Chickens are more likely to experience microclimate conditions that result in nest failures in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion. The species would benefit from identification of thermal landscapes and management actions that promote cooler, more humid nest microclimates.

  15. Polytypic Functions Over Nested Datatypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hinze

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of polytypic programming is intimately connected with the initial algebra semantics of datatypes. This is both a blessing and a curse. It is a blessing because the underlying theory is beautiful and well developed. It is a curse because the initial algebra semantics is restricted to so-called regular datatypes. Recent work by R. Bird and L. Meertens [3] on the semantics of non-regular or nested datatypes suggests that an extension to general datatypes is not entirely straightforward. Here we propose an alternative that extends polytypism to arbitrary datatypes, including nested datatypes and mutually recursive datatypes. The central idea is to use rational trees over a suitable set of functor symbols as type arguments for polytypic functions. Besides covering a wider range of types the approach is also simpler and technically less involving than previous ones. We present several examples of polytypic functions, among others polytypic reduction and polytypic equality. The presentation assumes some background in functional and in polytypic programming. A basic knowledge of monads is required for some of the examples.

  16. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P laying period did not differ between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.41). Numbers of visits to and eggs laid in nest boxes positioned either left or right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned......Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... nesting materials (straw, peat, wood-shavings). In both experiments six control groups were provided with three identical nest boxes containing wood-shavings. Daily egg collection and video recordings were performed during both experiments (eight and seven days, respectively). The proportion of gregarious...

  17. Immunoassay Analysis of Kanamycin in Serum Using the Tobramycin Kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J. A.; Voerman, A. J.; Greijdanus, B.; Touw, D. J.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.

    Kanamycin is one of the aminoglycosides used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Blood concentrations of kanamycin are predictive for the treatment efficacy and the occurrence of side effects, and dose adjustments can be needed to optimize therapy. However, an immunoassay method

  18. Toward a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at the development of a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in cow's milk. Progesterone is a steroid hormone and regulates ovulation in female mammals. The concentration of progesterone in blood and in milk is in accordance with the reproductive cycle of the individual

  19. Is the turbidimetric immunoassay of haptoglobin phenotype-dependent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, H.J.M. van; Wilt, W. van der; Stroes, J.W.; Schrijver, J.

    Comparison of the turbidimetric immunoassay of haptoglobin with a reference method (the RID technique with appropriate correction for phenotype) clearly showed the turbidimetric assay to be phenotype-dependent. Correction factors for the three main phenotypes were calculated and reference values

  20. AN EVALUATION OF FIVE COMMERCIAL IMMUNOASSAY DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis revealed numerous deficiencies. Often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. Several data sets were run through each system using a four-parameter calibration f...

  1. An enzyme immunoassay for detection of Japanese encephalitis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induces human peripheral blood monocytes to secrete a chemotactic cytokine [human macrophage-derived factor (hMDF)] which causes chemotaxis of neutrophils. The only known assay for hMDF cannot quantify its level in samples, so an enzyme immunoassay has been standardized for ...

  2. Multiplex biosensor immunoassays for antibiotics in the food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals may result in unwanted residues in food products. The main objective of the present research was to study the development and application of fast and automated multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassays (BIAs), based on

  3. An enzyme immunoassay for detection of Japanese encephalitis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enzyme immunoassay; human macrophage-derived factor; Japanese encephalitis virus. Abbreviations used: ... macrophage-derived factor; HBSS, Hank's balanced salt solution; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; MEM, minimum essential medium; FCS ..... much attention as pathogenic or marker substance in various diseases (Ida ...

  4. Biosensor immunoassay for flumequine in broiler serum and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Gercek, H.; Cazemier, G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Flumequine (Flu) is one of the fluoroquinolones most frequently applied for the treatment of broilers in The Netherlands. For the detection of residues of Flu in blood serum of broilers, a biosensor immunoassay (BIA) was developed which was fast (7.5 min per sample) and specific (no cross-reactivity

  5. Flow cytometric immunoassay for sulfonamides in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, de W.; Bienenmann-Ploum, M.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Haasnoot, W.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are applied in veterinary medicine for the treatment of microbial infections. For the detection of residues of sulfonamides in milk, a multi-sulfonamide flow cytometric immunoassay (FCI) was developed using the Luminex MultiAnalyte Profiling (xMAP) technology. In this

  6. Eggs in the freezer: energetic consequences of nest site and nest design in Arctic breeding shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulp, Ingrid; Schekkerman, Hans; de Leeuw, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their nests in thermally favourable microhabitats and/or to invest more in nest insulation than large species. To test this hypothesis, we examined characteristics of nests of six Arctic breeding shorebird species. All species chose thermally favourable nesting sites in a higher proportion than expected on the basis of habitat availability. Site choice did not differ between species. Depth to frozen ground, measured near the nests, decreased in the course of the season at similar non-species-specific speeds, but this depth increased with species size. Nest cup depth and nest scrape depth (nest cup without the lining) were unrelated to body mass (we applied an exponent of 0.73, to account for metabolic activity of the differently sized species). Cup depth divided by diameter(2) was used as a measure of nest cup shape. Small species had narrow and deep nests, while large species had wide shallow nests. The thickness of nest lining varied between 0.1 cm and 7.6 cm, and decreased significantly with body mass. We reconstruct the combined effect of different nest properties on the egg cooling coefficient using previously published quantitative relationships. The predicted effect of nest cup depth and lining depth on heat loss to the frozen ground did not correlate with body mass, but the sheltering effect of nest cup diameter against wind and the effects of lining material on the cooling coefficient increased with body mass. Our results suggest that small arctic shorebirds invest more in the insulation of their nests than large species.

  7. Eggs in the freezer: energetic consequences of nest site and nest design in Arctic breeding shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tulp

    Full Text Available Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their nests in thermally favourable microhabitats and/or to invest more in nest insulation than large species. To test this hypothesis, we examined characteristics of nests of six Arctic breeding shorebird species. All species chose thermally favourable nesting sites in a higher proportion than expected on the basis of habitat availability. Site choice did not differ between species. Depth to frozen ground, measured near the nests, decreased in the course of the season at similar non-species-specific speeds, but this depth increased with species size. Nest cup depth and nest scrape depth (nest cup without the lining were unrelated to body mass (we applied an exponent of 0.73, to account for metabolic activity of the differently sized species. Cup depth divided by diameter(2 was used as a measure of nest cup shape. Small species had narrow and deep nests, while large species had wide shallow nests. The thickness of nest lining varied between 0.1 cm and 7.6 cm, and decreased significantly with body mass. We reconstruct the combined effect of different nest properties on the egg cooling coefficient using previously published quantitative relationships. The predicted effect of nest cup depth and lining depth on heat loss to the frozen ground did not correlate with body mass, but the sheltering effect of nest cup diameter against wind and the effects of lining material on the cooling coefficient increased with body mass. Our results suggest that small arctic shorebirds invest more in the insulation of their nests than large species.

  8. Waterbird nest-site selection is influenced by neighboring nests and island topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Avian nest-site selection is influenced by factors operating across multiple spatial scales. Identifying preferred physical characteristics (e.g., topography, vegetation structure) can inform managers to improve nesting habitat suitability. However, social factors (e.g., attraction, territoriality, competition) can complicate understanding physical characteristics preferred by nesting birds. We simultaneously evaluated the physical characteristics and social factors influencing selection of island nest sites by colonial-nesting American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) at 2 spatial scales in San Francisco Bay, 2011–2012. At the larger island plot (1 m2) scale, we used real-time kinematics to produce detailed topographies of nesting islands and map the distribution of nests. Nesting probability was greatest in island plots between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, at distances vegetation, and distance to nearest nest between nest sites and paired random sites. Topography had little influence on selection of the nest microhabitat. Instead, nest sites were more likely to have vegetation present, and greater cover, than random sites. Finally, avocet, and to a lesser extent tern, nest sites were closer to other active conspecific or heterospecific nests than random sites, indicating that social attraction played a role in selection of nest microhabitat. Our results demonstrate key differences in nest-site selection between co-occurring avocets and terns, and indicate the effects of physical characteristics and social factors on selection of nesting habitat are dependent on the spatial scale examined. Moreover, these results indicate that islands with abundant area between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, within 10 m of the water's edge, and containing a mosaic of slopes ranging from flat to moderately steep would provide preferred nesting habitat for avocets and terns. © 2016 The Wildlife Society.

  9. Fabricating a UV-Vis and Raman Spectroscopy Immunoassay Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Cynthia; Israelsen, Nathan D; Sieverts, Michael; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2016-11-10

    Immunoassays are used to detect proteins based on the presence of associated antibodies. Because of their extensive use in research and clinical settings, a large infrastructure of immunoassay instruments and materials can be found. For example, 96- and 384-well polystyrene plates are available commercially and have a standard design to accommodate ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy machines from various manufacturers. In addition, a wide variety of immunoglobulins, detection tags, and blocking agents for customized immunoassay designs such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are available. Despite the existing infrastructure, standard ELISA kits do not meet all research needs, requiring individualized immunoassay development, which can be expensive and time-consuming. For example, ELISA kits have low multiplexing (detection of more than one analyte at a time) capabilities as they usually depend on fluorescence or colorimetric methods for detection. Colorimetric and fluorescent-based analyses have limited multiplexing capabilities due to broad spectral peaks. In contrast, Raman spectroscopy-based methods have a much greater capability for multiplexing due to narrow emission peaks. Another advantage of Raman spectroscopy is that Raman reporters experience significantly less photobleaching than fluorescent tags 1 . Despite the advantages that Raman reporters have over fluorescent and colorimetric tags, protocols to fabricate Raman-based immunoassays are limited. The purpose of this paper is to provide a protocol to prepare functionalized probes to use in conjunction with polystyrene plates for direct detection of analytes by UV-Vis analysis and Raman spectroscopy. This protocol will allow researchers to take a do-it-yourself approach for future multi-analyte detection while capitalizing on pre-established infrastructure.

  10. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  11. An economical wireless cavity-nest viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Sarah R. Hurteau

    2007-01-01

    Inspection of cavity nests and nest boxes is often required during studies of cavity-nesting birds, and fiberscopes and pole-mounted video cameras are sometimes used for such inspection. However, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive for some potential users. We describe a user-built, wireless cavity viewer that can be used to access cavities as high as 15 m and...

  12. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Barbuti, Roberto; Chessa, Stefano; Micheli, Alessio; Pucci, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating). Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS) which is...

  13. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis-based immunoassay with fluorescence polarization immunoassay for the immunodetermination of methamphetamine using various methamphetamine antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Kim, C; Choi, M J

    1998-11-01

    An accurate and simple immunoassay using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was performed for the detection of methamphetamine (MA) in urine. The CE-LIF was conducted with an untreated fused-silica column using antiserum and a tracer of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled MA. This CE-LIF system was compared with fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) in a TDx analyzer in the photo-check mode using the same FITC-labeled tracer and the same antiserum. Various antibodies, not only those prepared by our own immunogens but also those from commercial sources, were screened and characterized in both assay systems with regard to sensitivity, precision, and cross-reactivity. Both systems satisfied analytical precision and gave similar cross-reactivity patterns. However, the CE-LIF-based immunoassay was approximately one order superior to FPIA in sensitivity, requiring less volume of sample, antiserum, and tracer for the assay. Considering that the FPIA system is well known to be a useful tool for screening antibodies and detecting drugs, the CE-LIF-based immunoassay system, which is seemingly more advantageous than the FPIA system, appears to have great power for the characterization of antibodies and for the detection of MA in urine.

  14. The design and function of birds' nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-10-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in New Hampshire. Vector points in this data set represent locations of nesting osprey...

  16. Livestock grazing and trampling of birds' nests: An experiment using artificial nests

    OpenAIRE

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the differences between four grazing treatments on the trampling of nests. Additionally, we examine to what extent the trampling probability of nests is higher close to a source of fresh water. We compare the trampling of artificial nests in five different grazing treatments in an experimental design. We use buried clay pigeon targets as artificial mimics of bird nests to obtain reliable estimates of trampling risk and compare these wit...

  17. Biomechanical testing of materials in avian nests provides insight into nest construction behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Lucia E.; Deeming, D. Charles; Goodman, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that use materials to build nest structures have long since fascinated biologists and engineers alike. Avian nests are generally composed of collected materials brought together into a cup-like structure in which the bird sits to incubate eggs and, in many cases, it is where chicks are reared. Hence, the materials in a nest can be presumed to be loaded in compression, but relatively few studies have investigated the mechanical role of the nest elements and their position w...

  18. Livestock grazing and trampling of birds' nests : An experiment using artificial nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Bakker, Jan P.

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the differences between four grazing treatments on the trampling of nests. Additionally, we examine to what extent the trampling probability of nests is higher close to a source of fresh water. We compare the trampling of artificial nests in

  19. Landscape forest cover and edge effects on songbird nest predation vary by nest predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    Rates of nest predation for birds vary between and within species across multiple spatial scales, but we have a poor understanding of which predators drive such patterns. We video-monitored nests and identified predators at 120 nests of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) at eight...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6027 - Nested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nested. 29.6027 Section 29.6027 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6027 Nested. Any tobacco which has been loaded, packed, or arranged to...

  1. Biomechanics of Nested Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; de Tranaltes, Kaylee; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Reyes, Phillip M; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Tumialán, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Arthrodesis is optimized when the structural graft occupies most of the surface area within a disc space. The transforaminal corridor inherently limits interbody size. To evaluate the biomechanical implications of nested interbody spacers (ie, a second curved cage placed behind a first) to increase disc space coverage in transforaminal approaches. Seven lumbar human cadaveric specimens (L3-S1) underwent nondestructive flexibility and axial compression testing intact and after transforaminal instrumentation at L4-L5. Specimens were tested in 5 conditions: (1) intact, (2) interbody, (3) interbody plus bilateral pedicle screws and rods (PSR), (4) 2 nested interbodies, and (5) 2 nested interbodies plus PSR. Mean range of motion (ROM) with 1 interbody vs 2 nested interbodies, respectively, was: flexion, 101% vs 85%; extension, 97% vs 92%; lateral bending, 127% vs 132%; and axial rotation, 145% vs 154%. One interbody and 2 nested interbodies did not differ significantly by loading mode (P > .10). With PSR, ROM decreased significantly compared with intact, but not between interbody and interbody plus PSR or 2 interbodies plus PSR (P > .80). Mean vertical height during compressive loading (ie, axial compressive stiffness) was significantly different with 2 nested interbodies vs 1 interbody alone (P < .001) (compressive stiffness, 89% of intact vs 67% of intact, respectively). Inserting a second interbody using a transforaminal approach is anatomically feasible and nearly doubles the disc space covered without affecting ROM. Compressive stiffness significantly increased with 2 nested interbodies, and foraminal height increased. Evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of nested interbodies is underway.

  2. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  3. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    TakYu, Zeta; Guan, Huijiao; Ki Cheung, Mei; McHugh, Walker M.; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology (‘AlphaLISA’) in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45 min with a limit of detection down to 10 pg mL-1. The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications.

  4. Evaluation of four immunoassays for diagnosis of brucellosis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraza, C.; Valdes, O.; Fonseca, N.; Garcia, M.; Alvarez, M.; Izquierdo, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Four immunoassays (two indirect and two competitive ones) were evaluated by samples from areas free of disease, free by vaccination and affected areas using as reference techniques the Bengal Rose Tests, the Antigen in Buffered Plate Tests and the Complement Fixation Reaction Test. The evaluated samples demonstrated that the competitive assays (ELISAC-1 and ELISAC-2) detected less false positives than the indirect ones (ELISAI-1 and ELISAI-2). Of the competitive ELISAS, version 2 presented better sensitivity and specificity results in affected areas for 95% confidence: 80.9 - 96.9% and 97.5 - 99.4% respectively with positive predictive value in the range of 76 to 94% and negative predictive one between 98.1 and 99.7%. It was concluded that this assay can be used for brucellosis control because it gives higher assurance than the other evaluated immunoassays and it can discriminate infected from vaccinated animals. (author)

  5. Electrochemical enzyme-linked immunoassay in a DNA hybridization sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Kizek, René; Havran, Luděk; Billová, Sabina; Fojta, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 469, č. 1 (2002), s. 73-83 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/97/K084; GA ČR GA204/00/D049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemical sensor for DNA hybridization * enzyme-linked immunoassay of target DNA * magnetic beads with attached DNA probe Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.114, year: 2002

  6. A specific radio-immunoassay for Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, S.; Millar, R.; Pimstone, B.

    1975-01-01

    A specific antiserum has been made to synthetic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and appears to be directed against amino acids 6 - 8 of this decapeptide. This has allowed the development of a radio-immunoassay for GnRH sensitive to 5 picograms per tube. Although it is easily measurable in hypothalamic extracts, we have failed to detect GnRH in plasma and urine from normal subjects and menopausal women

  7. Cavity enhanced immunoassay measurements in microtiter plates using BBCEAS

    OpenAIRE

    Bajuszova, Z; Ali, Z; Scott, SM; Seetohul, LN; Islam, M

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first detailed use of broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) as a detection system for immunoassay. A vertical R ≥ 0.99 optical cavity was integrated with a motorised XY stage, which functioned as a receptacle for 96 well microtiter plates. The custom built cavity enhanced microplate reader was used to make measurements on a commercially available osteocalcin sandwich ELISA kit. A 30 fold increase in path length was obtained with a minimum detectable chang...

  8. Efavirenz interference in urine screening immunoassays for tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Nicholette M; Laurens, Johannes B

    2012-03-01

    It has been known for some time that the antiretroviral drug, efavirenz (EFV), cross-reacts in urine immunoassays for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Because published studies investigating this phenomenon are limited, cross-reactivity information for several immunoassays is lacking. Reports of possible false-positive THC results from clinicians conducting workplace testing prompted us to investigate cross-reactivity for assays frequently employed in our own setting. In light of the potentially deleterious consequences of misclassification, information about EFV cross-reactivity should be included in product information to facilitate interpretation of results and assay selection. Random urine samples from 30 patients on EFV therapy were analysed for THC metabolites by two near-testing devices (THC One Step Marijuana and Rapid Response(®) Drugs of Abuse Test Strips) and two automated immunoassays (Roche Diagnostics Cannabinoids II and Beckman Coulter SYNCHRON(®) Systems THC2). THC confirmatory testing was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS failed to detect THC metabolites in any of the samples, as did three of the four immunoassays. However, the Rapid Response(®) test strips yielded positive results in 28 out of 30 samples, which could be reversed on re-testing after sample pretreatment with glucuronidase. Our study supports previous findings that interference is attributable to a glucuronidated EFV metabolite. We postulate that cross-reactivity is influenced by the composition of immunogens used to elicit anti-THC antibodies. Since access to such information is restricted, contributions from scientists in the antibody industry may be enlightening.

  9. History of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-based immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, Charlotte; Waentig, Larissa; Panne, Ulrich; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of biomolecules requires highly sensitive and selective detection methods capable of tolerating a complex, biological matrix. First applications of biomolecule detection by ICP-MS relied on the use of heteroelements as a label for quantification. However, the combination of immunoassays and ICP-MS facilitates multiparametric analyses through elemental tagging, and provides a powerful alternative to common bioanalytical methods. This approach extends the detection of biomarkers in clinical diagnosis, and has the potential to provide a deeper understanding of the investigated biological system. The results might lead to the detection of diseases at an early stage, or guide treatment plans. Immunoassays are well accepted and established for diagnostic purposes, albeit ICP-MS is scarcely applied for the detection of immune-based assays. However, the screening of biomarkers demands high throughput and multiplex/multiparametric techniques, considering the variety of analytes to be queried. Finally, quantitative information on the expression level of biomarkers is highly desirable to identify abnormalities in a given organism. Thus, it is the aim of this review to introduce the fundamentals, and to discuss the enormous strength of ICP-MS for the detection of different immunoassays on the basis of selected applications, with a special focus on LA‐ICP‐MS. - Highlights: ► We discuss the fundamentals of elemental tagging for ICP‐MS applications. ► We propose a definition for the expressions “label” and “tag”. ► We highlight LA‐ICP‐MS‐based heteroelement detection. ► We give an historic overview on ICP-MS and LA‐ICP‐MS-based immunoassays. ► In a personal outlook, we discuss future improvements realistically attainable.

  10. Label-Free Electrochemical Immunoassay for C-Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madasamy Thangamuthu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most expressed proteins in blood during acute phase inflammation, and its minute level increase has also been recognized for the clinical diagnosis of cardio vascular diseases. Unfortunately, the available commercial immunoassays are labour intensive, require large sample volumes, and have practical limitations, such as low stability and high production costs. Hence, we have developed a simple, cost effective, and label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the measurement of CRP in a drop of serum sample using an immunosensor strip made up of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPE modified with anti-CRP functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. The measurement relies on the decrease of the oxidation current of the redox indicator Fe3+/Fe2+, resulting from the immunoreaction between CRP and anti-CRP. Under optimal conditions, the present immunoassay measures CRP in a linear range from 0.4–200 nM (0.047–23.6 µg mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.15 nM (17 ng mL−1, S/N = 3 and sensitivity of 90.7 nA nM−1, in addition to a good reproducibility and storage stability. The analytical applicability of the presented immunoassay is verified by CRP measurements in human blood serum samples. This work provides the basis for a low-priced, safe, and easy-to-use point-of-care immunosensor assay to measure CRP at clinically relevant concentrations.

  11. Towards the development of a radioenzyme-immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurs, A.H.W.M.; Waart, M. v. d.

    1976-01-01

    We have tried to develop a very sensitive enzyme-immunoassay. For this purpose, a very sensitive radiochemical enzyme assay was used. HCG was chosen as test model and AChE as labelling enzyme. The test appeared to be much more sensitive than the normal enzymeimmunoassay. And, in comparison with RIA, it was about as sensitive but less time-consuming, and it makes use, in principle, of stable reagents. (orig./GSE) [de

  12. History of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-based immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesen, Charlotte, E-mail: charlotte.giesen@uzh.ch [University of Zurich, Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Waentig, Larissa [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Panne, Ulrich [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Chemistry, Brook-Taylor-Strasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Jakubowski, Norbert [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The analysis of biomolecules requires highly sensitive and selective detection methods capable of tolerating a complex, biological matrix. First applications of biomolecule detection by ICP-MS relied on the use of heteroelements as a label for quantification. However, the combination of immunoassays and ICP-MS facilitates multiparametric analyses through elemental tagging, and provides a powerful alternative to common bioanalytical methods. This approach extends the detection of biomarkers in clinical diagnosis, and has the potential to provide a deeper understanding of the investigated biological system. The results might lead to the detection of diseases at an early stage, or guide treatment plans. Immunoassays are well accepted and established for diagnostic purposes, albeit ICP-MS is scarcely applied for the detection of immune-based assays. However, the screening of biomarkers demands high throughput and multiplex/multiparametric techniques, considering the variety of analytes to be queried. Finally, quantitative information on the expression level of biomarkers is highly desirable to identify abnormalities in a given organism. Thus, it is the aim of this review to introduce the fundamentals, and to discuss the enormous strength of ICP-MS for the detection of different immunoassays on the basis of selected applications, with a special focus on LA-ICP-MS. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discuss the fundamentals of elemental tagging for ICP-MS applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a definition for the expressions 'label' and 'tag'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We highlight LA-ICP-MS-based heteroelement detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an historic overview on ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS-based immunoassays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In a personal outlook, we discuss future improvements realistically attainable.

  13. Current status and future developments in radiolabelled immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used extensively in medical practice and their use in RIA or IRMA usually represent a small proportion of the total. Radiolabelled immunoassays based on 125 I constitute a simple didactic, cost effective and robust technology which is still regarded as the reference method in many clinical applications. The IAEA has implemented many successful programmes using the ''bulk reagent'' approach, involving 68 countries in all the different regions. The main achievements have been in technology transfer with self sufficiency in production for some countries; training of large numbers of staff; quality control and quality assurance schemes; devolution of screening programmes for neonatal congenital hypothryoidism. Alternatives to the use of radioisotopic tracers are constrained by many factors and are often only available in restricted commercial packages. They are often not suitable for technology transfer programmes and often lack any didactic component in addition to a relative high cost. The production of radiolabels using 125 I is both simple and adaptable. In addition expertise in their preparation and purification is widespread even in developing countries. Together with the ease of producing antibodies, the facts have made 125 I-radiolabelled immunoassays ideal for investigative procedures for many research activities (30,31) particularly in the medical context where radioisotopes are commonly used. In conclusion, even a superficial examination of public health statistics for various countries throughout the continents indicates a need for a simple, inexpensive and robust analytical tool. In this light, there is a predicted continuing role for radiolabelled immunoassays. (author)

  14. Development of immunoassays for detecting clothianidin residue in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Sheng, Enze; Cong, Lujing; Wang, Minghua

    2013-04-17

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs) for clothianidin are described: colorimetric detection format (ELISA) and pattern of chemiluminescent assay (CLEIA). Clothianidin hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to produce immunogen and coating antigen. Anticlothianidin PcAbs were obtained from immunized New Zealand white rabbits. Under optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC₂₀) of clothianidin were 0.046 and 0.0028 mg/L for the ELISA and 0.015 and 0.0014 mg/L for the CLEIA, respectively. There were no obvious cross-reactivities of the antibodies with its analogues except for dinotefuran. Recoveries of 76.4-116.4% for the immunoassays were achieved from spiked samples. The results of immunoassays for the spiked and authentic samples were largely consistent with gas chromatography. Therefore, the proposed immunoassays would be convenient and satisfactory analytical methods for the monitoring of clothianidin in agricultural products.

  15. Simple patterned nanofiber scaffolds and its enhanced performance in immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Cancer has become the leading cause of death worldwide; early diagnosis and treatment of cancers is critical for the survival of the patients. The concentration of cancer markers in easy-to-access biological fluids can provide great assistance in screening for occult primary cancers, distinguishing malignant from benign findings, determining prognosis and prediction for cancer patients. The multiplex detection technology of a panel of cancer markers can greatly increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Herein, we briefly fabricate a high-throughput micro-immunoassay based on the electrospun polystyrene (PS substrates to improve detection sensitivity. The immunoassay was evaluated by analyzing three different cancer biomarkers (AFP, CEA, VEGF. For AFP, CEA, VEGF immunofluorescence assay, the LOD of assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates before or after plasma and the conventional PS substrates were 0.42, 0.10, 1.12 ng/mL, 0.57, 0.09, 1.24 ng/mL, and 159.75, 26.19, 385.59 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05. Due to the high porosity and large surface area-to-volume ratio which is the foremost merit of nanostructures, and the plasma treatment which make the hydrophobic PS nanofibers hydropholic, the nanofibers substrates showed sufficient retention of immunoassay functionality and high potential for capture molecules immobilization. Consequently, the immunofluorescence assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates could significantly enhance the sensitivity and limits of detection.

  16. Development of Polyclonal Antibody against Clenbuterol for Immunoassay Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ain A. Talib

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of an immunoassay for clenbuterol (CLB detection required an anti-CLB antibody as an important bioreceptor. In this study, we report our work on production and purification of a rabbit-derived polyclonal anti-CLB antibody. The antibody was then purified by nProtein A Sepharose affinity column and the antibody purity was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis. The activities of purified antibody were evaluated based on high antibody titer determined from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The sensitivity and selectivity of this antibody was evaluated and exhibits negligible cross-reactivity to antibiotics other than β-agonist families. Evaluation of the antibody as bioreceptor in immunoassay was performed using direct competitive ELISA and exhibited linear calibration plot (R2 = 0.9484. The antibody was used to detect the content of CLB in spiked milk samples and the recovery of more than 92% indicating significant performance as bioreceptor for the development of a rapid and simple immunoassay.

  17. Ultrasensitive immunoassay based on electrochemical measurement of enzymatically produced polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guosong; Zhang, Haili; Tamanna, Tasnuva; Yu, Aimin

    2014-02-04

    A novel ultrasensitive immunoassay method was developed based on the electrochemical measurement of polyaniline, which was catalytically produced by horseradish peroxidase-functionalized gold nanoparticle (HRP-Au NP) probe at an immunosensor. The immunosensor was prepared step-wise by first modifying the electrode with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Au NPs nanocomposite followed by the immobilization of capture antibodies on its surface. After performing a sandwich immunoreaction, the quantitatively captured HRP-Au NP nanoprobes could catalyze oxidation of aniline to produce electroactive polyaniline on the immunosensor surface. The electrochemical measurement of polyaniline enabled a novel detection strategy for HRP-based immunoassay. Both the signal amplification of the HRP-Au NP nanoprobe and the electron transfer acceleration of rGO/Au NPs on the immunosensor surface greatly improved the detection sensitivity of the immunoassay method. With the use of human IgG as a model analyte, this method showed a wide linear range over 4 orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 9.7 pg/mL. In addition, the immunosensor had low cost, satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and acceptable reliability. The relatively positive potential range for the polyaniline measurement completely excluded the conventional interference from dissolved oxygen. Thus, this method provides a promising potential for practical applications.

  18. Nest structure and communal nesting in Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garófalo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest and in wooden-boxes (two nests. Solitary (two cases and pleometrotic (one case foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae, Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae.

  19. Observations of sea turtles nesting on Misali islan, Pemba | Pharoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nest-recording programme has collected data over five years from turtles nesting on Misali Island, off the West coast of Pemba, Tanzania. Five species of sea turtle are known to occur in Zanzibar waters, two of these species nested regularly on the island, with green turtle nests outnumbering hawksbill turtle nests by a ...

  20. Nesting success and within-season breeding dispersal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest predation is a primary cause of nesting mortality for many bird species, particularly passerines. Nest location can affect predation, and it has also been demonstrated that predation risk can alter nest site selection. Birds can limit predation risk by selecting specific habitat characteristics; by changing nest site ...

  1. Nest height of the red bishop (Eupiectes orix)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest site selection has been studied in a variety of birds since. Preston's ... of eggs, while an 'unsuccessful' nest produced no flying young from the ... Table 1 Seasonal changes in nest and reed height at a red bishop colony in Zimbabwe. Nest. Reed. Nest heightl. Sample height height reed height 070. Date size. (x; S.E.).

  2. Demand for Neste's City products grows strongly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries

  3. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  4. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adrian M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process. PMID:28265501

  5. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian M; Deeming, D Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch ( Pyrrhula pyrrhula ) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a "twig" nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  6. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Biddle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  7. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  8. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  9. [Clinical value of fluorescence lateral flow immunoassay in diagnosis of influenza A in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun; Zhong, Li-Li; Yi, Hong-Ling; Chen, Min

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of a new type of fluorescence lateral flow immunoassay in rapid detection of influenza A virus. A total of 378 samples of nasopharyngeal secretions were collected from 378 children with influenza-like symptoms to detect the influenza A virus by fluorescence lateral flow immunoassay, colloidal gold immunoassay, and RT-PCR between July 2015 and August 2015. Of the 378 samples, 81 (21.4%) were positive for influenza A virus by RT-PCR. Compared with RT-PCR, the sensitivities of fluorescence lateral flow immunoassay and colloidal gold immunoassay were 90.1% (73/81) and 75.3% (61/81), respectively, and the specificities were 99.3% (295/297) and 98.3% (292/297), respectively. The average threshold cycle (Ct) value for the positive samples detected by the fluorescence lateral flow immunoassay (30.6) was higher than that for the positive samples detected by the colloidal gold immunoassay (28.7). Compared with colloidal gold immunoassay, fluorescence lateral flow immunoassay has higher sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rate with RT-PCR, suggesting that it can be used for early screening and diagnosis of influenza A.

  10. Annual survival of Florida nesting loggerheads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 30 PAT tags were deployed on nesting loggerhead turtles at Juno Beach, FL in June 2012. There have been three premature pop-offs, one of which appeared to be a...

  11. Nest Construction by a Ground-nesting Bird Represents a Potential Trade-off Between Egg Crypticity and Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predation selects against conspicuous colors in bird eggs and nests, while thermoregulatory constraints select for nest building behavior that regulates incubation temperatures. We present results that reveal a trade-off between nest crypticity and thermoregulation of eggs base...

  12. Discovery of a new Kittlitz's murrelet nest: Clues to habitat selection and nest-site fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Naslund, Nancy L.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1999-01-01

    On 13 June 1993, a new Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nest was discovered near Red Mountain on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. The nest was on a 22° slope at about 900 m elevation with a northeast aspect, and contained a 60.2 × 40.6 mm egg that weighed 49.0 g. Downy feathers and weathered fecal material found at the nest indicated re-use from a previous year, suggesting possible nest site fidelity. The nest was located in an area scoured by winds and free of snow during early spring, suggesting that this may be an important mesoscale factor influencing selection of nesting habitat. Proximity to suitable foraging habitat, particularly sheltered bays and glacial river outflows, may affect breeding habitat choice over larger spatial scales.

  13. Predation on simulated duck nests in relation to nest density and landscape structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padyšáková, E.; Šálek, Martin; Poledník, L.; Sedláček, František; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2010), s. 597-603 ISSN 1035-3712 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : density-dependent predation * littoral patch * landscape type * nest predators * nest success * simulated nests Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2010

  14. Micromotor-based lab-on-chip immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Miguel; Orozco, Jahir; Guix, Maria; Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Escarpa, Alberto; Merkoçi, Arben; Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields.Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic

  15. NEST CHARACTERISTICS AND NESTING SUCCESS OF THE INDIAN PIED MYNA (GRACUPICA CONTRA) IN JAMMU REGION (J&K).

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Kumari; Prof. D. N. Sahi; Prof. Seema Langer.

    2018-01-01

    The nest characteristics and nesting success of the Indian Pied Myna (Gracupica contra) were studied from May, 2013 to September, 2015 in Jammu region of J&K State. A total of 55 nests were studied. Nesting started in April and continued till August. Fourteen plant species were used for nesting and maximum number of nests was found on Mangifera indica. The nest was quite untidy but the innermost chamber was examined to be flask-shaped and nest constructed by plant, animal and artificial matte...

  16. Chimeric recombinant antibody fragments in cardiac troponin I immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytiä, Heidi; Heikkilä, Taina; Brockmann, Eeva-Christine; Kekki, Henna; Hedberg, Pirjo; Puolakanaho, Tarja; Lövgren, Timo; Pettersson, Kim

    2015-03-01

    To introduce a novel nanoparticle-based immunoassay for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) utilizing chimeric antibody fragments and to demonstrate that removal of antibody Fc-part and antibody chimerization decrease matrix related interferences. A sandwich-type immunoassay for cTnI based on recombinant chimeric (mouse variable/human constant) antigen binding (cFab) antibodies and intrinsically fluorescent nanoparticles was developed. To test whether using chimeric antibody fragments helps to avoid matrix related interferences, samples (n=39) with known amounts of triglycerides, bilirubin, rheumatoid factor (RF) or human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) were measured with the novel assay, along with a previously published nanoparticle-based research assay with the same antibody epitopes. The limit of detection (LoD) was 3.30ng/L. Within-laboratory precision for 29ng/L and 2819ng/L cTnI were 13.7% and 15.9%, respectively. Regression analysis with Siemens ADVIA Centaur® yielded a slope (95% confidence intervals) of 0.18 (0.17-1.19) and a y-intercept of 1.94 (-1.28-3.91) ng/L. When compared to a previously published nanoparticle-based assay, the novel assay showed substantially reduced interference in the tested interference prone samples, 15.4 vs. 51.3%. A rheumatoid factor containing sample was decreased from 241ng/L to immunoassay for the detection of cTnI and decreased matrix related interferences, thus resulting in a lower number of falsely elevated cTnI-values. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. iQuant™ Analyser: A rapid quantitative immunoassay reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jayaraj; Vasan, Jayaraman Kiruthi; Shah, Malay; Sivaprakasam, Mohansankar; Mahajan, Lalit

    2017-07-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) used in rapid quantitative point of care testing require an accurate, reliable and easy to operate instrument to read the LFIA kit and calculate the quantitative result value. We present iQuant® Analyser, an immunoassay reader designed for reading the Quanti® range of LFIA test kits for key markers such as HbA1C, Vitamin D, TSH etc. The instrument utilizes a laser based confocal optics system to capture the test and control lines from the LFIA kit, digitizes the fluorescent signal with high spatiotemporal resolution, computes necessary peak area ratios, applies calibration curves and declares the final result in an automated manner with minimal operator input. The instrument uses kit specific calibration information embedded on each LFIA test kit, to compute the final clinical parameter without using any external calibration chip. An intuitive icon based interface enables easy operation with minimal key presses, suited for point of care applications. The technology is designed in a modular manner to enable the instrument to perform tests on various parameters such as HbA1C, TSH, and Vitamin D etc without any hardware changes, using test-specific LFIA kits. The functional performance of the iQuant Analyser was verified over the range of expected area ratio values with standard reference cartridges that provided stable fluorescent lines. Repeatability of the instrument was found to be excellent with coefficient of variation (CoV) of area ratios found to be less than 1%. The inter-instrument reproducibility was also found to be good with CoV less than 4 %. Tests using blood samples with Quanti LFIA kits verified the accuracy of HbA1C results to be acceptable as per international standards with errors <; 4 %. The iQuant Analyser is a portable, easy to use rapid quantitative immunoassay reader best suited for point of care applications.

  18. Fast and sensitive detection of enteropathogenic Yersinia by immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe; Simon, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 10(5) CFU/ml to 10(6) CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. The ecology of nest movement in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Terrence P

    2012-01-01

    Social insect colonies are typically mobile entities, moving nests from one location to another throughout the life of a colony. The majority of social insect species-ants, bees, wasps, and termites-have likely adopted the habit of relocating nests periodically. The syndromes of nest relocation include legionary nomadism, unstable nesting, intrinsic nest relocation, and adventitious nest relocation. The emergence of nest movement is a functional response to a broad range of potential selective forces, including colony growth, competition, foraging efficiency, microclimate, nest deterioration, nest quality, parasitism, predation, and seasonality. Considering the great taxonomic and geographic distribution of nest movements, assumptions regarding the nesting biology of social insects should be reevaluated, including our understanding of population genetics, life-history evolution, and the role of competition in structuring communities. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzzenente, Orazio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT) immunoassay. Design and methods: This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. Results: The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and ...

  1. Tumor specific lung cancer diagnostics with multiplexed FRET immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, D.; Hill, D.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Thomas, E.; Lavigne, A.; Darbouret, B.; Bois, E.; Charbonnière, L. J.; Ziessel, R. F.; Hildebrandt, N.

    2010-02-01

    An optical multiplexed homogeneous (liquid phase) immunoassay based on FRET from a terbium complex to eight different fluorescent dyes is presented. We achieved highly sensitive parallel detection of four different lung cancer specific tumor markers (CEA, NSE, SCC and CYFRA21-1) within a single assay and show a proof-of-principle for 5- fold multiplexing. The method is well suited for fast and low-cost miniaturized point-of-care testing as well as for highthroughput screening in a broad range of in-vitro diagnostic applications.

  2. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using ProteinA-bacterial magnetite complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Sato, Rika; Kamiya, Shinji; Tanaka, Tsuyosi; Takeyama, Haruko

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) which have ProteinA expressed on their surface were constructed using magA which is a key gene in BMP biosynthesis in the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1. Homogenous chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using antibody bound ProteinA-BMP complexes was developed for detection of human IgG. A good correlation between the luminescence yield and the concentration of human IgG was obtained in the range of 1-10 3 ng/ml.

  3. Rapid Molecular Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis by PCR-Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphee, Hatairat; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Prammananan, Therdsak; Wiriyachaiporn, Natpapas; Kanchanatavee, Airin; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-01-01

    Several existing molecular tests for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are limited by complexity and cost, hindering their widespread application. The objective of this proof of concept study was to develop a simple Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow (NALF) immunoassay as a potential diagnostic alternative, to complement conventional PCR, for the rapid molecular detection of MDR-TB. The NALF device was designed using antibodies for the indirect detection of labeled PCR amplification products. Multiplex PCR was optimized to permit the simultaneous detection of the drug resistant determining mutations in the 81-bp hot spot region of the rpoB gene (rifampicin resistance), while semi-nested PCR was optimized for the S315T mutation detection in the katG gene (isoniazid resistance). The amplification process additionally targeted a conserved region of the genes as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DNA control. The optimized conditions were validated with the H37Rv wild-type (WT) Mtb isolate and Mtb isolates with known mutations (MT) within the rpoB and katG genes. Results indicate the correct identification of WT (drug susceptible) and MT (drug resistant) Mtb isolates, with the least limit of detection (LOD) being 104 genomic copies per PCR reaction. NALF is a simple, rapid and low-cost device suitable for low resource settings where conventional PCR is already employed on a regular basis. Moreover, the use of antibody-based NALF to target primer-labels, without the requirement for DNA hybridization, renders the device generic, which could easily be adapted for the molecular diagnosis of other infectious and non-infectious diseases requiring nucleic acid detection. PMID:26355296

  4. Rapid Molecular Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis by PCR-Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatairat Kamphee

    Full Text Available Several existing molecular tests for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are limited by complexity and cost, hindering their widespread application. The objective of this proof of concept study was to develop a simple Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow (NALF immunoassay as a potential diagnostic alternative, to complement conventional PCR, for the rapid molecular detection of MDR-TB. The NALF device was designed using antibodies for the indirect detection of labeled PCR amplification products. Multiplex PCR was optimized to permit the simultaneous detection of the drug resistant determining mutations in the 81-bp hot spot region of the rpoB gene (rifampicin resistance, while semi-nested PCR was optimized for the S315T mutation detection in the katG gene (isoniazid resistance. The amplification process additionally targeted a conserved region of the genes as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb DNA control. The optimized conditions were validated with the H37Rv wild-type (WT Mtb isolate and Mtb isolates with known mutations (MT within the rpoB and katG genes. Results indicate the correct identification of WT (drug susceptible and MT (drug resistant Mtb isolates, with the least limit of detection (LOD being 104 genomic copies per PCR reaction. NALF is a simple, rapid and low-cost device suitable for low resource settings where conventional PCR is already employed on a regular basis. Moreover, the use of antibody-based NALF to target primer-labels, without the requirement for DNA hybridization, renders the device generic, which could easily be adapted for the molecular diagnosis of other infectious and non-infectious diseases requiring nucleic acid detection.

  5. Nesting Activity of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta at Göksu Delta, Turkey during 2004 and 2008 nesting seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih H. Durmus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting beaches in Turkey for the endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta. This paper provides information on the nesting activities of loggerhead turtles, the spatial and temporal distribution of nesting, nesting success, nesting density, hatching success, incubation duration and clutch size over two nesting seasons. A total of 902 emergences occurred over two seasons, of which 239 (26.5% nests were deposited (137 nests in 2004 and 102 nests in 2008 and the overall mean nesting density was 3.4 nests/km. The peak of nesting emergences takes place mainly in June. Of the overall nests, 226 (94.6% were excavated and 16044 eggs were counted. Of these eggs, 3680 (22.9% hatchlings emerged and 2695 (73.2% of hatchlings of them were able to reach the sea. The mean number of eggs per clutch was 71 (range: 15 – 143. The shortest and longest incubation duration in these 2 seasons ranged from 46 to 62 days with a mean of 53 days. The main problems are negatively affecting loggerhead turtle population at Göksu Delta are dense jackal predation both adult and eggs and inundation in nests. The average nesting effort here (mean: 119.5 nests/season confirms that Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting sites for loggerhead turtles in Turkey.

  6. Comparative determination of phenytoin by spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, enzyme immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.; Ibanez, J.; DiCesare, J.L.; Adams, R.F.; Malkus, H.

    1978-01-01

    Sera from patients being treated with phenytoin were analyzed for the drug by spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, radioimmunoasay, enzyme immunoassay, and liquid chromatography. The assay values obtained were intercompared statistically. Enzyme immunoassay and liquid chromatography appear to be attractive alternatives to the more traditional methods of spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. Our radioimmunoassay data correlated poorly with results by the four other methods

  7. A multiplexed immunoassay for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Sanne Schou; Boas, Ulrik; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    our diagnostic tools, we are currently developing a novel indirect fluorescent microsphere immunoassay that can facilitate simultaneous detection of antibodies towards multiple App serovars within a single serum sample volume. The multiplex immunoassay is based on Luminex technology (8) and has...

  8. Evaluation of six immunoassays for detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M and G antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); P. Koraka (Penelope); J. Velzing (Jans); C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe performance of six commercially available immunoassay systems for the detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in serum was evaluated. These included two IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassays (EIA) from MRL Laboratories and PanBio, a rapid

  9. Use of artificial nests to investigate predation on freshwater turtle nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael N. Marchand; John A. Litvaitis; Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2002-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has raised concerns that populations of generalist predators have increased and are affecting a diverse group of prey. Previous research has included the use of artificial nests to investigate the role of predation on birds that nest on or near the ground. Because predation also is a major factor limiting populations of freshwater turtles, we...

  10. Eggs in the Freezer: energetic Consequences of Nest Site and Nest Design in Arctic Breeding Shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their

  11. Landscaping pebbles attract nesting by the native ground-nesting bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most species of bees nest underground. Recent interest in pollinator-friendly gardens and landscaping focuses on planting suitable flowering species for bees, but we know little about providing for the ground-nesting needs of bees other than leaving them bare dirt surfaces. In this study, a surfac...

  12. Nest defense behaviors of native cavity-nesting birds to European Starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney G. Olsen; Kathryn L. Purcell; David. Grubbs

    2008-01-01

    We used behavioral experiments to evaluate competition for nest sites and the extent to which European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are seen as a threat by native bird species at the San Joaquin Experimental Range, Madera County, CA. We quantified the level of aggressive behavior of four species of native cavity-nesting birds to starlings at active...

  13. Nest survival patterns in Eurasian Bittern: effect of nest age, time and habitat variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Polak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the key factors affecting the reproductive success of nesting birds is crucial in order to better understand the population dynamics of endangered species and to introduce effective conservation programmes for them. Inhabiting a variety of wetland habitats, aquatic birds actively select safe nesting sites so as to protect their nests against predators. The main aim of the present work was to assess the effect of temporal and habitat variables on the daily nest survival rate of Eurasian Bitterns colonizing semi–natural fishpond habitat in eastern Poland. MARK software was used for the modelling. Eurasian Bittern nests were most vulnerable to depredation at the beginning of the breeding season. This was probably because the reedbed vegetation at this time was not yet dense enough to effectively conceal the nests. There was a positive relationship between nest age and the daily survival rate. Two of the habitat variables analysed were of the greatest significance: water depth and vegetation density. In the Eurasian Bittern population studied here, nests built over deep water and in dense vegetation had the best chances of survival. The results of this work may be useful in the preparation of plans for the conservation and management of populations of this rare and endangered species. Conservation and restoration efforts that attempt to maintain high water levels will be especially beneficial to this avian species that is dependent on wetland ecosystems for breeding.

  14. Lack of nest site limitation in a cavity-nesting bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffry R. Waters; Barry R. Noon; Jared Verner

    1990-01-01

    We examined the relationship between nest site availability and density of secondary cavitynesting birds by blocking cavities in an oak-pine (Quercus spp.-Pinus sp. ) woodland. In 1986 and 1987we blocked 67 and 106 cavities, respectively, on a 37-ha plot. The combined density of secondary cavity-nesting birds did not decline...

  15. Management of western coniferous forest habitat for nesting accipiter hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds

    1983-01-01

    Availability of nesting sites can limit accipiter populations. Because accipiters nest in dense forest stands, any alteration that opens these stands is likely to lessen their desirability as nest sites. Tree growth and the associated changes in the vegetative structure of aging nest sites limit the number of years sites will be suitable. Therefore, prospective...

  16. Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens : An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens was studied in the urban area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in late March to early May 2011. The study investigated nest success of the Indian House Crow in different tree species with varying canopy covers and heights. Fifty-five active nests and 38 inactive nests ...

  17. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose and... active or inactive nest where necessary to alleviate a safety emergency; (ii) An inactive eagle nest when...

  18. Nesting ecology of Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta in Sfax salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use the results of a one-year monitoring of nests in Sfax salina to provide information on its nesting parameters, in particular nesting phenology, colony size and hatching success. Our results show that Pied Avocets formed dense colonies at the beginning of the nesting season, but colony size decreased as ...

  19. Factors affecting nesting success in the Great-crested Grebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall nesting success was 70.4% (N = 209), with nest failure caused mainly by predation (65%) and flooding (23%). Breeding outcome was significantly and positively related to nest size, with bigger nests conferring better survival to eggs and young probably through affording better protection during spells of adverse ...

  20. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  1. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratthaphol Charlermroj

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus, watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus. An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours. This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  2. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  3. Enhanced Fluorescent Immunoassays on Silver Fractal-like Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Matveeva, Evgenia G.; Chang, I-Fen; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Goldys, Ewa; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2009-01-01

    Using the effect of the fluorescence enhancement in close proximity to metal nanostructures, we have been able to demonstrate ultrasensitive immunoassays suitable for the detection of biomarkers. Silver fractal-like structures have been grown by electrochemical reduction of silver on the surface of glass slides. A model immunoassay was performed on the slide surface with rabbit IgG (antigen) non-covalently immobilized on the slide, and Rhodamine Red-X labeled anti-rabbit IgG conjugate subsequently bound to the immobilized antigen. The fluorescence signal was measured from the glass-fractals surface using a confocal microscope, and the images were compared to the images from the same surface not coated with fractals. Our results showed significant enhancement (more than 100-fold) of the signal detected on fractals compared to bare glass. We thus demonstrate that such fractal-like structures can assist in improving the signals from assays used in medical diagnostics, especially those for analytes with molecular weight under 100 kD. PMID:18288816

  4. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan)

    2007-12-07

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  5. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Miura, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  6. Determination of phospholipid transfer proteins in rat tissues by immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerlink, T.

    1983-01-01

    Several quantitative immunoassays have been developed for two phospholipid transfer proteins from rat liver, i.e. the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein and the non-specific lipid transfer protein. The development of a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein is described. The transfer protein was labelled with iodine-125 by the mild glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method. Although less than one tyrosine residue per molecule of transfer protein was labelled, only 20% of the labelled transfer protein was immunoprecipitable. This value could be increased to 80% by purifying the labelled protein by affinity chromatography on a column of anti-phosphatidylcholine transfer protein-IgG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in homogenates and 105 000 xg supernatants from various rat tissues as well as several Morris hepatomas. An enzyme immunoassay for the non-specific lipid transfer protein is also described. The antiserum that was raised especially by the author was cross-reactive with the non-specific lipid transfer protein present in 105 000 xg supernatants from human, mouse and bovine liver. The non-specific lipid transfer protein lost its immunoreactivity upon labelling with iodine-125 using different labelling techniques. Therefore, a regular radioimmunoassay could not be developed. The results of these different assays were compared. (Auth.)

  7. Development of a novel ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay for human glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Satoshi; Katakami, Hideki; Inoue, Shinobu; Sawada, Hirotake; Hashida, Seiichi

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel, ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay (immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay) for determination of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody concentrations in serum samples from patients with type 2 diabetes. We developed an immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay for glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody and measured glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody from 22 patients with type 1 diabetes, 29 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 32 healthy controls. A conventional ELISA kit identified 10 patients with type 1 diabetes and one patient with type 2 diabetes as glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody positive, whereas 15 patients with type 1 diabetes and six patients with type 2 diabetes were identified as glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody positive using immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay. Immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay is a highly sensitive and specific assay for glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody and might be clinically useful for diabetic onset prediction and early diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Species Specific Bacterial Spore Detection Using Lateral-Flow Immunoassay with DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    A method of detecting bacterial spores incorporates (1) A method of lateral-flow immunoassay in combination with (2) A method based on the luminescence of Tb3+ ions to which molecules of dipicolinic acid (DPA) released from the spores have become bound. The present combination of lateral-flow immunoassay and DPA-triggered Tb luminescence was developed as a superior alternative to a prior lateral-flow immunoassay method in which detection involves the visual observation and/or measurement of red light scattered from colloidal gold nanoparticles. The advantage of the present combination method is that it affords both (1) High selectivity for spores of the species of bacteria that one seeks to detect (a characteristic of lateral-flow immunoassay in general) and (2) Detection sensitivity much greater (by virtue of the use of DPA-triggered Tb luminescence instead of gold nanoparticles) than that of the prior lateral-flow immunoassay method

  9. Novel strategies to enhance lateral flow immunoassay sensitivity for detecting foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shan; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wei, Hua; Xu, Hengyi

    2015-01-28

    Food contaminated by foodborne pathogens causes diseases, affects individuals, and even kills those affected individuals. As such, rapid and sensitive detection methods should be developed to screen pathogens in food. One current detection method is lateral flow immunoassay, an efficient technique because of several advantages, including rapidity, simplicity, stability, portability, and sensitivity. This review presents the format and principle of lateral flow immunoassay strip and the development of conventional lateral flow immunoassay for detecting foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, novel strategies that can be applied to enhance the sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassay to detect foodborne pathogens are presented; these strategies include innovating new label application, designing new formats of lateral flow immunoassay, combining with other methods, and developing signal amplification systems. With these advancements, detection sensitivity and detection time can be greatly improved.

  10. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  11. Cancer Chemotherapy Specific to Acidic Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-20

    The realization of cancer therapeutics specific to cancer cells with less of an effect on normal tissues is our goal. Many trials have been carried out for this purpose, but this goal is still far from being realized. It was found more than 80 years ago that solid cancer nests are acidified, but in vitro studies under acidic conditions have not been extensively studied. Recently, in vitro experiments under acidic conditions were started and anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic areas have been identified. Many genes have been reported to be expressed at a high level under acidic conditions, and such genes may be potent targets for anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests. In this review article, recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical achievements in anti-cancer drugs with marked efficacy under acidic conditions are summarized, and the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests is discussed.

  12. Subterranean ant nests: Trace fossils past and future?

    OpenAIRE

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2003-01-01

    Many species of ants excavate complex, species-typical nests in soil. The basic structural units of many nests are descending tunnels connecting flattened, generally horizontal chambers of oval to lobed outline. The species-typical structure of many nests results from variation in the size, shape, number and arrangement of these basic elements. Nest architecture can be rendered by filling subterranean nests with a thin slurry of orthodontal plaster, then excavating and reconstructing the hard...

  13. Simulating large-scale spiking neuronal networks with NEST

    OpenAIRE

    Senk, Johanna; Diesmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The Neural Simulation Tool NEST [1, www.nest-simulator.org] is the simulator for spiking neural networkmodels of the HBP that focuses on the dynamics, size and structure of neural systems rather than on theexact morphology of individual neurons. Its simulation kernel is written in C++ and it runs on computinghardware ranging from simple laptops to clusters and supercomputers with thousands of processor cores.The development of NEST is coordinated by the NEST Initiative [www.nest-initiative.or...

  14. Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ulrich; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general decomposi......In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general...

  15. Estimating populations of nesting brant using aerial videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R. Michael; Anderson, W.H.; Sedinger, J.S.; McDonald, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    We mounted a video camcorder in a single-engine aircraft to estimate nesting density along 10-m wide strip transects in black brant colonies on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska during 1990-1992. A global positioning system (GPS) receiver was connected to the video recorder and a laptop computer to locate transects and annotate video tape with time and latitude-longitude at 1-second intervals. About 4-5 hours of flight time were required to record 30-40 minutes of video tape needed to survey large (>5,000 nests in > 10 km2)colonies. We conducted ground searches along transects to locate and identify nests for determining detection rates of nests in video images. Counts of nests from video transects were correlated with actual numbers of nests. Resolution of images was sufficient to detect 81% of known nests (with and without incubating females). Of these, 68% were correctly identified as brant nests. The most common misidentification of known nests was failure of viewers to see the nest that the detected bird was incubating. Unattended nests with exposed eggs, down-covered nests, and nesting brant, cackling Canada geese, and emperor geese were identified in video images. Flushing of incubating geese by survey aircraft was not significant. About 10% of known nests were unoccupied in video images compared to 16% unoccupied nests observed from tower blinds during periods without aircraft disturbance.

  16. Nest design in a changing world: great tit Parus major nests from a Mediterranean city environment as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Marcel M; Charmantier, Anne; Demeyrier, Virginie; Lucas, Annick; Perret, Samuel; Abouladzé, Matthieu; Bonnet, Michel; Canonne, Coline; Faucon, Virginie; Grosset, Stéphanie; le Prado, Gaëlle; Lidon, Frédéric; Noell, Thierry; Pagano, Pascal; Perret, Vincent; Pouplard, Stéphane; Spitaliéry, Rémy; Bernard, Cyril; Perret, Philippe; Blondel, Jacques; Grégoire, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of urbanization effects on birds have focused mainly on breeding traits expressed after the nest-building stage (e.g. first-egg date, clutch size, breeding success, and offspring characteristics). Urban studies largely ignored how and why the aspects of nest building might be associated with the degree of urbanization. As urban environments are expected to present novel environmental changes relative to rural environments, it is important to evaluate how nest-building behavior is impacted by vegetation modifications associated with urbanization. To examine nest design in a Mediterranean city environment, we allowed urban great tits ( Parus major ) to breed in nest boxes in areas that differed in local vegetation cover. We found that different measures of nest size or mass were not associated with vegetation cover. In particular, nests located adjacent to streets with lower vegetation cover were not smaller or lighter than nests in parks with higher vegetation cover. Nests adjacent to streets contained more pine needles than nests in parks. In addition, in nests adjacent to streets, nests from boxes attached to pine trees contained more pine needles than nests from boxes attached to other trees. We suggest that urban-related alterations in vegetation cover do not directly impose physical limits on nest size in species that are opportunistic in the selection of nesting material. However, nest composition as reflected in the use of pine needles was clearly affected by habitat type and the planted tree species present, which implies that rapid habitat change impacts nest composition. We do not exclude that urbanization might impact other aspects of nest building behaviour not covered in our study (e.g. costs of searching for nest material), and that the strengths of the associations between urbanization and nest structures might differ among study populations or species.

  17. Open cup nests evolved from roofed nests in the early passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J Jordan; Griffith, Simon C

    2017-02-08

    The architectural diversity of nests in the passerine birds (order Passeriformes) is thought to have played an important role in the adaptive radiation of this group, which now comprises more than half of avian species and occupies nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of nest design across the passerines, focusing on early Australian lineages and including members of nearly all passerine families worldwide. Most passerines build open cup-shaped nests, whereas a minority build more elaborate domed structures with roofs. We provide strong evidence that, despite their relative rarity today, domed nests were constructed by the common ancestor of all modern passerines. Open cup nests evolved from enclosed domes at least four times independently during early passerine evolution, at least three of which occurred on the Australian continent, yielding several primarily cup-nesting clades that are now widespread and numerically dominant among passerines. Our results show that the ubiquitous and relatively simple cup-shaped nests of many birds today evolved multiple times convergently, suggesting adaptive benefits over earlier roofed designs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-26

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  19. Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ebola Virus Disease Detection in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J

    2016-10-15

     Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important.  In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein.  The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks.  Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses

  20. CyNEST: a maintainable Cython-based interface for the NEST simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Yury V.; Morrison, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    NEST is a simulator for large-scale networks of spiking point neuron models (Gewaltig and Diesmann, 2007). Originally, simulations were controlled via the Simulation Language Interpreter (SLI), a built-in scripting facility implementing a language derived from PostScript (Adobe Systems, Inc., 1999). The introduction of PyNEST (Eppler et al., 2008), the Python interface for NEST, enabled users to control simulations using Python. As the majority of NEST users found PyNEST easier to use and to combine with other applications, it immediately displaced SLI as the default NEST interface. However, developing and maintaining PyNEST has become increasingly difficult over time. This is partly because adding new features requires writing low-level C++ code intermixed with calls to the Python/C API, which is unrewarding. Moreover, the Python/C API evolves with each new version of Python, which results in a proliferation of version-dependent code branches. In this contribution we present the re-implementation of PyNEST in the Cython language, a superset of Python that additionally supports the declaration of C/C++ types for variables and class attributes, and provides a convenient foreign function interface (FFI) for invoking C/C++ routines (Behnel et al., 2011). Code generation via Cython allows the production of smaller and more maintainable bindings, including increased compatibility with all supported Python releases without additional burden for NEST developers. Furthermore, this novel approach opens up the possibility to support alternative implementations of the Python language at no cost given a functional Cython back-end for the corresponding implementation, and also enables cross-compilation of Python bindings for embedded systems and supercomputers alike. PMID:24672470

  1. CyNEST: a maintainable Cython-based interface for the NEST simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Yury V; Morrison, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    NEST is a simulator for large-scale networks of spiking point neuron models (Gewaltig and Diesmann, 2007). Originally, simulations were controlled via the Simulation Language Interpreter (SLI), a built-in scripting facility implementing a language derived from PostScript (Adobe Systems, Inc., 1999). The introduction of PyNEST (Eppler et al., 2008), the Python interface for NEST, enabled users to control simulations using Python. As the majority of NEST users found PyNEST easier to use and to combine with other applications, it immediately displaced SLI as the default NEST interface. However, developing and maintaining PyNEST has become increasingly difficult over time. This is partly because adding new features requires writing low-level C++ code intermixed with calls to the Python/C API, which is unrewarding. Moreover, the Python/C API evolves with each new version of Python, which results in a proliferation of version-dependent code branches. In this contribution we present the re-implementation of PyNEST in the Cython language, a superset of Python that additionally supports the declaration of C/C++ types for variables and class attributes, and provides a convenient foreign function interface (FFI) for invoking C/C++ routines (Behnel et al., 2011). Code generation via Cython allows the production of smaller and more maintainable bindings, including increased compatibility with all supported Python releases without additional burden for NEST developers. Furthermore, this novel approach opens up the possibility to support alternative implementations of the Python language at no cost given a functional Cython back-end for the corresponding implementation, and also enables cross-compilation of Python bindings for embedded systems and supercomputers alike.

  2. CyNEST: a maintainable Cython-based interface for the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Zaytsev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NEST is a simulator for large-scale networks of spiking point neuron models (Gewaltig and Diesmann, 2007. Originally, simulations were controlled via the Simulation Language Interpreter (SLI, a built-in scripting facility implementing a language derived from PostScript (Adobe Systems, 1999. The introduction of PyNEST (Eppler et al., 2008, the Python interface for NEST, enabled users to control simulations using Python. As the majority of NEST users found PyNEST easier to use and to combine with other applications, it immediately displaced SLI as the default NEST interface.However, developing and maintaining PyNEST has become increasingly difficult over time. This is partly because adding new features requires writing low-level C++ code intermixed with calls to the Python / C API, which is unrewarding. Moreover, the Python / C API evolves with each new version of Python, which results in a proliferation of version-dependent code branches.In this contribution we present the re-implementation of PyNEST in the Cython language, a superset of Python that additionally supports the declaration of C/C++ types for variables and class attributes, and provides a convenient foreign function interface (FFI for invoking C/C++ routines (Behnel et al., 2011. Code generation via Cython allows the production of smaller and more maintainable bindings, including increased compatibility with all supported Python releases without additional burden for NEST developers. Furthermore, this novel approach opens up the possibility to support alternative implementations of the Python language at no cost given a functional Cython back-end for the corresponding implementation, and also enables cross-compilation of Python bindings for embedded systems and supercomputers alike.

  3. Connecting Spatial Memories of Two Nested Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.; Wang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the manner in which people use spatial reference directions to organize spatial memories of 2 conceptually nested layouts. Participants learned directions of 8 remote cities centered to Beijing or Edmonton, where the experiments occurred, using a map or using direct pointing. The map and the environment were aligned,…

  4. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage, gender, and age. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2014;19:376. April 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/empty-nest-syndrome/art-20047165 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  5. Flattening Queries over Nested Data Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, J.

    2006-01-01

    The theory developed in this thesis provides a method to improve the efficiency of querying nested data. The roots of this research lie in the tension between data model expressiveness and performance. Obviously, more expressive data models are more convenient for application programmers. For many

  6. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  7. Nested Dissection Interface Reconstruction in Pececillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibben, Zechariah Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    A nested dissection method for interface reconstruction in a volume tracking framework has been implemented in Pececillo. This method provides a significant improvement over the traditional onion-skin method, which does not appropriately handle T-shaped multimaterial intersections and dynamic contact lines present in additive manufacturing simulations. The resulting implementation lays the groundwork for further re- search in numerical contact angle estimates.

  8. Ants' learning of nest entrance characteristics (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, M C

    2014-02-01

    Young workers, experimentally removed from their nest and set in front of it, are not very good at finding the nest entrance and entering the nest. I examined how young ants learn their nest entrance characteristics, dealing only with the entrance sensu stricto, not with its vicinity. I observed that young ants have the innate behavior of trying to exit and re-enter their nest. I found that they are imprinted with the nest entrance odor while they are still living inside their nest and that they learn the visual aspect of their nest entrances, thanks to operant conditioning, when they exit their nest and succeed in re-entering in the course of their first short trips outside.

  9. Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; He, Qing-hua; Xu, Yang; Fu, Jin-heng; Li, Yan-ping; Tu, Zhui; Wang, Dan; Shu, Mei; Qiu, Yu-lou; Yang, Hong-wei; Liu, Yuan-yuan

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay for cancer biomarkers plays an important role in cancer prevention and early diagnosis. To the development of immunoassay, the quality and stability of applied antibody is one of the key points to obtain reliability and high sensitivity for immunoassay. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on nanobody against AFP. Two nanobodies which bind to AFP were selected from a phage display nanobody library by biopanning strategy. The prepared nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and applied in both sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP. The limit detection of sandwich ELISA setup with optimized nanobodies was 0.48ng mL(-1), and the half of saturation concentration (SC50) value was 6.68±0.56ng mL(-1). These nanobodies were also used to develop an immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP, its limit detection values was 0.005ng mL(-1), and the linear range was 0.01-10,000ng mL(-1). These established immunoassays based on nanobodies were highly specific to AFP and with negligible cross reactivity with other tested caner biomarkers. Furthermore, this novel concept of nanobodies mediated immunoassay may provide potential applications in a general method for the ultrasensitive detection of various cancer biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of ochratoxin a in cereal by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Renrong; Zhu, Lixin; Chen, Zhenzhen

    2017-11-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method (CLEIA) was established to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal. Optimal conditions including antibody dilution ratio and enzyme conjugate, ionic strength, pH value and organic solvent. Established indirect competition inhibition curve to determine the linear working range, detection limit and recovery rate. Results: The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit of the CLEIA were78.8pg/mL and 14.86 pg/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 0.015-0.4ng/mL. At 1∼4μpg/kg fortified levels in wheat, mean recoveries ranged from 67.47% to100.35%.

  11. Chemiluminescence immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuefeng; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge; Li Ziying; Han Zhiquan; Liu Ting

    2008-01-01

    A sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for serum free prostate-specific antigen (F-PSA) was developed. One antibody against total PSA was coated on the micro-plate, the other antibody against F-PSA was labeled with horseradish peroxidase. The detection limit is established as 0.01 ng/mL (n=10, mean of zero standard + 2SD) and the intra-and inter-assay coefficient s of variation (CV) is in the range of 31 8%-51 4% and 10.8%-17.7%, respectively. Compared with Mono bind F-PSA CLIA kits, the correlative equation is y= 0.72x- 0.22, and r = 0.90. The standard range for the method is 0.2-10 ng/mL, and it presents good linearity. (authors)

  12. Clinical development of placental malaria vaccines and immunoassays harmonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chêne, Arnaud; Houard, Sophie; Nielsen, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection constitutes a major health problem manifesting as severe disease and anaemia in the mother, impaired fetal development, low birth weight or spontaneous abortion. Prevention of placental malaria currently relies on two key strategies...... that are losing efficacy due to spread of resistance: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. A placental malaria vaccine would be an attractive, cost-effective complement to the existing control tools. Two placental malaria vaccine candidates are currently...... in Phase Ia/b clinical trials. During two workshops hosted by the European Vaccine Initiative, one in Paris in April 2014 and the other in Brussels in November 2014, the main actors in placental malaria vaccine research discussed the harmonization of clinical development plans and of the immunoassays...

  13. Performance of immunoassay kits for site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting efforts to identify, validate and implement the use of effective, low-cost alternatives to currently used analytical methods for environmental management. As part of that program, we have evaluated the performances of a number of immunoassay (IA) kits with specificities for environmental contaminants of concern to the DOE. The studies were done in the laboratory using both spiked and field test samples. The analyte specificity and manufacturers of the kits evaluated were the following: mercury, BioNebraska; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), EnSys and Millipore; petroleum fuel hydrocarbons, Millipore and Ohmicron; and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ohmicron and Millipore. The kits were used in either a semiquantitative or quantitative format according to the preference of the manufacturers

  14. Development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for detecting tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-06-25

    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages.

  15. Development of an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Detecting Tartrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlai Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages.

  16. Europium nanoparticle-based high performing immunoassay for the screening of treponemal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Talha

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (Tp is the causative agent of syphilis which mainly spreads through sexual contact, blood transfusion and perinatal route. In order to curtail the spread of the infection and to clinically manage the disease, timely, accurate and reliable diagnosis is very important. We have developed an immunoassay for the detection of treponemal antibodies in human serum or plasma samples. In vivo biotinylated and non-biotinylated versions of the recombinant antigen were designed by the fusion of three Tp-specific antigens namely Tp15, Tp17 and Tp47. These fusion antigens were expressed in E. coli and purified using single-step metal affinity chromatography. Biotinylated fusion antigen immobilized on streptavidin coated plate was used to capture the treponemal antibodies and the non-biotinylated antigen coated on europium nanoparticles was used as tracer. Assays with two different incubation times of 10 min and 1 h were developed, and following the incubation the europium fluorescence was measured using time-resolved fluorometry. The developed time-resolved fluorometric (TRF immunoassays were evaluated with in-house and commercial serum/plasma sample panels. For well-established treponemal antibodies positive or negative samples, the sensitivity of TRF immunoassay with 10 min incubation time was 97.4%, and of TRF immunoassay with 1 h incubation time was 98.7%, and the specificities of both the TRF immunoassays were 99.2%. For the samples with discordant results with the reference assays, both the TRF immunoassays showed better specificity than the Enzygnost syphilis enzyme immunoassay as a screening test. The two different incubation times did not have any significant effect on the signal to cutoff (S/Co ratios obtained with the two immunoassays (p=0.06. Our results indicate that the developed immunoassay with a short incubation time of 10 min has the potential to be used in clinical laboratories and in blood

  17. Development of Dual Quantitative Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Kai; Yan, Ya-Xian; Sun, Jian-He

    2017-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays have been widely used in recent years for detection of toxins, heavy metals, and biomarkers. To improve the efficiency of individual lateral flow immunoassays, multiplex analytical strips play an important role in the detection of several important analytes. In this chapter, development of a dual lateral flow immunoassay is presented for detection of a variety of low molecular weight molecules. Various buffers, additives, and materials are introduced and evaluated. Depending on the analyte to be tested, the technique allows for selection of optimum buffers, additives, and other materials.

  18. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used...

  19. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector points in this...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California. Vector...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for gulls and terns in Mississippi. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species...

  2. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian; Deeming, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in a...

  3. From neurons to nests : nest-building behaviour as a model in behavioural and comparative neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Zachary Jonas; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan Denise

    2015-01-01

    This work was supported by funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/ I019502/1 to SDH and SLM) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant number PGSD3-409582-2011 to ZJH) and Roslin Institute Strategic Grant funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (SLM). Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, s...

  4. Nest site characteristics, nesting movements, and lack of long-term nest site fidelity in Agassiz's desert tortoises at a wind energy facility in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Ennen, Joshua R.; Arundel, Terry R.; Austin, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    Nest site selection has important consequences for maternal and offspring survival and fitness. Females of some species return to the same nesting areas year after year. We studied nest site characteristics, fidelity, and daily pre-nesting movements in a population of Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in southern California during two field seasons separated by over a decade. No females returned to the same exact nest site within or between years but several nested in the same general area. However, distances between first and second clutches within a year (2000) were not significantly different from distances between nests among years (2000 and 2011) for a small sample of females, suggesting some degree of fidelity within their normal activity areas. Environmental attributes of nest sites did not differ significantly among females but did among years due largely to changes in perennial plant structure as a result of multiple fires. Daily pre-nesting distances moved by females decreased consistently from the time shelled eggs were first visible in X-radiographs until oviposition, again suggesting some degree of nest site selection. Tortoises appear to select nest sites that are within their long-term activity areas, inside the climate-moderated confines of one of their self-constructed burrows, and specifically, at a depth in the burrow that minimizes exposure of eggs and embryos to lethal incubation temperatures. Nesting in “climate-controlled” burrows and nest guarding by females relaxes some of the constraints that drive nest site selection in other oviparous species.

  5. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1) covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes), and 2) open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds). Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity) of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1) covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs), and 2) open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids) were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment. Open nests

  6. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tanaka

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1 covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes, and 2 open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds. Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1 covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs, and 2 open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment

  7. Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

    2013-04-01

    In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier

  8. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  9. Nested Surface Coils for Multinuclear NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Magill, Arthur; Gruetter, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the design of surface coils for multinuclear applications. The relative sensitivities of several NMR-visible nuclei of biological interest are considered, and the motivations to operate an RF coil at multiple frequencies, both sequentially and simultaneously, are reviewed. The design of nested surface coils is then developed. Magnetic fields generated by planar loop and butterfly coils are first introduced. The benefits of quadrature design are briefly considered, and ...

  10. Nested Dissection Interface Reconstruction in Pececillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibben, Zechariah Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division

    2016-09-13

    A nested dissection method for interface reconstruction in a volume tracking framework has been implemented in Pececillo, a mini-app for Truchas, which is the ASC code for casting and additive manufacturing. This method provides a significant improvement over the traditional onion-skin method, which does not appropriately handle T-shaped multimaterial intersections and dynamic contact lines present in additive manufacturing simulations. The resulting implementation lays the groundwork for further research in contact angle estimates and surface tension calculations.

  11. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  12. Bird nesting and droppings control on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report provides a comprehensive literature survey of permanent and temporary deterrents to nesting and roosting, a : discussion of risks to human health and safety from exposure to bird nests and droppings and recommended protective measures, : ...

  13. Visitors to nests of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recommend expanding the Hooded Vulture nest monitoring programme to include more pairs. Keywords: Alopochen aegyptiaca, Chacma Baboon, Egyptian Goose, Hooded Vulture, Kruger-to-Canyons Biosphere Region, Martial Eagle, Necrosyrtes monachus, nest visitors, Papio ursinus, Polemaetus bellicosus ...

  14. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given...... the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites...... and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown...

  15. Gregarious nesting - An anti-predator response in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting can be defined as a behaviour that occurs when a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site. It occurs frequently in flocks of laying hens kept under commercial conditions, contrasting...... the behaviour displayed by feral hens that isolate themselves from the flock during nesting activities. What motivates laying hens to perform gregarious nesting is unknown. One possibility is that gregarious nesting is an anti-predator response to the risk of nest predation emerging from behavioural flexibility....... Nesting and spacing behaviour were video recorded for 5 days in each of three distinct periods; (a) pre-predator; a pre-exposure period, (b) predator; a period with daily exposure to a simulated attack by a lifelike flying model of a hooded crow (Corvus cornix, a potential egg-predator), and (c) post...

  16. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  17. Fluorescent Immunoassay Development for PrPSc Detection and Antemortem Diagnosis of TSEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carp, Richard I

    2005-01-01

    The overall goal of our study is to develop methods of high-sensitivity and high-specificity for the antemortem diagnosis of prion diseases by detecting PrPSc in biological fluids using fluorescent immunoassay...

  18. Fluorescent Immunoassay Development for PrP(Sc) Detection and Antemortem Diagnosis of TSEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carp, Richard I

    2004-01-01

    The overall goal of our study is to develop methods of high-sensitivity and high-specificity for the antemortem diagnosis of prion diseases by detecting PrPsc in biological fluids using fluorescent immunoassay...

  19. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbuti

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating. Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS which is modularly structured using an artificial neural network and an output filter. For the purpose of experiment and comparison, and with the aim of minimizing the computational cost, the artificial neural network has been modelled according to three different architectures based on the input delay neural network (IDNN. We show that the ARS can achieve very high accuracy on segments of data sequences, with an extremely small neural network that can be embedded in programmable low power devices. Given that digging is typically a long activity (up to two hours, the application of ARS on data segments can be repeated over time to set up a reliable and efficient system, called Tortoise@, for digging activity recognition.

  20. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuti, Roberto; Chessa, Stefano; Micheli, Alessio; Pucci, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating). Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS) which is modularly structured using an artificial neural network and an output filter. For the purpose of experiment and comparison, and with the aim of minimizing the computational cost, the artificial neural network has been modelled according to three different architectures based on the input delay neural network (IDNN). We show that the ARS can achieve very high accuracy on segments of data sequences, with an extremely small neural network that can be embedded in programmable low power devices. Given that digging is typically a long activity (up to two hours), the application of ARS on data segments can be repeated over time to set up a reliable and efficient system, called Tortoise@, for digging activity recognition.

  1. Nesting habitat selection by the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti

    OpenAIRE

    González, Luis M.; Bustamante, Javier; Hiraldo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Nesting habitat selection by the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti was quantitatively assessed. Nest sites chosen did not differ from the available habitat with regard to physiography and vegetation, but the eagles tended to avoid areas affected by human disturbance. Nest sites used by subadults and those of adults that were recently established tended to be in more disturbed areas than those used by adults or in traditional nesting localities. Management recommendations for more e...

  2. Correlations between calcineurin phosphatase inhibition and cyclosporine metabolites concentrations in kidney transplant recipients: implications for immunoassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamperis, N; Koefoed-Nielsen, PB; Brahe, P

    2006-01-01

    by the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and by the polyclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay (pFPIA). Calcineurin phosphatase activity was measured by its ability to dephosphorylate a previously phosphorylated 19-amino acid peptide. We found that calcineurin phosphatase inhibition...... by inhibiting the enzyme calcineurin phosphatase. Determination of the enzyme's activity is one of the most promising pharmacodynamic markers. It is unknown how calcineurin phosphatase inhibition correlates with various cyclosporine monitoring assays and what is the potential impact of metabolites...

  3. Control of (pre-analytical aspects in immunoassay measurements of metabolic hormones in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bielohuby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of circulating hormones by immunoassay remains a cornerstone in preclinical endocrine research. For scientists conducting and interpreting immunoassay measurements of rodent samples, the paramount aim usually is to obtain reliable and meaningful measurement data in order to draw conclusions on biological processes. However, the biological variability between samples is not the only variable affecting the readout of an immunoassay measurement and a considerable amount of unwanted or unintended variability can be quickly introduced during the pre-analytical and analytical phase. This review aims to increase the awareness for the factors ‘pre-analytical’ and ‘analytical’ variability particularly in the context of immunoassay measurement of circulating metabolic hormones in rodent samples. In addition, guidance is provided how to gain control over these variables and how to avoid common pitfalls associated with sample collection, processing, storage and measurement. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how to perform a basic validation of novel single and multiplex immunoassays for the measurement of metabolic hormones in rodents. Finally, practical examples from immunoassay measurements of plasma insulin in mice address the factors ‘sampling site and inhalation anesthesia’ as frequent sources of introducing an unwanted variability during the pre-analytical phase. The knowledge about the influence of both types of variability on the immunoassay measurement of circulating hormones as well as strategies to control these variables are crucial, on the one hand, for planning and realization of metabolic rodent studies and, on the other hand, for the generation and interpretation of meaningful immunoassay data from rodent samples.

  4. Nest-site partitioning in a strandveld shrubland bird community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest-site selection may vary adaptively among co-existing species as a result of competitive interactions among the species or in response to density-dependent nest predation. We examined nest-site characteristics and degree of partitioning among 14 co-existing bird species breeding in dwarf strandveld shrubland at ...

  5. UBV-photometry of nests of interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipova, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of photoelectric UBV-observations of 19 nests of interacting galaxies, made at the Crimean Station of the Sternberg Institute, are given. Most of the nests observed were found to be and to have high luminosity. The UBV and spectral data show a large amount of gas inside many nests [ru

  6. Nesting biology and food habits of the Peregrine Falcon Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied nesting biology, behaviour, and diet of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus radama in Madagascar during two breeding seasons at Tsimanampetsotsa Natural Reserve in the south-west (n = 2 nests) and at Tritriva Lake (n = 1 nest) on the central plateau from July to November 1999 and June to October 2000, ...

  7. Short Note Ground cavity nest temperatures and their relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue Swallows Hirundo atrocaerulea are Critically Endangered within South Africa. They nest in natural underground holes in mist-belt grasslands. Temperature dataloggers were used to record ground cavity nest (Tn) and ambient temperature (Ta) for one artificial and 11 natural Blue Swallow nests. Mean ground cavity Tn ...

  8. Stabilities of ant nests and their adjacent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echezona, B. C.; Igwe, C. A.

    2012-10-01

    Nests habour ants and termites and protect them from harsh environmental conditions. The structural stabilities of nests were studied to ascertain their relative vulnerability to environmental stresses. Arboreal-ant nests were pried from different trees, while epigeous-termite nests were excavated from soil surface within the sample area. Soils without any visible sign of ant or termite activity were also sampled 6 m away from the nests as control. Laboratory analysis result showed that irrespective of the tree hosts, the aggregate stabilities of the ant nests were lower than those of the ground termite, with nests formed on Cola nitida significantly showing lower aggregate stability (19.7%) than other antnest structures. Clay dispersion ratio, moisture content, water stable aggregate class 2.00 mm but path analysis demonstrated that water stable aggregate class <0.25 mm contributed most to the higher aggregate stability of the termite nest than the other nest. Nest aggregates had greater structural stability compared to the control soil. The higher structural stability of termite nests over other nest and soil was considered a better adaptive mechanism against body desiccation.

  9. Language Nests and Language Acquisition: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Eve K.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the findings from interviews conducted with language nest workers, teachers, language nest coordinators, administrators of language revitalization programs, principals and directors of language immersion schools that work in close proximity with language nests, and linguists involved in language revitalization efforts.…

  10. Strategies for nest-site selection by king eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Suydam, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nest site selection is a critical component of reproduction and has presumably evolved in relation to predation, local resources, and microclimate. We investigated nest-site choice by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) on the coastal plain of northern Alaska, USA, 2003-2005. We hypothesized that nest-site selection is driven by predator avoidance and that a variety of strategies including concealment, seclusion, and conspecific or inter-specific nest defense might lead to improved nesting success. We systematically searched wetland basins for king eider nests and measured habitat and social variables at nests (n = 212) and random locations (n = 493). King eiders made use of both secluded and concealed breeding strategies; logistic regression models revealed that females selected nests close to water, on islands, and in areas with high willow (Salix spp.) cover but did not select sites near conspecific or glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) nests. The most effective nest-placement strategy may vary depending on density and types of nest predators; seclusion is likely a mammalian-predator avoidance tactic whereas concealment may provide protection from avian predators. We recommend that managers in northern Alaska attempt to maintain wetland basins with islands and complex shorelines to provide potential nest sites in the vicinity of water. ?? The Wildlife Society.

  11. Ensatina eschscholtzii nests at a managed forest site in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Olson; R.S. Nauman; L.L. Ellenburg; B.P. Hansen; S.S. Chan

    2006-01-01

    The first Ensatina nests are described for Oregon. Fourteen nests were found during implementation of a forest density management project, seven before and seven after harvest. Nest detections are presented relative to search effort, salamander capture rates, and downed wood availability.

  12. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  13. An Architecture for Nested Transaction Support on Standard Database Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Many applications dealing with complex processes require database support for nested transactions. Current commercial database systems lack this kind of support, offering flat, non-nested transactions only. This paper presents a three-layer architecture for implementing nested transaction support on

  14. Screening for antibodies against Treponema pallidum with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay: analysis of discordant serology results and clinical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyan; Feng, Zhenru; Liu, Ping; Yan, Cunling

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, testing for syphilis has consisted of initial screening with a non-treponemal test, then retesting reactive specimens with a treponemal test. Recent availability of a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for detecting antibodies against Treponema pallidum has led several laboratories in China to adopt chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for screening of syphilis, with subsequent testing of reactive serum samples with non-treponemal tests. We evaluated the utility of chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for routine screening of syphilis. Antibodies against Treponema pallidum were screened in 20,550 serum samples using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive samples were reflexively tested with rapid plasma reagin tests and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assays. Dot-immunoblot assays were used to confirm results of chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination-negative serum samples. Overall, 267 samples (1.3%) were chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive, and 185 (69.3%) of those chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive serum samples were also Treponema pallidum particle agglutination-positive. Samples' signal to cut-off ratio for chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay correlated with diagnostic reliability, as greater samples' signal to cut-off ratio corresponded with greater concordance between chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination results. Dot-immunoblot testing of 82 chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination-negative serum samples showed that 16 samples (19.5%) were Dot-immunoblot-positive, 28 (34.2%) were indeterminate and 38 (46.3%) were negative. Because there is a certain percentage of false-positive results using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for routine

  15. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Ruzzenente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT immunoassay. Design and methods: This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB, limit of detection (LOD, functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. Results: The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively. The total analytical imprecision was found to be 2.1% and the linearity was excellent (r=1.00 in the range of concentrations between 0.006–75.5 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient with Vidas BRAHMS PCT was 0.995 and the equation of the Passing and Bablok regression analysis was [Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT]=0.76×[Vidas BRAHMS PCT]+0.04. The mean overall bias of Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT versus Vidas BRAHMS PCT was −3.03 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: −4.32 to −1.74 ng/mL, whereas the mean bias in samples with PCT concentration between 0–10 ng/mL was −0.49 ng/mL (95% CI: −0.77 to −0.24 ng/mL. The diagnostic agreement was 100% at 0.5 ng/mL, 97% at 2.0 ng/mL and 95% at 10 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results attest that Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT exhibits excellent analytical performance, among the best of the methods currently available on the diagnostic market. However, the significant bias compared to the Vidas BRAHMS PCT suggests that the methods cannot be used interchangeably. Keywords: Sepsis, Infection, Procalcitonin, Immunoassay

  16. Catch and measure-mass spectrometry-based immunoassays in biomarker research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Frederik; van den Berg, Bart H J; Planatscher, Hannes; Pynn, Christopher J; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Mass spectrometry-based (MS) methods are effective tools for discovering protein biomarker candidates that can differentiate between physiological and pathophysiological states. Promising candidates are validated in studies comprising large patient cohorts. Here, targeted protein analytics are used to increase sample throughput. Methods involving antibodies, such as sandwich immunoassays or Western blots, are commonly applied at this stage. Highly-specific and sensitive mass spectrometry-based immunoassays that have been established in recent years offer a suitable alternative to sandwich immunoassays for quantifying proteins. Mass Spectrometric ImmunoAssays (MSIA) and Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies (SISCAPA/iMALDI) are two prominent types of MS-based immunoassays in which the capture is done either at the protein or the peptide level. We present an overview of these emerging types of immunoassays and discuss their suitability for the discovery and validation of protein biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  17. Do all screening immunoassay positive buprenorphine samples need to be confirmed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohamed; Martin, Helen; Tolya, Anne; Coates, Penny

    2017-11-01

    Background Interference from opiates in the Microgenics CEDIA® Buprenorphine assay is known to produce false-positive buprenorphine screening immunoassay results necessitating confirmatory buprenorphine testing by chromatography/mass spectrometry methods. Method We reviewed data on falsely positive buprenorphine immunoassay screen (cut-off ≥ 5  µg/L) but negative for buprenorphine by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cut-off ≥ 5  µg/L) and had a positive opiate immunoassay result (cut-off ≥ 300  µg/L). The results were collected over three months, and the data were evaluated to determine whether there is an opiate immunoassay screen concentration below which a false-positive buprenorphine result will not occur. Results We found that cross-reactivity in the CEDIA® buprenorphine immunoassay by opiates at concentrations buprenorphine result. After changing our practice to not proceed with confirmatory buprenorphine gas chromatography mass spectrometry assay when the opiate screening concentration is below an even more conservative cut-off of buprenorphine immunoassay screen do not require confirmatory testing for buprenorphine.

  18. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (Peggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where...

  19. Light pollution affects nesting behavior of loggerhead turtles and predation risk of nests and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton; Marco, Adolfo; da Graça, Jesemine; Pérez, Héctor; Abella, Elena; Patino-Martinez, Juan; Martins, Samir; Almeida, Corrine

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of artificial light into wildlife habitats is a rapidly expanding aspect of global change, which has many negative impacts on a wide range of taxa. In this experimental study, which took place on a beach located on the island of Boa Vista (Cabo Verde), three types of artificial light were tested on nesting loggerhead sea turtles as well as on ghost crabs, which intensively predate on nests and hatchlings, to determine the effects they would produce on the behavior of both species. Over the course of 36days, female loggerheads and ghost crabs were studied under yellow, orange and red lights, with observations also being made on dark nights that served as a control treatment. During this period, the frequencies of nesting attempts, the time taken by turtles to complete each phase of the nesting process, and ghost crab abundance and behaviors were carefully recorded. 1146 loggerhead nesting attempts were observed and recorded during the experiments, and results showed a decrease in nesting attempts of at least 20% when artificial lighting was present. A significant decline in successful attempts was also observed within the central sections of the beach, which corresponded to those that received more light. This artificial lighting significantly increased the time that turtles spent on the nesting process and forced them to do more extensive beach crawls. Despite this, the presence of light had no apparent effect on the final selection of the nesting site. Yellow and orange lights significantly disrupted the sea finding behavior and turtles were often unable to orient themselves seaward under these color lights. Disoriented turtles were observed crawling in circuitous paths in front of the light source for several minutes. In addition, artificial lights had the potential to increase the number of ghost crabs present within the illuminated stretches of the beach. However, only yellow lighting produced a significant change on aggressive and prey

  20. Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota's Bakken Oil Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Burr

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator-prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife.

  1. EFL Students' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Look at NESTs and Non-NESTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Tanriöver, Ahmet Serkan; Sahan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) have been employed in various English language teaching (ELT) positions and departments at private and state universities in Turkey, particularly over the last three decades. However, undergraduate EFL students' attitudes toward NESTs and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (Non-NESTs) remain seriously…

  2. Clutch-size variation in Western Palaearctic secondary hole-nesting passerine birds in relation to nest box design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, A.P.; Adriaensen, F.; Artemyev, A.; Bańbura, J.; Barba, E.; Biard, C.; Blondel, J.; Bouslama, Z.; Bouvier, J.-C.; Camprodon, J.; Cecere, F.; Chaine, A.; Charmantier, A.; Charter, M.; Cichoń, M.; Cusimano, C.; Czeszczewik, D.; Doligez, B.; Doutrelant, C.; Dubiec, A.; Eens, M.; Eeva, T.; Faivre, B.; Ferns, P.N.; Forsman, J.T.; García-del-Rey, E.; Goldshtein, A.; Goodenough, A.E.; Gosler, A.G.; Góźdź, I.; Grégoire, A.; Gustafsson, L.; Hartley, I.R.; Heeb, P.; Hinsley, S.A.; Isenmann, P.; Jacob, S.; Järvinen, A.; Juškaitis, R.; Kania, W.; Korpimäki, E.; Krams, I.; Laaksonen, T.; Leclercq, B.; Lehikoinen, E.; Loukola, O.; Lundberg, A.; Mainwaring, M.C.; Mänd, R.; Massa, B.; Mazgajski, T.D.; Merino, S.; Mitrus, C.; Mönkkönen, M.; Morales-Fernaz, J.; Moreno, J.; Morin, X.; Nager, R.G.; Nilsson, J.-Å.; Nilsson, S.G.; Norte, A.C.; Orell, M.; Perret, P.; Perrins, C.M.; Pimentel, C.S.; Pinxten, R.; Priedniece, I.; Quidoz, M.-C.; Remeš, V.; Richner, H.; Robles, H.; Russell, A.; Rytkönen, S.; Senar, J.C.; Seppänen, J.T.; Pascoal da Silva, L.; Slagsvold, T.; Solonen, T.; Sorace, A.; Stenning, M.J.; Török, J.; Tryjanowski, P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; von Numers, M.; Walankiewicz, W.; Lambrechts, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    * Secondary hole-nesting birds that do not construct nest holes themselves and hence regularly breed in nest boxes constitute important model systems for field studies in many biological disciplines with hundreds of scientists and amateurs involved. Those research groups are spread over wide

  3. Basic and clinical investigation of T3 immunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Junji; Nakajima, Akiko; Morita, Rikushi; Endo, Keigo; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1976-01-01

    T 3 immunoassay kit was investigated basically and clinically. A good result was obtained at the prescribed incubation temperature and for 16 hours of incubation time. Moreover, it was thought to be possible that incubation time could be shortened to 1 - 4 hours at 37 0 C. Specificity of antibody was good. Recovery of added T 3 was 100+-5 (S.D.) % on an average and parallel of dilution curve of high T 3 serum was also good. Variation coefficient of accuracy of this kit was 1.5 - 2.1 % and that of reproducibility was 1.3 - 6.6 %. Mild hemolysis did not affect measurement value. Serum T 3 level in normals, untreated patients with Basedow's disease and patients with primary hypothyroidism was 142+-21 ng/100 ml, 452+-156 ng/100 ml and 67+-17 ng/100 ml, respectively. Serum T 3 level in patients with Hashimoto's disease was distributed to a wide extent, but that of patients with goiter and simple goiter ranged within normal range. On the other side, serum T 3 level of normal pregnant woman was high and that of patients with anorexia nervosa showed low level. From the above mentioned results, it was concluded that this kit was simple in method and good in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility and it was also useful for clinical applications. (M. Tsunoda)

  4. Human CCDC47 sandwich immunoassay development with electrochemiluminescence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenfang S; Zhu, Liang; Patil, Saurabh; Gokul, Karthiga; Reilly, Sean; Chan, Joyce; Tekumalla, Poornima; Vishnudas, Vivek; Kiebish, Michael A; Sarangarajan, Rangaprasad; Akmaev, Viatcheslav R; Kellogg, Mark D; Narain, Niven R

    2018-01-01

    Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 47 (CCDC47) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein involved in calcium signaling through utilization of its calcium binding-acidic luminal domain. CCDC47 also interacts with ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation) complex and is involved in ER stress relief. In this report, we developed human CCDC47 monoclonal antibodies and a sandwich immunoassay for CCDC47 measurement in biological matrices. Specificity of developed antibodies were confirmed by immunoblot and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of immunoprecipitated cell lysates. To achieve high analytical sensitivity, traditional colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology were compared, and 3 logs of increased sensitivity was observed with the use of ECL. A CCDC47 sandwich ECL assay was subsequently developed and performances evaluated for calibration curves, precision and accuracy, as well as selectivity and interferences for sample measurement. Sample stability was also characterized for freeze/thaw cycles and short/long term storage conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Backscattering particle immunoassays in wire-guide droplet manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You David J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simpler way for manipulating droplets on a flat surface was demonstrated, eliminating the complications in the existing methods of open-surface digital microfluidics. Programmed and motorized movements of 10 μL droplets were demonstrated using stepper motors and microcontrollers, including merging, complicated movement along the programmed path, and rapid mixing. Latex immunoagglutination assays for mouse immunoglobulin G, bovine viral diarrhea virus and Escherichia coli were demonstrated by merging two droplets on a superhydrophobic surface (contact angle = 155 ± 2° and using subsequent back light scattering detection, with detection limits of 50 pg mL-1, 2.5 TCID50 mL-1 and 85 CFU mL-1, respectively, all significantly lower than the other immunoassay demonstrations in conventional microfluidics (~1 ng mL-1 for proteins, ~100 TCID50 mL-1 for viruses and ~100 CFU mL-1 for bacteria. Advantages of this system over conventional microfluidics or microwell plate assays include: (1 minimized biofouling and repeated use (>100 times of a platform; (2 possibility of nanoliter droplet manipulation; (3 reprogrammability with a computer or a game pad interface.

  6. Designing novel nano-immunoassays: antibody orientation versus sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertas, S; Moros, M; Fernandez-Pacheco, R; Ibarra, M R; Grazu, V; De la Fuente, J M, E-mail: vgrazu@unizar.e, E-mail: jmfuente@unizar.e [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus RIo Ebro, EdifIcio I-D, Mariano Esquillor, s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for their application in quantitative and highly sensitive biosensors. Their use as labels of biological recognition events and their detection by means of some magnetic method constitute a very promising strategy for quantitative high-sensitive lateral-flow assays. In this paper, we report the importance of nanoparticle functionalization for the improvement of sensitivity for a lateral-flow immunoassay. More precisely, we have found that immobilization of IgG anti-hCG through its polysaccharide moieties on MNPs allows more successful recognition of the hCG hormone. Although we have used the detection of hCG as a model in this work, the strategy of binding antibodies to MNPs through its sugar chains reported here is applicable to other antibodies. It has huge potential as it will be very useful for the development of quantitative and high-sensitive lateral-flow assays for its use on human and veterinary, medicine, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceutical, medical biologics and personal care product production, environmental remediation, etc.

  7. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany); Tang, Dianping [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, MOE & Fujian Province, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Knopp, Dietmar, E-mail: dietmar.knopp@ch.tum.de [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany)

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • Novel concepts and promising applications of nanoparticle-based immunological methods for the determination of aflatoxins. • Inclusion of most important nanomaterials and hybrid nanostructures. • Inclusion of electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive biosensors as well as optical and immunochromatographic assays.

  8. A Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassay for Zika Virus Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Wong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious agents is essential for patient care, disease control, and countermeasure development. The present serologic diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV infection relies mainly on IgM-capture ELISA which is confounded with the flaw of cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. In this communication, we report a multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MIA that captures the diagnostic power of viral envelope protein (that elicits robust, yet cross-reactive antibodies to other flaviviruses and the differential power of viral nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS5 (that induce more virus-type specific antibodies. Using 153 patient specimens with known ZIKV and/or dengue virus (DENV; a closely related flavivirus infections, we showed that (i ZIKV envelope-based MIA is equivalent or more sensitive than IgM-capture ELISA in diagnosing ZIKV infection, (ii antibody responses to NS1 and NS5 proteins are more ZIKV-specific than antibody response to envelope protein, (iii inclusion of NS1 and NS5 in the MIA improves the diagnostic accuracy when compared with the MIA that uses envelope protein alone. The multiplex MIA achieves a rapid diagnosis (turnaround time < 4 h and requires small specimen volume (10 μl in a single reaction. This serologic assay could be developed for use in clinical diagnosis of ZIKV infection and for monitoring immune responses in vaccine trials.

  9. A Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassay for Zika Virus Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Susan J; Furuya, Andrea; Zou, Jing; Xie, Xuping; Dupuis, Alan P; Kramer, Laura D; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-02-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious agents is essential for patient care, disease control, and countermeasure development. The present serologic diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection relies mainly on IgM-capture ELISA which is confounded with the flaw of cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. In this communication, we report a multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MIA) that captures the diagnostic power of viral envelope protein (that elicits robust, yet cross-reactive antibodies to other flaviviruses) and the differential power of viral nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS5 (that induce more virus-type specific antibodies). Using 153 patient specimens with known ZIKV and/or dengue virus (DENV; a closely related flavivirus) infections, we showed that (i) ZIKV envelope-based MIA is equivalent or more sensitive than IgM-capture ELISA in diagnosing ZIKV infection, (ii) antibody responses to NS1 and NS5 proteins are more ZIKV-specific than antibody response to envelope protein, (iii) inclusion of NS1 and NS5 in the MIA improves the diagnostic accuracy when compared with the MIA that uses envelope protein alone. The multiplex MIA achieves a rapid diagnosis (turnaround timeimmune responses in vaccine trials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard; Tang, Dianping; Knopp, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • Novel concepts and promising applications of nanoparticle-based immunological methods for the determination of aflatoxins. • Inclusion of most important nanomaterials and hybrid nanostructures. • Inclusion of electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive biosensors as well as optical and immunochromatographic assays.

  11. Chronoamperometry-Based Redox Cycling for Application to Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga-Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee; Chang, Young Wook; Cho, Sungbo; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2018-01-26

    In this work, the chronoamperometry-based redox cycling of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) was performed by using interdigitated electrode (IDE). The signal was obtained from two sequential chronoamperometric profiles: (1) with the generator at the oxidative potential of TMB and the collector at the reductive potential of TMB, and (2) with the generator at the reductive potential of TMB and the collector at the oxidative potential of TMB. The chronoamperometry-based redox cycling (dual mode) showed a sensitivity of 1.49 μA/OD, and the redox cycling efficiency was estimated to be 94% (n = 10). The sensitivities of conventional redox cycling with the same interdigitated electrode and chronoamperometry using a single working electrode (single mode) were estimated to be 0.67 μA/OD and 0.18 μA/OD, respectively. These results showed that the chronoamperometry-based redox cycling (dual mode) could be more effectively used to quantify the oxidized TMB than other amperometric methods. The chronoamperometry-based redox cycling (dual mode) was applied to immunoassays using a commercial ELISA kit for medical diagnosis of the human hepatitis B virus surface antigen (hHBsAg). Finally, the chronoamperometry-based redox cycling (dual mode) provided more than a 10-fold higher sensitivity than conventional chronoamperometry using a single working electrode (single mode) when applied to a commercial ELISA kit for medical diagnosis of hHBsAg.

  12. Evaluation of a new chemiluminescence immunoassay for diagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Xiaohui

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of a new chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA in the diagnosis of syphilis. Methods At first, a retrospective study was conducted, using 135 documented cases of syphilis and 30 potentially interfering samples and 80 normal sera. A prospective study was also performed by testing 2, 071 unselected samples for routine screening for syphilis. CLIA was compared with a nontreponemal test (TRUST and a treponemal test (TPPA. Results There was an agreement of 100% between CLIA and TPPA in the respective study. The percentage of agreement among the 245 sera tested was 100.0%. Compared with TPPA, the specificity of CLIA was 99.9% (1817/1819, the sensitivity of CLIA was 100.0% (244/244 in the prospective study. CLIA showed 99.5% agreement with TPPA by testing 2, 071 unselected samples. And CLIA seemed to be more sensitive than TPPA in detecting the samples of primary syphilis. Conclusions CLIA is easy to perform and the indicator results are objective and unequivocal. It may be suitable for large-scale screening as a treponemal test substituted for TPPA.

  13. Enhanced lateral flow immunoassay using gold nanoparticles loaded with enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolo, Claudio; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-15

    The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as labeling carriers in combination with the enzymatic activity of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in order to achieve an improved optical lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) performance is presented here. Briefly in a LFIA with an immune-sandwich format AuNPs are functionalized with a detection antibody already modified with HRP, obtaining an 'enhanced' label. Two different detection strategies have been tested: the first one following just the red color of the AuNPs and the second one using a substrate for the HRP (3 different substrates are evaluated), which produces a darker color that enhances the intensity of the previous red color of the unmodified AuNPs. In such very simple way it is gaining sensitivity (up to 1 order of magnitude) without losing the simplicity of the LFIA format, opening the way to other LFIA applications including their on-demand performance tuning according to the analytical scenario. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for serological diagnosis of pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Teppo; Knuutila, Aapo; Barkoff, Alex-Mikael; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui

    2018-03-07

    Current serological diagnosis of pertussis is usually done by ELISA. However, the ELISAs are often central-laboratory based, require trained staff and have long turnaround times. A rapid point-of-care (POC) assay for pertussis serology would aid in both diagnosis and surveillance of the disease. While lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) are simple to use and ideal for point-of-care diagnostics, they were limited to qualitative assays until recently. In this study, we developed a quantitative LFIA with fluorescent Eu-nanoparticle reporters for the detection of anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG. The assay was evaluated by testing 198 serum samples with varying anti-PT IgG levels and the result was compared to those obtained with standardized anti-PT IgG ELISA. At the diagnostic cutoff of 100 IU/mL in ELISA, the LFIA had a concordance of 92% with the ELISA, with a specificity of 96% [95% confidence interval (CI): 89-99%] and a sensitivity of 88% [CI: 77-94%]. The developed LFIA has a turnaround time of one hour and requires only a simple manipulation by the user and an instrument for the quantitative detection of the signal. We conclude that the LFIA is specific and sensitive for serological diagnosis of pertussis and is suitable for a POC test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PhoneQuant: A smartphone-based quantitative immunoassay analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay Ilesh; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sanne, Ujwal Sriharsha; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2017-07-01

    There is a vital need for portable and cost-effective point-of-care (PoC) testing technologies that provide reliable and rapid results. Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFIA) are suitable PoC diagnostic tools with the potential for use in a wide variety of field applications ranging from uses in clinical diagnostics to aiding law enforcement. Quick and reliable diagnosis of non-communicable diseases (NCD) like diabetes is vital especially in developing countries like India where the burden of these diseases is very high and is increasing day by day. In this paper, we have presented the design of smartphone-based fully quantitative LFIA analyser, An automatic image processing algorithm is also described. A repeatability study was done with stable fluorescence reference cartridges. The Coefficient of Variation (CoV) for repeatability study was calculated and it was found to be good (LFIA analysers and it has good potential to be deployed at physician's desk or for in-home PoC testing for quick and reliable diagnosis.

  16. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting...

  17. Nesting habitat and reproductive success of southwestern riparian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, B.F.; Steidl, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Vegetation structure and floristic composition strongly influence the structure of bird communities. To assess the influence of vegetation and other environmental characteristics on songbirds, we quantified nest-site characteristics and reproductive success of a riparian songbird community in Arizona. Although we found interspecific variation in characteristics associated with nest sites, we identified two suites of species that chose sites with similar characteristics. These 'nest groups' were explained largely by nest height and characteristics of nest trees. Overall, nest success was low for songbirds in this community, and averaged 23%. The most common cause of nest failure was predation (81%), although brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) was highest at nests of Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii) (29%). No vegetation or environmental features were associated with the likelihood of cowbird parasitism for any species; nest success for Bell's Vireos was negatively associated with the amount of netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata) in the understory. Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii) and netleaf hackberry trees contained 41% and 17% of all nests, respectively, and therefore provide critically important nesting substrates for birds in this rare yet diverse vegetation community.

  18. Estimating Raptor Nesting Success: Old and New Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N; Bond, Laura

    2013-07-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ), prairie falcons ( Falco mexicanus ), and American kestrels ( F. sparverius ) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  19. Estimating raptor nesting success: old and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  20. Study of Implosion of Combined Nested Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Sasorov, P. V.; Branitsky, A. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.

    2017-12-01

    New experimental data on the implosion of plasma of nested kapron-tungsten arrays are obtained at the Angara-5-1 facility. The mode of plasma implosion is implemented in which a shock wave region forms in the space between the inner and outer arrays where a transition from the super-Alfvénic ( V r > V A ) to sub-Alfvénic ( V r Z-pinch and generation of a soft X-ray pulse with a peak power of 4 TW and duration of about 5 ns.

  1. Analysis of dual coupler nested coupled cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, George A; Sabry, Yasser M; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-12-01

    Coupled ring resonators are now forming the basic building blocks in several optical systems serving different applications. In many of these applications, a small full width at half maximum is required, along with a large free spectral range. In this work, a configuration of passive coupled cavities constituting dual coupler nested cavities is proposed. A theoretical study of the configuration is presented allowing us to obtain analytical expressions of its different spectral characteristics. The transfer function of the configuration is also used to generate design curves while comparing these results with analytical expressions. Finally, the configuration is compared with other coupled cavity configurations.

  2. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as an Antibody Substitution in Pseudo-immunoassays for Chemical Contaminants in Food and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaochao; Luo, Jiaxun; Li, Chenglong; Ma, Mingfang; Yu, Wenbo; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2018-03-21

    The chemical contaminants in food and the environment are quite harmful to food safety and human health. Rapid, accurate, and cheap detection can effectively control the potential risks derived from these chemical contaminants. Among all detection methods, the immunoassay based on the specific interaction of antibody-analyte is one of the most widely used techniques in the field. However, biological antibodies employed in the immunoassay usually cannot tolerate extreme conditions, resulting in an unstable state in both physical and chemical profiles. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are a class of polymers with specific molecular recognition abilities, which are highly robust, showing excellent operational stability under a wide variety of conditions. Recently, MIPs have been used in biomimetic immunoassays for chemical contaminants as an antibody substitute in food and the environment. Here, we reviewed these applications of MIPs incorporated in different analytical platforms, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay, electrochemical immunoassay, microfluidic paper-based immunoassay, and homogeneous immunoassay, and discussed current challenges and future trends in the use of MIPs in biomimetic immunoassays.

  3. Tufted Puffins nesting in estuarine habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Sanger, Gerald A.

    1979-01-01

    The Tufted Puffin (Lunda cirrhata) apparently has the most extensive breeding distribution of any North Pacific seabird, extending in the western North Pacific from Hokkaido to the north Chukotsk Peninsula on the Chukchi Sea, and in North America from Cape Lisburne on the Chukchi Sea, south to the Farallon Islands off central California (Udvardy 1963). Despite this wide breeding distribution, the reported nesting habitat is generally restricted to steep, rocky islands and continental headlands (see Dement’ev and Gladkov 1951, Kozlova 1957, Gabrielson and Lincoln 1959, Portenko 1973, Sealy 1973, and Sowls et al. 1978). Nests are typically excavated in steep slopes and/or on vegetated plateaus, well above normal tidal influence but occasionally within the spray or storm-wash zone. Nowhere has L. cirrhata or any other puffin species been reported to nest in a flat, estuarine habitat in substrate normally affected by tides during the breeding season. Portenko (1973: 137) refers to Tufted Puffins breeding on Alyumka Island in the Anadyr "estuary" (64°40'N, 177°37'E), but Alyumka Island is a rocky coastal island having immediate offshore waters between 3-18 m deep (A.A. Kistchinski, The Ringing Center, Moscow, and George Tyner, U.S. Defense Mapping Agency, pers. comm.).During the summers of 1976, 1977, and 1978, we found 14-18 pairs of Tufted Puffins nesting on 4 narrow sand islands (5-7 ha each) along the northcentral Alaska Peninsula at Nelson Lagoon (56°00'N, 161°10'W). As of June 1979, 25 active burrows had been reported there (Margaret R. Petersen, pers. comm.). The islands lie approximately 1.3 km from the Bering Sea coast and are protected from the sea by a long, narrow (0.5 kin) sand peninsula. The main deepwater channel in the lagoon, 3-7 m deep and 100-300 m wide at mean low water (MLW), separates the islands from the peninsula. The islands, which are free of permafrost, have a uniformly low profile with the highest elevation 1-2 m above mean high water

  4. Nest-site selection and nest success of an Arctic-breeding passerine, Smith's Longspur, in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Powell, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Despite changes in shrub cover and weather patterns associated with climate change in the Arctic, little is known about the breeding requirements of most passerines tied to northern regions. We investigated the nesting biology and nest habitat characteristics of Smith's Longspurs (Calcarius pictus) in 2 study areas in the Brooks Range of Alaska, USA. First, we examined variation in nesting phenology in relation to local temperatures. We then characterized nesting habitat and analyzed nest-site selection for a subset of nests (n = 86) in comparison with paired random points. Finally, we estimated the daily survival rate of 257 nests found in 2007–2013 with respect to both habitat characteristics and weather variables. Nest initiation was delayed in years with snow events, heavy rain, and freezing temperatures early in the breeding season. Nests were typically found in open, low-shrub tundra, and never among tall shrubs (mean shrub height at nests = 26.8 ± 6.7 cm). We observed weak nest-site selection patterns. Considering the similarity between nest sites and paired random points, coupled with the unique social mating system of Smith's Longspurs, we suggest that habitat selection may occur at the neighborhood scale and not at the nest-site scale. The best approximating model explaining nest survival suggested a positive relationship with the numbers of days above 21°C that an individual nest experienced; there was little support for models containing habitat variables. The daily nest survival rate was high (0.972–0.982) compared with that of most passerines in forested or grassland habitats, but similar to that of passerines nesting on tundra. Considering their high nesting success and ability to delay nest initiation during inclement weather, Smith's Longspurs may be resilient to predicted changes in weather regimes on the breeding grounds. Thus, the greatest threat to breeding Smith's Longspurs associated with climate change may be the loss of low

  5. Effectiveness of nest site restoration for the endangered northern map turtle : report 2 : use of artificial nesting sites and wildlife exclusion fences to enhance nesting success : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Northern Map Turtle, is a state Endangered Species, found only in the : lower Susquehanna River in Maryland. The only area where nests of this : species are not heavily impacted by predators is in the town of Port Deposit. : However, turtles nest...

  6. Nest-site selection and nest survival of Lewis's woodpecker in aspen riparian woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen R. Newlon; Victoria A. Saab

    2011-01-01

    Riparian woodlands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) provide valuable breeding habitat for several cavity-nesting birds. Although anecdotal information for this habitat is available for Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), no study has previously examined the importance of aspen woodlands to this species' breeding biology. From 2002 to 2004, we monitored 76...

  7. Determination of fenoterol and ractopamine in urine by enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, W; Stouten, P; Lommen, A; Cazemier, G; Hooijerink, D; Schilt, R

    1994-12-01

    Fenoterol and ractopamine are phenethanolamines with beta-adrenergic agonist activity. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for these compounds was developed using antibodies raised in a New Zealand white rabbit against fenoterol-bovine serum albumin and fenoterol coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The calibration graphs of fenoterol and ractopamine showed linearity over the concentration ranges 0.1-5 and 0.2-25 ng ml-1, respectively. Isoxsuprine showed a cross-reactivity of 0.7% while the cross-reactivity of other beta-agonists was combination with isobutanol extraction, the mean concentration was eight times higher than that obtained when using extraction only. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of fenoterol in most of these samples. However, probably owing to the absence of a proper GC-MS internal standard, the correlation between GC-MS and EIA concentrations was low (r = 0.7976). In general, the concentrations found by the EIA are much higher than those found by GC-MS, which might be caused by the presence of metabolites detected with the EIA. Fenoterol is excreted in urine mostly (about 85%) as glucuronidated-sulfated conjugate. The antibodies partly recognize the conjugated fenoterol, which makes it possible to use a direct screening assay. In blank calf urine the detection limits, mean background +3 times the standard deviation, are 1.3 (fenoterol) and 2.6 ng ml-1 (ractopamine). In bovine urine, however, owing to matrix effects, the detection limits are 20 times higher.

  8. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzenente, Orazio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT) immunoassay. This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively. The total analytical imprecision was found to be 2.1% and the linearity was excellent (r=1.00) in the range of concentrations between 0.006-75.5 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient with Vidas BRAHMS PCT was 0.995 and the equation of the Passing and Bablok regression analysis was [Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT]=0.76×[Vidas BRAHMS PCT]+0.04. The mean overall bias of Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT versus Vidas BRAHMS PCT was -3.03 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.32 to -1.74 ng/mL), whereas the mean bias in samples with PCT concentration between 0-10 ng/mL was -0.49 ng/mL (95% CI: -0.77 to -0.24 ng/mL). The diagnostic agreement was 100% at 0.5 ng/mL, 97% at 2.0 ng/mL and 95% at 10 ng/mL, respectively. These results attest that Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT exhibits excellent analytical performance, among the best of the methods currently available on the diagnostic market. However, the significant bias compared to the Vidas BRAHMS PCT suggests that the methods cannot be used interchangeably.

  9. Antibody characterization and immunoassays for palytoxin using an SPR biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakes, Betsy Jean; DeGrasse, Stacey L; Poli, Mark; Deeds, Jonathan R

    2011-07-01

    Palytoxin (PLTX), a polyether marine toxin originally isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa toxica, is one of the most toxic non-protein substances known. Fatal poisonings have been linked to ingestion of PLTX-contaminated seafood, and effects in humans have been associated with dermal and inhalational exposure to PLTX containing organisms and waters. Additionally, PLTX co-occurrence with other well-characterized seafood toxins (e.g., ciguatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin) has hindered direct associations of PLTX to seafood-borne illnesses. There are currently no validated methods for the quantitative detection of PLTX(s). As such, a well-characterized, robust, specific analytical technique is needed for the detection of PLTX(s) in source organisms, surrounding waters, and clinical samples. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors are ideally suited for antibody characterization and quantitative immunoassay detection. Herein, we describe a newly developed SPR assay for PLTX. An anti-mouse substrate was used to characterize the kinetic values for a previously developed monoclonal anti-PLTX. The characterized antibody was then incorporated into a sensitive, rapid, and selective PLTX assay. Buffer type, flow rate, analyte-binding time, and regeneration conditions were optimized for the antibody-PLTX system. Cross-reactivity to potentially co-occurring seafood toxins was also evaluated. We show that this optimized assay is capable of measuring low- to sub-ng/mL PLTX levels in buffer and two seafood matrices (grouper and clam). Preliminary results indicate that this SPR biosensor assay allows for (1) rapid characterization of antibodies and (2) rapid, sensitive PLTX concentration determination in seafood matrices. Method development information contained herein may be broadly applied to future PLTX detection and/or antibody characterization efforts.

  10. Replacing antibodies with aptamers in lateral flow immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming

    2015-09-15

    Aptamers have been identified against various targets as a type of chemical or nucleic acid ligand by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamers show remarkable advantages over antibodies due to the nucleic acid nature and target-induced structure-switching properties and are widely used to design various fluorescent, electrochemical, or colorimetric biosensors. However, the practical applications of aptamer-based sensing and diagnostics are still lagging behind those of antibody-based tests. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) represents a well established and appropriate technology among rapid assays because of its low cost and user-friendliness. The antibody-based platform is utilized to detect numerous targets, but it is always hampered by the antibody preparation time, antibody stability, and effect of modification on the antibody. Seeking alternatives to antibodies is an area of active research and is of tremendous importance. Aptamers are receiving increasing attention in lateral flow applications because of a number of important potential performance advantages. We speculate that aptamer-based LFIA may be one of the first platforms for commercial use of aptamer-based diagnosis. This review first gives an introduction to aptamer including the selection process SELEX with its focus on aptamer advantages over antibodies, and then depicts LFIA with its focus on aptamer opportunities in LFIA over antibodies. Furthermore, we summarize the recent advances in the development of aptamer-based lateral flow biosensing assays with the aim to provide a general guide for the design of aptamer-based lateral flow biosensing assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  12. Predation risk of artificial ground nests in managed floodplain meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Susanne; Franke, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Nest predation highly determines the reproductive success in birds. In agricultural grasslands, vegetation characteristics and management practices influences the predation risk of ground breeders. Little is known so far on the predation pressure on non-passerine nests in tall swards. Investigations on the interaction of land use with nesting site conditions and the habitat selection of nest predators are crucial to develop effective conservation measures for grassland birds. In this study, we used artificial nests baited with quail and plasticine eggs to identify potential predators of ground nests in floodplain meadows and related predation risk to vegetation structure and grassland management. Mean daily predation rate was 0.01 (±0.012) after an exposure duration of 21 days. 70% of all observed nest predations were caused by mammals (Red Fox and mustelids) and 17.5% by avian predators (corvids). Nest sites close to the meadow edge and those providing low forb cover were faced with a higher daily predation risk. Predation risk also increased later in the season. Land use in the preceding year had a significant effect on predation risk, showing higher predation rates on unmanaged sites than on mown sites. Unused meadows probably attract mammalian predators, because they provide a high abundance of small rodents and a more favourable vegetation structure for foraging, increasing also the risk of incidental nest predations. Although mowing operation is a major threat to ground-nesting birds, our results suggest that an annual removal of vegetation may reduce predation risk in the subsequent year.

  13. Evaluation of a commercially available immunoassay for assessing adequacy of passive transfer in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Maisie E; Tyler, Jeff W; Hostetler, Douglas; Lakritz, Jeff; Tessman, Ronald

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate diagnostic utility of a commercially available immunoassay for assessing adequacy of passive transfer of immunity in neonatal calves. Prospective study. 123 calves. Blood and serum samples were obtained from the calves prior to 2 weeks of age. The immunoassay was performed, along with refractometry and an 18% sodium sulfite turbidity test. Serum IgG concentration was determined with a radial immunodiffusion assay. Sensitivity and specificity of the immunoassay, refractometry, and the sodium sulfite test were calculated by comparing results with results of the radial immunodiffusion assay. Sensitivity and specificity of the blood IgG immunoassay were 0.93 and 0.88, respectively, compared with 1.00 and 0.53 for the sodium sulfite test. For refractometry, sensitivity and specificity were 0.71 and 0.83, respectively, when a serum total solids concentration of 5.2 g/dl was used as the cutoff between positive and negative test results. Results suggest that the immunoassay performs well in detecting calves with inadequate passive transfer of immunity.

  14. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  15. Functional Error Models to Accelerate Nested Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, L.; Elsheikh, A. H.; Demyanov, V.; Lunati, I.

    2014-12-01

    The main challenge in groundwater problems is the reliance on large numbers of unknown parameters with wide rage of associated uncertainties. To translate this uncertainty to quantities of interest (for instance the concentration of pollutant in a drinking well), a large number of forward flow simulations is required. To make the problem computationally tractable, Josset et al. (2013, 2014) introduced the concept of functional error models. It consists in two elements: a proxy model that is cheaper to evaluate than the full physics flow solver and an error model to account for the missing physics. The coupling of the proxy model and the error models provides reliable predictions that approximate the full physics model's responses. The error model is tailored to the problem at hand by building it for the question of interest. It follows a typical approach in machine learning where both the full physics and proxy models are evaluated for a training set (subset of realizations) and the set of responses is used to construct the error model using functional data analysis. Once the error model is devised, a prediction of the full physics response for a new geostatistical realization can be obtained by computing the proxy response and applying the error model. We propose the use of functional error models in a Bayesian inference context by combining it to the Nested Sampling (Skilling 2006; El Sheikh et al. 2013, 2014). Nested Sampling offers a mean to compute the Bayesian Evidence by transforming the multidimensional integral into a 1D integral. The algorithm is simple: starting with an active set of samples, at each iteration, the sample with the lowest likelihood is kept aside and replaced by a sample of higher likelihood. The main challenge is to find this sample of higher likelihood. We suggest a new approach: first the active set is sampled, both proxy and full physics models are run and the functional error model is build. Then, at each iteration of the Nested

  16. Sexually selected nest-building--Pomatoschistus minutus males build smaller nest-openings in the presence of sneaker males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O; Kvarnemo, C

    2003-09-01

    Both natural selection and sexual selection may act on nest-building. We tested experimentally how different regimes of egg-predation and male-male competition influence nest-building before mating, using the marine fish sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Males with sneaker males present built the smallest nest-openings, smaller than males held alone or with Pomatoschistus microps males (which may predate eggs and compete over nest-sites but not compete over fertilizations). Males with visual access to other nest-building males tended also to build smaller openings than males held alone or with P. microps. Males with egg-predators present built nests with openings not differing significantly from any other treatment. Our results indicate that the small nest-openings found in the sneaker male treatment are sexually selected through protection against sneaking or by female choice. Across treatments, time span before a male started to build his nest also explained variation in nest-opening width; males starting late built larger nest-openings.

  17. Parental investment decisions in response to ambient nest-predation risk versus actual predation on the prior nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that parents should invest less in dependent offspring with lower reproductive value, such as those with a high risk of predation. Moreover, high predation risk can favor reduced parental activity when such activity attracts nest predators. Yet, the ability of parents to assess ambient nest-predation risk and respond adaptively remains unclear, especially where nest-predator assemblages are diverse and potentially difficult to assess. We tested whether variation in parental investment by a multi-brooded songbird (Brewer's Sparrow, Spizella breweri) in an environment (sagebrush steppe) with diverse predators was predicted by ambient nest-predation risk or direct experience with nest predation. Variation among eight sites in ambient nest-predation risk, assayed by daily probabilities of nest predation, was largely uncorrelated across four years. In this system risk may therefore be unpredictable, and aspects of parental investment (clutch size, egg mass, incubation rhythms, nestling-feeding rates) were not related to ambient risk. Moreover, investment at first nests that were successful did not differ from that at nests that were depredated, suggesting parents could not assess and respond to territorylevel nest-predation risk. However, parents whose nests were depredated reduced clutch sizes and activity at nests attempted later in the season by increasing the length of incubation shifts (on-bouts) and recesses (off-bouts) and decreasing trips to feed nestlings. In this unpredictable environment parent birds may therefore lack sufficient cues of ambient risk on which to base their investment decisions and instead rely on direct experience with nest predation to inform at least some of their decisions. ?? 2010 The Cooper Ornithological Society.

  18. Estimating sighting proportions of American alligator nests during helicopter survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin; Woodward, Allan R.

    2000-01-01

    Proportions of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nests sighted during aerial survey in Florida were estimated based upon multiple surveys by different observers. We compared sighting proportions across habitats, nesting seasons, and observer experience levels. The mean sighting proportion across all habitats and years was 0.736 (SE=0.024). Survey counts corrected by the mean sighting proportion reliably predicted total nest counts (7?2=0.933). Sighting proportions did not differ by habitat type (P=0.668) or year P=0.328). Experienced observers detected a greater proportion of nests (P<0.0001) than did either less experienced or inexperienced observers. Reliable estimates of nest abundance can be derived from aerial counts of alligator nests when corrected by the appropriate sighting proportion.

  19. Nested Focusing Optics for Compact Neutron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) have developed novel neutron grazing incidence optics for use with small-scale portable neutron generators. The technology was developed to enable the use of commercially available neutron generators for applications requiring high flux densities, including high performance imaging and analysis. Nested grazing incidence mirror optics, with high collection efficiency, are used to produce divergent, parallel, or convergent neutron beams. Ray tracing simulations of the system (with source-object separation of 10m for 5 meV neutrons) show nearly an order of magnitude neutron flux increase on a 1-mm diameter object. The technology is a result of joint development efforts between NASA and MIT researchers seeking to maximize neutron flux from diffuse sources for imaging and testing applications.

  20. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  1. Hatching and fledging times from grassland passerine nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Granfors, Diane A.; Grant, Todd A.; Ribic, Christine A.; Thompson, Frank R.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    1 day and was positively correlated with clutch size. Length of the fledging period for a brood was usually Accurate estimates of fledging age are needed in field studies to avoid inducing premature fledging or missing the fledging event. Both may lead to misinterpretation of nest fate. Correctly assessing nest fate and length of the nestling period can be critical for accurate calculation of nest survival rates. For researchers who mark nestlings, knowing the age at which their activities may cause young to leave nests prematurely could prevent introducing bias to their studies. We obtained estimates of fledging age using data from grassland bird nests monitored from hatching through fledging with video-surveillance systems in North Dakota and Minnesota during 1996–2001. We compared these values to those obtained from traditional nest visits and from available literature. Mean and modal fledging ages for video-monitored nests were generally similar to those for visited nests, although Clay-colored Sparrows (Spizella pallida) typically fledged 1 day earlier from visited nests. Average fledging ages from both video and nest visits occurred within ranges reported in the literature, but expanded by 1–2 days the upper age limit for Clay-colored Sparrows and the lower age limit for Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Video showed that eggs hatched throughout the day whereas most young fledged in the morning (06:30–12:30 CDT). Length of the hatching period for a clutch was usually >1 day and was positively correlated with clutch size. Length of the fledging period for a brood was usually information and for corroborating published statements related to hatching and fledging chronology. Comparison of data collected from video and nest visits showed that carefully conducted nest visits generally can provide reliable data for deriving estimates of survival.

  2. Nitrocellulose membrane-based enzyme-linked immunoassay for dengue serotype-1 IgM detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, S.; Guevara, C.; Chunga, A.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specifity of a nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoassay for dengue IgM, with respect to capture enzyme immunoassay, for the diagnosis of dengue virus infection. 101 serum samples were processed and divided into 2 groups: 53 from dengue serotype 1 (DEN1) infected patients, and 48 from healthy subjects. Both groups were tested with a nitrocellulose membrane-based IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (NMB-EIA) and also with an ELISA as referential pattern. NMB-EIA testing detected IgM anti-DEN1 in 94,34% of samples from infected patients, and in 14,58% of control samples, whereas ELISA fails to report false positive or false negative results: NMB-EIA appears to be a good alternative for dengue infection diagnosis. (authors)

  3. Parental nest defense on videotape: More reality than "myth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Granfors, Diane A.

    2005-01-01

    Predation is recognized as the primary source of nest mortality in most passerine species (e.g. Ricklefs 1969, Martin 1992a); thus, it is no surprise that parental nest defense has received considerable scientific attention (see below). By nest defense, we refer to any parental behavior that decreases the probability that a predator (or brood parasite) will harm the nest contents and that simultaneously entails some cost to the bird engaged in the behavior—either by increasing the bird's risk of injury or death (Montgomerie and Weatherhead 1988) or by at least increasing its expenditure of time and energy (Buitron 1983).

  4. Harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) nesting in manipulated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Continental records point to shooting, removal of young and destruction of nests as the primary conservation problems for harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja); bird-observer visits are a new source of concern. Nesting events are roughly 3 yr apart. Nests are used during and after intensive manipulation of the surrounding habitat, and minimum distance between active sites was 3-5 km. In nine nesting sites along a 100-km stretch of the Imalaca Mountains in Venezuela, we fitted five fledglings with satellite-tracked tags from NASA. One of these birds was hacked with the help of the loggers who destroyed its nest. All these nests were active while logging ensued. Out of three renesting attempts, one failed when the nest collapsed. We salvaged two additional fledglings found in captivity. We are monitoring five nests in the buffer area of the Darien National Park in Panama, all within 3 km of human settlements where trees are regularly felled for firewood, lumber, and to clear more cropland. Eagles have been killed at two sites, a third site remains inactive since 1991, and the other two nests currently have fledglings.

  5. Nest-site biology of the California condor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Ramey, R.R.; Sibley, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study of 72 historical and recent nests of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) has revealed considerable variability in nest-site characteristics. This paper primarily summarizes the data on nest elevations and dimensions, entrance orientations, nest longevity and re-use, vulnerability of sites to natural enemies, and use of sites by other species. Although all known nests have been natural cavities, some have been little more than overhung ledges on cliffs, while others have been deep, dark caves with nest chambers completely concealed from the outside. Two sites have been cavities in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Contrary to previous assumptions, condors do modify the characteristics of their nest sites significantly and commonly construct substrates of coarse gravel on which to rest their eggs. Many nests have been completely accessible to terrestrial predators, many have been poorly protected from avian predators, and some have had structural flaws leading directly to nesting failure. The use of suboptimal sites has not been clearly related to a scarcity of better quality sites.

  6. Artificial nest experiments in a fragmented neotropical cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, G.; Ahumada, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted artificial nest experiments in a Neotropical montane forest in the eastern Andes, Colombia, in order to test the effect of placing the nests in forest fragments or continuous forests, at two nest heights and for two different climatic seasons. Predation was not consistently different between nests placed in fragments and controls. However, we found that nests on the ground had a higher daily probability of being predated than nests in the understory. Also, daily nest mortality rate (DNM) was higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Most of the predated nests were attributed to mammals (56%), and predation occurred mostly on the ground (78%). Our estimates of DNM are quite low (= 0.023) and similar to another Neotropical montane forest and other Neotropical sites. Comparisons of DNM between Neotropical and temperate sites suggests that predation rates are similar. Our results suggest that fragmentation may not have a large negative impact in nest predation for bird populations breeding in fragments compared to other sites in tropical and temperate regions. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  7. Alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for an immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo-Deok; Lee, Joong-jae [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu Jung [Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hantschel, Oliver [School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Lee, Seung-Goo [Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: hskim76@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Enzyme-linked immunoassays based on an antibody-antigen interaction are widely used in biological and medical sciences. However, the conjugation of an enzyme to antibodies needs an additional chemical process, usually resulting in randomly cross-linked molecules and a loss of the binding affinity and enzyme activity. Herein, we present the development of an alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for immunoassays. A repebody specifically binding to human TNF-α (hTNF-α) was selected through a phage display, and its binding affinity was increased up to 49 nM using a modular engineering approach. A monomeric alkaline phosphatase (mAP), which was previously isolated from a metagenome library, was genetically fused to the repebody as a signal generator, and the resulting repebody-mAP fusion protein was used for direct and sandwich immunoassays of hTNF-α. We demonstrate the utility and potential of the repebody-mAP fusion protein as an immuno-reagent by showing the sensitivity of 216 pg mL{sup −1} for hTNF-α in a sandwich immunoassay. Furthermore, this repebody-mAP fusion protein enabled the detection of hTNF-α spiked in a serum-supplemented medium with high accuracy and reproducibility. It is thus expected that a mAP-fused repebody can be broadly used as an immuno-reagent in immunoassays. - Highlights: • A human TNF-α (hTNF-α)-specific repebody was selected using a phage display. • A monomeric alkaline phosphatase (mAP) was genetically fused to the repebody. • mAP-fused repebody enabled detection of hTNF-α with high sensitivity and accuracy. • mAP-fused repebody can be widely used as a new immuno-reagent in immunoassays.

  8. BIOTIN INTERFERENCE WITH ROUTINE CLINICAL IMMUNOASSAYS: UNDERSTAND THE CAUSES AND MITIGATE THE RISKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Shanika; Meah, Farah; Singh, Vinita; Basit, Arshi; Emanuele, Nicholas; Emanuele, Mary Ann; Mazhari, Alaleh; Holmes, Earle W

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this report are to review the mechanisms of biotin interference with streptavidin/biotin-based immunoassays, identify automated immunoassay systems vulnerable to biotin interference, describe how to estimate and minimize the risk of biotin interference in vulnerable assays, and review the literature pertaining to biotin interference in endocrine function tests. The data in the manufacturer's "Instructions for Use" for each of the methods utilized by seven immunoassay system were evaluated. We also conducted a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE for articles containing terms associated with biotin interference. Available original reports and case series were reviewed. Abstracts from recent scientific meetings were also identified and reviewed. The recent, marked, increase in the use of over-the-counter, high-dose biotin supplements has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of reports of analytical interference by exogenous biotin in the immunoassays used to evaluate endocrine function. Since immunoassay methods of similar design are also used for the diagnosis and management of anemia, malignancies, autoimmune and infectious diseases, cardiac damage, etc., biotin-related analytical interference is a problem that touches every area of internal medicine. It is important for healthcare personnel to become more aware of immunoassay methods that are vulnerable to biotin interference and to consider biotin supplements as potential sources of falsely increased or decreased test results, especially in cases where a lab result does not correlate with the clinical scenario. FDA = U.S. Food & Drug Administration FT3 = free tri-iodothyronine FT4 = free thyroxine IFUs = instructions for use LH = luteinizing hormone PTH = parathyroid hormone SA/B = streptavidin/biotin TFT = thyroid function test TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.

  9. Variability in the detection of macro TSH in different immunoassay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Naoki; Ishihara, Takashi; Shimatsu, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Macro TSH is a large molecular-sized TSH that is mostly a complex of TSH and IgG. Patients with macro TSH have elevated serum TSH and normal free thyroxine levels, mimicking subclinical hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to clarify the degree of cross-reactivity of macro TSH to different commercial immunoassay systems. Screening for macro TSH was done using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) method and confirmed with gel filtration chromatography in serum samples from 1901 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Interference due to human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) was examined using HAMA blockers. TSH was measured with an enzyme immunoassay for the analysis of macro TSH. Serum TSH values in patients with macro TSH were also determined with the widely used commercial immunoassay platforms Elecsys, Centaur and Architect, and the detectability of macro TSH was compared among them. Gel filtration chromatography was performed with 174 serum samples with PEG-precipitable TSH ratios >75%. Twenty serum samples were found to contain large molecular-sized TSH, five of which were due to interference by HAMA. The prevalence of macro TSH was eventually 0.79% (15/1901). Commercial immunoassay systems variably recognized macro TSH. The Architect TSH immunoassay platform was the least reactive to macro TSH, but still recognized it in 60% of macro TSH-containing serum samples. There were no commercial TSH immunoassay platforms that did not cross-react with macro TSH. Screening for macro TSH should be performed before hormone replacement therapy is initiated for subclinical hypothyroidism. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Development of an enzyme immunoassay for poliovirus antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Hashimoto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An indirect solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA was developed for the detection of poliovirus antigen. Virus antigen was obtained in LLC-MK2 cell cultures and used to prepare antibodies in rabbit and guinea pig. Antibodies were evaluated by double immunodiffusion and neutralization test. Optimal concentrations of guinea pig and rabbit immunoglobulins were determined by checkerboard titration. Microtitre plates were coated with 15.0 µg/ml guinea pig anti-polio immunoglobulin and rabbit anti-polio immunoglobulin at the concentration of 7.94 µg/ml was used as detecting antibody. The standard curve with eight different antigen concentrations in eight replicates resulted in a coefficient of variation (CV between 2.1% to 7.8%. The dose-response relationship was determined by simple linear regression with a coefficient of correlation (R² equal to 96.4%. The assay detected a minimum of 2.3 µg/ml poliovirus antigen.O trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um ensaio imunoenzimático indireto para a detecção de antígeno de poliovírus. O antígeno viral foi obtido em cultura de células LLC-MK2 e usado para imunização de coelho e cobaia. Os soros hiperimunes foram avaliados por imunodifusão dupla e teste de neutralização. Após padronização, o soro de captura, produzido em cobaia, foi usado na concentração protéica de 15.0 µg/ml para sensibilizar microplacas de poliestireno e o soro de coelho (detector foi usado na concentração de 7.94 µg/ml. A curva padrão resultante da utilização de oito diferentes concentrações do antígeno padrão definiu um coeficiente de variação de 2.1% a 7.8%. A relação dose-resposta foi determinada por regressão linear simples com o estabelecimento do coeficiente de correlação (R² igual a 96.4%. O ensaio possibilitou a detecção mínima de 2.3 µg/ml de antígeno de poliovírus.

  11. Distribution of Phytophthora spp. in Field Soils Determined by Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S A; Madden, L V; Schmitthenner, A F

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Populations of Phytophthora spp. were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in field soils used for pepper and soybean production in Ohio. Soybean fields were sampled extensively (64 fields, n = 6 samples per field over 2 years) and intensively (4 fields, n = 64 samples per field in 1 year) to assess heterogeneity of P. sojae populations. Four pepper fields (n = 64), three of which had a history of Phytophthora blight (caused by P. capsici), also were sampled intensively during a 6-month period. Mean (m), variance (v), and measures of aggregation (e.g., variance-to-mean ratio [v/m]) of immunoassay values, translated to Phytophthora antigen units (PAU), were related to the disease history in each of the pepper and soybean fields. Mean PAU values for fields in which Phytophthora root rot (soybean) or blight (pepper) had been moderate to severe were higher than in fields in which disease incidence had been low or not observed. A detection threshold value of 11.3 PAU was calculated with values for 64 samples from one pepper field, all of which tested negative for Phytophthora by bioassay and ELISA. Seven of the eight intensively sampled fields contained at least some detectable Phytophthora propagules, with the percentage of positive samples ranging from 1.6 to 73.4. Mean PAU values ranged from 1 to 84 (extensive soybean field sampling), 6 to 24 (intensive soybean field sampling), and 4 to 30 (intensive pepper field sampling); however, variances ranged from 0 to 7,774 (extensive sampling), 30 to 848 (intensive soybean field sampling), and 5 to 2,401 (intensive pepper field sampling). Heterogeneity of PAU was high in most individual soybean and pepper fields, with values of v/m greater than 1, and log(v) increasing with log(m), with a slope of about 2.0. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients were not significant, indicating there was no relationship of PAU values in neighboring sampling units (i.e., field locations) of the intensively sampled

  12. Activity assays and immunoassays for plasma Renin and prorenin: information provided and precautions necessary for accurate measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Duncan J; Nussberger, Juerg; Stowasser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    into focus the differences in information provided by activity assays and immunoassays for renin and prorenin measurement and has drawn attention to the need for precautions to ensure their accurate measurement. CONTENT: Renin activity assays and immunoassays provide related but different information...... provided by these assays and of the precautions necessary to ensure their accuracy....

  13. Detection of Avian Influenza Virus by Fluorescent DNA Barcode-based Immunoassay with Sensitivity Comparable to PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a coupling of fluorophore-DNA barcode and bead-based immunoassay for detecting avian influenza virus (AIV) with PCR-like sensitivity is reported. The assay is based on the use of sandwich immunoassay and fluorophore-tagged oligonucleotides as representative barcodes. The detection...

  14. Common cuckoos Cuculus canorus change their nest-searching strategy according to the number of available host nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Václav; Procházka, Petr; Požgayová, Milica; Honza, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 1 (2014), s. 189-197 ISSN 0019-1019 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo perch * edge effect host aggression * host choice * nest height * nest visibility * nest volume Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.921, year: 2014

  15. Preference of rabbit does among different nest materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Farkas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nest quality is important for the survival of new-born rabbits. Nesting material in rabbit farms generally consists of wood shavings, which is completely different from the dry grass used by the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The aim of the experiments was to examine which nest materials are preferred by rabbit does when building their nest. In experiment 1, the choice of multiparous rabbit does (n=37 among nest boxes bedded with different nesting materials was monitored. In each pen (1.0×1.83 m 1 doe and 4 nest boxes (0.37×0.23×0.31 m with different nest materials (meadow hay [H], wheat straw [S], fine fibre material [Lignocel®, L] or wood shavings [W] were placed 3 days before the expected parturition (gestation length is about 31 d in the Pannon White breed. Some 48.6% of the does kindled in nest boxes that contained pure materials (L: 40.5%, S: 5.4%, H: 2.7%, and 51.3% of the does kindled in nest boxes where the nest materials of different nest boxes were mixed by the does (S with L: 21.5%, S with L and H: 5.4%, W with L: 8.1%, L with H and S: 5.4%. Does preferred kindling in the nest box bedded with L, and most of them refused the nest box with W. In experiment 2/a (n=32 does and 2/b (n=25 does, each pen (1×0.91 m was equipped with 3 and 2 hay racks and filled with H, S or L, and H or S, respectively. The experiments lasted from the 27th day of pregnancy until the day of parturition and 24-h video recordings (10 does/experiment were evaluated throughout the experiment. The events of carrying the nest materials from the hay racks were registered. In experiment 2/a, the frequency of nest material carrying was highest on the day of parturition. The preferred nest material was L (compared to H and S on each experimental day except day 30 of pregnancy. At the day of kindling, 87.5, 6.3 and 6.3% of the nests contained pure L, mixed L-H and L-S, respectively. In experiment 2/b, the frequency of nest material carrying (mostly S

  16. Nest-site characteristics and linear abundance of cliff-nesting American kestrels on San Clemente Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian L.; Kershner, Eric L.; Finn, S.P.; Condon, Anne M.; Cooper, Douglass M.; Garcelon, David K.

    2003-01-01

    American Kestrels( Falco sparverius) are typically secondary-cavity nesters, and use of natural cliff cavities for nest sites is less-commonly reported. On San Clemente Island (SCI), California, however, American Kestrels nest primarily on cliffs in major canyons(93%), to a lesser extent on seacliffs(4%), as well as in man-made structures (3%). We located and mapped 99 American Kestrel territories on SCI, and recorded 11 nest-site characteristics at 40 cliff nests during 2001-02. Nest cliffs were typically fractured igneous rock with mean height of 16.1 m +_ 1.8 SE. Mean slope of nest cliffs was vertical (x=91 degrees). Nest cliffs and cavities were significantly oriented to the southeast, away from the prevailing wind direction(NW). In eight canyons, where we believe that we found all occupied American Kestrel territories, the mean linear abundance was 2.1 pairs/km, greater than most published estimates. Contrary to most previous studies, no American Kestrels nested in tree cavities despite their presence in SCI canyons. The absence of cavity-excavating breeding birds from the island likely restricts kestrels to nesting in naturally-formed cavities and man-made structures.

  17. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: an anticipated analytical tool for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Miriam; López, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto

    2009-10-27

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 microg L(-1) and EC(50) 0.079 microg L(-1) were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  18. Local individual preferences for nest materials in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Mennerat

    Full Text Available Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings.We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1 plant availability in territories, 2 female experience or 3 female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots.This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction behaviour has classically been considered as a stereotypic behaviour.

  19. Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, L S; Shimizu, R Y

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly those who are immunologically compromised. Immunoassay procedures offer both increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional staining methods. These reagents are also helpful when screening large numbers of patients, particularly in an outbreak situation or when screening patients with minimal symptoms. The data obtained by using 9 diagnostic kits were compared: di...

  20. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Moller Anders P.; Adriaensen Frank; Artemyev Alexandr; Banbura Jerzy; Barba Emilio; Biard Clotilde; Blondel Jacques; Bouslama Zihad; Bouvier Jean-Charles; Camprodon Jordi; Cecere Francesco; Charmantier Anne; Charter Motti; Cichon Mariusz; Cusimano Camillo

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited...

  1. Oak tree selection by nesting turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A. Giusti; R.J. Keiffer; Shane Feirer; R.F. Keiffer

    2015-01-01

    Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) are a ubiquitous component of California’s oak woodland faunal assemblage. Though obvious, they are one of the least studied vertebrates found in our hardwood forests. This study attempts to define the role of oak trees as nesting sites for this large avian species. Verified nest trees are evaluated to determine...

  2. Observations of nesting avifauna under gamma-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    An opportunity arose to observe the nesting success of birds (up to the time of fledging) when the Enterprise Forest Radiation Facility was established for a study of the effects of gamma radiation on the flora and fauna of northern forest communities. The results of these observations on the fate of the nest occupants in relation to radiation exposure are presented

  3. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  4. Nest height of the red bishop ( Eupiectes orix ) | Woodall | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heights of nests and reeds in a colony of red bishops (Euplectes orix) in Phragmites mauritianus reeds on the Makabusi River, Zimbabwe were measured in two breeding seasons. Nests were placed high in the reeds with fewer above the mean and more below the mean than in a normal distribution. During the course of a ...

  5. A helping hand: artificial nest site provisioning increases breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common white terns Gygis alba lay a single egg balanced on rocks or branches and consequently are at risk of low nesting success. A novel technique of hollowing out coconut husks and providing artificial nest sites was developed on Cousine Island, Seychelles. Our study aimed to critically assess whether common white ...

  6. Usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I report an instance of usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by a pair of African Wattled Lapwings Vanellus senegalensis. The nest, which originally contained a single Crowned Lapwing egg, eventually contained an additional three Wattled Lapwing eggs, before it was predated. Although parents of ...

  7. LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE LATE NESTING ECOLOGY IN VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'he.loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta came is the only recurrent nesting species of sea turtle in southeastern Virginia (Lutcavage & Musick, 1985; Dodd, 1988). Inasmuch as the loggerhead is a federally threatened species, the opportunity to gather data on its nesting ecology is imp...

  8. Brunn nests masquerading as bladder tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Jeon, Ji Min

    2005-01-01

    Brunn nests are the most common proliferative lesions of the bladder uroepithelium, but exuberant proliferation can mimic bladder tumor on radiologic imaging and cystoscopy. We describe a case of pathologically proven Brunn nests in a 34-year-old man, misdiagnosed as bladder tumor on preoperative imaging studies

  9. The nest architecture of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Tschinkel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of the subterranean nests of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, was studied through excavation and casting. Nests are composed of two basic units: descending shafts and horizontal chambers. Shafts form helices with diameters of 4 to 6 cm, and descend at an angle of about 15-20° near the surface, increasing to about 70° below about 50 cm in depth. Superficial chambers (< 15 cm deep appear to be modified shafts with low angles of descent, and are distinct from deeper chambers. In larger nests, they have a looping, connected morphology. Chambers begin on the outside of the helix as horizontal-floored, circular indentations, becoming multi-lobed as they are enlarged. Chamber height is about 1 cm, and does not change with area. Chamber area is greatest in the upper reaches of the nest, and decreases with depth. Vertical spacing between chambers is least in the upper reaches and increases to a maximum at about 70 to 80% of the maximum depth of the nest. The distribution of chamber area is top-heavy, with about half the total area occurring in the top quarter of the nest. Each 10% depth increment of the nest contains 25 to 40% less area than the decile above it, no matter what the size of the nest.

  10. Gardening and landscaping practices for nesting native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees have two primary needs in life: pollen and nectar to feed themselves and their offspring, and a suitable place to nest. Guidance is increasingly available about garden flowers to plant for native bees. We know far less about accommodating the nesting needs of our native bees, but there are cer...

  11. Regional Forest Fragmentation and the Nesting Success of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott K. Robinson; Frank R. Thompson III; Therese M. Donovan; Donald R. Whitehead; John Faaborg

    1995-01-01

    Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for, some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States)landscapes that varied from 6...

  12. Hurricane disturbance benefits nesting American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Theodore R.; Schulte, Shiloh A.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human activity, introduced species, sea level rise, and storm activity. Hurricanes are a powerful destructive force, but can also renew coastal habitats. In 2003, Hurricane Isabel altered the barrier islands of North Carolina, flattening dunes and creating sand flats. American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) are large shorebirds that inhabit the coastal zone throughout the year. Alternative survival models were evaluated for 699 American Oystercatcher nests on North Core Banks and South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, from 1999–2007. Nest survival on North Core Banks increased from 0.170 (SE = 0.002) to 0.772 (SE = 0.090) after the hurricane, with a carry-over effect lasting 2 years. A simple year effects model described nest survival on South Core Banks. Habitat had no effect on survival except when the overall rate of nest survival was at intermediate levels (0.300–0.600), when nests on open flats survived at a higher rate (0.600; SE = 0.112) than nests in dune habitat (0.243; SE = 0.094). Predator activity declined on North Core Banks after the hurricane and corresponded with an increase in nest survival. Periodic years with elevated nest survival may offset low annual productivity and contribute to the stability of American Oystercatcher populations.

  13. Development of camera technology for monitoring nests. Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; M. Shane Pruett; Thomas J. Benson; Scott J. Chiavacci; Frank R., III Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Photo and video technology has become increasingly useful in the study of avian nesting ecology. However, researchers interested in using camera systems are often faced with insufficient information on the types and relative advantages of available technologies. We reviewed the literature for studies of nests that used cameras and summarized them based on study...

  14. Predator identity can explain nest predation patterns. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R., III Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of dominant predators is necessary to identify predation patterns and mitigate losses to nest predation, especially for endangered songbirds. We monitored songbird nests with timelapse infrared video cameras at Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas, from 1997 to 2002 and 2005, and in Austin, Texas, during 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009. Predation was the most...

  15. Modeling Complex Nesting Structures in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Nielsen, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    hierarchical random coefficient models (RCM) are often used for the analysis of multilevel phenomena, IB issues often result in more complex nested structures. This paper illustrates how cross-nested multilevel modeling allowing for predictor variables and cross-level interactions at multiple (crossed) levels...

  16. Preference of nesting material by village weaver birds ( Ploceus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangifera indica is the most preferred nest – building support in Abuja campus, Casuarina equisetifolia in Choba campus and Terminalia mantaly at Delta campus. Some plant species such as Azadirachta indica (50%) and Terminalia catappa (24.07%) were neither used for nest building nor support by Ploceus Cucullatus ...

  17. Geographic variation in avian clutch size and nest predation risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographic variation in avian clutch size is thought to be related to the variation in nest predation rate and food availability. We studied predation on artificial ground nests along a large-scale geographic gradient in South Africa characterised by increasing productivity from the deserts in the west to humid savannas in the ...

  18. Faster comparison of stopping times by nested conditional Monte Carlo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickmann, Fabian; Schweizer, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    We show that deliberately introducing a nested simulation stage can lead to significant variance reductions when comparing two stopping times by Monte Carlo. We derive the optimal number of nested simulations and prove that the algorithm is remarkably robust to misspecifications of this number. The

  19. nest-building behaviour in aethomys chrysophilus, praomys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mice tested were mature animals. Pregnant or lactating females were excluded from the experi- mental groups. Two types of test were employed. One involved the amount of cotton removed per twenty- four hours from a container and the type of nest constructed. The other concerned preference for certain nesting materials.

  20. Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or…

  1. Use of a fiberscope for examining cavity nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell

    1997-01-01

    A system is described that uses a fiberscope to view nests in cavities to provide detailed information on eggs and nestlings. The flexible probe can be inserted around bends, and the tip articulates to allow viewing of the entire cavity and nest. A light guide bundle furnishes light to enable viewing of dark cavities and optical fibers transmit the impage from the lens...

  2. Nest site selection by Kentish plover suggests a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez-Serrano

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main causes of adult mortality and breeding failure for ground-nesting birds. Micro-habitat structure around nests plays a critical role in minimizing predation risk. Plovers nest in sites with little vegetation cover to maximize the incubating adult visibility, but many studies suggest a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies. However, this trade-off has not been explored in detail because methods used so far do not allow estimating the visibility with regards to critical factors such as slope or plant permeability to vision. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Kentish plovers select exposed sites according to a predator detection strategy, and the hypothesis that more concealed nests survive longer according to a crypsis strategy. To this end, we obtained an accurate estimation of the incubating adult's field of vision through a custom built inverted periscope. Our results showed that plovers selected nest sites with higher visibility than control points randomly selected with regards to humans and dogs, although nests located in sites with higher vegetation cover survived longer. In addition, the flushing distance (i.e., the distance at which incubating adults leave the nest when they detect a potential predator decreased with vegetation cover. Consequently, the advantages of concealing the nest were limited by the ability to detect predators, thus indirectly supporting the existence of the trade-off between crypsis and predator detection. Finally, human disturbance also constrained nest choice, forcing plovers to move to inland sites that were less suitable because of higher vegetation cover, and modulated flushing behavior, since plovers that were habituated to humans left their nests closer to potential predators. This constraint on the width of suitable breeding habitat is particularly relevant for the conservation of Kentish Plover in sand beaches, especially under the current context of

  3. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  4. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L

    2016-01-01

    Leghorn hens housed in furnished cages. Welfare indicators were measured between 61 and 70 wk of age in birds excluded from their nests for 5 consecutive d and control birds that had continuous access to nests. Baseline recordings were carried out in both groups prior to and post exclusion period....... The assessed indicators were: corticosterone metabolites in droppings (FCM), corticosterone concentration in yolk, corticosterone concentration in plasma, irregularities of eggshells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, tonic immobility duration, and feather cover. Behavioral observations showed...... that the birds had a clear preference for using the secluded nest sites, confirming that they were likely to perceive nest exclusion as an undesirable experience. Further, elevated levels of FCM in droppings, yolk corticosterone concentrations, H:L ratios and irregular eggshells were detected in both nest...

  5. Learning Recursion: Multiple Nested and Crossed Dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinou de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Language acquisition in both natural and artificial language learning settings crucially depends on extracting information from ordered sequences. A shared sequence learning mechanism is thus assumed to underlie both natural and artificial language learning. A growing body of empirical evidence is consistent with this hypothesis. By means of artificial language learning experiments, we may therefore gain more insight in this shared mechanism. In this paper, we review empirical evidence from artificial language learning and computational modeling studies, as well as natural language data, and suggest that there are two key factors that help deter-mine processing complexity in sequence learning, and thus in natural language processing. We propose that the specific ordering of non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed, as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved simultaneously (i.e. two or three are important factors in gaining more insight into the boundaries of human sequence learning; and thus, also in natural language processing. The implications for theories of linguistic competence are discussed.

  6. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design

  7. Comparison of enzyme immunoassays for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.; Kelly, L.; Gall, D.; Balsevicius, S.; Bosse, J.; Kelly, W.; Nicoletti, P.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect enzyme immunoassay for measurement of bovine antibody to Brucella abortus was tested on 15,716 Canadian sera to assess the specificity. These sera were also tested by the buffered plate antigen test. Two ELISA formats were used for assessment of data: the targeting procedure using a positive control serum allowed to develop to an optical density of 1.0 and the use of a positive control serum to determine relative positivity at a set time. Two different cut-off values were also assessed for each assay. A total of 763 sera gave reactions above established cut-off values in the ELISA while 216 were positive in the buffered plate antigen test (BPAT). A modification of the indirect ELISA employed divalent cation chelating agents (EDTA/EGTA) incorporated into the serum incubation stage to eliminate some non-specific reactions. This method was applied only to the 763 indirect ELISA reactor sera and it eliminated all but 93 or 37, depending on the cut-off selected, of the reactions. Sensitivity was assessed by testing 424 sera from Brucella abortus culture positive cattle. The indirect ELISA classified all 424 sera as positive by either method of data handling and with or without addition of EDTA/EGTA for a specificity estimate of 100%. In the BPAT, 412 sera gave a positive agglutination reaction. Ten percent of the 15,716 sera were randomly selected and tested by two different competitive ELISAs and by the complement fixation test (CFT). One competitive ELISA used Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide as the antigen and an enzyme conjugated monoclonal antibody to the O-polysaccharide for competition and detection. Of the sera tested, 34 gave false positive reactions. On a retest, the false positive reactions were reduced to 2. The second competitive ELISA used lipopolysaccharide as the antigen, a different monoclonal antibody but also specific for the O-polysaccharide for competition and commercially available goat anti-mouse IgG enzyme conjugate for detection

  8. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-02-17

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera:Apidae:Tetrapediini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Camillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce, Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. garofaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T.curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April. The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200, and in T. garofaloi (n=51, from 1 to 8 (n=30 in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37 in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m.and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis , T. rugulosa and T. garofaloi did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis, 1:1; T. rugulosa , 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1; T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other

  10. Direct biosensor immunoassays for the detection of nonmilk proteins in milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Olieman, K.; Cazemier, G.; Verheijen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The low prices of some nonmilk proteins make them attractive as potential adulterants in dairy products. An optical biosensor (BIACORE 3000) was used to develop a direct and combined biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of soy, pea, and soluble wheat proteins in milk powders.

  11. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in ham sausage with a hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay utilising two types of primary antibodies (murine monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody) and two types of horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary antibodies was established for simultaneously detecting multiple amphenicol residues in ham sausage. After combining the extract procedure of the target amphenicol into one simplified method, this hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) at the same time by adding the corresponding secondary antibody. Ham sausage samples were analysed by using this hybrid immunoassay, with LODs of CAP being 0.01 μg kg⁻¹, of FF being 2.8 μg kg⁻¹ and of FFA being 3.0 μg kg⁻¹. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining CAP, FF and FFA in ham sausage samples with satisfactory results. Good recoveries and high correlation with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LC-MS/MS results illustrated that the developed hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen high-throughput ultra-trace amphenicol residues effectively at one time.

  12. Determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat bran and whole-wheat flour by fluorescence polarization immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid and accurate fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay has been optimized for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in bran and whole-wheat flour. A preliminary treatment with activated charcoal was used to eliminate the strong matrix effect due to highly colored interfering compounds p...

  13. A double-sandwich ELISA for identification of monoclonal antibodies suitable for sandwich immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sandwich immunoassay (sIA) is an invaluable technique for concentrating, detecting, and quantifying target antigens. The two critical components required are a capture antibody and a detection antibody, each binding a different epitope on the target antigen. The specific antibodies incorporated...

  14. False-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay results in an HIV-infected case-patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Komeya, Alan Y; Tomas, Juval E

    2017-06-01

    We present a case report of a false-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay test result in an HIV-infected male. While treponemal tests are widely considered to be more sensitive and specific than non-treponemal tests, our findings point to potential challenges using the reverse sequence syphilis screening algorithm.

  15. Anti-bovine antibody in human sera as a cause of nonspecificity in enzyme immunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Dise, T; Brunell, P A

    1987-01-01

    Much nonspecific activity in enzyme immunoassay is due to reactions between anti-bovine antibodies which are commonly present in human serum samples and residual calf serum in viral antigens. Calf serum is used in cultured cells which are used to produce viral antigens. Addition of bovine proteins to serum samples to be tested for viral antibodies reduces this activity.

  16. Simultaneous bioluminescent immunoassay of serum total and IgG-bound prolactins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander N; Krasitskaya, Vasilisa V; Petunin, Alexei I; Burakov, Andrey Y; Frank, Ludmila A

    2012-04-03

    Novel dual-analyte single-well bioluminescence immunoassay (BLIA) for total and IgG-bound prolactins was developed on the base of Ca(2+)-regulated photoprotein obelin mutants with altered color and kinetics of bioluminescence signal as reporters. The mutants W92F-H22E and Y138F were chemically conjugated with monoclonal mouse anti-hPRL and anti-hIgG immunoglobulins and thus displayed signals from total prolactin and IgG-bounded prolactin (macroprolactin) correspondingly. Bioluminescence of the reporters was simultaneously triggered by a single injection of Ca(2+) solution and discriminated via bioluminescent signal spectral and time resolution. The developed microplate-based immunoassay allows detection of two prolactin forms in crude serum without additional manipulations (e.g., gel chromatography or PEG-precipitation). Total prolactin bioluminescence immunoassay in standard, control, and clinical sera offers high sensitivity and reproducibility. The BLIA results show good correlation with those obtained by RIA and immunoassay after gel chromatography.

  17. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Persson Theilgaard, Zahra; Chiduo, Mercy

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of antiretro-virals in breastfeeding HIV-positive mothers is essential, both for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and for research on the development of drug resistance. The ARK nevirapine (NVP)-test is an immunoassay method for nevirapine measurements...

  18. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Barnett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs in immunochromatographic (lateral flow assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format.

  19. Automation on an Open-Access Platform of Alzheimer's Disease Biomarker Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Benjamin; Dedeene, Lieselot; Stoops, Erik; Demeyer, Leentje; Francois, Cindy; Lefever, Stefanie; De Schaepdryver, Maxim; Brix, Britta; Vandenberghe, Rik; Tournoy, Jos; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Poesen, Koen

    2018-04-01

    The lack of (inter-)laboratory standardization has hampered the application of universal cutoff values for Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and their transfer to general clinical practice. The automation of the AD biomarker immunoassays is suggested to generate more robust results than using manual testing. Open-access platforms will facilitate the integration of automation for novel biomarkers, allowing the introduction of the protein profiling concept. A feasibility study was performed on an automated open-access platform of the commercial immunoassays for the 42-amino-acid isoform of amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 ), Aβ 1-40 , and total tau in CSF. Automated Aβ 1-42 , Aβ 1-40 , and tau immunoassays were performed within predefined acceptance criteria for bias and imprecision. Similar accuracy was obtained for ready-to-use calibrators as for reconstituted lyophilized kit calibrators. When compared with the addition of a standard curve in each test run, the use of a master calibrator curve, determined before and applied to each batch analysis as the standard curve, yielded an acceptable overall bias of -2.6% and -0.9% for Aβ 1-42 and Aβ 1-40 , respectively, with an imprecision profile of 6.2% and 8.4%, respectively. Our findings show that transfer of commercial manual immunoassays to fully automated open-access platforms is feasible, as it performs according to universal acceptance criteria.

  20. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  1. Rapid bead-based immunoassay for measurement of mannose-binding lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, J T; Garred, P

    2009-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein, which functions as an opsonin and initiator of the lectin pathway of complement. The serum concentration of MBL shows great interindividual variation because of common polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. Although several quantitative MBL immunoassays...

  2. Multiplex immunoassays for quantification of cytokines, growth factors, and other proteins in stem cell communication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeková, Ivona; Kupcová Skalníková, Helena; Jarkovská, Karla; Motlík, Jan; Kovářová, Hana

    -, č. 1212 (2015), s. 39-63 ISSN 1940 -6029 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : multiplex immunoassays * antibody microarray * luminex xMAP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy

    2011-01-01

    , requires complicated extraction techniques. The ARK method employs an immunoassay technology and requires a small sample volume (40 μL) and no pre-treatment of the samples. Methods: Commercial enzyme and antibody were used and calibration standards and quality controls were prepared from pooled breast milk...

  4. Detection of Biomarkers of Periodontal Disease in Human Saliva Using Stabilized, Vertical Flow Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Emma H; Lathwal, Shefali; Shah, Pratik P; Sikes, Hadley D

    2017-11-22

    We report methods for stabilizing cellulose-based immunoassays and using this platform to analyze human saliva. Stabilization treatments of immunoassays for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8 and -9, biomarkers of periodontal disease, were conducted and compared, revealing that anti-MMP-8 and -9 capture antibodies could be stabilized with the addition of a 5% trehalose solution to the test zones, followed by drying in a vacuum oven. After stabilization, the paper devices retained equivalent binding activity to that of freshly prepared tests for 14 days-a time frame that enables US-based clinical testing of this diagnostic assay. A saliva pretreatment method was developed to remove viscous elements without reducing the concentration or binding activity of dissolved proteins. Immunoassays were stored in ziplock bags containing desiccant, and used to detect nanomolar concentrations of MMP-9 in human saliva across the relevant clinical concentration range. These methods and findings facilitate rapid, affordable validation studies of this and other biomarkers that are found in saliva using vertical flow immunoassays.

  5. Biosensor immunoassay for the detection of eight sulfonamides in chicken serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Bienenmann-Ploum, M.; Kohen, F.

    2003-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against sulfamethazine (21C7) was applied in an optical biosensor (Biacore Q) to develop a rapid biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the detection of several sulfonamides in chicken serum. The performance of this MAb was compared with two polyclonal antibodies (PAbs)

  6. Interference from endogenous antibodies in automated immunoassays: what laboratorians need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A A A

    2009-08-01

    Full automation of laboratory procedures confers numerous advantages over semi-automated/manual tests because equipment, reagents and the computation of results are offered as an integrated package. Automation has allowed millions of immunoassay tests to be performed with good sensitivity and excellent precision but inaccuracy caused by interference from endogenous immunoglobulins/antibodies remained a problem (irrespective of the immunoassay's format). Interference leading to a falsely high or low result affects a specific sample and may not be obvious despite the strictest laboratory control schemes. Reporting and interpreting such potentially erroneous data remained however the responsibility of the clinical laboratory despite the limited information supplied by their providers. The focus of this review is on highlighting the potential downside of current disjointed and blurred arrangement between the developers/providers of immunoassays, and the laboratorians responsible for providing these data to their clinical colleagues. These limitations can be addressed by drawing attention to the importance of the key fundamentals underpinning these immunologically based analyses which, if carefully considered, could help to formulate pragmatic strategies to reduce errors in immunoassays. In this review, the inherent fallibility of the binding reaction between an antigen and antibody will be reiterated. The difficulties in defining reaction rate kinetics in non-equilibrium automated assays, the potential clinical error rate and the need for minimising analytical error rate of these automated technologies will be highlighted.

  7. Evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay for field identification of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to improve surveillance capacity for the exotic red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) was recently evaluated by Biosecurity Queensland staff in Australia. The purpose of the research was to assess the ability of the fire ant LFA to discriminate S. i...

  8. Radio-immunoassays for glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Holst, J J

    1987-01-01

    Gene-sequencing studies have shown that the glucagon precursor contains two additional glucagon-like sequences, the so-called glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). We developed radio-immunoassays against synthetic peptides corresponding to these sequences. Antisera were raised in rabb...

  9. Regional network for Latin America on animal disease diagnosis using immunoassay and labelled DNA probe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    After an introduction describing the co-ordinated research program the proceedings contain the contributions presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting. The papers are in four sections: general aspects of immunoassays in animal disease diagnosis; viral and chlamydial diseases; bacterial diseases; and parasitic diseases. The individual contributions have been indexed separately for inclusion in INIS. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Highly sensitive detection of clenbuterol using competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Guichi [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu Yongjun, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Gao Jiao; Zhong Liang [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Schemes of SERS nanoprobes preparation (a) and competitive SERS immunoassay for clenbuterol (b). Highlights: > A new method for clenbuterol detection by the use of a competitive SERS immunoassay has been developed. > 4,4'-Dipyridyl is chosen as the Raman reporter due to its fast-labeled, nontoxic and bifunctional properties. > The present method could detect clenbuterol over a wide dynamic concentration range and exhibit significant specificity in real samples. > The technique is more sensitive and simpler than the conventional method ELISA. - Abstract: In this report, we present a novel approach to detect clenbuterol based on competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay. Herein, a SERS nanoprobe that relies on gold nanoparticle (GNP) is labeled by 4,4'-dipyridyl (DP) and clenbuterol antibody, respectively. The detection of clenbuterol is carried out by competitive binding between free clenbuterol and clenbuterol-BSA fastened on the substrate with their antibody labeled on SERS nanoprobes. The present method allows us to detect clenbuterol over a much wider concentration range (0.1-100 pg mL{sup -1}) with a lower limit of detection (ca. 0.1 pg mL{sup -1}) than the conventional methods. Furthermore, by the use of this new competitive SERS immunoassay, the clenbuterol-BSA (antigen) is chosen to fasten on the substrate instead of the clenbuterol antibody, which could reduce the cost of the assay. Results demonstrate that the proposed method has the wide potential applications in food safety and agonist control.

  11. Development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay for progesterone : influence of coating conjugates and buffer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of the development of competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are described. The quantitation of progesterone is taken as an example. The LFIA format consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with various progesterone conjugates as the test line. A mixture of primary

  12. Lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid detection of citrus tristeza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lateral flow methodology was developed using gold nanoparticles for rapid detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The test strip was based on a sandwich immunoassay and could be accomplished within 10 minutes. A sample was considered negative for CTV when only the control line appeared; whereas,...

  13. Signal enhancement in a lateral flow immunoassay based on dual gold nanoparticle conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Songbai; Hu, Xia

    2013-11-01

    In order to amplify signal of lateral flow immunoassay for specific detection of thrombin. A new, simple method of amplifying signals using two gold nanoparticle conjugates (GNP) in gold-nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay without an additional step was developed. The first conjugates were prepared by labeling DNA1 with 30 nm GNPs, and the second conjugates were prepared by immobilizing both DNA2 and thrombin aptamer on the surfaces of 16 nm GNPs. The detection limit was improved 30 times. The lateral flow immunoassay developed in this study was applied to detect thrombin concentration in the range of 0.5-120 nM with a detection limit of 0.25 nM. The lateral flow immunoassay developed in this study was used to detect thrombin concentrations within a range of 0.5-120 nM with a detection limit of 0.25 nM. This assay is very versatile and can be easily extended to other proteins. © 2013.

  14. Optimized Lateral Flow Immunoassay Reader for the Detection of Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilavaki, Evdokia; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2017-11-20

    Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.

  15. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food

  16. Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria from Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blazkova, M.; Koets, M.; Wichers, J.H.; Amerongen, van A.; Fukal, L.; Rauch, P.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay (NALFIA) is a method combining molecular biological principle of detection with immunochemical principle of visualisation. Following isolation of DNA from the sample, a duplex PCR with two primer sets, of which one was labelled with biotin and the other with

  17. Development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay for progesterone: influence of coating conjugates and buffer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of the development of competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are described. The quantitation of progesterone is taken as an example. The LFIA format consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with various progesterone conjugates as the test line. A mixture of primary

  18. Simple paper architecture modifications lead to enhanced sensitivity in nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolo, Claudio; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-07

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) are ideal biosensors to detect proteins, but their lack of sensitivity hinders their extensive use. We report a strategy that yields up to an 8-fold improvement in the sensitivity of a gold nanoparticles-based LFIA by changing the sizes of the pads. Theoretical flow simulations of the developed LFIA architectures are in accordance with the experimental results.

  19. European multicenter analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Boudry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    high sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay and its 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL). METHODS: Laboratories from nine European countries evaluated the ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR/i1000SR immunoanalyzers. Imprecision, limit...

  20. Optimized Lateral Flow Immunoassay Reader for the Detection of Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Pilavaki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.

  1. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds suffer greater rates of nest predation and nest parasitism in smaller forest patches and in fragmented landscapes. To compare the performance of different metrics of spatial habitat configuration resulting from defo...

  2. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  3. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for Detection in Immunoassays: applications, fundamentals, and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremy Daniel Driskell

    2006-01-01

    Immunoassays have been utilized for the detection of biological analytes for several decades. Many formats and detection strategies have been explored, each having unique advantages and disadvantages. More recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been introduced as a readout method for immunoassays, and has shown great potential to meet many key analytical figures of merit. This technology is in its infancy and this dissertation explores the diversity of this method as well as the mechanism responsible for surface enhancement. Approaches to reduce assay times are also investigated. Implementing the knowledge gained from these studies will lead to a more sensitive immunoassay requiring less time than its predecessors. This dissertation is organized into six sections. The first section includes a literature review of the previous work that led to this dissertation. A general overview of the different approaches to immunoassays is given, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of each. Included is a detailed review of binding kinetics, which is central for decreasing assay times. Next, the theoretical underpinnings of SERS is reviewed at its current level of understanding. Past work has argued that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the enhancing substrate influences the SERS signal; therefore, the SPR of the extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs) utilized in our SERS-based immunoassay is discussed. Four original research chapters follow the Introduction, each presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 2 modifies a SERS-based immunoassay previously developed in our group, extending it to the low-level detection of viral pathogens and demonstrating its versatility in terms of analyte type, Chapter 3 investigates the influence of ERL size, material composition, and separation distance between the ERLs and capture substrate on the SERS signal. This chapter links SPR with SERS enhancement factors and is consistent with many of the results from theoretical treatments

  4. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for Detection in Immunoassays. Applications, fundamentals, and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driskell, Jeremy Daniel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-08-09

    Immunoassays have been utilized for the detection of biological analytes for several decades. Many formats and detection strategies have been explored, each having unique advantages and disadvantages. More recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been introduced as a readout method for immunoassays, and has shown great potential to meet many key analytical figures of merit. This technology is in its infancy and this dissertation explores the diversity of this method as well as the mechanism responsible for surface enhancement. Approaches to reduce assay times are also investigated. Implementing the knowledge gained from these studies will lead to a more sensitive immunoassay requiring less time than its predecessors. This dissertation is organized into six sections. The first section includes a literature review of the previous work that led to this dissertation. A general overview of the different approaches to immunoassays is given, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of each. Included is a detailed review of binding kinetics, which is central for decreasing assay times. Next, the theoretical underpinnings of SERS is reviewed at its current level of understanding. Past work has argued that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the enhancing substrate influences the SERS signal; therefore, the SPR of the extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs) utilized in our SERS-based immunoassay is discussed. Four original research chapters follow the Introduction, each presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 2 modifies a SERS-based immunoassay previously developed in our group, extending it to the low-level detection of viral pathogens and demonstrating its versatility in terms of analyte type, Chapter 3 investigates the influence of ERL size, material composition, and separation distance between the ERLs and capture substrate on the SERS signal. This chapter links SPR with SERS enhancement factors and is consistent with many of the results from theoretical treatments

  5. Interspecific interactions in solitary Aculeata - is the presence of heterospecifics important for females establishing nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierat, J; Miler, K; Celary, W; Woyciechowski, M

    2018-02-01

    There are several possible causes of aggregated nesting in solitary Aculeata, one being joint defense against parasites. We tested whether females prefer nesting in aggregations, even if they consist of heterospecifics. We compared the colonization and nesting parasitism of trap-nests with and without a red mason bee aggregation. The results did not support our hypothesis that females prefer nesting in aggregations. The numbers of wild Aculeata nests did not differ between trap-nests with and without an aggregation. Unexpectedly, parasitism rates were higher in trap-nests with aggregations. When analyzing only nests of wild insects (mostly wasps), the differences in parasitism disappeared. Natural nesting sites may be such a limited resource that females nested in the first trap-nest they encountered and did not discriminate between our treatments, or wasps might share too few parasites species with bees to benefit from joint nest defense.

  6. Does removal of mammalian predators significantly affect success of simulated nests in linear habitats? Case study on American mink Mustela vison \\& Predation on simulated duck nests in relation to nest density and habitat type

    OpenAIRE

    PADYŠÁKOVÁ, Eliška

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is made up of two studies dealing with predation of waterfowl nests. in the first study, we determined wheather removal of introduced predator Mustela vison affected nest survival of simulated duck nests in linear habitat. In the second study, we tested two hypothesis: 1)predation depends on density of waterfowl nests, 2)mammals are main predators in forest habitat and birds mainly depredate nests deployed in open land.

  7. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen basedenzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14% cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMPPCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48. Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.

  8. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Warren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken during 2001 and 2002 to investigate how nest density and nesting success of upland-nesting ducks varied with respect to the intensity of cattle grazing in the Aspen Parkland. We predicted that the removal and trampling of vegetation through cattle grazing would reduce duck nest density. Both positive and negative responses of duck nesting success to grazing have been reported in previous studies, leading us to test competing hypotheses that nesting success would (1 decline linearly with grazing intensity or (2 peak at moderate levels of grazing. Nearly 3300 ha of upland cover were searched during the study. Despite extensive and severe drought, nest searches located 302 duck nests. As predicted, nest density was higher in fields with lower grazing intensity and higher pasture health scores. A lightly grazed field with a pasture score of 85 out of a possible 100 was predicted to have 16.1 nests/100 ha (95% CI = 11.7-22.1, more than five times the predicted nest density of a heavily grazed field with a pasture score of 58 (3.3 nests/100 ha, 95% CI = 2.2-4.5. Nesting success was positively related to nest-site vegetation density across most levels of grazing intensity studied, supporting our hypothesis that reductions in vegetation caused by grazing would negatively affect nesting success. However, nesting success increased with grazing intensity at the field scale. For example, nesting success for a well-concealed nest in a lightly grazed field was 11.6% (95% CI = 3.6-25.0%, whereas nesting success for a nest with the same level of nest-site vegetation in a heavily grazed

  9. Habitat patch size and nesting success of yellow-breasted chats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick E. Burhans; Frank R. Thompson III

    1999-01-01

    We measured vegetation at shrub patches used for nesting by Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) to evaluate the importance of nesting habitat patch features on nest predation, cowbird parasitism, and nest site selection. Logistic regression models indicated that nests in small patches (average diameter

  10. The nest predator assemblage for songbirds in Mono Lake basin riparian habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Sacha K. Heath; Grant Ballard

    2012-01-01

    Because nest predation strongly limits avian fitness, ornithologists identify nest predators to inform ecological research and conservation. During 2002–2008, we used both video-monitoring of natural nests and direct observations of predation to identify nest predators of open-cup nesting riparian songbirds along tributaries of Mono Lake, California. Video cameras at...

  11. Assessing hypotheses about nesting site occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses about habitat selection developed in the evolutionary ecology framework assume that individuals, under some conditions, select breeding habitat based on expected fitness in different habitat. The relationship between habitat quality and fitness may be reflected by breeding success of individuals, which may in turn be used to assess habitat quality. Habitat quality may also be assessed via local density: if high-quality sites are preferentially used, high density may reflect high-quality habitat. Here we assessed whether site occupancy dynamics vary with site surrogates for habitat quality. We modeled nest site use probability in a seabird subcolony (the Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) over a 20-year period. We estimated site persistence (an occupied site remains occupied from time t to t + 1) and colonization through two subprocesses: first colonization (site creation at the timescale of the study) and recolonization (a site is colonized again after being deserted). Our model explicitly incorporated site-specific and neighboring breeding success and conspecific density in the neighborhood. Our results provided evidence that reproductively "successful'' sites have a higher persistence probability than "unsuccessful'' ones. Analyses of site fidelity in marked birds and of survival probability showed that high site persistence predominantly reflects site fidelity, not immediate colonization by new owners after emigration or death of previous owners. There is a negative quadratic relationship between local density and persistence probability. First colonization probability decreases with density, whereas recolonization probability is constant. This highlights the importance of distinguishing initial colonization and recolonization to understand site occupancy. All dynamics varied positively with neighboring breeding success. We found evidence of a positive interaction between site-specific and neighboring breeding success. We addressed local

  12. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  13. An object-oriented approach to nested data parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Thomas J.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation technique for integrating nested data parallelism into an object-oriented language. Data-parallel programming employs sets of data called 'collections' and expresses parallelism as operations performed over the elements of a collection. When the elements of a collection are also collections, then there is the possibility for 'nested data parallelism.' Few current programming languages support nested data parallelism however. In an object-oriented framework, a collection is a single object. Its type defines the parallel operations that may be applied to it. Our goal is to design and build an object-oriented data-parallel programming environment supporting nested data parallelism. Our initial approach is built upon three fundamental additions to C++. We add new parallel base types by implementing them as classes, and add a new parallel collection type called a 'vector' that is implemented as a template. Only one new language feature is introduced: the 'foreach' construct, which is the basis for exploiting elementwise parallelism over collections. The strength of the method lies in the compilation strategy, which translates nested data-parallel C++ into ordinary C++. Extracting the potential parallelism in nested 'foreach' constructs is called 'flattening' nested parallelism. We show how to flatten 'foreach' constructs using a simple program transformation. Our prototype system produces vector code which has been successfully run on workstations, a CM-2, and a CM-5.

  14. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  15. Evaluation of United States-Licensed Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays for Detection of Group M Viral Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Walter H.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Roberts, Charles; Francis, Kori; Downing, Robert; Mastro, Timothy D.; Nkengasong, John; Hu, Dale; Masciotra, Silvina; Schable, Charles; Lal, Renu B.

    2001-01-01

    Six Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-1/2 immunoassays, including five enzyme immunoassays and one rapid test, were challenged with up to 250 serum samples collected from various global sites. The serum samples were from individuals known to be infected with variants of HIV-1 including group M subtypes A, B, B′, C, D, E, F, and G and group O. All immunoassays detected the vast majority of samples tested. Three samples produced low ...

  16. False biochemical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in streptavidin-biotin-based immunoassays: the problem of biotin intake and related interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Marie-Liesse; Polak, Michel; Flechtner, Isabelle; Gonzales-Briceño, Laura; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2017-05-01

    Immunoassays are now commonly used for hormone measurement, in high throughput analytical platforms. Immunoassays are generally robust to interference. However, endogenous analytical error may occur in some patients; this may be encountered in biotin supplementation or in the presence of anti-streptavidin antibody, in immunoassays involving streptavidin-biotin interaction. In these cases, the interference may induce both false positive and false negative results, and simulate a seemingly coherent hormonal profile. It is to be feared that this type of errors will be more frequently observed. This review underlines the importance of keeping close interactions between biologists and clinicians to be able to correlate the hormonal assay results with the clinical picture.

  17. Nested Hilbert schemes on surfaces: Virtual fundamental class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholampour, Amin; Sheshmani, Artan; Yau, Shing-Tung

    We construct natural virtual fundamental classes for nested Hilbert schemes on a nonsingular projective surface S. This allows us to define new invariants of S that recover some of the known important cases such as Poincare invariants of Durr-Kabanov-Okonek and the stable pair invariants of Kool......-Thomas. In the case of the nested Hilbert scheme of points, we can express these invariants in terms of integrals over the products of Hilbert scheme of points on S, and relate them to the vertex operator formulas found by Carlsson-Okounkov. The virtual fundamental classes of the nested Hilbert schemes play a crucial...

  18. Influence of nest box environment on kit survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, V.H.; Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    died from day 1-7, and only ~5% in RES-3. The risk of dying was approx. 4 times higher for a kit live-born into the one resource environment. RES-3 females were building better nests and stayed in the nest box longer around parturition than RES-1, which could explain the higher mortality in this group....... We discriminated between stillborn and live-born kits dying early using autopsy. The access to more than one resource (RES-3) of nest building material had a profound effect on kit mortality in the firs week of life compared to access to straw only (χ²(1) = 13.7, P

  19. Ospreys Use Bald Eagle Nests in Chesapeake Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Therres, Glenn D.; Chandler, Sheri K.

    1993-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share similar breeding habitat in the Chesapeake Bay area and elsewhere. The nests of these species are similar in size and appearance. Ospreys typically build large stick nests in dead trees or on man-made structures (C.J. Henny et al. 1974, Chesapeake Sci. 15:125-133; A.F. Poole 1989, Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history, Cambridge Univ. Press, NY), while Bald Eagles usually build larger nests in live trees (P.B. Woo...

  20. Behavior at a nest of Amazilia lactea (Aves, Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshika Oniki

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The hummingbird Amazilia lactea (Lesson, 1832 built a nest in São Paulo, Brazil, in the spring (Oct and added lichens during incubation. The female incubated over 70 per cent of the day, 1-56 min per visit, and brooded two small young somewhat less; brooding stopped by about 10 days of age, as did night brooding. Lack of night brooding for large young hummingbirds may reflect lack of space in a small nest. Young stayed in the nest 19 days. Feedings were widely spaced, and presence of possible predators caused alarm.

  1. Solid-phase nested deletion: a new subcloning-less method for generating nested deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohda, M; Kato, N; Endo, I

    1995-08-31

    We have developed a new subcloning-less method for generating nested deletions which we have termed Solid-Phase Nested Deletion. The basic procedure for this method is as follows. The target DNA fragment is cloned in the multiple cloning site of a cloning vector, pUC or its derivatives, and amplified by PCR using a set of primers, one of which is 5'-biotinylated. The amplified DNA is partially digested by a restriction enzyme with a 4-base recognition sequence. The digested DNA is ligated with a synthetic adapter DNA. Monodiverse beads coupled with streptavidin (Dynabeads M-280 streptavidin) are added to the mixture and the biotinylated DNA fragments are separated by applying magnetic field. The unidirectionally deleted DNA fragments are recovered by PCR from the magnetic beads, and size-fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA fragments are amplified by PCR and used for sequencing. We demonstrate the potential of this method using a 4878-bp EcoRI fragment of lambda phage DNA.

  2. An Improved Adaptive Received Beamforming for Nested Frequency Offset and Nested Array FDA-MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibei Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the conventional FDA-MIMO (frequency diversity array multiple-input-multiple-output Radar with uniform frequency offset and uniform linear array, the DOFs (degrees of freedom of the adaptive beamformer are limited by the number of elements. A better performance—for example, a better suppression for strong interferences and a more desirable trade-off between the main lobe and side lobe—can be achieved with a greater number of DOFs. In order to obtain larger DOFs, this paper researches the signal model of the FDA-MIMO Radar with nested frequency offset and nested array, then proposes an improved adaptive beamforming method that uses the augmented matrix instead of the covariance matrix to calculate the optimum weight vectors and can be used to improve the output performances of FDA-MIMO Radar with the same element number or reduce the element number while maintain the approximate output performances such as the received beampattern, the main lobe width, side lobe depths and the output SINR (signal-to-interference-noise ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulations.

  3. Nest liquid resources of several cavity nesting bees in the genus Centris and the identification of a preservative, levulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, S Bradleigh; Frankie, Gordon W; Williams, H J

    2006-09-01

    Twig-nesting species of bees in the genus Centris including C. bicornuta, C. analis, C. vittata, and C. nitida, found in the dry forest of Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica, provision their nests with pollen and nectar, rather than pollen and oil as reported for other Centris species. The liquid contents of the nests of these four species were found to contain sugars including 66-75% fructose, 25-33% glucose, and a trace of sucrose. The sugar concentration averaged 47.2%, slightly higher than most flower nectars. No tri-, di-, or monoglycerides, the main components of the flower oil of Byrsonima crassifolia, were detected in the nest provisions. Although these four Centris species are also known to collect oil from B. crassifolia, the oil appears to be used for activities other than nest provisioning. The liquid nest contents did have a slight goat-like odor, suggesting the presence of short-chain fatty acids, and were found to contain a small amount (less than 1%) of three fatty acids. Two of these, butanoic and octanoic acid, were found in trace amounts and are responsible for the goat-like odor. A third was identified as levulinic acid, which made up about 99% of the nest fatty acid contents. This fatty acid had little odor, but may be important as a fungicidal agent. Attempts to determine the source of the fatty acids, were not successful.

  4. Variables associated with nest survival of Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) among vegetation communities commonly used for nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Kyle R.; Terhune, Theron M.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Confer,  John L.; Flaspohler, David J.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Loegering, John P.; Percy, Katie L.; Roth, Amber M.; Smalling, Curtis G.

    2015-01-01

    Among shrubland- and young forest-nesting bird species in North America, Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) are one of the most rapidly declining partly because of limited nesting habitat. Creation and management of high quality vegetation communities used for nesting are needed to reduce declines. Thus, we examined whether common characteristics could be managed across much of the Golden-winged Warbler’s breeding range to increase daily survival rate (DSR) of nests. We monitored 388 nests on 62 sites throughout Minnesota, Wisconsin, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and West Virginia. We evaluated competing DSR models in spatial-temporal (dominant vegetation type, population segment, state, and year), intraseasonal (nest stage and time-within-season), and vegetation model suites. The best-supported DSR models among the three model suites suggested potential associations between daily survival rate of nests and state, time-within-season, percent grass and Rubus cover within 1 m of the nest, and distance to later successional forest edge. Overall, grass cover (negative association with DSR above 50%) and Rubus cover (DSR lowest at about 30%) within 1 m of the nest and distance to later successional forest edge (negative association with DSR) may represent common management targets across our states for increasing Golden-winged Warbler DSR, particularly in the Appalachian Mountains population segment. Context-specific adjustments to management strategies, such as in wetlands or areas of overlap with Blue-winged Warblers (Vermivora cyanoptera), may be necessary to increase DSR for Golden-winged Warblers.

  5. Effect of Slave Raiding of Polyergus samurai on Nest Persistency of Its Host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yamaguchi, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The effect of slave raiding of Polyergus samurai on nest persistency of its host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica was investigated. Nest persistence rate after the raiding season was not different between raided and unraided nests. Many raided nests stopped aboveground activities for 2-3 weeks after a raiding but surviving workers maintained underground nest structure. These observations suggest that it is required to reconsider the previous interpretation that the raided nests died out from ...

  6. Nest characteristics of Yellow-billed Kites Milvus aegyptius in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yellow-billed Kite nests averaged 9.6 m (SD = 2.4; range 4–14.8 m; n = 64 nests) above ground level and 64% (41 of 64 nests) were in tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica). Nest trees mean DBH was 63.9 cm (SD = 28.1, range 25–200 cm; n = 64 nests). Keywords: Manambolomaty Lakes Complex, Milvus aegyptius, nest ...

  7. Effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nest predation risk in Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Jiji Sun; Siyu Wang; Yanping Wang; Deyu Shao; Ping Ding

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nest predation risk, we placed 726 artificial ground nests with chicken or quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs on 16 islands in edge and interiorlocations in Thousand Island Lake from April to August 2010. We compared nest predation rates between nests with different egg types and between the nests located at different distances from the edge. We also evaluated the relationships between nest predation and island area, isolation, shape in...

  8. Exact Analysis of the Cache Behavior of Nested Loops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Parker, Erin; Hanlon, Philip J; Lebeck, Alvin R

    2001-01-01

    The authors develop from first principles an exact model of the behavior of loop nests executing in a memory hierarchy by using a nontraditional classification of misses that has the key property of composability...

  9. Conservation status and community structure of cliff-nesting raptors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nesting raptor and raven populations resident in the mountains of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. We also assess the conservation value of these populations to inform the future management of the newly-established Table Mountain National ...

  10. Efficient use of iterative solvers in nested topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Stolpe, Mathias; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, it is suggested to reduce this computational cost by using an approximation to the solution of the nested problem, generated...... by a Krylov subspace iterative solver. By choosing convergence criteria for the iterative solver that are strongly related to the optimization objective and to the design sensitivities, it is possible to terminate the iterative solution of the nested equations earlier compared to traditional convergence...... measures. The approximation is shown to be sufficiently accurate for the practical purpose of optimization even though the nested equation system is not solved accurately. The approach is tested on several medium-scale topology optimization problems, including three dimensional minimum compliance problems...

  11. Behavior of greedy sparse representation algorithms on nested supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailhé, Boris; Sturm, Bob L.; Plumbley, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We study the links between recovery properties of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and the whole General MP class for sparse signals with nested supports, i.e., supports that share an inclusion relationship. In particular, we show that the support recovery optimality of those algorithms is not l......We study the links between recovery properties of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and the whole General MP class for sparse signals with nested supports, i.e., supports that share an inclusion relationship. In particular, we show that the support recovery optimality of those algorithms...... is not locally nested: there is a dictionary and supports Γ ⊃ Γ′ such that OMP can recover all signals with support Γ, but not all signals with support Γ′. We also show that the support recovery optimality of OMP is globally nested: if OMP can recover all s-sparse signals, then it can recover all s...

  12. Medium Range Forecast (MRF) and Nested Grid Model (NGM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nested Grid Model (NGM) and Medium Range Forecast (MRF) Archive is historical digital data set DSI-6140, archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Comparison of influenza and RSV diagnostic from nasopharyngeal swabs by rapid fluorescent immunoassay (Sofia system) and rapid bedside testing (BinaxNOW) vs. conventional fluorescent immunoassay in a German university children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack-Hoch, Anita L; Laniado, Gudrun; Hübner, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    The Sofia fluorescent immunoassay showed excellent sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional fluorescent immunoassay for Influenza A (Influenza B was not detected during the study period) and RSV in patients with suspected ILI (influenza-like illness). Thus the fast and easy-to-handle Sofia FIA leads to rapid and reliable diagnosis, which can be used by clinicians to avoid unnecessary antibiotic treatment and rapidly identify patients who need to be isolated upon hospital admission.

  14. Magnetic nesting and co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kapaev, V.V.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of providing for the magnetic nesting conditions of the electron spin dispersion law the co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity is possible by any high magnetization. The co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the layered cuprate compounds of the RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 -type is explained on this basis, wherein due to the nonstrict provision of the magnetic nesting condition there exists the finite but sufficiently high critical magnetization [ru

  15. The complex nest architecture of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid de Carvalho Guimarães

    Full Text Available In social insects, nests are very important structures built to provide a protected microhabitat for immature development and food storage and are the places where most interactions between all members of a colony occur. Considering that nest architecture is an important behavioural trait that can clarify essential points of the social level of the species, here we describe the architectural model of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer. Five subterranean nests were excavated; one of them filled with liquid cement for extraction of casts of chambers, shafts and tunnels. All nests were found in a woodland area, with Dystrophic Red Latosol soil, associated with roots of large trees and, differently from the pattern currently described for this subfamily, presented a complex structure with multiple entrances and more than one vertical shaft connected by tunnels to relatively horizontal chambers. The number of chambers varied from 24 to 77, with mean volume ranging from 200.09 cm3 to 363.79 cm3, and maximum depth of 134 cm. Worker population varied between 304 and 864 individuals with on average 8.28 cm2 of area per worker. All nests had at least one Hall, which is a relatively larger chamber serving as a distribution centre of the nest, and to our knowledge, there is no record of Ponerinae species building similar structure. All nests had chambers "paved" with pieces of decaying plant material and on the floor of some of them, we found a fungus whose identification and function are being investigated. Thus, our findings provide evidence to suggest that nests of O. chelifer can be considered complex, due to the great number and organization of chambers, shafts and connections, compared to those currently described for Ponerinae species.

  16. Neste in 1996: Oil integration and new Chemicals plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1997-01-01

    Neste's net sales in 1996 continued at the previous year's level. Although trading losses weakened the Group's performance, the debt burden decreased substantially and there was a fundamental improvement in the equity-to-assets ratio. Neste's integrated downstream oil business began operations, oil production in Norway and Oman increased, and Chemicals commissioned several production units. In addition, a number of interesting oil and natural gas pipeline projects were moving forward. (orig.)

  17. The nested-doorway model of multistep compound processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1982-05-01

    The multistep compound contribution to preequilibrium reaction are discussed within the nested-doorway model. Emphasis is placed on the generalized cross-section auto-correlation function. Several of the more widely used concepts in the conventional, one-class, statistical analysis are discussed and generalized to the multiclass case. A summary of the formal results of the nested-doorway model, obtained within Feshbach's projection operator theory is given. (Author) [pt

  18. The complex nest architecture of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Márlon César; Batista, Nathan Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Candida Anitta Pereira; Antonialli, William Fernando

    2018-01-01

    In social insects, nests are very important structures built to provide a protected microhabitat for immature development and food storage and are the places where most interactions between all members of a colony occur. Considering that nest architecture is an important behavioural trait that can clarify essential points of the social level of the species, here we describe the architectural model of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer. Five subterranean nests were excavated; one of them filled with liquid cement for extraction of casts of chambers, shafts and tunnels. All nests were found in a woodland area, with Dystrophic Red Latosol soil, associated with roots of large trees and, differently from the pattern currently described for this subfamily, presented a complex structure with multiple entrances and more than one vertical shaft connected by tunnels to relatively horizontal chambers. The number of chambers varied from 24 to 77, with mean volume ranging from 200.09 cm3 to 363.79 cm3, and maximum depth of 134 cm. Worker population varied between 304 and 864 individuals with on average 8.28 cm2 of area per worker. All nests had at least one Hall, which is a relatively larger chamber serving as a distribution centre of the nest, and to our knowledge, there is no record of Ponerinae species building similar structure. All nests had chambers "paved" with pieces of decaying plant material and on the floor of some of them, we found a fungus whose identification and function are being investigated. Thus, our findings provide evidence to suggest that nests of O. chelifer can be considered complex, due to the great number and organization of chambers, shafts and connections, compared to those currently described for Ponerinae species. PMID:29298335

  19. Social media usage among rally fans : Case: Neste Rally Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Linnaluoma, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the social media usage of rally fans to optimize social media communication. The thesis was assigned by AKK Sports Ltd, which operates as the marketing company of Neste Rally Finland event. The research was conducted by using quantitative research method, which purpose was to clarify the target group's social media usage in general and also around the context of Neste Rally Finland. The research data was gathered with an electronic questionnai...

  20. In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenson, M.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion

  1. Some problems of the origin of galaxy nests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of galaxy nests have been studied. The nests of galaxies consist of a few (more than two) galaxies in contact with each other and strongly distorted by mutual interaction. Their colour, geometrical and morphological characteristics are compared with ones of ordinary galaxies and groups of galaxies. Conclusions are drawn that 5% to 15% of the total number of nests may be the evolutionary products of tight groups of galaxies (with diameter 11 Msub(Sun)). About half of such objects consist of elliptical galaxies. Galaxies in sufficiently tight groups may merge in consequence of dynamical friction. The remaining (85-95%) nests origin may be possibly explained by different kinds of instabilities in certain flat galaxies, with transformation of one galaxy to the nest, or by interaction of two galaxies containing large amounts of gas and consequent intensive star formation in very large regions, or by other causes. To establish relative contribution of each possible phenomenon in nests origin, it is required to carry out further detailed investigations of these objects

  2. Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

    2013-10-01

    Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Plastic and the nest entanglement of urban and agricultural crows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas, which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes. We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6% were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds.

  4. Nesting biology of Centris (Centris aenea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting activity of Centris aenea Lepeletier, 1841 was studied in two Brazilian habitats, Caatinga (Monte Santo, Bahia and Cerrado (Palmeiras, Bahia and Luiz Antônio, São Paulo. Nests were excavated in the ground and did not tend to be aggregated together at the two sites, but at Palmeiras, nests were in a large aggregation. Nest architecture consists of a single unbranched tunnel, sloping to vertical, which leads to a linear series of four cells, placed from 8 to 26 cm in depth. Cells are urn-shaped with a rounded base, and their cell caps have a central hollow process, as in other Centridini. Nest architecture of C. aenea was compared to other species of Centris Fabricius, 1804. Provisions are composed of a pollen mass covered by a thin liquid layer on which the egg is placed. Females were observed gathering oil on Mcvaughia bahiana W.R. Anderson flowers from October to March in the Caatinga, and on Byrsonima intermedia A.Juss. as well as other Malpighiaceae species from August to December in the Cerrado. Pollen is gathered by buzzing flowers of Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Ochnaceae. Several nectar sources were recorded. There is indirect evidence that Mesoplia sp. parasitizes nests of C. aenea in the Cerrado.

  5. Serologic test-systems development: immunoassays for antibiotics. Progress report, May 16, 1980-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, R.; Hollstein, U.; Hindman, K.

    1983-04-01

    Progress on development of immunoassays for the antibiotics gentamicin, tetracycline, and tylosin is discussed. The development of the gentamicin assay was completed and the assay was transferred to the Beltsville Laboratories of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Quality Service (FSQS). The sensitivity (1 ppB) is 50-fold greater than we have previously reported, and is satisfactory for the current needs. At year's end, work was still in progress on both the tetracycline and tylosin assays. Tetracycline presents a more difficult problem of chemistry than we had anticipated. Immunoassay reagents synthesized by diazonium coupling were only weakly immunoreactive; analysis suggests that this coupling procedure damages the tetracycline structure. Several tetracycline derivatives that offer promising alternative coupling procedures were synthesized. Tylosin was successfully coupled to peroxidase. With this conjugate and antiserum, obtained from R. Mageau of the USDA, some immune-specific binding was demonstrated. Several problems with the tylosin assay remain to be resolved.

  6. Development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassays in microbiological and immunological diagnosis. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struy, H.; Horeschi, G.; Wolffgang, H.; Morenz, J.

    1982-01-01

    Indirect solid phase radioimmunoassays and enzyme immunoassays were developed for the quantitative determination of low concentrations of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE. PVC blister and microtiterplates of polystyrene with adsorptively bound purified immunoglobulins were used as carrier. The determination of the immunoglobulins was accomplished with a uniform system of indicators, which consists of class-specific antihuman immunoglobulin sera from rabbits and of labelled ( 125 I and horseradish peroxydase, resp.) antirabbitglobulin from sheep. The developped competitive radioimmuno- and enzyme immunoassays allows the determination of concentrations of classes of immunoglobulins down to nearly 1 ng/ml, and the indirect sandwich solid phase radioimmunoassay determinations of IgE down to about 1 IU/ml. The values of IgG determined in liquors and those of IgE found in sera correspond very well to values which were measured with commercial kits. (author)

  7. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  8. Microfluidic Platform for Enzyme-Linked and Magnetic Particle-Based Immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota G. Pijanowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents design and testing of a microfluidic platform for immunoassay. The method is based on sandwiched ELISA, whereby the primary antibody is immobilized on nitrocelluose and, subsequently, magnetic beads are used as a label to detect the analyte. The chip takes approximately 2 h and 15 min to complete the assay. A Hall Effect sensor using 0.35-μm BioMEMS TSMC technology (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Bio-Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems was fabricated to sense the magnetic field from the beads. Furthermore, florescence detection and absorbance measurements from the chip demonstrate successful immunoassay on the chip. In addition, investigation also covers the Hall Effect simulations, mechanical modeling of the bead–protein complex, testing of the microfluidic platform with magnetic beads averaging 10 nm, and measurements with an inductor-based system.

  9. On-chip signal amplification of magnetic bead-based immunoassay by aviating magnetic bead chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Uddin M; Jin, Gyeong Jun; Eom, Kyu Shik; Kim, Min Ho; Shim, Joon S

    2017-11-06

    In this work, a Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform is used to electromagnetically actuate magnetic bead chains for an enhanced immunoassay. Custom-made electromagnets generate a magnetic field to form, rotate, lift and lower the magnetic bead chains (MBCs). The cost-effective, disposable LOC platform was made with a polymer substrate and an on-chip electrochemical sensor patterned via the screen-printing process. The movement of the MBCs is controlled to improve the electrochemical signal up to 230% when detecting beta-type human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Thus, the proposed on-chip MBC-based immunoassay is applicable for rapid, qualitative electrochemical point-of-care (POC) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A fast universal immobilization of immunoglobulin G at 4 °C for the development of array-based immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Lin Guo

    Full Text Available To maintain the antibody activity and enhance performance of array-based immunoassays, protein G was used to allow a shorter duration of immunoglobulin G immobilization at 4 °C, with the antibody placed in the appropriate orientation. The multiplexed detection of six pain-related message molecules (PRMMs was used as examples for the development of array-based immunoassays: substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and β-endorphin. Protein G- and non-protein G-coated slides were tested. Compared to non-protein G immunoassays, protein G shortened the antibody immobilization time at 4 °C from overnight to 2 hours. Only protein G-facilitated immunoassays succeeded in simultaneously detecting all six PRMMs with high specificity. Dose-response curves showed that the limits of detection of the protein G-multiplexed immunoassays for the PRMMs was approximately 164, 167, 120, 60, 80, and 92 pg/ml, respectively. Thus, protein G effectively shortens the duration of antibody immobilization at 4 °C, allowing the use of sensitive array-based immunoassays for the simultaneous detection of PRMMs.

  11. Deoxynivalenol-mimic nanobody isolated from a naïve phage display nanobody library and its application in immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu-Lou; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Bhunia, Arun K; Tu, Zhui; Chen, Bo; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-08-05

    In this study, using mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) as a model hapten, we developed a nanobody-based environmental friendly immunoassay for sensitive detection of DON. Two nanobodies (N-28 and N-31) which bind to anti-DON monoclonal antibody (MAb) were isolated from a naive phage display library. These nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and mycotoxin-free products and can be served as coating antigen mimetics in heterologous immunoassay. The half inhibition concentration (IC50) of the immunoassay developed with N-28 and N-31 was 8.77 ± 0.41 ng mL(-1) and 19.97 ± 0.84 ng mL(-1), respectively, which were 18- and 8-fold more sensitive than the conventional coating antigen (DON-BSA) based immunoassay. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of antigen mimicry by nanobody, the 3D structure of "nanobody (N-28) - anti-DON MAb" complex was presented and verified by molecular modeling and alanine-scanning mutagenesis. The results showed that hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction formed between Thr 102 - Ser 106 of N-28 and CDR H3 residues of anti-DON antibody may contribute to their binding. This novel concept of enhancing sensitivity of immunoassay for DON based on nanobody may provide potential applications in a general method for immunoassay of various food chemical contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Houghton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  13. Novel LC-MS/MS method for plasma vancomycin: comparison with immunoassays and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaert, Matthijs; Peersman, Nele; Kieffer, Davy; Deiteren, Kathleen; Smits, Anne; Allegaert, Karel; Spriet, Isabel; Van Eldere, Johan; Verhaegen, Jan; Vermeersch, Pieter; Pauwels, Steven

    2015-02-20

    Accurate quantification of vancomycin in plasma is important for adequate dose-adjustment. As literature suggests between-method differences, our first objective was to develop a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for total vancomycin in human plasma and to compare frequently used immunoassays with this method. Secondly, we investigated the clinical impact of between-method quantification differences. For LC-MS/MS, lithium heparin plasma was extracted by adding a precipitation reagent containing the internal standard (vancomycin-des-leucine). Analysis was performed on an Acquity TQD mass spectrometer equipped with an Acquity UPLC 2795 separations module. Our method was analytically validated and compared with four frequently used immunoassays from four different manufacturers. Vancomycin concentrations were clinically classified as toxic, therapeutic and sub-therapeutic. Clinical discordance was calculated using LC-MS/MS as a reference. A novel LC-MS/MS method using protein precipitation as sole pretreatment and an analysis time of 5.0 min was developed. The assay had a total imprecision of 2.6-8.5%, a limit of quantification of 0.3 mg/L and an accuracy ranging from 101.4 to 111.2%. Using LC-MS/MS as reference, three immunoassays showed a mean proportional difference within 10% and one showed a substantial mean proportional difference of >20%. Clinical discordant interpretation of the obtained concentrations ranged from 6.1 to 22.2%. We developed a novel LC-MS/MS method for rapid analysis of total vancomycin concentrations in human plasma. Correlation of the method with immunoassays showed a mean proportional difference >20% for one of the assays, causing discordant clinical interpretation in more than 1 out of 5 samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Swinburne A J; Simmons, Kaneatra J; Eason, Tarsha N; Griffin, Shannon M; Curioso, Clarissa L; Wymer, Larry J; Shay Fout, G; Grimm, Ann C; Oshima, Kevin H; Dufour, Al

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous pathogens that can be transmitted through water. Identifying and understanding the routes and magnitude of exposure or infection to these microbial contaminants are critical to assessing and mitigating risk. Conventional approaches of studying immunological responses to exposure or infection such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and other monoplex antibody-based immunoassays can be very costly, laborious, and consume large quantities of patient sample. A major limitation of these approaches is that they can only be used to measure one analyte at a time. Multiplex immunoassays provide the ability to study multiple pathogens simultaneously in microliter volumes of samples. However, there are several challenges that must be addressed when developing these multiplex immunoassays such as selection of specific antigens and antibodies, cross-reactivity, calibration, protein-reagent interferences, and the need for rigorous optimization of protein concentrations. In this study, a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was used to optimize reagent concentrations for coupling selected antigens to Luminex™ xMAP microspheres for use in an indirect capture, multiplex immunoassay to detect human exposure or infection from pathogens that are potentially transmitted through water. Results from Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium singleplexes were used to determine the mean concentrations that would be applied to the multiplex assay. Cut-offs to differentiate between exposed and non-exposed individuals were determined using finite mixed modeling (FMM). The statistical approaches developed facilitated the detection of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori, C. jejuni, Toxoplasma gondii, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus and noroviruses (VA387 and Norwalk strains) in fifty-four diagnostically characterized plasma samples. Of the characterized samples, the detection rate was 87.5% for H

  15. Evaluation of Sofia fluorescent immunoassay analyzer for influenza A/B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Kyu; Cho, Chi Hyun; Woo, Mi Kyung; Nyeck, Agnes E; Lim, Chae Seung; Kim, Woo Joo

    2012-11-01

    The influenza virus causes seasonal epidemics which are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) are frequently used to make a quick influenza diagnosis to confirm the clinical suspicion, despite their low sensitivity. Assess the performance of the Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescence Immunoassay (Quidel, San Diego, CA). Nasopharyngeal swabs, taken from 241 patients (influenza A (n=73)/B (n=72), negative samples (n=96)) were analyzed using the Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescence Immunoassay, BinaxNOW Influenza A/B antigen kit (Alere Inc., USA), Directigen EZ Flu A and B (Becton Dickinson, USA), real-time RT-PCR and an influenza virus culture. There was a significant difference between the performance of rapid antigen tests and the Sofia FIA, when compared to the RT-PCR, in the detection of influenza strain A and B. Indeed, the Sofia FIA displayed sensitivities of 82.2% and 77.8% for strains A and B respectively, whereas sensitivities of BinaxNOW Influenza A/B antigen kit, and Directigen Flu A and B were 54.8%, and 68.5% for influenza A, and 62.5%, and 52.8% for influenza B respectively. The average RT-PCR threshold cycle (C(t)) (±SD) for the Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescence Immunoassay-positive specimens was higher than those of the BinaxNOW Influenza A/B antigen and the Directigen EZ Flu A and B kit positive specimens. Compared to other RDTs, the Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescence Immunoassay is a sensitive, and rapid method for the detection and discrimination between influenza A and B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of a Combination Rapid Immunoassay for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Raymond; Chen, Jing; York, Mary K.; Setijono, Norman; Kaplan, Raymond L.; Graham, Fitzroy; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2000-01-01

    A combination cassette format nonenzymatic rapid immunoassay for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigens was evaluated by using 556 patient stool specimens from three clinical laboratories. This assay (Genzyme Diagnostics Contrast Giardia/Cryptosporidium), which can be used with fresh or formalin-fixed specimens, had unadjusted sensitivities and specificities of 96.1 and 98.5% for Giardia and 100 and 98.7% for Cryptosporidium, respectively, in this study.

  17. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for human chorionic somatomammotropin using the avidin-biotin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappuoli, R.; Leoncini, P.; Tarli, P.; Neri, P.

    1981-01-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) is determined by an enzyme immunoassay where HCS competes with biotin-labeled HCS for insolubilized anti-HCS antibodies. Enzyme-labeled avidin is then used to reveal the amount of bound HCS. The system proves to be sensitive (1 ng/ml of HCS can be detected) and results agree with radioimmunoassay determinations (correlation coefficient = 0.979). Kinetics of the avidin-biotin reaction and coating of polystyrene wells are also investigated

  18. Magnetic Electrochemical Immunoassays with Quantum Dot Labels for Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase in Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Jun; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    A new magnetic electrochemical immunoassay has been developed as a tool for biomonitoring exposures to organophosphate (OP) compounds, e.g., insecticides and chemical nerve agents, by directly detecting organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE). This immunoassay uniquely incorporates highly efficient magnetic separation with ultrasensitive square wave voltammetry (SWV) analysis with quantum dots (QDs) as labels. A pair of antibodies was used to achieve the specific recognition of OP-AChE that was prepared with paraoxon as an OP model agent. Antiphosphoserine polyclonal antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic particles preferably chosen to capture OP-AChE from the sample matrixes by binding their phosphoserine moieties that were exposed through unfolding the protein adducts. This was validated by electrochemical examinations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Furthermore, antihuman AChE monoclonal antibodies were labeled with cadmium-source QDs to selectively recognize the captured OP-AChE, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent electrochemical SWV analysis of the cadmium component released by acid from the coupled QDs was conducted on disposable screen-printed electrodes. Experimental results indicated that the SWV-based immunoassays could yield a linear response over a broad concentration range of 0.3-300 ng/mL OP-AChE in human plasma with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Such a novel electrochemical immunoassay holds great promise as a simple, selective, sensitive, and field-deployable tool for the effective biomonitoring and diagnosis of potential exposures to nerve agents and pesticides.

  19. Comparative studies on the determination of alphafetoprotein by enzyme immunoassay and by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.; Linneke, P.; Voss, P.; Jeske, W.

    1987-01-01

    Alphafetoprotein (AFP) was determined in serum of pregnant women in the tenth till sixteenth week of pregnancy by means of two enzyme immunoassays (Enzymun-Test AFP, Boehringer Mannheim, FRG and AFP EIA 'Dessau' 1000, Research Institute for Vaccine Dessau, GDR) and a radioimmunoassay (Radioimmunoassay Kit, AFP-PR, CIS, France). Parallel determinations in sera of 438 patients, who had come to surveillance for the first consultation were estimated. A comparison between the methods showed a good correlation. (author)

  20. Label-free detection of C-reactive protein using an electrochemical DNA immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Feeny, Rachel M.; Mensack, Meghan M.; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Henry, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    A label-free electrochemical immunoassay that combines DNA-directed immobilization (DDI) with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on microwire sensors is reported for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is an acute-phase protein that is strongly correlated with systemic inflammation. Since inflammation plays a role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, CRP can be used to predict the likelihood of coronary events. To demonstrate the new chemistry, 25-μm Au electrodes ...

  1. Multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers using metal sulfide quantum dot nanolabels and trifunctionalized magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Hou, Li; Niessner, Reinhard; Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Knopp, Dietmar

    2013-08-15

    A novel multiplexed stripping voltammetric immunoassay protocol was designed for the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers (CA 125, CA 15-3, and CA 19-9 used as models) using PAMAM dendrimer-metal sulfide quantum dot (QD) nanolabels as distinguishable signal tags and trifunctionalized magnetic beads as an immunosensing probe. The probe was prepared by means of co-immobilization of primary monoclonal anti-CA 125, anti-CA 15-3 and anti-CA 19-9 antibodies on a single magnetic bead. The PAMAM dendrimer-metal sulfide QD nanolabels containing CdS, ZnS and PbS were synthesized by using in situ synthesis method, which were utilized for the labeling of polyclonal rabbit anti-CA 125, anti-CA 15-3 and anti-CA 19-9 detection antibodies, respectively. A sandwich-type immunoassay format was adopted for the simultaneous determination of target biomarkers in a low-binding microtiter plate. The subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric analysis of cadmium, zinc, and lead components released by acid from the corresponding QD nanolabels was conducted at an in situ prepared mercury film electrode based on the difference of peak potentials. Experimental results indicated that the multiplexed immunoassay enabled the simultaneous detection of three cancer biomarkers in a single run with wide dynamic ranges of 0.01-50 U mL(-1) and detection limits (LODs) of 0.005 U mL(-1). Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 7.2% and 10.4%, respectively. No significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 10 clinical serum specimens between the multiplexed immunoassay and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New reusable Celite/ethylene glycol cartridges for selective chromatography of steroids before immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giton, Frank; Guéchot, Jérôme; Fiet, Jean

    2009-11-01

    Preparation of reusable and easy to handle Celite chromatographic columns. Weighting precise Celite quantities in cartridges and introducing ethylene glycol methanol solutions. The chromatographic solvents pass throughout Celite under negative pressure. These new minicolumns are reusable. The steroid recoveries' coefficients of variation are less than 10%, and the steroid separation is good. The reusable Celite cartridge use before steroid immunoassays is easier and less time-consuming than classical glass Celite minicolumns.

  3. Development of a Rainbow Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Simultaneous Detection of Four Mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Foubert, Astrid; Beloglazova, Natalia V.; Gordienko, Anna; Tessier, Mickael D.; Drijvers, Emile; Hens, Zeger; De Saeger, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    A multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the determination of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and T2/HT2-toxin in barley was developed with luminescent quantum dots (QDs) as label. The synthesized QDs were hydrophilized by two strategies, that is, coating with an amphiphilic polymer or silica. The water-soluble QDs were compared with regard to their bioconjugation with monoclonal antibody (mAb) and were tested on a LFIA. Silica-coated QDs that contained epoxy groups were mo...

  4. Inferring nonlinear lateral flow immunoassay state-space models via an unscented Kalman filter

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, N; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of learning structure of the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) devices via short but available time series of the experiment measurement. The model for the LFIA is considered as a nonlinear state-space model that includes equations describing both the biochemical reaction process of LFIA system and the observation output. Especially, the time-delays occurring among the biochemical reactions are considered in the established model. Furthermore, we utilize...

  5. Development of Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Antigen Detection in Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mu-Xin; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Huang, Da-Na; Ai, Lin; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is difficult to be diagnosed for the reason that no ideal method can be used. Serologic tests require specific equipment and are not always available in poverty-stricken zone and are time-consuming. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) may be useful for angiostrongyliasis control. We established a LFIA for the diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis adults. The sensitivity and specificity were 91.1...

  6. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  7. Multiplex dipstick immunoassay for semi-quantitative determination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzio, Veronica M.T., E-mail: veronica.lattanzio@ispa.cnr.it [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Nivarlet, Noan [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Lippolis, Vincenzo; Gatta, Stefania Della [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe [Centre d' Economie Rurale (CER Groupe), Rue du Point du Jour no 8, B-6900 Marloie (Belgium); Granier, Benoit [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Visconti, Angelo [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a rapid method based on a multiplex dipstick immunoassay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay allowed the determination of major Fusarium toxins in wheat, oats, maize. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained cut off levels close to EU regulatory levels. - Abstract: A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin-BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73-109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC-MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30 min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins

  8. Effectiveness of nest site restoration for the endangered northern map turtle : report 2 : use of artificial nesting sites and wildlife exclusion fence to enhance nesting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Northern Map Turtle, Graptemys geographica, is a Maryland state endangered species, found only in the lower Susquehanna River in Maryland. The only area where nests of this species are not heavily impacted by predators occurs in the town of Port ...

  9. Time-resolved chemiluminescence strategy for multiplexed immunoassay of clenbuterol and ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Gao, Hongfei; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Zhenxing; Fu, Zhifeng

    2013-10-15

    A novel time-resolved chemiluminescence (CL) strategy was proposed for immunoassay of multiple analytes in a single run. The strategy was performed based on the distinction of the kinetic characteristics of different CL reaction systems, which allowed detection of multiple analytes in different time windows. The strategy was evaluated by using clenbuterol and ractopamine as the model analytes. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were adopted as the signal probes to tag the two antigens due to their very different CL kinetic characteristics. After the competitive immunoreactions, the two CL signals were simultaneously triggered by adding the CL coreactants. Then the signals for clenbuterol and ractopamine were in turn detected after 0.6 s and 25 min of the reaction triggering. Due to the distinguishable detection time windows for HRP and ALP, the cross-talk resulting from the mixed CL reaction systems was effectively avoided, which was frequently encountered in some other multiplexed immunoassays based on multi-label modes. The linear ranges for clenbuterol and ractopamine were both 1.0-500 ng/mL, with detection limits of 0.50 ng/mL (S/N=2). The results for real sample analysis demonstrated that this study could provide a simple, low-cost and fast approach toward multiplexed immunoassay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering-Based Immunoassay Technologies for Detection of Disease Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Smolsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of biomarkers is of vital importance in disease detection, management, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the development of novel diagnostic methods that detect and quantify biomarkers with higher sensitivity and reliability, contributing to better disease diagnosis and prognosis. When it comes to such devastating diseases as cancer, these novel powerful methods allow for disease staging as well as detection of cancer at very early stages. Over the past decade, there have been some advances in the development of platforms for biomarker detection of diseases. The main focus has recently shifted to the development of simple and reliable diagnostic tests that are inexpensive, accurate, and can follow a patient’s disease progression and therapy response. The individualized approach in biomarker detection has been also emphasized with detection of multiple biomarkers in body fluids such as blood and urine. This review article covers the developments in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS and related technologies with the primary focus on immunoassays. Limitations and advantages of the SERS-based immunoassay platform are discussed. The article thoroughly describes all components of the SERS immunoassay and highlights the superior capabilities of SERS readout strategy such as high sensitivity and simultaneous detection of a multitude of biomarkers. Finally, it introduces recently developed strategies for in vivo biomarker detection using SERS.

  11. A Novel Colorimetric Immunoassay Utilizing the Peroxidase Mimicking Activity of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Gyu Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple colorimetric immunoassay system, based on the peroxidase mimicking activity of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, has been developed to detect clinically important antigenic molecules. MNPs with ca. 10 nm in diameter were synthesized and conjugated with specific antibodies against target molecules, such as rotaviruses and breast cancer cells. Conjugation of the MNPs with antibodies (MNP-Abs enabled specific recognition of the corresponding target antigenic molecules through the generation of color signals arising from the colorimetric reaction between the selected peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB and H2O2. Based on the MNP-promoted colorimetric reaction, the target molecules were detected and quantified by measuring absorbance intensities corresponding to the oxidized form of TMB. Owing to the higher stabilities and economic feasibilities of MNPs as compared to horseradish peroxidase (HRP, the new colorimetric system employing MNP-Abs has the potential of serving as a potent immunoassay that should substitute for conventional HRP-based immunoassays. The strategy employed to develop the new methodology has the potential of being extended to the construction of simple diagnostic systems for a variety of biomolecules related to human cancers and infectious diseases, particularly in the realm of point-of-care applications.

  12. Targeted selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometric immunoassay for insulin-like growth factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric E Niederkofler

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 is an important biomarker of human growth disorders that is routinely analyzed in clinical laboratories. Mass spectrometry-based workflows offer a viable alternative to standard IGF1 immunoassays, which utilize various pre-analytical preparation strategies. In this work we developed an assay that incorporates a novel sample preparation method for dissociating IGF1 from its binding proteins. The workflow also includes an immunoaffinity step using antibody-derivatized pipette tips, followed by elution, trypsin digestion, and LC-MS/MS separation and detection of the signature peptides in a selected reaction monitoring (SRM mode. The resulting quantitative mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA exhibited good linearity in the range of 1 to 1,500 ng/mL IGF1, intra- and inter-assay precision with CVs of less than 10%, and lowest limits of detection of 1 ng/mL. The linearity and recovery characteristics of the assay were also established, and the new method compared to a commercially available immunoassay using a large cohort of human serum samples. The IGF1 SRM MSIA is well suited for use in clinical laboratories.

  13. On-chip immunoassay of a cardiac biomarker in serum using a polyester-toner microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Rahn; Kim, Joo Yeon; Choi, Kihwan; Chung, Doo Soo

    2013-05-15

    An on-chip immunoassay to detect C-reactive protein (CRP) was performed using a polyester-toner (PT) microchip. CRP is a highly conserved plasma protein responding to inflammation and is used for clinical purposes to diagnose an inflammatory state. For rapid analysis and specific interactions in immunoassays, extensive studies using microfluidic chips have been carried out. Recently, a simple technique to fabricate a disposable PT microchip by a direct printing process was developed and several applications were introduced. One major drawback of the PT microchip, however, is the poor separation performance due to the quality of the microfluidic structures. This problem for a PT microchip can be overcome using a cleavable tag immunoassay, which requires minimal separation performance. After analytes are conjugated onto antibodies which are immobilized on the surface of microbeads placed on the PT microchip, a second group of fluorescently tagged antibodies are added and complexed with the analytes. The tag is then cleaved and the solution containing the cleaved tag is analyzed by electrophoresis. The time needed for the complete analysis to be carried out on a PT microchip was less than 35 min. The dynamic range of the CRP in 10-fold diluted serum was 0.3-100 mg/L and the limit of detection was 0.3 mg/L, which demonstrated the possibility of a quantitative analysis of CRP in serum in clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Bayesian approach for estimating calibration curves and unknown concentrations in immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Sales, Ana Paula; Kepler, Thomas B

    2011-03-01

    Immunoassays are primary diagnostic and research tools throughout the medical and life sciences. The common approach to the processing of immunoassay data involves estimation of the calibration curve followed by inversion of the calibration function to read off the concentration estimates. This approach, however, does not lend itself easily to acceptable estimation of confidence limits on the estimated concentrations. Such estimates must account for uncertainty in the calibration curve as well as uncertainty in the target measurement. Even point estimates can be problematic: because of the non-linearity of calibration curves and error heteroscedasticity, the neglect of components of measurement error can produce significant bias. We have developed a Bayesian approach for the estimation of concentrations from immunoassay data that treats the propagation of measurement error appropriately. The method uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to approximate the posterior distribution of the target concentrations and numerically compute the relevant summary statistics. Software implementing the method is freely available for public use. The new method was tested on both simulated and experimental datasets with different measurement error models. The method outperformed the common inverse method on samples with large measurement errors. Even in cases with extreme measurements where the common inverse method failed, our approach always generated reasonable estimates for the target concentrations. Project name: Baecs; Project home page: www.computationalimmunology.org/utilities/; Operating systems: Linux, MacOS X and Windows; Programming language: C++; License: Free for Academic Use.

  15. Electrochemical immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen based on a lead sulfide nanoparticle label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengfu; Zhang, Xing; Mao, Xun; Zeng, Qingxiang; Xu, Hui; Lin, Yuehe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Guodong

    2008-10-01

    We describe a lead sulfide nanoparticle (PbS NP)-based electrochemical immunoassay to detect a tumor biomarker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Cubic PbS NPs were prepared and functionalized with thioglycolic acid (TGA), which stabilized the formed NPs and offered carboxyl groups to conjugate with CEA antibodies. PbS NP conjugated with monoclonal CEA antibody was used as a label in an immunorecognition event. After a complete sandwich immunoreaction among the primary CEA antibody (immobilized on the carboxyl-modified magnetic beads), CEA and the PbS-labeled secondary antibody (PbS-anti-CEA), PbS labels were captured to the magnetic-bead (MB) surface through the antibody-antigen immunocomplex. Electrochemical stripping analysis of the captured PbS was used to quantify the concentration of CEA after an acid-dissolution step. The MBs and the magnetic separation platform were used to integrate a facile antibody immobilization with immunoreactions and the isolation of immunocomplexes from reaction solutions in the immunoassay. The voltammetric response is highly linear over the range of 1-50 ng ml-1 CEA, and the limit of detection is estimated to be 0.5 ng ml-1. The performance of this nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with human serum spiked with CEA, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for rapid, simple and cost-effective analysis of tumor biomarkers in biological fluids.

  16. Electrochemical Immunoassay of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on A Lead Sulfide Nanoparticle Label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shengfu; Zhang, Xing; Mao, Xun; Zeng, Qingxiang; Xu, Hui; Lin, Yuehe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Guodong

    2008-10-01

    We describe a Lead sulfide nanoparticle (PbS NP) based electrochemical immunoassay to detect a tumor biomarker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Cubic PbS NPs were prepared and functionalized with thioglycolic acid (TGA), which stabilized the formed NPs and offered carboxyl groups to conjugate with CEA antibodies. PbS NP conjugated with monoclonal CEA antibody was used as a label in an immnorecognition event. After a complete sandwich immunoreaction among the primary CEA antibody (immobilized on the carboxyl-modified magnetic beads), CEA, and the PbS-labeled secondary antibody (PbS-anti-CEA), PbS labels were captured to the magnetic-bead (MB) surface through the antibody-antigen immunocomplex. Electrochemical stripping analysis of the captured PbS was used to quantify the concentration of CEA after an acid-dissolution step. The MBs and the magnetic separation platform were used to integrate a facile antibody immobilization with immunoreactions and the isolation of immunocomplexes from reaction solutions in the immunoassay. The performance of this nanoparticle based electrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with human serum spiked with CEA, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for rapid, simple, and cost-effective analysis of tumor biomarkers in biological fluids.

  17. Utility of salivary enzyme immunoassays for measuring estradiol and testosterone in adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatoury, Mazen; Lee, Jennifer W; Maguire, Ann M; Ambler, Geoffrey R; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2016-04-09

    We investigated the utility of enzyme immunoassay kits for measuring low levels of salivary estradiol and testosterone in adolescents and objectively assessed prevalence of blood contamination. Endocrine patients provided plasma and saliva for estradiol (females) or testosterone (males) assay. Saliva samples were also tested with a blood contamination kit. Picomolar levels of salivary estradiol in females failed to show any significant correlation with plasma values (r=0.20, p=0.37). The nanomolar levels of salivary testosterone in males showed a strong correlation (r=0.78, p<0.001). A significant number of saliva samples had blood contamination. After exclusion, correlations remained non-significant for estradiol, but strengthened for testosterone (r=0.88, p<0.001). The salivary estradiol enzyme immunoassay is not clinically informative at low levels. Users should interpret clinical saliva with caution due to potential blood contamination. Our data supports the utility of the salivary testosterone enzyme immunoassay for monitoring adolescent boys on hormone developmental therapy.

  18. Factitious Graves' Disease Due to Biotin Immunoassay Interference-A Case and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Marianne S; Sehgal, Shekhar; Du Toit, Stephen; Yarndley, Tania; Conaglen, John V

    2016-09-01

    Biotin (vitamin B7) is an essential co-factor for four carboxylases involved in fatty acid metabolism, leucine degradation, and gluconeogenesis. The recommended daily intake (RDI) of biotin is approximately 30 μg per day. Low-moderate dose biotin is a common component of multivitamin preparations, and high-dose biotin (10 000 times RDI) has been reported to improve clinical outcomes and quality of life in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis. Biotin is also a component of immunoassays, and supplementation may cause interference in both thyroid and non-thyroid immunoassays. To assess whether biotin ingestion caused abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs) in a patient through assay interference. We report a patient with biotin-associated abnormal TFTs and a systematic review of the literature. A tertiary endocrine service in Hamilton, New Zealand. The patient had markedly abnormal TFTs that did not match the clinical context. After biotin cessation, TFTs normalized far more rapidly than possible given the half-life of T4, consistent with assay interference by biotin. Multiple other analytes also tested abnormal in the presence of biotin. Biotin ingested in moderate to high doses can cause immunoassay interference. Depending on the assay format, biotin interference can result in either falsely high or low values. Interference is not limited to thyroid tests and has the potential to affect a wide range of analytes. It is important for clinicians to be aware of this interaction to prevent misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.

  19. Discordant Analytical Results Caused by Biotin Interference on Diagnostic Immunoassays in a Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahesheema; Rajapakshe, Deepthi; Cao, Liyun; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have reported that biotin interferes with certain immunoassays. In this study, we evaluated the analytical interference of biotin on immunoassays that use streptavidin-biotin in our pediatric hospital. We tested the effect of different concentrations of biotin (1.5-200 ng/ml) on TSH, Prolactin, Ferritin, CK-MB, β-hCG, Troponin I, LH, FSH, Cortisol, Anti-HAV antibody (IgG and IgM), assays on Ortho Clinical Diagnostic Vitros 5600 Analyzer. Biotin (up to 200 ng/mL) did not significantly affect Troponin I and HAV assays. Biotin (up to 12.5 ng/ml) resulted in biotin >6.25 ng/mL significantly affected TSH (>20% bias) assay. Prolactin was significantly affected even at low levels (Biotin 1.5 ng/mL). Thus, we recommend educating physicians about biotin interference in common immunoassays and adding an electronic disclaimer. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  20. Self-assembled monolayer-based immunoassays for okadaic acid detection in seawater as monitoring tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Sandra; Toldrà, Anna; Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Andree, Karl B; Ferreres, Laura; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Pazos, Yolanda; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2018-02-01

    Rapid and cost-effective methods to monitor the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in seawater samples in an easy and reliable manner are required to protect human health and avoid economic losses to shellfish industry. Immunoassays for the detection of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 are developed by immobilising OA on self-assembled monothiols or dithiols in an ordered and oriented way, providing an effective limit of detection of ∼1 ng OA equiv./mL seawater. The immunoassays are applied to the analysis of the particulate fraction of seawater samples from two Catalan harbours (NW Mediterranean) and samples collected periodically from the Galician Rias (E Atlantic), as well as a reference mussel sample. Results are in agreement with LC-MS/MS and the certified values. OA concentration in seawater correlates with Dinophysis cell abundance, with a 1-2 weeks lag. The immunoassays provide powerful high-throughput analytical methods potentially applicable as alternative monitoring tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Switchable Linker-Based Immunoassay for Ultrasensitive Visible Detection of Salmonella in Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jungwoo; Kim, Eunghee; You, Young Sang; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Lim, Seokwon; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-10-01

    On-site detection for sensitive identification of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce with minimal use of specialized instrumentation is crucial to the food industry. A switchable linker (SL)-based immunoassay was designed for ultrasensitive on-site detection of Salmonella in tomato samples. The assay is based on large-scale aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), induced by a quantitative relationship among the biotinylated Salmonella polyclonal antibody (b-Ab) used as the SL, the functionalized GNPs, and Salmonella. Important factors such as the concentration of SLs, time required for large-scale aggregation, and selectivity of b-Ab were optimized to minimize the detection time (within 45 min with gentle agitation) and achieve the lowest limit of detection (LOD; 10 CFU/g in tomato samples) possible. This SL-based immunoassay with its relatively low LOD and short detection time may meet the need for rapid, simple, on-site analysis of pathogens in fresh produce. The novel switchable linker-based immunoassay is a rapid, specific, and sensitive method that has potential applications for routine diagnostics of Salmonella in tomato products. These advantages make it a practical approach for general use in the processing industry to detect Salmonella rapidly and to implement appropriate regulatory procedures. Furthermore, it could be applied to other fresh products including cantaloupe, strawberry, and cucumbers. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Which amphetamine-type stimulants can be detected by oral fluid immunoassays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daniele Z; Boehl, Paula O; Comiran, Eloisa; Prusch, Débora S; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Pechansky, Flavio; Duarte, Paulina C A V; De Boni, Raquel B; Fröehlich, Pedro E; Limberger, Renata P

    2012-02-01

    The use of oral fluid for monitoring drug consumption on roads has many advantages over conventional biological fluids; therefore, several immunoassays have been developed for this purpose. In this work, the ability of 3 commercial immunoassays to detect amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) in oral fluid was assessed. In addition, it was reviewed the main controlled ATSs available worldwide, as well as the oral fluid immunological screening tests that have been used for identifying ATSs in drivers. The analytical specificity of amphetamine direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), methamphetamine direct ELISA (Immunalysis Corporation), and Oral-View saliva multidrug of abuse test (Alfa Scientific Designs) was evaluated using ATS-spiked oral fluid. Legislation and published articles that report the use of immunological screening tests to detect ATS consumption in conductors were reviewed, including the kit's technical information, project reports, police and drug databases. Even at high concentrations, the tested assays were not able to detect methylphenidate, fenproporex, or diethylpropion, controlled ATSs legally marketed in many countries. This evidences the need to develop new kits that enable one to control the misuse of prescription ATSs on roads through oral fluid immunoassays.

  3. Diagnostic effectiveness of immunoassays systems for hepatitis C virus in samples from multi-transfusion patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero Jimenez, Rene A; Merlin Linares, Julio C; Blanco de Armas, Madelin; Navea Leyva, Leonor M

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (CHV) blood-transmission is a health problem in Cuba and in the world. Some types of diagnostic immunoassays have been developed for the blood certification and in general have a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in healthy donors. However, its behavior in samples from multi-transfusion patients could by less effective. To assess the diagnostic effectiveness of the UMELISA HCV third generation Cuban immunoassay (TecnoSUMA, S.A. La Habana), Cuba) in samples from multi-transfusion patients, in parallel, 335 sera from patients were processed by UBI HCV EIA 4.0 (United Biomedical, EE.UU) and UMELISA HCV third generation, and the samples with incongruous results were verified by PCR COBAS AmpliScreen HCV Test, v2 system (Roche, EE.UU.) Comparing the UMELISA HCV third generation system with the UBI HCV EIA 4.0 it was achieved a Sd of 95,8% CI(95%): 92,5-99,15 and a Ed of 100% CI (95%): 99,7-100, with IY: 0,96 (0,93-0,99) with k: 0,0582 ID (95%): 0,9276-0,9888, p = 0,000. Both immunoassay systems were satisfactory for immunodiagnosis of multi-transfusion patients

  4. Striped-tailed Yellow-finch nesting success in abandoned mining pits from central Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DT. Gressler

    Full Text Available Suitability of degraded areas as breeding habitats can be tested through assessment of nest predation rates. In this study we estimated nest success in relation to several potential predictors of nest survival in the Stripe-tailed Yellow-finch (Sicalis citrina breeding in abandoned mining pits at Brasília National Park. We monitored 73 nests during the 2007-breeding season. Predation was the main cause of nest failure (n = 48, 66%; while six nests were abandoned (8% and 19 nests produced young (26%. Mayfield’s daily survival rates and nest success were 0.94 and 23%, respectively. Our results from nest survival models on program MARK indicated that daily survival rates increase linearly towards the end of the breeding season and decrease as nests aged. None of the nest individual covariates we tested - nest height, nest size, nest substrate, and edge effect - were important predictors of nest survival; however, nests placed on the most common plant tended to have higher survival probabilities. Also, there was no observer effect on daily survival rates. Our study suggests that abandoned mining pits may be suitable alternative breeding habitats for Striped-tailed Yellow-finches since nest survival rates were similar to other studies in the central cerrado region.

  5. Nesting Biology and Occurrence of Social Nests in a Bivoltine and Basically Solitary Halictine Bee, Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) scitulum Smith (Hymenoptera : Halictidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoichi, MIYANAGA; Yasuo, MAETA; Kazuo, HOSHIKAWA; Division of Environmental Biology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University; Division of Environmental Biology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University; Division of Environmental Biology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University

    2000-01-01

    The life cycle and sociality of the halictine bee, Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) scitulum were studied in a greenhouse at Matsue (lat. 35°22′N), south-western Japan in 1988 and 1989. This species was a bivoltine bee with solitary to primitively social behavior. During the summer brooding period of 1988, 51 solitary nests and 8 multi-female nests (3 matrifilial and 5 sororal nests) were discovered. In 1989, 11 multi-female nests (3 matrifilial and 8 sororal nests), together with 59 solitary nest...

  6. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders P; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N; Forsman, Jukka T; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E; Gosler, Andrew G; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G; Norte, Ana C; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T; da Silva, Luís P; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M

    2014-09-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale studies performed over short time periods. Here, we quantified the relationship between clutch size and nest size, using an exhaustive database of 116 slope estimates based on 17,472 nests of 21 species of hole and non-hole-nesting birds. There was a significant, positive relationship between clutch size and the base area of the nest box or the nest, and this relationship did not differ significantly between open nesting and hole-nesting species. The slope of the relationship showed significant intraspecific and interspecific heterogeneity among four species of secondary hole-nesting species, but also among all 116 slope estimates. The estimated relationship between clutch size and nest box base area in study sites with more than a single size of nest box was not significantly different from the relationship using studies with only a single size of nest box. The slope of the relationship between clutch size and nest base area in different species of birds was significantly negatively related to minimum base area, and less so to maximum base area in a given study. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that bird species have a general reaction norm reflecting the relationship between nest size and clutch size. Further, they suggest that scientists may influence the clutch size decisions of hole-nesting birds through the provisioning of nest boxes of varying sizes.

  7. Reproductive ecology of American Oystercatchers nesting on shell rakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Thibault, Janet M.; Collins, S.A.; Spinks, Mark D.; Sanders, Felicia J.

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of nesting habitat for coastal birds has led to the use of nontraditional nesting habitat. The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) is listed as a "Species of High Concern'' by the U. S. Shorebird Conservation Plan and is declining in the southern portion of its U. S. breeding range, where ~ 50% of breeding oystercatchers nest on shell substrate instead of beachfront habitat. We measured daily survival rates during incubation and chick rearing in shell rake habitats over five breeding seasons in the Cape Romain region of South Carolina, USA. Of 354 nesting attempts monitored, 16.1% hatched at least one egg. During incubation, daily survival rate was 0.938, corresponding to 22.8% success to hatching (nest success). For broods, daily survival was 0.991, or 74.0% success from hatching to fledging. Productivity in the Cape Romain region is primarily being lost during the incubation phase, when nests are exposed to overwash and predation. Mobile chicks may, however, be able to avoid flood events or predators by relocating to higher or more protected portions of a shell rake. Based on comparative data for American Oystercatchers from elsewhere in their range, it does not appear that shell rakes in the Cape Romain region are inferior breeding habitat. Our data suggest that conservation actions targeting nest and chick loss from flooding and predation have the greatest opportunity to enhance reproductive success in this core breeding area, and that an assessment of the availability, structure, avian use, and protection status of shell rakes is warranted.

  8. Managing individual nests promotes population recovery of a top predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jennyffer; Windels, Steve K.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Grim, Leland; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Threatened species are managed using diverse conservation tactics implemented at multiple scales ranging from protecting individuals, to populations, to entire species. Individual protection strives to promote recovery at the population‐ or species‐level, although this is seldom evaluated.After decades of widespread declines, bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, are recovering throughout their range due to legal protection and pesticide bans. However, like other raptors, their recovery remains threatened by human activities. Bald eagle nests are commonly managed using buffer zones to minimize human disturbance, but the benefits of this practice remain unquantified.Within Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, USA, managers have monitored bald eagle populations for over 40 years, and since 1991, have protected at‐risk nests from human disturbance using buffer zones (200 and 400 m radius). We aimed to (1) quantify the recovery of bald eagles in VNP (1973–2016), and (2) provide a first‐ever evaluation of the individual‐ and population‐level effects of managing individual nests. To do so, we developed Bayesian Integrated Population Models combining observations of nest occupancy and reproductive output (metrics commonly collected for raptors) to estimate nest‐level probabilities of occupancy, nest success, and high productivity (producing ≥2 nestlings), as well as population‐level estimates of abundance and growth.The breeding population of bald eagles at VNP increased steadily from population‐level, management led to 8% and 13% increases in nest success and productivity rates, respectively, resulting in a 37% increase in breeding pair abundance.Synthesis and applications. There is a clear need to evaluate how management approaches at multiple scales assist in species recovery. Our study uses an Integrated Population Model to reveal the population‐level benefits of a widely used, individual‐based management action (protecting nests

  9. Managing individual nests promotes population recovery of a top predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jennyffer; Windels, Steve K.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Grim, Leland; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Threatened species are managed using diverse conservation tactics implemented at multiple scales ranging from protecting individuals, to populations, to entire species. Individual protection strives to promote recovery at the population‐ or species‐level, although this is seldom evaluated.After decades of widespread declines, bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, are recovering throughout their range due to legal protection and pesticide bans. However, like other raptors, their recovery remains threatened by human activities. Bald eagle nests are commonly managed using buffer zones to minimize human disturbance, but the benefits of this practice remain unquantified.Within Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, USA, managers have monitored bald eagle populations for over 40 years, and since 1991, have protected at‐risk nests from human disturbance using buffer zones (200 and 400 m radius). We aimed to (1) quantify the recovery of bald eagles in VNP (1973–2016), and (2) provide a first‐ever evaluation of the individual‐ and population‐level effects of managing individual nests. To do so, we developed Bayesian Integrated Population Models combining observations of nest occupancy and reproductive output (metrics commonly collected for raptors) to estimate nest‐level probabilities of occupancy, nest success, and high productivity (producing ≥2 nestlings), as well as population‐level estimates of abundance and growth.The breeding population of bald eagles at VNP increased steadily from management significantly improved occupancy and success. At the population‐level, management led to 8% and 13% increases in nest success and productivity rates, respectively, resulting in a 37% increase in breeding pair abundance.Synthesis and applications. There is a clear need to evaluate how management approaches at multiple scales assist in species recovery. Our study uses an Integrated Population Model to reveal the population‐level benefits of a widely

  10. Using survival analysis of artificial and Real Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri) nests to model site level and nest site factors associated with nest success in the South Okanagan region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam Krannitz Kym Welstead

    2005-01-01

    Predation is the predominant cause of nest failure for the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri), a provincially red-listed shrub-steppe species that has experienced significant declines throughout most of its range. We monitored Brewer’s Sparrow nests and conducted an artificial nest experiment, in the South Okanagan Valley,...

  11. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter "conspicuous behaviour"), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs.

  12. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Giroux

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter “conspicuous behaviour”, as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs.

  13. Investigation of nitrite adulteration on the immunoassay and GC-MS analysis of cannabinoids in urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, L S; ElSohly, M A; Tsai, S F; Murphy, T P; Twarowska, B; Salamone, S J

    2000-01-01

    Nitrite ion has been identified as the active ingredient of two commercial adulterants that could cause discrepant results between the immunoassay screening and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) confirmation of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in urine. Procedures to chemically convert the nitrite ion at the beginning of sample preparation for GC-MS analysis may not overcome all nitrite adulteration cases because portions of the THCCOOH might have been lost between the time of sample collection and the time of analysis. This study was conducted to further investigate the influence of both urine sample matrix and the duration of nitrite exposure on nitrite interference of THCCOOH detection. Forty clinical "THC-positive samples" that had been screened and confirmed positive for the presence of THCCOOH were spiked with 0.15M or 0.3M of nitrite. The levels of THCCOOH at various time intervals after nitrite spiking were monitored by instrument-based cannabinoids immunoassays (Syva EMIT d.a.u. and/or Roche Abuscreen ONLINE assays) and by an onsite THC immunoassay (Roche ONTRAK TESTSTIK). Results from this report demonstrate that the two outstanding "urine specimen factors" that dictated the effectiveness of the nitrite adulteration were urinary pH and the original drug concentration before nitrite spiking. Significant decreases in the immunoassay results could be observed within 4 h of nitrite treatment in the majority of samples with acidic urinary pH values. Regardless of their original concentration of THCCOOH (GC-MS ranging from 33 to 488 ng/mL), all of the 20 samples that had acidic pH values gave negative immunoassay results 1 day after nitrite adulteration. In contrast, the immunoassay results of samples with neutral or basic pH values were less affected by nitrite exposure in the same studies. Approximately two-thirds of the samples with pH values greater than 7.0 remained immunoassay-positive 3 days after nitrite

  14. Nest etiquette--where ants go when nature calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer J Czaczkes

    Full Text Available Sanitary behaviour is an important, but seldom studied, aspect of social living. Social insects have developed several strategies for dealing with waste and faecal matter, including dumping waste outside the nest and forming specialised waste-storage chambers. In some cases waste material and faeces are put to use, either as a construction material or as a long-lasting signal, suggesting that faeces and waste may not always be dangerous. Here we examine a previously undescribed behaviour in ants - the formation of well-defined faecal patches. Lasius niger ants were housed in plaster nests and provided with coloured sucrose solution. After two months, 1-4 well defined dark patches, the colour of the sucrose solution, formed within each of the plaster nests. These patches never contained other waste material such as uneaten food items, or nestmate corpses. Such waste was collected in waste piles outside the nest. The coloured patches were thus distinct from previously described 'kitchen middens' in ants, and are best described as 'toilets'. Why faeces is not removed with other waste materials is unclear. The presence of the toilets inside the nest suggests that they may not be an important source of pathogens, and may have a beneficial role.

  15. Oscillation of nested fullerenes (carbon onions) in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Nested spherical fullerenes, which are sometimes referred to as carbon onions, of I h symmetries which have N(n) carbon atoms in the nth shell given by N(n) = 60n 2 are studied in this paper. The continuum approximation together with the Lennard-Jones potential is utilized to determine the resultant potential energy. High frequency nanoscale oscillators or gigahertz oscillators created from fullerenes and both single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention for a number of proposed applications, such as ultra-fast optical filters and ultra-sensitive nano-antennae that might impact on the development of computing and signalling nano-devices. Further, it is only at the nanoscale where such gigahertz frequencies can be achieved. This paper focuses on the interaction of nested fullerenes and the mechanics of such molecules oscillating in carbon nanotubes. Here we investigate such issues as the acceptance condition for nested fullerenes into carbon nanotubes, the total force and energy of the nested fullerenes, and the velocity and gigahertz frequency of the oscillating molecule. In particular, optimum nanotube radii are determined for which nested fullerenes oscillate at maximum velocity and frequency, which will be of considerable benefit for the design of future nano-oscillating devices

  16. Neste E and P a success story in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The driving force behind the good results and value creation of Neste's Exploration and Production (E and P) can be found in its no-nonsense approach to the upstream oil business. Within less than five years, the division has doubled its production, and today's commercial reserves of 268 million barrels of oil equivalent will carry Neste into the next millennium. The heart of Neste's E and P's strategy is a focus on profitable growth in its current areas, and on generating growth and creating value in the long term. E and P's aim is to increase its current annual oil and gas production of 1.7 million oil equivalent tonnes to some 3 million tonnes by the beginning of the next millennium. Within the framework of the current portfolio, the bulk of this growth will be derived from the fields in the Aasgard venture. These oil and gas reserves account for more than half of Neste's reserves. The division is also actively exploring synergies with Neste's Oil Chain and Energy Division

  17. Network growth dynamics of fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2012-02-01

    We study the construction dynamics and topology of fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) nests. Fire ants in colonies of hundreds to hundreds of thousands create subterranean tunnel networks through the excavation of soil. We observed the construction of nests in a laboratory experiment. Workers were isolated from focal colony and placed in a quasi 2D, vertically oriented arena with wetted soil. We monitored nest growth using time-lapse photography. We found that nests grew linearly in time through tunnel lengthening and branching. Tunnel path length followed an extended power law distribution, P (l - l0)^β. Average degree of tunnel nodes was k = 2.17 ±0.40 and networks were cyclical. In simulation we model the nest growth as a branching and annihilating levy-flight process. We study this as a function of dimensionality (2D and 3D space considered) and step length distribution function P(ls). We find that in two-dimensions path length distribution is exponential, independent of the functional form of P(ls) consistent with a poisson spatial process while in three-dimensions P(l) = P(ls). Comparing simulation and experiment we attribute the slower than exponential tail of P(l) in experiment as a result of a behavioral component to the ant digging program.

  18. Nest predation risk explains variation in avian clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2018-01-01

    Questions about the ecological drivers of, and mechanistic constraints on, productivity have driven research on life-history evolution for decades. Resource availability and offspring mortality are considered among the 2 most important influences on the number of offspring per reproductive attempt. We used a factorial experimental design to manipulate food abundance and perceived offspring predation risk in a wild avian population (red-faced warblers; Cardellina rubrifrons) to identify the mechanistic cause of variation in avian clutch size. Additionally, we tested whether female quality helped explain the extant variation in clutch size. We found no support for the Food Limitation or Female Quality Hypotheses, but we did find support for both predictions of the Nest Predation Risk Hypothesis. Females that experienced an experimentally heightened perception of offspring predation risk responded by laying a smaller clutch than females in the control group. Additionally, predation rates at artificial nests were highest where red-faced warbler clutch size was smallest (at high elevations). Life-history theory predicts that an individual should invest less in reproduction when high nest predation risk reduces the likely benefit from that nesting attempt and, indeed, we found that birds exhibit phenotypic plasticity in clutch size by laying fewer eggs in response to increasing nest predation risk.

  19. Nest etiquette--where ants go when nature calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Heinze, Jürgen; Ruther, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sanitary behaviour is an important, but seldom studied, aspect of social living. Social insects have developed several strategies for dealing with waste and faecal matter, including dumping waste outside the nest and forming specialised waste-storage chambers. In some cases waste material and faeces are put to use, either as a construction material or as a long-lasting signal, suggesting that faeces and waste may not always be dangerous. Here we examine a previously undescribed behaviour in ants - the formation of well-defined faecal patches. Lasius niger ants were housed in plaster nests and provided with coloured sucrose solution. After two months, 1-4 well defined dark patches, the colour of the sucrose solution, formed within each of the plaster nests. These patches never contained other waste material such as uneaten food items, or nestmate corpses. Such waste was collected in waste piles outside the nest. The coloured patches were thus distinct from previously described 'kitchen middens' in ants, and are best described as 'toilets'. Why faeces is not removed with other waste materials is unclear. The presence of the toilets inside the nest suggests that they may not be an important source of pathogens, and may have a beneficial role.

  20. Canada goose nest survival at rural wetlands in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Brenna N.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The last comprehensive nest survival study of the breeding giant Canada goose (Branta canadensis maxima) population in Iowa, USA, was conducted >30 years ago during a period of population recovery, during which available nesting habitat consisted primarily of artificial nest structures. Currently, Iowa's resident goose population is stable and nests in a variety of habitats. We analyzed the effects of available habitat on nest survival and how nest survival rates compared with those of the expanding goose population studied previously to better understand how to maintain a sustainable Canada goose population in Iowa. We documented Canada goose nest survival at rural wetland sites in north-central Iowa. We monitored 121 nests in 2013 and 149 nests in 2014 at 5 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) with various nesting habitats, including islands, muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) houses, and elevated nest structures. We estimated daily nest-survival rate using the nest survival model in Program MARK. Survival was influenced by year, site, stage, presence of a camera, nest age, and an interaction between nest age and stage. Nest success rates for the 28-day incubation period by site and year combination ranged from 0.10 to 0.84. Nest survival was greatest at sites with nest structures (β = 17.34). Nest survival was negatively affected by lowered water levels at Rice Lake WMA (2013 β = −0.77, nest age β = −0.07). Timing of water-level drawdowns for shallow lake restorations may influence nest survival rates.

  1. Ecological factors influencing nest survival of greater sage-grouse in Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolada, Eric J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Sedinger, James S.

    2009-01-01

    We studied nest survival of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in 5 subareas of Mono County, California, USA, from 2003 to 2005 to 1) evaluate the importance of key vegetation variables for nest success, and 2) to compare nest success in this population with other greater sage-grouse populations. We captured and radiotracked females (n  =  72) to identify nest sites and monitor nest survival. We measured vegetation at nest sites and within a 10-m radius around each nest to evaluate possible vegetation factors influencing nest survival. We estimated daily nest survival and the effect of explanatory variables on daily nest survival using nest-survival models in Program MARK. We assessed effects on daily nest survival of total, sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and nonsagebrush live shrub-cover, Robel visual obstruction, the mean of grass residual height and grass residual cover measurements within 10 m of the nest shrub, and area of the shrub, shrub height, and shrub type at the nest site itself. Assuming a 38-day exposure period, we estimated nest survival at 43.4%, with percent cover of shrubs other than sagebrush as the variable most related to nest survival. Nest survival increased with increasing cover of shrubs other than sagebrush. Also, daily nest survival decreased with nest age, and there was considerable variation in nest survival among the 5 subareas. Our results indicate that greater shrub cover and a diversity of shrub species within sagebrush habitats may be more important to sage-grouse nest success in Mono County than has been reported elsewhere.

  2. Variation in nest predation among arid-zone birds | Lloyd | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examined the nesting habits and success of 11 co-existing species in an arid, sub-tropical habitat in South Africa. Nesting success ranged from 3.5% to 75.4% among species, with predation by mammals and snakes accounting for 94% of nest losses. Differences in predator avoidance behaviour (deserting the nest vs ...

  3. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... geese nests and eggs. 21.50 Section 21.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.50 Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs. (a... nests and eggs, and what is its purpose? The nest and egg depredation order for resident Canada geese...

  4. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration "hot spots", an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determined the effects of environmental factors on nest CO2 efflux and calculated an index of nest structure. The mean CO2 efflux from nests was significantly higher than those from the surrounding soil in the wet and dry seasons. The CO2 efflux was species-specific, showing significant differences among the 13 ant species. The soil moisture content significantly affected nest CO2 efflux, but there was no clear relationship between nest CO2 efflux and nest soil temperature. The diameter of the nest entrance hole affected CO2 efflux. However, there was no significant difference in CO2 efflux rates between single-hole and multiple-hole nests. Our results suggest that in a tropical forest ecosystem the increase in CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests is caused by species-specific activity of ants, the nest soil environment, and nest structure.

  5. Dung pat nesting by the solitary bee, Osmia (Acanthosmiodes) integra (Megachilidae: Apiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary bees nest in a diversity of substrates, typically soil, but also wood, stems and twigs. A new and novel substrate is reported here, dried cattle dung. Two species of Osmia bees were found nesting in dung in Wyoming. One species, O. integra, otherwise nests shallowly in soil. Nests were ...

  6. Characteristics of and competition for nest sites by the Rüppell\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A knowledge of the nesting requirements of Rüppell\\'s Parrot can aid its conservation. Nests were found during 17 months of fieldwork in Namibia and characteristics of the sites are reported here. Nests were found in woodpecker cavities. 72% of the nests were in three tree species: Faidherbia albida, Acacia erioloba and ...

  7. Cavity-nesting bird abundance in thinned versus unthinned Massachusetts oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J.E. Welsh; William M. Healy; Richard M. DeGraaf

    1992-01-01

    Cavity-nesting birds provide significant benefits to forest communities, but timber management techniques may negatively affect cavity-nesting species by reducing the availability of suitable nest and foraging sites. We surveyed cavity-nesting birds from transects in eight Massachusetts oak stands to examine the effect of thinning with retention of snag and wildlife...

  8. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, Anders P.; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N.; Forsman, Jukka T.; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E.; Gosler, Andrew G.; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R.; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A.; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C.; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D.; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G.; Norte, Ana C.; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S.; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T.; da Silva, Luís P.; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J.; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2014-01-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of

  9. Multivariate analysis of early and late nest sites of Abert's Towhees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in nest site selection by the Abert's towhee (Pipilo aberti) was studied in honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) habitat along the lower Colorado River from March to July, 1981. Stepwise discriminant function analysis identified nest vegetation type, nest direction, and nest height as the three most important variables that characterized the...

  10. Breeding biology and nest site characteristics of the Rosy-faced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine colonies, comprising 20 nests, were monitored every four days to establish incubation and fledging periods. Rearing and fledging of chicks was found to be successful in eight nests. Measurements of 18 young from four nests were used to monitor growth rate. Nesting success was calculated at 0.1, following the ...

  11. Analysis of urinary human growth hormone (hGH) using hydrogel nanoparticles and isoform differential immunoassays after short recombinant hGH treatment: Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Jaume; Luchini, Alessandra; Pichini, Simona; Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Liotta, Lance; Petricoin, Emanuel; Pacifici, Roberta; Facchiano, Francesco; Segura, Jordi; Garaci, Enrico; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Successful application clinical-grade human growth hormone (hGH) immunoassays to the discovery of illegal doping cases has been rare. Indeed, the preferred biological matrix in doping control is urine, where the estimated baseline concentration of hGH falls well below the linear range and sensitivity threshold of all commercially available immunoassays, including hGH isoform differential immunoassays which can discriminate pituitary endogenous hGH from recombinant hGH. We employed hydrogel na...

  12. Nesting of Morelet’s crocodile, Crocodylus moreletii (Dumeril and Bibron, in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Villegas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the nesting by Crocodylus moreletii in Lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, southeastern, Mexico. During the nesting and hatching seasons, we searched for nests along the northern margins of the lake and small associated streams. We investigated egg mortality by weekly monitoring each of the nests found, recording sign of predation (tracks and holes dug into the nest and the effect of water level fluctuations. We not found differences to nest between inland or flooded zones. However, we found that egg size varied among nests. In nests built inland, predation was the major cause of egg mortality whereas flooding resulted in more deaths of eggs in the flooding zone. Flooding killed 25% of eggs monitored in this study. We suggest that to increase nest success in the Morelet’s crocodile it is necessary to promote conservation of nesting areas around the lake, recently occupied by urban or tourist developments.

  13. Nested dissection on a mesh-connected processor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, P.H.; Schreiber, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present a parallel implementation of Gaussian elimination without pivoting using the nested dissection ordering for solving Ax=b where A is an N x N symmetric positive definite matrix. If the graph of A is a √N x √N finite element mesh then a parallel complexity of O(√N) can be achieved for Gaussian elimination with the nested dissection ordering. The authors' implementation achieves this parallel complexity on a two dimensional MIMD processor array with N processors and nearest neighbors interconnections. Thus nested dissection is a near optimal algorithm for this problem on this interconnection topology. The parallel implementation on this architecture requires 158√N + O(log/sub 2/(√N)) parallel floating point multiplications. It is faster than a Kung-Leiserson systolic array for banded matrices for N≥961, and faster than a serial implementation for N as small as 9

  14. Efficient use of iterative solvers in nested topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Stolpe, Mathias; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the analysis equations. In this study, it is suggested to reduce this computational cost by using an approximation to the solution of the analysis problem, generated by a Krylov...... subspace iterative solver. By choosing convergence criteria for the iterative solver that are strongly related to the optimization objective and to the design sensitivities, it is possible to terminate the iterative solution of the nested equations earlier compared to traditional convergence measures....... The approximation is computationally shown to be sufficiently accurate for the purpose of optimization though the nested equation system is not necessarily solved accurately. The approach is tested on several large-scale topology optimization problems, including minimum compliance problems and compliant mechanism...

  15. Monotonicity properties of keff with shape change and with nesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhanov, V.

    2002-01-01

    It was found that, contrary to expectations based on physical intuition, k eff can both increase and decrease when changing the shape of an initially regular critical system, while preserving its volume. Physical intuition would only allow for a decrease of k eff when the surface/volume ratio increases. The unexpected behaviour of increasing k eff was found through numerical investigation. For a convincing demonstration of the possibility of the non-monotonic behaviour, a simple geometrical proof was constructed. This latter proof, in turn, is based on the assumption that k eff can only increase (or stay constant) in the case of nesting, i.e. when adding extra volume to a system. Since we found no formal proof of the nesting theorem for the general case, we close the paper by a simple formal proof of the monotonic behaviour of k eff by nesting

  16. Urine Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Suri, Shipra; Nath, Gopal; Prasad, Rajniti

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of urine nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range 16SrDNA PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction analysis and sequencing in neonatal septicemia. The study included 50 babies; 48% had vaginal delivery, 46% were preterm, 20% had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and 56% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count value, negative predictive value and accuracy of nested PCR were 100, 60, 78.9, 100 and 84%, respectively, compared with blood culture. Nested PCR can detect most bacteria in single assay and identify unusual and unexpected causal agents. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests

    OpenAIRE

    Giroux, Marie-Andr?e; Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; B?ty, Jo?l; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter “conspicuous ...

  18. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki

    2014-01-01

    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration “hot spots”, an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determi...

  19. Notes on the Nest Architecture of Halictus senilis (Eversmann) in Southeast Kazakhstan (Hymenoptera, Halictidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyanaga, Ryoichi; Tadauchi, Osamu; Murao, Ryuki

    2006-01-01

    Four nests of Halictus senilis (Eversmann) were excavated near Chimkent, southeast Kazakhstan. The nest of H. senilis was similar in structure to nests of the other species of Halictus s. s., i.e., each cell directly, not by means of lateral, connected to the main burrow. On the other hand, the deviation from the typical nest structure of Halictus was found. The coexistence of delayed eusocial and solitary nests was suggested in this species.

  20. Lifespan analyses of forest raptor nests: patterns of creation, persistence and reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Jiménez-Franco

    Full Text Available Structural elements for breeding such as nests are key resources for the conservation of bird populations. This is especially true when structural elements require a specific and restricted habitat, or if the construction of nests is costly in time and energy. The availability of nesting-platforms is influenced by nest creation and persistence. In a Mediterranean forest in southeastern Spain, nesting-platforms are the only structural element for three forest-dwelling raptor species: booted eagle Aquila pennata, common buzzard Buteo buteo and northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. From 1998 to 2013, we tracked the fate of 157 nesting-platforms built and reused by these species with the aim of determining the rates of creation and destruction of nesting-platforms, estimating nest persistence by applying two survival analyses, describing the pattern of nest reuse and testing the effects of nest use on breeding success. Nest creation and destruction rates were low (0.14 and 0.05, respectively. Using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional-hazards regression models we found that median nest longevity was 12 years and that this was not significantly affected by nest characteristics, nest-tree dimensions, nest-builder species, or frequency of use of the platform. We also estimated a transition matrix, considering the different stages of nest occupation (vacant or occupied by one of the focal species, to obtain the fundamental matrix and the average life expectancies of nests, which varied from 17.9 to 19.7 years. Eighty six percent of nests were used in at least one breeding attempt, 67.5% were reused and 17.8% were successively occupied by at least two of the study species. The frequency of nest use had no significant effects on the breeding success of any species. We conclude that nesting-platforms constitute an important resource for forest raptors and that their longevity is sufficiently high to allow their reuse in multiple breeding